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Sample records for apple cultivars malus

  1. Produção de patulina em maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen, cultivares Gala e Fuji inoculadas com Penicillium spp. Production of patulin in apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen Gala and Fuji cultivars inoculated with Penicillium spp.

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    G.U. ROSS

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen é uma excelente fonte nutricional e de interesse econômico, sendo que a Região Sul do Brasil contribue com 90% da produção Nacional deste fruto com destaque aos cultivares Gala e Fuji. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de patulina nestes cultivares inoculados com Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 e Penicillium variabile toxigênico, isolado de maçãs regionais. As frutas contaminadas foram mantidas em condições de tempo de armazenamento e temperatura que variaram respectivamente de 15 a 90 dias e de 0 a 25°C. A produção de patulina ocorreu em todas as combinações de armazenagem e temperaturas empregadas para o ensaio, independentemente dos cultivares. A produção de patulina foi negativa no 30º dia nas maçãs estocadas a 0°C inoculadas com P.expansum, mas o aumento de temperatura para 4°C restringiu a margem de segurança, causando positividade na produção da toxina para ambos os cultivares inoculados com as duas linhagens fúngicas, no mesmo período. Nas maçãs inoculadas com P. variabile ocorreu maior concentração de patulina (F=68,05 do que as contaminadas com P. expansum NRRL 1172 (F=26,0. O risco freqüente de produção de patulina nas temperaturas de refrigeração, indicaram a necessidade de melhor controle nos estágios de colheita e armazenagem de maçãs, a fim de evitar constante ingestão de toxina.The apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen is an excellent nutritional source of economical interest, with emphasis to the Brazilian Southern Region which comprises 90% of national apple production, mainly Gala and Fuji cultivars.The aim of this research was to evaluate patulin production in both cultivars, inoculated with Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 and a toxigenic P. variabile strain isolated from commercialized apples. Samples for analysis were taken from apples stored under combined conditions of time and temperature, which ranged from 15 to 90 days period and 0 to

  2. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus × domestica with Erwinia amylovora

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    Aldwinckle Herb S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB disease in many Rosaceaespecies, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-plant interaction. No resistance mechanism to E. amylovora in host plants has yet been characterized, recent work has identified some molecular events which occur in resistant and/or susceptible host interaction with E. amylovora: In order to understand the mechanisms that characterize responses to FB, differentially expressed genes were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis in resistant and susceptible apple genotypes after inoculation with E. amylovora. Results cDNA were isolated from M.26 (susceptible and G.41 (resistant apple tissues collected 2 h and 48 h after challenge with a virulent E. amylovora strain or mock (buffer inoculated. To identify differentially expressed transcripts, electrophoretic banding patterns were obtained from cDNAs. In the AFLP experiments, M.26 and G.41 showed different patterns of expression, including genes specifically induced, not induced, or repressed by E. amylovora. In total, 190 ESTs differentially expressed between M.26 and G.41 were identified using 42 pairs of AFLP primers. cDNA-AFLP analysis of global EST expression in a resistant and a susceptible apple genotype identified different major classes of genes. EST sequencing data showed that genes linked to resistance, encoding proteins involved in recognition, signaling, defense and apoptosis, were modulated by E. amylovora in its host plant. The expression time course of some of these ESTs selected via a bioinformatic analysis has been characterized. Conclusion These data are being used to develop hypotheses of resistance or susceptibility mechanisms in Malus to E. amylovora and provide an initial categorization of genes possibly involved in

  3. Engineering fire blight resistance into the apple cultivar 'Gala' using the FB_MR5 CC-NBS-LRR resistance gene of Malus × robusta 5.

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    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Wöhner, Thomas; Fahrentrapp, Johannes; Kost, Thomas D; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Maria-Viola; Richter, Klaus; Patocchi, Andrea; Gessler, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The fire blight susceptible apple cultivar Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala' was transformed with the candidate fire blight resistance gene FB_MR5 originating from the crab apple accession Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). A total of five different transgenic lines were obtained. All transgenic lines were shown to be stably transformed and originate from different transgenic events. The transgenic lines express the FB_MR5 either driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and the ocs terminator or by its native promoter and terminator sequences. Phenotyping experiments were performed with Mr5-virulent and Mr5-avirulent strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Significantly less disease symptoms were detected on transgenic lines after inoculation with two different Mr5-avirulent E. amylovora strains, while significantly more shoot necrosis was observed after inoculation with the Mr5-virulent mutant strain ZYRKD3_1. The results of these experiments demonstrated the ability of a single gene isolated from the native gene pool of apple to protect a susceptible cultivar from fire blight. Furthermore, this gene is confirmed to be the resistance determinant of Mr5 as the transformed lines undergo the same gene-for-gene interaction in the host-pathogen relationship Mr5-E. amylovora.

  4. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease in many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-...

  5. Composition of pectic polysaccharides in a Portuguese apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe is a typical Portuguese apple cultivar classified as Protected Designation and Origin (PDO). It is a traditional product produced under strict conditions and labelled with a specific law protected designation. This cultivar presents quite good sweetness and flavor. The monosaccharide composition of the pectic polysaccharides from this traditional apple is herein reported for the first time. Based on the molar ratios obtained from the sugar compositio...

  6. Malus sieversii, a valuable genetic resource for disease resistance in apple

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    Domesticated crop cultivars inevitably represent a subset of the genetic variation found in their wild ancestors (progenitors) due to genetic bottlenecks that result during the process of crop domestication. Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, is one of the ancestral proge...

  7. COMPORTAMENTO DA CULTIVAR DE MACIEIRA FUJI (Malus domestica, Borkh. SOBRE TRÊS DIFERENTES PORTA-ENXERTOS BEHAVIOUR OF THE APPLE CULTIVAR FUJI (Malus domestica, Borkh. ONTO THREE DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS

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    FREDERICO DENARDI

    2001-12-01

    ,2 g, para o M-9, o M-7 e o MM-111, respectivamente. Em termos de distribuição por categoria de tamanho, o M-9 produziu 90,8% de frutos maiores que 62 mm, o M-7 produziu 79,5% e o MM-111, 70,9%, indicando que o M-9, além de mais precoce e mais produtivo, também produz frutos de maior calibre.There is a worldwide tendency for planting apples at high density system onto the so called dwarf apple rootstocks, which have a strong effect on controlling the vigor of the trees. The most used is the M-9 due to its efficiency on vigor control, precocity of flowering, high productivity and also good fruit quality it induces to the scion varieties. In South of Brazil more vigorous rootstocks, as MM-106, M-7 and MM-111, have been widely used because worldwide tradition, lower initial cost as they require less trees/ha, and their facility of propagation The objective of this work was to compare the dwarf M-9 with the semi-dwarf M-7 and the semi-vigorous MM-111 concerned to vigor control, precocity of flowering, productivity and fruit quality of the apple cultivar Fuji. The statistical design was on completely randomized blocks, with 4 replications of three trees on each plot. The main cultivar was Fuji, pollinated by cv. Gala. The experiment was established in 1996 in Fraiburgo, the main apple producer area in the country. The layout of planting was 2,0 m within row by 5,0 m between rows. The study was carried out for four years. The parameters evaluated were precocity (n0 of flower buds per cm² of trunk cross sectional area, production (kg/tree, productivity (t/ha, fruit weigh (g and distribution of fruit size (%. The results obtained on the 3rd season showed that M-9 was the most precocious, producing 1.94 times more flower buds per cm² of trunk cross sectional area than on M-7 and 2.7 times more than on MM-111. Concerned to production on 3rd season, M-9 produced 2.5 times more than M-7 and 2.7 times more than MM-111. On the 4th season M-9 produced 1.28 times more than M-7

  8. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.: Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

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    Alessandra Francini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice.

  9. Triterpenes and phenolic compounds in apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), a popular and widely cultivated fruit world-wide, contains bioactive triterpenes and phenolic compounds with potentially valuable pharmacological functions. This thesis investigated the effects of pre-harvest and postharvest factors on concentrations of these bioactive compounds in apples. It also studied the effect of ozone treatment, before or during storage, combined with cold storage on triterpene and phenolic compound concentrations in apples and the ant...

  10. Development of a protocol that allows safe consumption of the hypoallergenic apple cultivar Santana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der M.P.; Schenk, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivar Santana was shown to have a low allergenicity in a previously reported clinical trial. A protocol was developed to validate these results outside a clinical setting and to market the Santana as a hypoallergenic apple for large-scale consumption. This protocol wa

  11. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus 6domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden...

  12. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  13. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

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    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  14. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

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    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  15. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

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    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection.

  16. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...

  17. Composition of pectic polysaccharides in a Portuguese apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe

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    Ana S. Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe is a typical Portuguese apple cultivar classified as Protected Designation and Origin (PDO. It is a traditional product produced under strict conditions and labelled with a specific law protected designation. This cultivar presents quite good sweetness and flavor. The monosaccharide composition of the pectic polysaccharides from this traditional apple is herein reported for the first time. Based on the molar ratios obtained from the sugar composition, the presumable pectin structure could be inferred. The cell-wall polysaccharides present in the alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR of unpeeled BE apple were sequentially fractionated. In addition, pectic material was also extracted by citric acid treatment prior to heat extraction at acidic pH. The water soluble pectin, imidazole soluble pectin and sodium carbonate soluble pectin account for 44, 16 and 40 % of the AIR, respectively. The pectic polysaccharides extracted in the presence of citric acid had lower galacturonic acid content and higher neutral sugars content. The homogalacturonan (HG and less-substituted rhamnogalacturonan (RG domains are extracted first. Pectin treated with citric acid has been shown to contain more substituted polymers, especially RG-I. In addition, the relatively higher Xylose/Galacturonic acid ratio found in the citric acid extract demonstrates that the xylogalacturonan (XG domain presumably is present in the pectic material of the unpeeled BE apple.

  18. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

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    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  19. Molecular markers linked to the apple scab resistance gene Vbj derived from Malus baccata jackii.

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    Gygax, M; Gianfranceschi, L; Liebhard, R; Kellerhals, M; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2004-11-01

    Breeding for scab-resistant apple cultivars by pyramiding several resistance genes in the same genetic background is a promising way to control apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. To achieve this goal, DNA markers linked to the genes of interest are required in order to select seedlings with the desired resistance allele combinations. For several apple scab resistance genes, molecular markers are already available; but until now, none existed for the apple scab resistance gene Vbj originating from the crab apple Malus baccata jackii. Using bulk segregant analysis, three RAPD markers linked to Vbj were first identified. These markers were transformed into more reliable sequence-characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers that proved to be co-dominant. In addition, three SSR markers and one SCAR were identified by comparing homologous linkage groups of existing genetic maps. Discarding plants showing genotype-phenotype incongruence (GPI plants) plants, a linkage map was calculated. Vbj mapped between the markers CH05e03 (SSR) and T6-SCAR, at 0.6 cM from CH05e03 and at 3.9 cM from T6-SCAR. Without the removal of the GPI plants, Vbj was placed 15 cM away from the closest markers. Problems and pitfalls due to GPI plants and the consequences for mapping the resistance gene accurately are discussed. Finally, the usefulness of co-dominant markers for pedigree analysis is also demonstrated.

  20. Metabolic and gene expression analysis of apple (Malus x domestica) carotenogenesis.

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    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Dejnoprat, Supinya; Lewis, David; Sutherland, Paul; Volz, Richard K; Allan, Andrew C

    2012-07-01

    Carotenoid accumulation confers distinct colouration to plant tissues, with effects on plant response to light and as well as health benefits for consumers of plant products. The carotenoid pathway is controlled by flux of metabolites, rate-limiting enzyme steps, feed-back inhibition, and the strength of sink organelles, the plastids, in the cell. In apple (Malus × domestica Borkh), fruit carotenoid concentrations are low in comparison with those in other fruit species. The apple fruit flesh, in particular, begins development with high amounts of chlorophylls and carotenoids, but in all commercial cultivars a large proportion of this is lost by fruit maturity. To understand the control of carotenoid concentrations in apple fruit, metabolic and gene expression analysis of the carotenoid pathway were measured in genotypes with varying flesh and skin colour. Considerable variation in both carotenoid concentrations and compound profile was observed between tissues and genotypes, with carotenes and xanthophylls being found only in fruit accumulating high carotenoid concentrations. The study identified potential rate-limiting steps in carotenogenesis, which suggested that the expression of ZISO, CRTISO, and LCY-ε, in particular, were significant in predicting final carotenoid accumulation in mature apple fruit.

  1. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolli, Michele; Malacarne, Giulia; Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  2. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

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    Michele Perazzolli

    Full Text Available The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80% of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15, and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  3. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  4. Comparison of genetic diversity structure analyses of SSR molecular marker data within apple (Malus×domestica) genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Josef; Paprštein, František; Henychová, Alena; Sedlák, Jiří

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare traditional hierarchical clustering techniques and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with the model-based Bayesian cluster analyses in relation to subpopulation differentiation based on breeding history and geographical origin of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) cultivars and landraces. We presented the use of a set of 10 microsatellite (SSR) loci for genetic diversity structure analyses of 273 apple accessions from national genetic resources. These SSR loci yielded a total of 113 polymorphic SSR alleles, with 5-18 alleles per locus. SSR molecular data were successfully used in binary and allelic input format for all genetic diversity analyses, but allelic molecular data did not reveal reliable results with the NTSYS-pc and BAPS softwares. A traditional cluster analysis still provided an easy and effective way for determining genetic diversity structure in the apple germplasm collection. A model-based Bayesian analysis also provided the clustering results in accordance to traditional cluster analysis, but the analyses were distorted by the presence of a dominant group of apple genetic resources owing to the narrow origin of the apple genome. PCoA confirmed that there were no noticeable differences in genetic diversity structure of apple genetic resources during the breeding history. The results of our analyses are useful in the context of enhancing apple collection management, sampling of core collections, and improving breeding processes.

  5. Malus pumila 'Spy 227' and Apple stem pitting virus: graft incompatibility and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakta, Ajay; Handa, Anil; Thakur, P D; Tomar, Manica; Kumar, Pardeep

    2015-06-01

    Apple stem pitting foveavirus (ASPV) is one of the most important and widespread virus infecting apples in the world. Of late, the virus has been found to be invariably associated with most of the apple plantations of Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh based on DAS-ELISA results. Bioassay of viruses in vegetatively propagated crops including apple is considered to be an essential component in indexing programmes for the production of virus free propagating material. Woody indicator Malus pumila 'Spy 227' was used for the detection of ASPV through double grafting method. Graft incompatibility and epinasty symptoms were observed on Malus pumila Spy 227 indicator plants. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolate was done by cloning and sequencing of the test isolate. Partial sequence analysis of the coat protein gene showed 89 % nucleotide identity in BLASTN analysis with ASPV isolate from China (Accession No. JF895517). This is the first record of ASPV producing Graft incompatibility on Spy 227 indicator plants.

  6. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  7. Metabolic and gene expression analysis of apple (Malus × domestica) carotenogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Dejnoprat, Supinya; Lewis, David; Sutherland, Paul; Volz, Richard K; Allan, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid accumulation confers distinct colouration to plant tissues, with effects on plant response to light and as well as health benefits for consumers of plant products. The carotenoid pathway is controlled by flux of metabolites, rate-limiting enzyme steps, feed-back inhibition, and the strength of sink organelles, the plastids, in the cell. In apple (Malus × domestica Borkh), fruit carotenoid concentrations are low in comparison with those in other fruit species. The apple fruit flesh,...

  8. Effects of Foliar Treatments of Salicylic Acid on Apple (Malus domestica L.) Against Freezing

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Türkyılmaz Ünal; Oğuzhan Mentiş; Ethem Akyol

    2015-01-01

    In our study we aim to increase frost resistance and improve the yield and quality of apple is important in Turkey and world economy. Phenological and morphological observations, physiological and biochemical analyzes were carried out in apple (Malus domestica L.) plants. It was studied to determine the effects of foliar Salicylic acid (0, 500 ppm/plant and 1000 ppm/plant) on adaptation of this plant when exposed to freezing stress, the quality and yield. Leaf photosynthetic pigment contents...

  9. Evaluation of apple fruit aroma character from Geneva Malus core collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature apple fruit from 184 lines (41 species) from the Malus core and Kazakhstan collections of the germplasm repository at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY were evaluated. Volatile compounds, taste, weight, internal ethylene concentration, starch index, firmness, and Brix...

  10. Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

  11. Using an apple (Malus) microarray for expression analysis of responses to compatible and incompatible pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). Ea enters the plant through blossom nectaries or wounds, multiplies in the apoplast and spreads through the plant via vascular tissues. When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea ind...

  12. Organogenesis of stem and leaf protoplasts of a haploid golden delicious apple clone (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat-Ochatt, E M; Boccon-Gibod, J; Duron, M; Ochatt, S J

    1993-01-01

    Highly viable protoplasts were isolated in large numbers from in vitro-grown leaf and stem tissues of a haploid clone of the apple scion cultivar Golden Delicious (Malus Xdomestica Borkh.). Protoplasts from both sources divided rapidly to give microcallus, when cultured in a modified Kao and Michayluk-based medium. Following two successive subcultures for callusing, shoot buds were regenerated from such calli, on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an increased concentration of group B vitamins and containing 5.0 mg.l(-1) 6-benzyl-aminopurine and 0.1 mg.l(-1) l-naphthaleneacetic acid (for the leaf protoplast-derived calli) or 4-indole-3yl-butyric acid (for stem protoplast-derived calli). The mesophyll protoplast-derived shoots were enfeebled and vitrified, in time with their ultimate death. Conversely, for those shoots deriving from the stem protoplasts, in vitro propagation was successfully achieved. This is the first report on the successful isolation, culture and organogenesis from stem protoplasts of a woody plant genotype.

  13. Genomic selection for fruit quality traits in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh..

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    Satish Kumar

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh. was published more than a year ago, which helped develop an 8K SNP chip to assist in implementing genomic selection (GS. In apple breeding programmes, GS can be used to obtain genomic breeding values (GEBV for choosing next-generation parents or selections for further testing as potential commercial cultivars at a very early stage. Thus GS has the potential to accelerate breeding efficiency significantly because of decreased generation interval or increased selection intensity. We evaluated the accuracy of GS in a population of 1120 seedlings generated from a factorial mating design of four females and two male parents. All seedlings were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium chip comprising 8,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and were phenotyped for various fruit quality traits. Random-regression best liner unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP and the Bayesian LASSO method were used to obtain GEBV, and compared using a cross-validation approach for their accuracy to predict unobserved BLUP-BV. Accuracies were very similar for both methods, varying from 0.70 to 0.90 for various fruit quality traits. The selection response per unit time using GS compared with the traditional BLUP-based selection were very high (>100% especially for low-heritability traits. Genome-wide average estimated linkage disequilibrium (LD between adjacent SNPs was 0.32, with a relatively slow decay of LD in the long range (r(2 = 0.33 and 0.19 at 100 kb and 1,000 kb respectively, contributing to the higher accuracy of GS. Distribution of estimated SNP effects revealed involvement of large effect genes with likely pleiotropic effects. These results demonstrated that genomic selection is a credible alternative to conventional selection for fruit quality traits.

  14. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  15. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

  16. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica fruit

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    Atkinson Ross G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1, there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in ‘Royal Gala’ apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. Results PG1-suppressed ‘Royal Gala’ apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. Conclusions These findings confirm PG1’s role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  17. Microsatellite markers spanning the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfverberg-Dilworth, E.; Matasci, C.L.; Weg, van de W.E.; Kaauwen, van M.P.W.; Walser, M.; Kodde, L.P.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Durel, C.E.; Costa, F.; Yamamoto, T.; Koller, B.; Gessler, C.; Patocchi, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new set of 148 apple microsatellite markers has been developed and mapped on the apple reference linkage map Fiesta x Discovery. One-hundred and seventeen markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched with the repeats GA, GT, AAG, AAC and ATC; 31 were developed from EST sequences. Markers

  18. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  19. Genetical metabolomics in apples (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was finding genes that control the production of potentially health beneficial metabolites in apple fruits. The approach was genetic mapping of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds in an F1 progeny, leading to the detection of genetic loci that controlled these met

  20. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, A.I.; Ree, van R.; Leeuwen, van A.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Puehringer, H.; Laimer, M.; Martinelli, A.; Zaccharini, M.; Vazquez-Cortes, S.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Clare Mills, E.N.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars. Methods

  1. Heterogeneity of dormancy in apple embryos. [Pyrus malus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine, B.; Camille, B.

    1986-04-01

    This study concerns the heterogeneity of embryo dormancy with the aim of investigating a possible relationship between chlorophyllogenesis and dormancy. Dormant embryos of Pyrus malus L. cv. Golden delicious were cultivated on water-agar (agar 6 g/l). They were placed flat with one cotyledon in contact with the medium. After 6 days of culture at 23/sup 0/C under fluorescent light the non-germinated embryos (99% of the total) were classified in three main categories on the basis of the state of greening of their cotyledons. By application of partial dormancy releasing treatments (chilling, anaerobiosis, GA/sub 7/), it was shown that the three categories of embryos were characterized by different depths of dormancy. Germination was most difficult for the embryos which were non pigmented after the initial culture, whereas high germination percentages were rapidly reached by embryos exhibiting high degree of greening. Evaluation of ABA by radioimmunoassay shows that the three categories of embryos also differ in their ABA and ABA-GE levels. A good correlation was thus observed between depth of dormancy and levels of ABA and ABA-GE.

  2. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  3. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L. Mill. population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

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    Annik Schnitzler

    Full Text Available The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L. Mill. However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  4. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  5. Optimizing dehydration of apples Malus Domestica with fructo-oligosaccharide incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Buranelo Egea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to study the effect of the variables of the osmotic dehydration process on sliced Fuji apples (Malus domestica using a 2 x 3² factorial design. The variables studied in the apple slices were the pretreatment (blanching or acidification, the temperatures (30, 45 and 60ºC and the FOS concentration (40%, 50% and 60% m/v of the osmotic solution. There was no difference among the pretreatments for the water activity and titratable acidity. The slices pre-treated by the acidification presented less enzymatic browning (greatest luminosity L* value combined with a greater soluble solid contents (thus, this treatment was selected. Treatments T4 (45ºC and 40% m/v and T7 (60ºC and 40%m/v, using the acidification presented responses within the recommended standards and FOS were validated by the repetition.

  6. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  7. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization.

  8. ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) volatile production during high pCO2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Fuji’apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] volatile compound dynamics were characterized during cold storage in air or at low pO2 controlled atmosphere (CA) with up to 5 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds in storage chambers were adsorbed onto solid sorbent traps and analyzed by GC-MS....

  9. Leaf micromorphology and sugar may contribute to differences in drought tolerance for two apple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shan; Liang, Dong; Ma, Fengwang

    2014-07-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica L.) are often exposed to severe water stress in the summertime. We determined how levels of nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) changed in the leaves of two cultivars - drought-tolerant 'QinGuan' and drought-sensitive 'NaganoFuji' - when plants were subjected for 10 d to a sudden water deficit. Photosynthetic performance was investigated in terms of gas exchange and antioxidant enzyme activity. Two separate irrigation scenarios were tested with one-year-old plants grafted onto Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. rootstock: 1) water applied to 75% field capacity (FC) (Control, CK) and 2) irrigation withheld to achieve <75% FC ranging from 30 to 75% (Treatment, T). At Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 of the experiment, we recorded net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rates, and intercellular CO2 concentrations. All of those parameters showed decreases in plants from both stress scenarios, although those declines were not as dramatic in 'QinGuan'. The photosynthetic rate reduced primarily because of stomatal closure. In both cultivars, water stress induced the accumulation of NC, especially sorbitol, suggesting that this polyol has a role in osmoregulation. The rise in sorbitol levels was much steeper in 'QinGuan'. Likewise, the interaction between superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities varied between cultivars. In 'QinGuan', the malondialdehyde concentration was much lower and more closely correlated with a high Suc/NC ratio when compared with 'NaganoFuji'. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a drought-resisting apparent structure in 'QinGuan'. Overall, our results from both external and internal examinations demonstrated that 'QinGuan' is more drought-tolerant than 'NaganoFuji'.

  10. Identification of wild apple germplasm (Malus spp.) with resistance to the postharvest decay pathogens Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum cause blue mold and bitter rot of apples during storage which results in significant economic losses. Resistance to these pathogens in commercial apple cultivars has not been documented in the literature. An apple germplasm collection, from the center...

  11. A genome-wide expression profile of salt-responsive genes in the apple rootstock Malus zumi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingtian; Liu, Jia; Tan, Dunxian; Allan, Andrew C; Jiang, Yuzhuang; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai; Kong, Jin

    2013-01-01

    In some areas of cultivation, a lack of salt tolerance severely affects plant productivity. Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., is sensitive to salt, and, as a perennial woody plant the mechanism of salt stress adaption will be different from that of annual herbal model plants, such as Arabidopsis. Malus zumi is a salt tolerant apple rootstock, which survives high salinity (up to 0.6% NaCl). To examine the mechanism underlying this tolerance, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed, using a cDNA library constructed from salt-treated seedlings of Malus zumi. A total of 15,000 cDNA clones were selected for microarray analysis. In total a group of 576 cDNAs, of which expression changed more than four-fold, were sequenced and 18 genes were selected to verify their expression pattern under salt stress by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our genome-wide expression analysis resulted in the isolation of 50 novel Malus genes and the elucidation of a new apple-specific mechanism of salt tolerance, including the stabilization of photosynthesis under stress, involvement of phenolic compounds, and sorbitol in ROS scavenging and osmoprotection. The promoter regions of 111 genes were analyzed by PlantCARE, suggesting an intensive cross-talking of abiotic stress in Malus zumi. An interaction network of salt responsive genes was constructed and molecular regulatory pathways of apple were deduced. Our research will contribute to gene function analysis and further the understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms in fruit trees.

  12. A Genome-Wide Expression Profile of Salt-Responsive Genes in the Apple Rootstock Malus zumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In some areas of cultivation, a lack of salt tolerance severely affects plant productivity. Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., is sensitive to salt, and, as a perennial woody plant the mechanism of salt stress adaption will be different from that of annual herbal model plants, such as Arabidopsis. Malus zumi is a salt tolerant apple rootstock, which survives high salinity (up to 0.6% NaCl. To examine the mechanism underlying this tolerance, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed, using a cDNA library constructed from salt-treated seedlings of Malus zumi. A total of 15,000 cDNA clones were selected for microarray analysis. In total a group of 576 cDNAs, of which expression changed more than four-fold, were sequenced and 18 genes were selected to verify their expression pattern under salt stress by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our genome-wide expression analysis resulted in the isolation of 50 novel Malus genes and the elucidation of a new apple-specific mechanism of salt tolerance, including the stabilization of photosynthesis under stress, involvement of phenolic compounds, and sorbitol in ROS scavenging and osmoprotection. The promoter regions of 111 genes were analyzed by PlantCARE, suggesting an intensive cross-talking of abiotic stress in Malus zumi. An interaction network of salt responsive genes was constructed and molecular regulatory pathways of apple were deduced. Our research will contribute to gene function analysis and further the understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms in fruit trees.

  13. Effects of Foliar Treatments of Salicylic Acid on Apple (Malus domestica L. Against Freezing

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    Bengü Türkyılmaz Ünal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study we aim to increase frost resistance and improve the yield and quality of apple is important in Turkey and world economy. Phenological and morphological observations, physiological and biochemical analyzes were carried out in apple (Malus domestica L. plants. It was studied to determine the effects of foliar Salicylic acid (0, 500 ppm/plant and 1000 ppm/plant on adaptation of this plant when exposed to freezing stress, the quality and yield. Leaf photosynthetic pigment contents, total protein amount, proline amount, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase enzymatic activities were measured. The study planned by random experimental design and statistical analysis of data with SPSS program (LSD test were made. It was determined that fruit and shoot numbers were increased in samples exposed to 500 ppm salicylic acid and while fruit weights were increased in samples exposed to 500 ppm and 1000 ppm salicylic acid compared to the control. Also, colour of plants were darkened. Chla, chlb, total chl, proline, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase amounts were increased significantly compared to the control group. Increases occured in the carotenoid and the protein amounts are not significant statistically. In the light of obtained data, foliar application of salicylic acid were found to reduce the effects of freezing stress and to increase the yield and quality of apple plants.

  14. First report of truncatella angustata causing postharvest rot on ‘topaz’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Boekhoudt, L.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, about 30% of the organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production consists of apple scab resistant cultivars, such as Topaz and Santana. However, organic ‘Topaz’ apples show a high incidence of fungal rot after storage. Hot-water treatment (HWT) of freshly harvested apple fru

  15. Temperaturas efetivas para a dormência da macieira(Malus domestica Borkh Effective temperatures for apple tree dormancy (Malus domestica Borkh

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    Gilberto Luiz Putti

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de macieira exigem diferentes requerimentos em frio, ou seja, o total de horas abaixo de um limite de temperatura do ar, porém são poucas as informações sobre quais temperaturas são mais eficientes para superar a dormência. As cultivares de macieira Condesa, Baronesa, Daiane, Imperatriz, Fuji e Gala foram estudadas quanto à quantidade de frio e as temperaturas do ar para a indução da brotação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial, com seis cultivares, cinco níveis de unidades de frio ( 300; 600; 900; 1200 e 1500 UF e três temperaturas do ar ( 5; 10 e 15ºC. O tempo médio para brotação foi menor quando as cultivares foram submetidas a 1.500 unidades de frio, independentemente da temperatura. A temperatura efetiva para acumular frio varia com a cultivar, podendo chegar até 15ºC para cultivares de menor exigência em frio.Apple tree cultivars demand several requirements in cold but there's a little of information about what temperatures are the most efficient. Apple tree cultivars Condesa, Baronesa, Daiane, Imperatriz, Fuji and Gala were studied on quantity of cold and different temperatures for shooting inducement. Experimental delineation was full casualized on the factorial system, with six cultivars, five levels of cold unities and three temperatures. Average time for shooting was minor when the cultivars were exposed to 1,500 cold unities independently of the temperature. Effective temperature in order to accumulate cold ranges according to the cultivar, and it is able reaching until 15ºC in case of cultivar of lower demand in cold.

  16. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

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    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  17. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  18. Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew [Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev. Salmon

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    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.

  19. Update on comparative genome mapping between Malus and Pyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishitani Chikako

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genome mapping determines the linkage between homologous genes of related taxa. It has already been used in plants to characterize agronomically important genes in lesser studied species, using information from better studied species. In the Maloideae sub-family, which includes fruit species such as apple, pear, loquat and quince, genome co-linearity has been suggested between the genera Malus and Pyrus; however map comparisons are incomplete to date. Findings Genetic maps for the apple rootstocks 'Malling 9' ('M.9' (Malus × domestica and 'Robusta 5' ('R5' (Malus × robusta, and pear cultivars 'Bartlett' and 'La France' (Pyrus communis were constructed using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers developed from both species, including a new set of 73 pear Expressed Sequence Tag (EST SSR markers. Integrated genetic maps for apple and pear were then constructed using 87 and 131 SSR markers in common, respectively. The genetic maps were aligned using 102 markers in common, including 64 pear SSR markers and 38 apple SSR markers. Of these 102 markers, 90 anchor markers showed complete co-linearity between the two genomes. Conclusion Our alignment of the genetic maps of two Malus cultivars of differing species origin with two Pyrus communis cultivars confirms the ready transferability of SSR markers from one genus to the other and supports a high level of co-linearity within the sub-family Maloideae between the genomes of Malus and Pyrus.

  20. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  1. Biosorption of lead (II) ions by NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimurti, Devita Dwi; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research studied the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue. Biosorbent was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration had been investigated in batch-adsorption method. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherm were used to describe the biosorption process. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) adsorption was observed at 60 min of contact time, pH 4, and 0.1 g biosorbent dosage in 25 ml solution. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, resulted biosorption constant rate of 0.184 g.mg-1.min-1. The Langmuir isotherm model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) determined according to the Langmuir model was 90.90 mg.g-1 at 302 K, with the adsorption energy of 26.429 kJ.mol-1.

  2. Fruit Coloration and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis after Bag Removal in Non-Red and Red Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.

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    Yulian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, evolution of apple color (L* and a/b, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the activity of the related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, chalcone isomerase (CHI, dihydroflavonol4-reductase (DFR and UDP-Glucose: flavonoid-3-O-galactosyl transferase (UFGT, were investigated in bagged non-red apple cultivars (‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ and red apple cultivars (‘Starkrimon’ and ‘Pink Lady’. Young fruits were bagged 40–45 days after flowering (DAF, and fruits of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Starkrimon’ were uncovered and exposed to light 120 DAF, while those of ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Pink Lady’ were exposed for 160 DAF. Results showed that cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal was the most abundant anthocyanin in both non-red and red cultivars. Level of anthocyanins was higher in ‘Granny Smith’ than in ‘Golden Delicious’, indicating that red color was easier to develop in green cultivar ‘Granny Smith’ than in yellow cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’ after bag removal. The cy3-gal accumulation of non-red cultivars tested was not significantly correlated with PAL, CHI and DFR activity, but was significantly correlated with UFGT activity. During the reddening of non-red apples, UFGT may be the more important factor in the anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  3. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon.

  4. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF MALUS DOMESTICA BORKH (APPLE AND PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. (GREEN BEANS

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    A.Doss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity as well as total phenol (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC in two fruits, apple (Malus domestica and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris. The antioxidant activities were examined by two different methods namely DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power scavenging activity. The results showed that considerable amount of TPC and TFC was present in these fruit extracts as well as these vegetables contain a vast array of different phytochemicals in their dry form. Apple showed higher antioxidant activity than green beans. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and carbohydrates & glycosides in all the extracts. Overall, the present results provided basic data for choosing these fruits with high antioxidant capacity for consumption or for the development of antioxidant based medicines as value-added products.

  5. EFFECT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLY ON FRUIT QUALITY OF APPLE (Malus domestica BORKH.

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    József RACSKÓ

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations were carried out in the eastern part of Hungary. In this experiment we studied the nutrient supplyreaction of four apple cultivars (Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Idared and Jonathan Csány under different Nand NPK-doses. The following fruit quality parameters were detected: fruit diameter, fruit height, fruit weight, fl esh fi rmness, colour-cover and we studied the thicket of foliage of trees. The research results showed, that N-fertilization has a great effect on fruit quality. This appears in the cases of increase of fruit largeness. The increase is proportional to N-levels. Moderate N-doses plus PK-addition had also positive effects. The nutrient supply increased vegetative area in addition to the generative parts, in particular pure N fertilizer. But the thicked foliage hindered the growth of fruit weight and colour-cover, also decreased the fruit quality. And decreased the fl esh fi rmness of cultivars, that has a negative effect on storageability.

  6. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Rongrong; Li, Jun; Singer, Stacy D; Zhang, Yucheng; Yin, Xiangjing; Zheng, Yi; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a protein superfamily encoding NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes and play a role in the response to environmental stress. In this study, a total of 39 ALDH genes from ten families were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Synteny analysis of the apple ALDH (MdALDH) genes indicated that segmental and tandem duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these gene families in apple. Moreover, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several MdALDH genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes appeared before the divergence of lineages that led to apple and Arabidopsis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, as well as comparisons of exon-intron and protein structures, provided further insight into both their evolutionary relationships and their putative functions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the MdALDH genes demonstrated diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns, while their expression profiles under abiotic stress and various hormone treatments indicated that many MdALDH genes were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as different plant hormones. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles, of the apple MdALDH genes will not only be useful for the further analysis of ALDH genes and their roles in stress response, but may also aid in the future improvement of apple stress tolerance.

  7. First report of fusarium avenaceum causing wet core rot of ‘elstar’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Fred; Lans, van der Arie; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. ‘Elstar’, the main cultivar, occupies 40% of the apple production area. Symptoms of apple wet core rot were observed on Elstar in January to March 2013 after 4 to 6 months’ storage in different packing houses at controlled atm

  8. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethyle-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Peace, C.P.; Stella, S.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Bazzani, M.; Sansavini, S.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2010-01-01

    Apple fruit are well known for their storage life, although a wide range of flesh softening occurs among cultivars. Loss of firmness is genetically coordinated by the action of several cell wall enzymes, including polygalacturonase (PG) which depolymerizes cell wall pectin. By the analysis of ‘Fuji’

  9. Different flowering response to various fruit loads in apple cultivars correlates with degree of transcript reaccumulation of a TFL1-encoding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Amnon; Ackerman, Michal; Crane, Omer; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Costes, Evelyne; Samach, Alon

    2016-07-01

    In many perennial fruit trees, flowering in the year following a year with heavy fruit load can be quite limited. This biennial cycle of fruiting, termed alternate bearing, was described 170 years ago in apple (Malus domestica). Apple inflorescences are mainly found on short branches (spurs). Bourse shoots (BS) develop from the leaf axils of the spur. BS apices may terminate ~100 days after flowering, with formation of next year's inflorescences. We sought to determine how developing fruit on the spur prevents the adjacent BS apex from forming an inflorescence. The presence of adjacent fruit correlated with reaccumulation of transcript encoding a potential flowering inhibitor, MdTFL1-2, in BS apices prior to inflorescence initiation. BS apices without adjacent fruit that did not flower due to late fruitlet removal, neighbouring fruit on the tree, or leaf removal, also reaccumulated the MdTFL1-2 transcript. Fruit load and gibberellin (GA) application had similar effects on the expression of MdTFL1-2 and genes involved in GA biosynthesis and metabolism. Some apple cultivars are less prone to alternate bearing. We show that the response of a BS apex to different numbers of adjacent fruit differs among cultivars in both MdTFL1-2 accumulation and return flowering. These results provide a working model for the further study of alternate bearing, and help clarify the need for cultivar-specific approaches to reach stable fruit production.

  10. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

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    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  11. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles.

  12. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the SBP-box family genes in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Hou, Hongmin; Li, Xiaoqin; Xiang, Jiang; Yin, Xiangjing; Gao, Hua; Zheng, Yi; Bassett, Carole L; Wang, Xiping

    2013-09-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors and play many crucial roles in plant development. In this study, 27 SBP-box gene family members were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome, 15 of which were suggested to be putative targets of MdmiR156. Plant SBPs were classified into eight groups according to the phylogenetic analysis of SBP-domain proteins. Gene structure, gene chromosomal location and synteny analyses of MdSBP genes within the apple genome demonstrated that tandem and segmental duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of the SBP-box gene family in apple. Additionally, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis indicated that several paired homologs of MdSBP and AtSPL genes were located in syntenic genomic regions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of MdSBP genes in apple demonstrated their diversified spatiotemporal expression patterns. Most MdmiR156-targeted MdSBP genes, which had relatively high transcript levels in stems, leaves, apical buds and some floral organs, exhibited a more differential expression pattern than most MdmiR156-nontargeted MdSBP genes. Finally, expression analysis of MdSBP genes in leaves upon various plant hormone treatments showed that many MdSBP genes were responsive to different plant hormones, indicating that MdSBP genes may be involved in responses to hormone signaling during stress or in apple development.

  13. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  14. Development and validation of a 20K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP whole genome genotyping array for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bianco

    Full Text Available High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species (M. micromalus. A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs. Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ∼3.7K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ∼15.8K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ∼6.8K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs.

  15. Development and validation of a 20K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) whole genome genotyping array for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Luca; Cestaro, Alessandro; Sargent, Daniel James; Banchi, Elisa; Derdak, Sophia; Di Guardo, Mario; Salvi, Silvio; Jansen, Johannes; Viola, Roberto; Gut, Ivo; Laurens, Francois; Chagné, David; Velasco, Riccardo; van de Weg, Eric; Troggio, Michela

    2014-01-01

    High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species (M. micromalus). A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs). Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ∼3.7K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ∼15.8K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ∼6.8K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs.

  16. Dormancy alleviation by NO or HCN leading to decline of protein carbonylation levels in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Dębska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos can be overcome by short-term pre-treatment with nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Dormancy alleviation of embryos modulated by NO or HCN and the first step of germination depend on temporary increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct oxidative attack on some amino acid residues or secondary reactions via reactive carbohydrates and lipids can lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives. Protein carbonylation is a widely accepted covalent and irreversible modification resulting in inhibition or alteration of enzyme/protein activities. It also increases the susceptibility of proteins to proteolytic degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate protein carbonylation in germinating apple embryos, the dormancy of which was removed by pre-treatment with NO or HCN donors. It was performed using a quantitative spectrophotometric method, while patterns of carbonylated protein in embryo axes were analyzed by immunochemical techniques. The highest concentration of protein carbonyl groups was observed in dormant embryos. It declined in germinating embryos pre-treated with NO or HCN, suggesting elevated degradation of modified proteins during seedling formation. A decrease in the concentration of carbonylated proteins was accompanied by modification in proteolytic activity in germinating apple embryos. A strict correlation between the level of protein carbonyl groups and cotyledon growth and greening was detected. Moreover, direct in vitro carbonylation of BSA treated with NO or HCN donors was analyzed, showing action of both signaling molecules as protein oxidation agents.

  17. Vegetative Propagation of Five Local Cultivars of Malay Apple (Syzygium malaccense spp. in Ternate Island

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    A.R. Ryadin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cuttings of five cultivars of local malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L. was studied in Ternate Island, Indonesia. Hardwood cuttings of malay apple were planted in two combinations of media and hormone treatments. During 5 months experiment, can be found that hardwood cutting of malay apple with top soil+ sand and NAA 1000 ppm had the best performance in producing shoots and roots for cuttings of malay apple in a short period. Although, each of these cultivars has different performance to rooting and shooting, but its can be propagated by cuttings. Therefore, the result of this research is expected to contribute for conservation of malay apple as a source of germplasm for further research and commercialization of malay apple as new potential fruit in the international market demand.

  18. Modification of leaf morphology and anatomy as a consequence of columnar architecture in domestic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars. Signifi......A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars....... Significant increases in leaf number, area, weight per unit area, thickness and midrib angle, together with altered shape, have been recorded consistently for the leaves subtending the developing fruits of the columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in leaf rolling, epicuticular wax, stomatal...... of leaf characteristics is considered in terms of the very open architectural phenotype of columnar trees and the impact this may have on the canopy microclimate that influences leaf development....

  19. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    We report on the performance of a novel sampling method for determining fruit quality variability and yield from an orchard, which focus on its applicability for the fruit industry. We used the ‘fractionator’ tree sampling method to investigate the quality variability of a small, representative.......29 and CVtF = 0.09). From the quality characteristics studied only fruit mass could be significantly related to position of the fruit in the canopy, represented by height of the fruit above ground, the fruit position along the branch and position relative to the tree row orientation in the orchard...... sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...

  20. Physiological and phenotypic variations between columnar and standard apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela

    Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost...... the variations between columnar and standard apple trees. This knowledge provides a better insight on the production abilities of the columnar apple trees which may be useful for future crop improvement strategies....

  1. Investigations of aroma volatile biosynthesis under anoxic conditions and in different tissues of "Redchief Delicious" apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudell, D R; Mattinson, D S; Mattheis, J P; Wyllie, S G; Fellman, J K

    2002-04-24

    Disks from different tissues were obtained from "Redchief Delicious" apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) and analyzed for the ability to metabolize 1-pentanol as well as synthesize constitutive esters and alcohols under anoxic and aerobic conditions. The skin tissue displayed a greater capacity to synthesize pentanal, pentyl acetate, pentyl propionate, pentyl butyrate, and pentyl hexanoate than the hypanthial and carpellary tissues during incubation with 1-pentanol. With the exception of pentyl acetate and pentyl propionate biosynthesis, the hypanthial tissue synthesized these compounds at a higher rate than the carpellary tissue. Anoxia inhibited both constituent and 1-pentanol-derived ester biosynthesis. While anoxia inhibited ester biosynthesis, ethanol biosynthesis increased at a greater rate in tissue disks held under these conditions. Biosynthesis of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-hexanol was greater in tissue disks held in air during the first part of the measurement period and dropped off more rapidly than those transpiring in tissue disks held under anoxic conditions. The biosynthetic rates of all esters, both constituent and 1-pentanol-derived, increased as a result of air exposure. While hypoxic or anoxic conditions may promote ethanol synthesis, these conditions also appear to inhibit the formation of the ethanol-derived esters partially responsible for the off-flavor in apples attributed to ultralow O(2) controlled atmosphere storage.

  2. Genetic and environmental factors affecting allergen-related gene expression in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Alessandro; Lezzer, Paolo; Dorigoni, Alberto; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ruperti, Benedetto; Ramina, Angelo

    2008-08-13

    Freshly consumed apples can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens, namely, Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, and Mal d 4, and their cross-reactivity with sensitizing allergens of other species. Knowledge of environmental and endogenous factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information to apple breeders, growers, and consumers for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, the adoption of agronomical practices decreasing the allergenic potential, and the consumption of fruits with reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, expression studies were performed by means of real-time PCR for all the known allergen-encoding genes in apple. Fruit samples were collected from 15 apple varieties and from fruits of three different trials, set up to assess the effect of shadowing, elevation, storage, and water stress on the expression of allergen genes. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for the classification of varieties according to gene expression values, pointing out that the cultivars Fuji and Brina were two good hypoallergenic candidates. Shadowing, elevation, and storage significantly affected the transcription of the allergen-encoding genes, whereas water stress slightly influenced the expression of only two genes, in spite of the dramatic effect on both fruit size and vegetative growth of the trees. In particular, shadowing may represent an important cultural practice aimed at reducing apple cortex allergenicity. Moreover, elevation and storage may be combined to reduce the allergenic potential of apple fruits. The possible implications of the results for breeders, growers, and consumers are discussed critically.

  3. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de semilla de tres variedades de manzana (Malus domestica Borkh -Rosaceae-)

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica CERVANTES-CARDOZA; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Martha ROSALES-CASTRO; Medina-Torres, Luis; Rubén Francisco GONZÁLEZ-LAREDO

    2010-01-01

    The oily (hexane) and aqueous extracts from apple seeds (Malus domestica Borkh -Rosaceae-) cultivars Winter Banana (WB), Winter Permain (WP) and Blanca de Asturias (BA) have shown significant differences in phenolic content and antioxidant activity. BA seed oily extracts and WB seed aqueous extracts have presented the best scavenging capacity of DPPH¿ radical and inhibition of hydroxyl radicals. In the biological assay apple seed extracts showed protection against low density lipoproteins (LD...

  4. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of th

  5. Transcriptional regulation of auxin metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis activation during apple (Malus × domestica) fruit maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at13 harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale 14 transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crossta...

  6. Dynamic transcription profiles of “Qinguan” apple (Malus × domestica) leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianhua; Li, Miaomiao; Jiao, Peng; Tao, Hongxia; Wei, Ningning; Ma, Fengwang; Zhang, Junke

    2015-01-01

    Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant's response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of “Qinguan” (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria) apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed. PMID:26528306

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): an assessment of factors affecting regeneration of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bondt, A; Eggermont, K; Penninckx, I; Goderis, I; Broekaert, W F

    1996-03-01

    We have previously developed a protocol for efficient gene transfer and regeneration of transgenic calli following cocultivation of apple (cv. Jonagold) explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (De Bondt et al. 1994, Plant Cell Reports 13: 587-593). Now we report on the optimization of postcultivation conditions for efficient and reproducible regeneration of transgenic shoots from the apple cultivar Jonagold. Factors which were found to be essential for efficient shoot regeneration were the use of gelrite as a gelling agent and the use of the cytokinin-mimicing thidiazuron in the selective postcultivation medium. Improved transformation efficiencies were obtained by combining the hormones thidiazuron and zeatin and by using leaf explants from in vitro grown shoots not older than 4 weeks after multiplication. Attempts to use phosphinothricin acetyl transferase as a selectable marker were not successful. Using selection on kanamycin under optimal postcultivation conditions, about 2% of the leaf explants developed transgenic shoots or shoot clusters. The presence and expression of the transferred genes was verified by β-glucuronidase assays and Southern analysis. The transformation procedure has also been succesfully applied to several other apple cultivars.

  8. RESGATE DE EMBRIÕES IMATUROS IN VITRO DE PORTA-ENXERTOS DE MACIEIRA (Malus spp. RESCUE OF IMMATURE EMBRYOS IN VITRO OF ROOTSTOCK OF APPLE (Malus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultura in vitro de embriões permite desenvolver estudos nas áreas de fisiologia e melhoramento, possibilitando o resgate de embriões imaturos, oriundos de cruzamentos que podem ser incompatíveis. Em macieira, geralmente, os embriões imaturos apresentam dormência e baixa germinação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar concentrações de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina em diferentes períodos de imersão para superação da dormência e germinação de embriões imaturos de macieira. Os embriões foram extraídos de sementes retiradas de frutos oriundos do cruzamento entre os porta-enxertos de macieira Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia x M9 (Malus pumilla, realizado em plantas matrizes cultivadas na Epagri -- São Joaquim (SC. Os 50 frutos colhidos ao acaso foram submetidos a uma esterilização com etanol 96º por 10 min e após com solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2% por 20 min. As sementes foram submetidas a uma desinfestação, utilizando-se etanol 70% por 30 s e solução de hipoclorito de sódio 1,25% por 15 min, seguindo-se três lavagens com água esterilizada e autoclavada. Os embriões foram inoculados em 10 ml de meio MS/2, suplementado com 100 mg.L-1 de mio-inositol, 30 g.L-1 de sacarose e com BAP (0, 6 e 12 mg.L-1 e 6 g.L-1 de agar, com pH ajustado para 5,8. Os embriões foram mantidos por 24 ou 48 horas neste meio e depois transferidos para um meio MS/2 sem regulador vegetal. Não ocorreu contaminação nem oxidação em nenhum embrião. A concentração de BAP que promoveu maior crescimento dos embriões foi de 6 mg.L-1, mas o melhor aspecto quanto à intensidade de coloração e formação de brotos foi obtido utilizando-se 12 mg.L-1.The embryos culture in vitro allows studies in the physiology breeding areas, facilitating the rescue of immature embryos, originated from incompatible crossings. In apple, the immature embryos generally present dormancy and lower germination. The objective of this work was to test concentrations

  9. Leaf micro-environment influence the altered foliar phenotype of columnar apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    in the phenotype of the leaves in the leaf clusters that subtend the fruits of CATs, compared to their standard counterparts. This initial investigation considers standard and columnar trees at different levels of genetic relatedness and records significant increases in leaf area, leaf mass per unit area......Columnar apple trees (CATs) have radically-altered architecture (significantly shorter internodes and lateral branches) when compared to standard apple trees, attributed to a mutation of the Co gene involved in apical dominance. These changes in architecture have been associated with changes......, chlorophyll content and competitive shading in the fruiting leaf clusters of columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in intercepted light have been shown to be associated with the columnar structure, and carbon fixation is also increased. We propose that leaf micro-environment of columnar...

  10. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Apple Fruits (Malus domestica Borkh Sold in Owerri Imo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braide Wesley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the microbial colonizers, of apple fruits sold in Owerri to determine its safety for consumption. Apple fruits are dependable source of vitamins, it is rich in fiber, electrolytes, minerals and antioxidants and it is usually eaten fresh and raw, making the vitamins fully available for the body. The popularity and increased consumption of apple fruits therefore calls for necessary safety checks. Two hundred fresh and apparently healthy apple fruits were obtained from street vendors and shopping malls in major streets, motor parks and higher institutions in Owerri. The fruits were washed-out separately in 10 mL sterile distilled water to obtain suspensions which were assayed for total aerobic plate count, coliform count, and fungal count and for specific pathogens. A count of 3.4×105-4.5×107 cfu/mL was obtained for TAPC, while total coliform and total fungal counts ranges from 2.4×104-2.2×106 and 5.0×102-3.6×105 cfu/mL respectively. Twelve bacterial and seven fungal spp were isolated. The apple fruits sold in major busy spots in Owerri are contaminated, the presence of Shigella spp, S. aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus which are known pathogens calls for concern. Education of fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of apple fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is advanced.

  11. Untargeted NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of the Metabolic Variety of New Apple Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Philipp; Ehlers, Mona; Weinert, Christoph H.; Tzvetkova, Pavleta; Silber, Mara; Rist, Manuela J.; Luy, Burkhard; Muhle-Goll, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolome analyses by NMR spectroscopy can be used in quality control by generating unique fingerprints of different species. Hundreds of components and their variation between different samples can be analyzed in a few minutes/hours with high accuracy and low cost of sample preparation. Here, apple peel and pulp extracts of a variety of apple cultivars were studied to assess their suitability to discriminate between the different varieties. The cultivars comprised mainly newly bred varieties or ones that were brought onto the market in recent years. Multivariate analyses of peel and pulp extracts were able to unambiguously identify all cultivars, with peel extracts showing a higher discriminative power. The latter was increased if the highly concentrated sugar metabolites were omitted from the analysis. Whereas sugar concentrations lay within a narrow range, polyphenols, discussed as potential health promoting substances, and acids varied remarkably between the cultivars. PMID:27657148

  12. Freezing pattern and frost killing temperature of apple (Malus domestica) wood under controlled conditions and in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert

    2012-07-01

    The freezing pattern and frost killing temperatures of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) xylem were determined by differential thermal analysis and infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA). Results from detached or attached twigs in controlled freezing experiments and during natural field freezing of trees were compared. Non-lethal freezing of apoplastic water in apple xylem as monitored during natural winter frosts in the field occurred at -1.9 ± 0.4 °C and did not change seasonally. The pattern of whole tree freezing was variable and specific to the environmental conditions. On detached twigs high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs) occurred 2.8 K below the temperature observed under natural frosts in the field with a seasonal mean of -4.7 ± 0.5 °C. Microporous apple xylem showed freezing without a specific pattern within a few seconds in IDTA images during HTEs, which is in contrast to macroporous xylem where a 2D freezing pattern mirrors anatomical structures. The pith tissue always remained unfrozen. Increasing twig length increased ice nucleation temperature; for increased twig diameter the effect was not significant. In attached twigs frozen in field portable freezing chambers, HTEs were recorded at a similar mean temperature (-4.6 ± 1.0 °C) to those for detached twigs. Upon lethal intracellular freezing of apple xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) low-temperature freezing exotherms (LTEs) can be recorded. Low-temperature freezing exotherms determined on detached twigs varied significantly between a winter minimum of -36.9 °C and a summer maximum -12.7 °C. Within the temperature range wherein LTEs were recorded by IDTA in summer (-12.7 ± 0.5 to -20.3 ± 1.1 °C) various tiny clearly separated discontinuous freezing events could be detected similar to that in other species with contrasting XPC anatomy. These freezing events appeared to be initially located in the primary and only later in the secondary xylem. During the LTE no

  13. Shoot bending promotes flower bud formation by miRNA-mediated regulation in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu

    2016-02-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees plays an important life cycle role, but young trees produce fewer and inferior quality flower buds. Therefore, shoot bending has become an important cultural practice, significantly promoting the capacity to develop more flower buds during the growing seasons. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant growth, flower induction and stress responses. In this study, we identified miRNAs potentially involved in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and development, as well as in the response to shoot bending. Of the 195 miRNAs identified, 137 were novel miRNAs. The miRNA expression profiles revealed that the expression levels of 68 and 27 known miRNAs were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in response to shoot bending, and that the 31 differentially expressed novel miRNAs between them formed five major clusters. Additionally, a complex regulatory network associated with auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) plays important roles in cell division, bud growth and flower induction, in which related miRNAs and targets mediated regulation. Among them, miR396, 160, 393, and their targets associated with AUX, miR159, 319, 164, and their targets associated with ABA and GA, and flowering-related miRNAs and genes, regulate bud growth and flower bud formation in response to shoot bending. Meanwhile, the flowering genes had significantly higher expression levels during shoot bending, suggesting that they are involved in this regulatory process. This study provides a framework for the future analysis of miRNAs associated with multiple hormones and their roles in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and formation in response to shoot bending in apple trees.

  14. Heat-shock-mediated elimination of the nptII marker gene in transgenic apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Katja; Flachowsky, Henryk; Deising, Holger B; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-04-25

    Production of marker-free genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the major challenges of molecular fruit breeding. Employing clean vector technologies, allowing the removal of undesired DNA sequences from GM plants, this goal can be achieved. The present study describes the establishment of a clean vector system in apple Malus×domestica Borkh., which is based on the use of the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) as selectable marker gene and kanamycin/paramomycin as selective agent. The nptII gene can be removed after selection of GM shoots via site-specific excision mediated by heat-shock-inducible expression of the budding yeast FLP recombinase driven by the soybean Gmhsp17.5-E promoter. We created a monitoring vector containing the nptII and the flp gene as a box flanked by two direct repeats of the flp recognition target (FRT) sites. The FRT-flanked box separates the gusA reporter gene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter. Consequently, GUS expression does only occur after elimination of the FRT-flanked box. Transformation experiments using the monitoring vector resulted in a total of nine transgenic lines. These lines were investigated for transgenicity by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Among different temperature regimes tested, exposure to 42 °C for 3.5 to 4h led to efficient induction of FLP-mediated recombination and removal of the nptII marker gene. A second round of shoot regeneration from leaf explants led to GM apple plants completely free of the nptII gene.

  15. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A; Giraud, T; Bellard, C; Tellier, A; Le Cam, B; Smulders, M J M; Kleinschmit, J; Roldan-Ruiz, I; Gladieux, P

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past climatic change is also critical for the conservation and sustainable management of forest and tree genetic resources, a timely endeavour as the Earth heads into a period of fast climate change. We used a combination of genetic data and ecological niche models to investigate the historical patterns of biogeographic range expansion of a wild fruit tree, the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple. Both climatic predictions for the last glacial maximum and analyses of microsatellite variation indicated that M. sylvestris experienced range contraction and fragmentation. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed a clear pattern of genetic structure, with one genetic cluster spanning a large area in Western Europe and two other genetic clusters with a more limited distribution range in Eastern Europe, one around the Carpathian Mountains and the other restricted to the Balkan Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian computation appeared to be a powerful technique for inferring the history of these clusters, supporting a scenario of simultaneous differentiation of three separate glacial refugia. Admixture between these three populations was found in their suture zones. A weak isolation by distance pattern was detected within each population, indicating a high extent of historical gene flow for the European crabapple.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apple Malus pumila Malus_pumila_L.png Malus_pumila_NL.png Malus_pumila_S.png Malus_...pumila_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malu...s+pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NS ...

  17. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  18. Molecular cloning, substrate specificity of the functionally expressed dihydroflavonol 4-reductases from Malus domestica and Pyrus communis cultivars and the consequences for flavonoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo C; Halbwirth, Heidrun; Meisel, Barbara; Stich, Karl; Forkmann, Gert

    2003-04-15

    Treatment with the dioxygenase inhibitor prohexadione-Ca leads to major changes in the flavonoid metabolism of apple (Malus domestica) and pear (Pyrus communis) leaves. Accumulation of unusual 3-deoxyflavonoids is observed, which have been linked to an enhanced resistance toward fire blight. The committed step in this pathway is the reduction of flavanones. Crude extracts from leaves are able to perform this reaction. There was previous evidence that DFR enzymes of certain plants possess additional flavanone 4-reductase (FNR) activity. Such an FNR activity of DFR enzymes is proved here by heterologous expression of the enzymes. The heterologously expressed DFR/FNR enzymes of Malus and Pyrus possess distinct differences in substrate specificities despite only minor differences of the amino acid sequences. Kinetic studies showed that dihydroflavonols generally are the preferred substrates. However, with the observed substrate specificities the occurrence of 3-deoxyflavonoids in vivo after application of prohexadione-Ca can be explained.

  19. Kinetics of drying and quality of the apple cultivars Granny Smith, Idared and Jonagold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is nutritionally valuable and present as fresh fruit in human nutrition throughout the year. Also apple is a raw material in food processing, primarily in the production of juices, nectars, refreshing soft drinks, marmalades, jams, compotes, apple cider vinegar and dried fruits. In the last decade on the world market there is a great interest in dried apple products (commercially called apple chips. During preservation by drying the technological process aimed at the final product of optimal quality is required. The subject of this paper is the kinetics of the apple cv. Granny Smith, cv. Idared and cv. Jonagold drying in laboratory dehydrator for the purpose of pinpointing at which level of humidity the maximum speed of evaporation is achieved and at which level of humidity apple slices begin to change in colour and geometric shape. Parameters of the drying process were the same for all three cultivars, 3hrs at air temperature of 70oC and 5hrs at air temperature of 50o. The amount of evaporated water is expressed in relative and absolute units of measure. The purpose of this paper is to determine which one of the three tested cultivars provides the best properties for drying, i.e. in terms of oxidation of polyphenolic compounds to find the cultivar which will provide that the final product is technologically and organoleptically the most acceptable. The results showed that the sample cv. Granny Smith expressed the least oxidation of polyphenolic compounds (browning, curved edges and shrivelled apple slices. After that the sample cv. Jonagold followed. The sample cv. Idared showed the worst results. Following the drying kinetics of all three samples, it can be concluded that the cultivars Granny Smith and Jonagold were achieving the lower maximum speed of evaporation, unlike the cultivar Idared. The cultivars Granny Smith and Jonagold have attained consistent drying and in this way the technological process was finished with a smaller

  20. Detection of isorhamnetin glycosides in extracts of apples (Malus domestica cv. "Brettacher") by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Andreas; Keller, Petra; Streker, Petra; Klaiber, Iris; Carle, Reinhold

    2002-01-01

    Extracts of apple fruits (Malus domestica cv. "Brettacher") were analysed by HPLC with photodiode array detection. An unknown peak was monitored displaying the same retention time as isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside. Preliminary identification of the isorhamnetin aglycone was performed by comparison of UV spectral data of the unknown compound with a reference substance. Using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode, the presence of an isorhamnetin glycoside was supported by loss of 162 amu from the pseudomolecular ion (m/z 477). MS2 product ion analysis of the parent ion m/z 477 provided a fragmentation pattern identical to the reference. Collision-induced dissociation of the aglycone (m/z 315) in the MS3 product ion analysis allowed the differentiation of rhamnetin and isorhamnetin, and unambiguous assignment by comparison with standard compounds. A second isorhamnetin glycoside eluting prior to the glucoside was tentatively identified as isorhamnetin 3-O-galactoside. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isorhamnetin glycosides in apple fruit extracts. Results are discussed with respect to chemotaxonomic relevance within the genera Malus and Pyrus, and especially in consideration of the control of the authenticity of apple products.

  1. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine

    2015-01-01

    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic

  2. Morphology and stucture of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill.).common pear (Pyrus cofnmunis L.) and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb) Lindl. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-01-01

    The outer and inner structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill.), common pear (Pyrus communis L.) and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. seeds was investigated. It was found that the outer structure exhibits good diagnostic features expressed in the first place in the relief of the seed coat and further in the arrangement and appearance of the site of attachment of the free end of the funiculus and the shape of the seeds. In ripe seeds there is, under the thick seed coat, an endosperm l...

  3. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation

    OpenAIRE

    El-sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-01-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant ‘Blondee’ (BLO) and its red-skin parent ‘Kidd’s D-8’ (KID), the original name of ‘Gala’, to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) o...

  4. Morphology and stucture of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill..common pear (Pyrus cofnmunis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb Lindl. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The outer and inner structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill., common pear (Pyrus communis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb. Lindl. seeds was investigated. It was found that the outer structure exhibits good diagnostic features expressed in the first place in the relief of the seed coat and further in the arrangement and appearance of the site of attachment of the free end of the funiculus and the shape of the seeds. In ripe seeds there is, under the thick seed coat, an endosperm layer completely surrounding the embryo which has large cotyledons and a thick rootlet.

  5. Isolation of high-quality RNA from apple (Malus domestica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Mehar; Trivedi, Prabodh; Solomos, Theophanes; Tucker, Mark

    2006-07-26

    It is difficult to isolate sufficient quantities of high-quality RNA from apple fruit. An abundance of polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides and a relatively low concentration of RNA in the fruit tissue create conditions that hamper RNA isolation when standard techniques are used. We have developed two RNA isolation methods that include an initial homogenization and extraction with acetone or ethanol. These in turn remove the interfering compounds and precipitate the protein and nucleic acids for subsequent RNA extraction. The quality of RNA was satisfactory with both acetone and ethanol preparations; however, the acetone powder produced consistently higher quantities of RNA.

  6. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder.

  7. Morphological and anatomical characters of apple leaves associated with cultivar susceptibility to spider mite infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Warabieda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical chaIacters of apple leaves associated with cultivar susceptibility to two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch. infestation were investigated. The following six apple cultivars were selected for the research: Close, Lobo ( suceptible and Katja, Piros, Jester, Maivit (more resistant to mites infestation. The cultivars of a relatively lower susceptibility, (except Marvit were provided with a poorer pubescence on abaxial epidermis of foliage leaf than those susceptible. There was no strict correlation between stomata number per unit of the leaf surface and the susceptibility to T.urticae infestation. A tight cell arrangement in the spongy mesophyll was particularly characteristic for cv Marvit, whereas in the leaves of cvs Close and Lobo this tissue was definitely loose. It seems that loose spongy mesophyll structure may facilitate feeding of mites.The results regarding the analysis of the lower (abaxial epidermis of the leaves seem to suggest that the layout and thickness of cuticle, rather than the epidermal thickness itself could be a factor determining the susceptibility of apple cultivars to T.urcitae.

  8. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple.

  9. Chemical Composition of the Fruits of Several Apple Cultivars Growth as Biological Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CAMPEANU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better quality of fruits and to adapt to the requirements of consumers needs, the researchers regard the content of fruits attentively, especially the content of sugar, vitamins and mineral substances. The aims of the research were to test ten apple cultivars from the point of view of sugars, water content, proteins, acidity, vitamin C and also mineral elements: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe. Results obtain for sugars show a higher content of sugar between 9.53 and 12.34%. The higher sugar content was registered for H3/73 hybrid (12.34%. Total acidity (% falls between 0.127 and 0.345%, a small content registered at all cultivars determining a good quality of fruits and a good taste. The highest value was obtained for Jonathan apple variety. Vitamin C varied between 25.75 and 77 mg/100g. Mutzu and Jonathan cultivars registered the highest value for vitamin C. Mineral elements, respectively macro elements N, P and K varied within the apple varieties. Total nitrogen form varied between 0.67 and 0.111 %, phosphorous between 0.15 and 0.235 % and potassium between 0.40 and 0.75 %. The values for Ca varied between 2.5 and 7.8 mg/100g and Fe between 0.2 and 0.28 mg/100g. The atmosphere and soil in the studied zone of apple culture were unpolluted, so there was no risk of food contamination. The chemical values of fruits showed a higher content of mineral elements and also a good quality for the products obtained from the apple industry, so the apple production could be used in obtaining juice and pulp without any risk of illness.

  10. Simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in the leaf and fruit peel of different apple cultivars by the HPLC-RI optimized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Miuţa; Vlassa, Mihaela; Coman, Virginia; Halmagyi, Adela

    2016-05-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography method with refractive index detection (HPLC-RI), for simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol in leaf and/or apple peel samples from nine apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars and rootstocks, originating from a germplasm collection, has been developed and validated. Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology was applied for the method optimization. The Carbosep Coregel 87H3 column was used under the optimum conditions predicted: mobile phase of H2SO4 0.005 mol L(-1) solution, flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) and column temperature of 35°C. The method was validated for linearity (R(2)>0.99), limits of detection (2.67-4.83 μg mL(-1)) and quantification (8.9-16.1 μg mL(-1)), precision (%RSDsugars content varied across micropropagated plants in vitro, plants regenerated after cryostorage, growing trees in vivo, and fruit peel.

  11. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes:Endopolygalacturonase,ACC oxidase and ACC synthase from apple(Malus x domestica) in an apple rootstock A106(Malus sieboldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER; 等

    1995-01-01

    The apple rootstock,A106(Malus sieboldii),had 17 bivalents in pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase 1,and 17 chromosomes in a haploid pollen cell.Karyotypes were prepared from root-tip cells with 2n=34 chromosomes,Seven out of 82 karyotypes(8.5%) showed one pari of satellites at the end of the short arm of chromosome 3.C-bands were shown on 6 pairs of chromosomes 2,4,6,8,14,and 16 near the telomeric regions of short arms.Probes for three ripening-related genes from Malus x domestica:endopolygalacturonase(EPG,0.6kb),ACC oxidase(1.2kb),and ACC synthase(2kb)were hybridized in situ to metaphase chromosomes of A106.Hybridization sites for the EPG gene were observed on the long arm of chromosome 14 in 15 out of 16 replicate spreads and proximal to the centromere of chromosomes 6 and 11.For the ACC oxidase gene,hylridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosomes 5 and 11 in 87% and 81% of 16 spreads respectively,proxiaml to the centromere of chromosome 1 in 81% of the spreads,and on the long arm of chromosome 13 in 50% of the spreads. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes in an apple rootstock A106.Twenty five spreads were studied for the ACC synthase gene and hybridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 12 in 96% of the spreads.chromosomes 9 and 10 in 76% of the spreads,and chromosome 17 in 56% of the spreads.

  12. A and MdMYB1 allele-specific markers controlling apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) skin color and suitability for marker-assisted selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X J; Wang, L X; Chen, X X; Liu, Y L; Meng, R; Wang, Y J; Zhao, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    Pre-selection for fruit skin color at the seedling stage would be highly advantageous, with marker-assisted selection offering a potential method for apple pre-selection. A and MdMYB1 alleles are allele-specific DNA markers that are potentially associated with apple skin color, and co-segregate with the Rf and Rni loci, respectively. Here, we assessed the potential application of these 2 alleles for marker-assisted breeding across 30 diverse cultivars and 2 apple seedling progenies. The red skin color phenotype was usually associated with the MdMYB1-1 allele and A(1) allele, respectively, while the 2 molecular markers provided approximately 91% predictability in the 'Fuji' x 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji' x 'Gala' progenies. The results obtained from the 30 cultivars and 2 progenies were consistent for the 2 molecular markers. Hence, the results supported that Rf and Rni could be located in a gene cluster, or even correspond to alleles of the same gene. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that red/yellow dimorphism is controlled by a monogenic system, with the presence of the red anthocyanin pigmentation being dominant. In addition, our results supported that the practical utilization of the 2 function markers to efficiently and accurately select red-skinned apple cultivars in apple scion breeding programs.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomes Analysis of Red- and White-Fleshed Apples in an F1 Population of Malus sieversii f. niedzwetzkyana Crossed with M. domestica 'Fuji'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    Full Text Available Transcriptome profiles of the red- and white-fleshed apples in an F1 segregating population of Malus sieversii f.Niedzwetzkyana and M.domestica 'Fuji' were generated using the next-generation high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology and compared. A total of 114 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were obtained, of which 88 were up-regulated and 26 were down-regulated in red-fleshed apples. The 88 up-regulated genes were enriched with those related to flavonoid biosynthetic process and stress responses. Further analysis identified 22 genes associated with flavonoid biosynthetic process and 68 genes that may be related to stress responses. Furthermore, the expression of 20 up-regulated candidate genes (10 related to flavonoid biosynthesis, two encoding MYB transcription factors and eight related to stress responses and 10 down-regulated genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. After exploring the possible regulatory network, we speculated that flavonoid metabolism might be involved in stress responses in red-fleshed apple. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for further enriching gene resources associated with flavonoid synthesis and stress responses of fruit trees and for breeding elite apples with high flavonoid content and/or increased stress tolerances.

  14. Development of a dense SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny using the Malus Infinium whole genome genotyping array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanaviciute Laima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A whole-genome genotyping array has previously been developed for Malus using SNP data from 28 Malus genotypes. This array offers the prospect of high throughput genotyping and linkage map development for any given Malus progeny. To test the applicability of the array for mapping in diverse Malus genotypes, we applied the array to the construction of a SNP-based linkage map of an apple rootstock progeny. Results Of the 7,867 Malus SNP markers on the array, 1,823 (23.2% were heterozygous in one of the two parents of the progeny, 1,007 (12.8% were heterozygous in both parental genotypes, whilst just 2.8% of the 921 Pyrus SNPs were heterozygous. A linkage map spanning 1,282.2 cM was produced comprising 2,272 SNP markers, 306 SSR markers and the S-locus. The length of the M432 linkage map was increased by 52.7 cM with the addition of the SNP markers, whilst marker density increased from 3.8 cM/marker to 0.5 cM/marker. Just three regions in excess of 10 cM remain where no markers were mapped. We compared the positions of the mapped SNP markers on the M432 map with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ genome sequence. A total of 311 markers (13.7% of all mapped markers mapped to positions that conflicted with their predicted positions on the ‘Golden Delicious’ pseudo-chromosomes, indicating the presence of paralogous genomic regions or mis-assignments of genome sequence contigs during the assembly and anchoring of the genome sequence. Conclusions We incorporated data for the 2,272 SNP markers onto the map of the M432 progeny and have presented the most complete and saturated map of the full 17 linkage groups of M. pumila to date. The data were generated rapidly in a high-throughput semi-automated pipeline, permitting significant savings in time and cost over linkage map construction using microsatellites. The application of the array will permit linkage maps to be developed for QTL analyses in a

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.

  16. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica) and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Menghan; Wang, Sanhong; Dong, Hui; Cai, Binhua; Tao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), peach (Prunus persica), plum (Prunus mume) and strawberry (Fragaria vesca) in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA]), while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  17. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  18. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  19. Phenological evaluation of three apple cultivars at Bom Retiro – SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Frederica Latorre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted in a single apple orchard, located in Bom Retiro, Santa Catarina, in order to make a phenological assessment of the Imperatriz, Imperial Gala and Fuji cultivars planted there and their relationships with the physical conditions provided by the orchard together with the pollination and fruit production taking place. Seven plants from each cultivar were selected at random for the purpose of measuring the average length of the stems that had achieved up to 1.5m in height from the level of the soil, the numbers of reproductive and vegetative stems, the lengths of the leaves, and the numbers of flowers which were classified according to their stage of development. The averages were compared by Tukey test (5%. The cultivar that was utilized for pollination (Imperatriz showed early production, but the flowering coincided little with that of the other productive cultivars. However, these characteristics could have been greatly influenced by ambient conditions, considering this cultivar’s production history before its use as the pollinizing cultivar. For remedial purposes, techniques could be employed to synchronize the flowering, and appropriate management would be capable of increasing the populations of pollinating agents to help the effective fertilization.

  20. Overexpression of MpCYS4, A Phytocystatin Gene from Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh., Enhances Stomatal Closure to Confer Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Li, Mingjun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xun; Wang, Na; Liang, Bowen; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-01-01

    Phytocystatins (PhyCys) comprise a group of inhibitors for cysteine proteinases in plants. They play a wide range of important roles in regulating endogenous processes and protecting plants against various environmental stresses, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we detailed the biological functions of MpCYS4, a member of cystatin genes isolated from Malus prunifolia. This gene was activated under water deficit, heat (40°C), exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl viologen (MV) (Tan et al., 2014a). At cellular level, MpCYS4 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Recombinant MpCYS4 cystatin expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and it exhibited cysteine protease inhibitor activity. Transgenic overexpression of MpCYS4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and apple (Malus domestica) led to ABA hypersensitivity and series of ABA-associated phenotypes, such as enhanced ABA-induced stomatal closing, altered expression of many ABA/stress-responsive genes, and enhanced drought tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MpCYS4 is involved in ABA-mediated stress signal transduction and confers drought tolerance at least in part by enhancing stomatal closure and up-regulating the transcriptional levels of ABA- and drought-related genes. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which phytocystatins influence plant growth, development, and tolerance to stress.

  1. Apple Pollination Biology for Stable and Novel Fruit Production: Search System for Apple Cultivar Combination Showing Incompatibility, Semicompatibility, and Full-Compatibility Based on the S-RNase Allele Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding and cultivation of new apple cultivars are among the most attractive and important issues for apple researchers. As almost all apple cultivars exhibit gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI, cross-pollination between genetically different cultivars and species is essential not only for stable fruit production, but also for breeding of new cultivars. For cross-pollination by insect or hand pollination, pollen viability and pistil fertility are key factors, but also the mechanism of GSI has to be taken into account. This paper reviews the germination rate of pollen after storage in different conditions, at different periods of flowering, and in combination with pistil fertility and cross-compatibility among wild-, crab-, and cultivated apples. Furthermore, suitable cultivar combinations for new attractive apple cultivars based on GSI are explored. Especially, details about S-genotypes of apple cultivars, which are present in recent cultivar catalogues, are introduced together with a newly established on-line searchable database of S-genotypes of cultivars, wild apples and crab apples that shows incompatibility, semicompatibility, and full-compatibility.

  2. F1 hybrid of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) and European pear (Pyrus communis) with fertile F2 offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.C.; Malnoy, M.; Hofmann, T.; Schwab, W.; Palmieri, L.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Schuch, L.A.; Müller, M.; Schimmelpfeng, H.; Velasco, R.; Martens, S.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of intergeneric hybrids for horticultural and agricultural crops is still a demanding task for breeding programmes. The aim of such approaches is to introduce new quality and resistance traits and to enlarge the gene pool. Recently, an F1 hybrid between Malus × domestica and Pyrus

  3. The effects of pre-harvest napthalene acetic acid and aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on storage performance of ‘ Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar grown in Erzincan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan OZTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, 150, 225 ve 300 mg/L and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 20 mg/L treatments in different doses on storage performance of ‘Ak Sakı’ apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. in 2012. The changes on some fruit quality parameters were measured at 2±1 oC temperature and with 90±5 % relative humidity at 45 days interval during storage. The lowest weight loss was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. In the all analysis date, the highest L* value was obtained from 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits, and the lowest hue angle value was reported from the fruits of control treatment. The flesh firmness was determined that the best kept in the 225 and 300 mg/L AVG treated fruits during the storage. The flesh firmness significantly reduced with NAA treatment at the end of storage. The highest soluble solids concentration (SSC was obtain from control fruit during the storage, whereas the lowest SSC was observed in fruit treated with 300 mg/L AVG. In the all analysis date, the highest titratable acidity was obtained in fruits treated with 225 and 300 mg/L AVG. The starch degradation was delayed with AVG treatments.

  4. Evaluation of phenological and pomological characteristics of some standard apple cultivars in Samsun ecological condition

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ahmet; ÖZTÜRK, Burhan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the phenological and pomological characteristics of 5 year-old ‘Cooper 7 SB2’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Jersey Mac’, ‘Red Chief’, ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ and ‘Süper Chief’ apple cultivars grafted on MM106 in Samsun ecological condition during the 2013-2014 years. The earliest first flowering, earliest full flowering, the earliest harvest date and the latest harvest date were determined in the Jersey Mac, Red Chief, Jersey Mac, and Granny Smi...

  5. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between “Starking Delicious” apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in “Starking Delicious” following AAAP infection might interpret its susceptible to AAAP. PMID:28163714

  6. Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks

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    Sosna Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare. The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.

  7. Genetic relationship analysis of apple cultivars with SSR and SRAP markers%基于SSR和SRAP标记的苹果品种亲缘关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴巧瑞; 赵政阳; 高华; 王艳丽; 孙彪

    2011-01-01

    【目的】用SSR和SRAP分子标记技术,分析苹果(Malus domestica Borkh.)重要栽培品种的亲缘关系,为苹果杂交育种亲本及组合的选配提供参考。【方法】用亲缘关系较近的金冠和秦冠筛选SSR和SRAP多态性引物,利用SSR和SRAP分子标记技术对37个苹果栽培品种进行遗传多样性和亲缘关系分析。【结果】筛选出了用于37个苹果主栽品种亲缘关系分析的10对SSR和10对SRAP引物,其分别产生56和64条扩增带,平均多态性比率分别为61.09%和70.8%。根据SSR+SRAP分析结果,37个苹果品种被聚为6大类。【结论】所选取的引物能够有效地揭示供试苹果品种的遗传多样性,并且苹果品种分类与传统系谱基本一致。%【Objective】 The study was done in order to select the proper parents in apple breeding.【Method】 The genetic diversity and genetic relationship of 37 apple cultivars were studied with the SSR and SRAP markers.【Result】 The results showed that 56 and 64 bands were obtained by SSR and SRAP markers amplified through 10 selected primers respectively.Polymorphic percentage was 61.09% and 70.8%.【Conclusion】 Based on the SSR+SRAP results,the selected primers were effective in revealing genetic diversity of the tested varieties,and the apple cultivars could be classified into the six groups,which were similar to the traditional classification.

  8. Influence Of Chemicals Of Arbolin Group On Branching Of Maiden Trees Of Three Apple Cultivars

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    Zhalnerchyk Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies realized in 2008 and 2009 proved that Neo Arbolin Extra (10 g GA4+7 and 50 g BA in 1 l of solution and Neo Arbolin (18 g GA4+7 and 18 g BA in 1 l of solution applied separately or with Algamino Plant (18% extract from seaweeds and 10% of potassium salt of amino acids stimulated the development of axillary buds on apple maiden trees of ‘Ligol’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Mutsu’ cultivars grafted on M.9 rootstock, thus enhancing the number of feathers longer than 10 cm. Preparations were applied twice, from the middle of June to July 9. Results differed between years, which may be related to different weather courses during the growing seasons. Neo Arbolin Extra at a concentration 30 ml·l−1 with adjuvant addition (Adpros 5 ml·l−1 gave the best results in branching of maiden trees of three examined cultivars. Trees treated with those preparations twice produced more than 10 feathers (> 10 cm in the year highly favoring maiden tree growth and more than 6 feathers in the less favorable year. Algamino Plant did not influence apple tree branching.

  9. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period.

  10. Isolation and characterization of multiple F-box genes linked to the S9- and S10-RNase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazuma; Moriya, Shigeki; Haji, Takashi; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Using 11 consensus primer pairs designed from S-linked F-box genes of apple and Japanese pear, 10 new F-box genes (MdFBX21 to 30) were isolated from the apple cultivar 'Spartan' (S(9)S(10)). MdFBX21 to 23 and MdFBX24 to 30 were completely linked to the S(9) -RNase and S(10-)RNase, respectively, and showed pollen-specific expression and S-haplotype-specific polymorphisms. Therefore, these 10 F-box genes are good candidates for the pollen determinant of self-incompatibility in apple. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of deduced amino acid sequences of MdFBX21 to 30 with those of 25 S-linked F-box genes previously isolated from apple showed that a deduced amino acid identity of greater than 88.0 % can be used as the tentative criterion to classify F-box genes into one type. Using this criterion, 31 of 35 F-box genes of apple were classified into 11 types (SFBB1-11). All types included F-box genes derived from S(3-) and S(9-)haplotypes, and seven types included F-box genes derived from S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes. Moreover, comparison of nucleotide sequences of S-RNases and multiple F-box genes among S(3-), S(9-), and S(10-)haplotypes suggested that F-box genes within each type showed high nucleotide identity regardless of the identity of the S-RNase. The large number of F-box genes as candidates for the pollen determinant and the high degree of conservation within each type are consistent with the collaborative non-self-recognition model reported for Petunia. These findings support that the collaborative non-self-recognition system also exists in apple.

  11. Effect of exogenous GA3 and its inhibitor paclobutrazol on floral formation, endogenous hormones, and flowering-associated genes in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songwen; Zhang, Dong; Fan, Sheng; Du, Lisha; Shen, Yawen; Xing, Libo; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old 'Fuji' apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction. Moreover, GA3 spraying significantly affected contents of all endogenous hormones and all the genes tested in at least one time points: the content of endogenous GAs was increased instantly and that of ZR was reduced at 44 days after fullbloom (DAF), which might constitute an unfavorable factor for flower formation; MdKO (ent-kaurene oxidase gene) and MdGA20ox (GA20 oxidase gene) were significantly repressed by a high level of GAs through the negative feedback regulation of GA; additionally, the MdSPLs (SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) in this study were all significantly repressed by GA3 but promoted by PAC; the expression of MdFT1/2 (FLOWERING LOCUS T), MdSOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1) and MdAP1 (APETALA1) in GA3-treated buds changed in the same way, and they were repressed at 44 DAF. We suppose that GA3 spraying disrupts the balance between ZR and GAs, and inhibits floral induction, probably by suppressing MdSPLs and the floral integrators in flower induction, which ultimately contributed to inhibiting flower formation.

  12. Conservação da maçã (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Braeburn Storage in controlled atmosphere of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica, Borkh. apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2000-04-01

    objective of evaluating the effect of the temperature and of different controlled atmosphere (CA storage regimes on the fruit qualities, and occurrence of physiological disorders of 'Braeburn' apples. The experimental design was the completely randomized with two replication. Fruits were stored in cold storage at 0 and 1ºC and in the following CA conditions: at temperature of 1ºC with 1,5kPaO2/4,0KkPaCO2, 1,5kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/ 1,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/2,0kPaCO2, 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2 and at temperature of 0ºC with 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2. The relative humidity was maintained around 96%. The evaluation was done after eight months of storage, at the opening of the chambers and after seven days shelf life (31ºC. At chambers openning, there was no significant difference in the flesh firmness, titratable acidity and total soluble solids (TSS among the CA conditions. However, after seven days in shelf life, the treatment with 1,0kPaO2/3,0kPaCO2 in the temperature of 0ºC maintained higher flesh firmness, titratable acidity and TSS, and did not exhibiting flesh breakdown. The CA storage, with 4,0kPa CO2 and cold storage caused flesh breakdown. Already the cork breakdown, was induced by 3,0 and 4,0kPa of CO2 associated with 1,5kPa of O2. The occurrence of rot was significantly higher in cold storage than in CA and more frequent al low CO2 (1kPa. The incidence of mealiness and scald could not be associated with any storage condition. Cold storage fruits presented unsatisfactory quality for marketing and consumption after 8 months of storage.

  13. Induction of stilbene phytoalexins in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and transgenic stilbene synthase-apple plants (Malus domestica) by a culture filtrate of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühmann, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Judith; Brunner, Philipp; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Products containing the epiphytic yeast Aureobasidium pullulans are commercially available and applied by fruit growers to prevent several fungal and bacterial diseases of fruit trees. The proposed beneficial mechanisms relate to limitations of space and nutrients for the pathogens in presence of the rapidly proliferating yeast cells. These explanations ignore the potential of yeasts to elicit the plant's defense. Our experiments aim at clarifying if an autoclaved and centrifuged suspension of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms. As a model system, the biosynthesis and accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins in callus and shoots of grapevine Vitis vinifera grown in vitro was used. Yeast application to the plant tissue stimulated stilbene biosynthesis, sometimes at the cost of flavonoids. The expression of the gene encoding stilbene synthase was enhanced and the enzyme showed higher activity while chalcone synthase activity and expression was reduced in some cases. An accumulation of stilbenes was also found in transgenic apple trees (Malus domestica cv. Holsteiner Cox) harboring the stilbene synthase-gene under control of its own promoter. These results clearly show that the application of A. pullulans may induce defense mechanisms of the treated plants.

  14. A genomics approach to understanding the role of auxin in apple (Malus x domestica fruit size control

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    Devoghalaere Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxin is an important phytohormone for fleshy fruit development, having been shown to be involved in the initial signal for fertilisation, fruit size through the control of cell division and cell expansion, and ripening related events. There is considerable knowledge of auxin-related genes, mostly from work in model species. With the apple genome now available, it is possible to carry out genomics studies on auxin-related genes to identify genes that may play roles in specific stages of apple fruit development. Results High amounts of auxin in the seed compared with the fruit cortex were observed in 'Royal Gala' apples, with amounts increasing through fruit development. Injection of exogenous auxin into developing apples at the start of cell expansion caused an increase in cell size. An expression analysis screen of auxin-related genes involved in auxin reception, homeostasis, and transcriptional regulation showed complex patterns of expression in each class of gene. Two mapping populations were phenotyped for fruit size over multiple seasons, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs were observed. One QTL mapped to a region containing an Auxin Response Factor (ARF106. This gene is expressed during cell division and cell expansion stages, consistent with a potential role in the control of fruit size. Conclusions The application of exogenous auxin to apples increased cell expansion, suggesting that endogenous auxin concentrations are at least one of the limiting factors controlling fruit size. The expression analysis of ARF106 linked to a strong QTL for fruit weight suggests that the auxin signal regulating fruit size could partially be modulated through the function of this gene. One class of gene (GH3 removes free auxin by conjugation to amino acids. The lower expression of these GH3 genes during rapid fruit expansion is consistent with the apple maximising auxin concentrations at this point.

  15. Apple (Malus x domestica) transcriptome in response to the compatible pathogen Erwinia amylovora and the incompatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration of Erwinia amylovora (Ea) into host leaves induces an oxidative burst similar to that observed during incompatible reactions associated with Hypersensitive Response (HR). However, the subsequent progressive development of necrosis in apple and other hosts is unlike an incompatible reac...

  16. TRANSGENIC EXPRESSION OF THE ERWINIA AMYLOVORA (FIRE BLIGHT) EFFECTOR PROTEIN EOP1 SUPRESSES HOST BASAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN MALUS (APPLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea) is the causative agent of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear. Like many other plant and animal bacterial pathogens Ea utilizes a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, effector protei...

  17. Estudio comparativo de la polinizacion natural y artificial de la manzana cultivar Ana (Malus sp en una región alta de Costa Rica.

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    Héctor J. Zúñiga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En una región alta de Costa Rica (1.500 m.s.n.m. se estudió el efecto de diferentes tipos de polinización sobre el manzano cultivar Ana (Malus sp.. Los tratamientos fueron: 1. Polinización manual con polen importado, de la variedad Jonathan, 2. Polinización manual con polen nacional, de la variedad Noyle o Quintanilla, 3. Polinización natural, y 4. Autopolinización. Los tratamientos de polinización manual superaron a los otros dos en el número de semillas por fruto, fructificación efectiva y rendimiento y produjeron 80% de los frutos con forma normal, mientras que los otros produjeron solo 10% de frutos normales. El polen importado presentó un 53% de germinación mientras que el polen nacional exhibió un 74%. A esto se atribuye que con polen nacional se obtuviera mayor número de semillas, fructificación y rendimiento. Se encontró que al aumentar  el número de semillas disminuyó la caída de frutos y la probabilidad de que estos sean normales aumenta, pero no se estableció relación alguna entre número de semillas y peso medio del fruto.

  18. Propagação vegetativa in vitro de cultivares de macieira In vitro propagation of apple cultivars in Brazil

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    Wilson Barbosa

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é resultado de uma série de experimentos desenvolvidos na Seção de Fruticultura de Clima Temperado do IAC, no sentido de adaptar e aperfeiçoar a técnica da micropropagação da macieira. Foram pesquisadas, para os cultivares Rainha e Gala e para as seleções IAC 1381-22, IAC 3881-8 e IAC 4881-11, as principais exigências hormonais, nas várias fases do crescimento e da proliferação dos meristemas, para a indução de raiz, efetivo enraizamento e desenvolvimento apical. Na primeira fase, os meristemas cresceram em meio de cultura constituído da solução salina de Murashige & Skoog com adição de tiamina 1,0 mg/litro, ácido nicotínico, 0,25 mg/litro, inositol 100 mg/litro, ágar 6,5 g/litro, sacarose 30 g/litro é 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP a 0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 e 15,0 µM. Na segunda fase, os propágulos foram repicados e colocados em um meio indutor de raiz, com a mesma constituição básica inicial, por cinco dias em ambiente escuro, substituindo-se, porém, a citocinina pela auxina ácido indolbutírico (AIB a 0, 1,0, 2,0, 4,0 e 8,0 µM. Na terceira e última fase, os propágulos foram transferidos em meio para o crescimento das raízes, mantendo-se ainda a mesma constituição básica, reduzindo-se, porém, a sacarose a 10 g/litro e excluindo-se totalmente os fitormônios. Os dados mostraram claramente, para os materiais utilizados, que os melhores índices de crescimento, proliferação e de enraizamento dos explantes, foram obtidos na faixa de 7,5 µM de BAP e 2,0 µM de AIS respectivamente. Os propágulos enraizados, após retirados das condições in vitro, foram plantados em vermiculita expandida, e aclimatizados em miniestufa por quinze dias, sendo finalmente transplantados para vasos com terra e mantidos em casa de vegetação.Experiments on apple micropropagation were carried out in the laboratories of the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, Brazil. The main hormonal requirements of shoots in the different

  19. A high-throughput method for genotyping S-RNase alleles in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new efficient screening tool for detection of S-alleles in apple. The protocol using general and multiplexed primers for PCR reaction and fragment detection on an automatized capillary DNA sequencer exposed a higher number of alleles than any previous studies. Analysis of alleles...... is made on basis of three individual fragment sizes making the allele interpretation highly accurate. The method was employed to genotype 432 Malus accessions and exposed 25 different S-alleles in a selection of Malus domestica cultivars of mainly Danish origin (402 accessions) as well as a selection...

  20. Differential response of cell-cycle and cell-expansion regulators to heat stress in apple (Malus domestica) fruitlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaishman, Moshe A; Peles, Yuval; Dahan, Yardena; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Frieman, Aviad; Naor, Amos

    2015-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most significant factors affecting physiological and biochemical aspects of fruit development. Current and progressing global warming is expected to change climate in the traditional deciduous fruit tree cultivation regions. In this study, 'Golden Delicious' trees, grown in a controlled environment or commercial orchard, were exposed to different periods of heat treatment. Early fruitlet development was documented by evaluating cell number, cell size and fruit diameter for 5-70 days after full bloom. Normal activities of molecular developmental and growth processes in apple fruitlets were disrupted under daytime air temperatures of 29°C and higher as a result of significant temporary declines in cell-production and cell-expansion rates, respectively. Expression screening of selected cell cycle and cell expansion genes revealed the influence of high temperature on genetic regulation of apple fruitlet development. Several core cell-cycle and cell-expansion genes were differentially expressed under high temperatures. While expression levels of B-type cyclin-dependent kinases and A- and B-type cyclins declined moderately in response to elevated temperatures, expression of several cell-cycle inhibitors, such as Mdwee1, Mdrbr and Mdkrps was sharply enhanced as the temperature rose, blocking the cell-cycle cascade at the G1/S and G2/M transition points. Moreover, expression of several expansin genes was associated with high temperatures, making them potentially useful as molecular platforms to enhance cell-expansion processes under high-temperature regimes. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance associated with genes controlling cell cycle and cell expansion may lead to the development of novel strategies for improving apple fruit productivity under global warming.

  1. Dating and functional characterization of duplicated genes in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh. by analyzing EST data

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    Sanzol Javier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication is central to genome evolution. In plants, genes can be duplicated through small-scale events and large-scale duplications often involving polyploidy. The apple belongs to the subtribe Pyrinae (Rosaceae, a diverse lineage that originated via allopolyploidization. Both small-scale duplications and polyploidy may have been important mechanisms shaping the genome of this species. Results This study evaluates the gene duplication and polyploidy history of the apple by characterizing duplicated genes in this species using EST data. Overall, 68% of the apple genes were clustered into families with a mean copy-number of 4.6. Analysis of the age distribution of gene duplications supported a continuous mode of small-scale duplications, plus two episodes of large-scale duplicates of vastly different ages. The youngest was consistent with the polyploid origin of the Pyrinae 37-48 MYBP, whereas the older may be related to γ-triplication; an ancient hexapolyploidization previously characterized in the four sequenced eurosid genomes and basal to the eurosid-asterid divergence. Duplicated genes were studied for functional diversification with an emphasis on young paralogs; those originated during or after the formation of the Pyrinae lineage. Unequal assignment of single-copy genes and gene families to Gene Ontology categories suggested functional bias in the pattern of gene retention of paralogs. Young paralogs related to signal transduction, metabolism, and energy pathways have been preferentially retained. Non-random retention of duplicated genes seems to have mediated the expansion of gene families, some of which may have substantially increased their members after the origin of the Pyrinae. The joint analysis of over-duplicated functional categories and phylogenies, allowed evaluation of the role of both polyploidy and small-scale duplications during this process. Finally, gene expression analysis indicated that 82

  2. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

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    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  3. 观赏海棠新品种'紫美人'%A New Malus Crabapple Cultivar 'Zimeiren'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈红香; 张杰; 晋恺娜; 孔云; 姚允聪

    2011-01-01

    '紫美人'是从'印第安魔力'果实种子实生后代中选育的新品种.树冠分枝形,树姿直立.一年生枝红褐色;幼叶橙红色,成熟叶深绿色;花蕾紫红色,盛开花粉红色;果实扁圆形或圆形,果面平滑,底色黄绿色,全面着紫红色,平均单果质量2.33 g.成花稳定,花期长,果实宿存,抗逆性较强,观赏价值较高.%'Zimeiren' is a new crabapple cultivar which is selected from the progeny of 'Indian Magic'.The cultivar has ramose crown and upright tree appearance.One year old branch is red-brown.Young leaf is salmon pink, mature leaf is dark green.Buds are amaranth, while blooming flowers are pink.The fruit is oval or round with good uniformity, and its surface is smooth with yellow-green background and amaranth cover.The average fruit weight is 2.33 g.Flowering is stable and long.The color of flower is bright.The cultivar has strong resistance and high ornamental value.

  4. Gene Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of SUPERMAN Family Proteins in Apple(Malus domestic Borkh.)%苹果SUPERMAN类蛋白家族的基因克隆与生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭勉; 任雪芹; 张文; 李皓; 朱元娣

    2012-01-01

    SUPERMAN family genes are important transcription factors in the plant growth and development. In order to understand physiological functions of SUPERMAN family genes in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), the MdLIFa (GenBank accession No. HM3 70493) and its promoter were cloned using RT-PCR and anchored PCR from apple cultivar Fuji (M. Domestica. Cv. Fuji). The 11 genes of SUPERMAN family in apple were cloned by PCR amplification using gene-specific primers. All 12 genes were designated as MdLIFa/MdLIFb (GenBank accession No. HQ260429), MdSUPla (HQ4W477)/MdSUPlb (HQ418478), MdSUP4(KQ418475) /MdSUPH (HQ418476), MdSUP5a (E.Q418469)/MdSUP13b (HQ418470), MdSUP9a(HQ4l8473)/MdSUP9b (HQ418474), and MdSUP5b (HQ418471)/MdSUP13a (HQ418472), located on chromosomes 11/3, 1/1, 4/12,5/13, 9/unknown, and 5/13, respectively. The similarity of deduce amino acid sequences of each pair of genes was higher than 86%. The subcellular localization of MdLlFa was transient expressed in the cell nucleus by the particle bombardment into onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Cis-acting elements, such as POLLEN1LELAT52 (AGAAA), GTGANTG10 (GTGA), ROOTMOTIFTAPOX1 (ATATT), DOFCOREZM (AAAG), and GT1 CONSENSUS (GRWAAW), were found in the upstream of MdLlFa. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MdLIFa/b were clustered in one group, together with MdSUP9a/9b and MdSUP5a/13b while MdSUP1aJb, MdSUP5b/MdSUP13, and MdSUP4/12 in another group. These genes were putatively involved in plant morphogenesis and floral organogenesis. The SUPERMA N family genes in apple are highly homologous in pair with diverse biological functions, which provide useful information for further gene characterization and genetic transformation.%SUPERMAN类基因是植物生长发育中的重要转录因子.为了揭示苹果SUPERMAN类蛋白家族的生理基因功能,本研究以富士苹果(Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Fuji)为试材,利用RT-PCR方法和锚定PCR方法克隆了MdLIFa(GenBank登录号HM370493)和启动子序列,利用特

  5. The MdTFL1 gene of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) reduces vegetative growth and generation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Peil, Andreas; Tränkner, Conny; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-10-01

    TFL1 is known as a floral repressor in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In apple there are two TFL1 homologs, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2. The MdTFL1-1 gene was silenced in transgenic clones expressing a hairpin gene construct of a 323 bp fragment of MdTFL1-1. The hairpin gene construct was transferred to three different apple genotypes. Of 22 transgenic clones, 21 showed a significant reduction in MdTFL1-1 mRNA expression. Precocious flowering was obtained for 20 clones, which flowered already during in vitro cultivation. Nineteen clones could successfully be transferred to the greenhouse where 18 of them flowered within a few weeks followed by the death or at least a strongly inhibited vegetative growth of the plant. Most of the transgenic flowers developed abnormally. Results obtained on greenhouse-grown plants of the transgenic clones and transgenic seedlings clearly demonstrated the major role of MdTFL1 genes in maintaining the vegetative growth as prerequisite for a perennial lifecycle. It was shown that MdTFL1 dsRNAi promotes a life history similar to annual plants. Preliminary results obtained from grafting experiments with non-transgenic scions grafted onto MdTFL1 dsRNAi transgenic rootstocks indicated that the flower-inducing signal obtained after silencing of MdTFL1 genes seems not to be graft-transmissible.

  6. Effect of heat treatments on biomolecular profile of Sardinian apple cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, M L; Gavagnin, M; Serra, M; Sanna, D; Palma, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; Fadda, A

    2013-01-01

    Postharvest heat treatments (hot water or hot air treatment) may be applied to horticultural crops to control fungal diseases, insect infestation and to reduce chilling injury in cultivars susceptible to low storage temperatures. The present study investigated the influence of hot water (53 degrees C for 60s) and hot air treatment (38 degrees C for 24h) applied to two typical Sardinian apple varieties, cvs. Miali and Caddina, on the composition of the lipophilic extracts of the peel as well as on the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of both peel and pulp. The lipophilic extracts of the peel of the two varieties were almost similar and resulted to be dominated by the presence of triterpenes being ursolic and oleanoic acids the main metabolites in both analysed fruits. The chemical analysis of the extracts obtained from the different heat-treated samples for each variety revealed no significant difference in the relative distribution of triterpene components with respect to untreated control samples. This strongly suggested that heat treatment does not affect the composition of terpene metabolite profile of the fruit peel. On the other hand, the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of the peel and the pulp of heat treated was significantly different from that of control In particular, on Caddina variety the antioxidant activity levels of the peel were consistently higher than in the pulp and were affected by storage conditions. Differently, on Miali variety the antioxidant activity of heat-treated samples was higher than control sample in both peel and pulp.

  7. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  8. The effects of ultrasonic pretreatment and structural changes during the osmotic dehydration of the 'Starking' apple (Malus domestica Borkh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa-Mendoza, M. E.; Fernandez-Munoz, J. L.; Arjona-Roman, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    During the osmotic dehydration (OD) of fruit, the cell membrane displays a high resistance to mass transfer, thereby reducing the dehydration rate. To reduce thermal damage to cell membranes, alternative methods have recently been introduced to reduce the initial moisture content and/or modify the structure of fruit tissue. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an ultrasound (US) pretreatment for OD on the effective diffusion coefficients and to observe the changes in the molecular structure of 'Starking' apple cubes by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) during a 3 h process using a 45 dregee Bx sucrose solution at 60 degree centigrade. In the pretreatment step, apple samples were immersed in an ultrasonic bath at 45 kHz for 20 min. The effective diffusion coefficients for water (Dew) and solids (Des) were calculated from the observed osmotic kinetics according to Fick's second law for the transient state. The solids coefficients were higher than the water coefficients in both processes due to the concentration difference (De = 7.7 × 10{sup -}9 and 9.7 × 10{sup -}9 m{sup 2} s{sup -}1 for ODUS). The structural changes were determined by FTIR by measuring the molecular vibration frequency for sucrose. The 1,500-900 cm{sup -}1 region of the infrared spectra was used to monitor the effect of sucrose concentration on fruit structure. We observed that the first bonds formed were C-H and C-O-C stretching (at 920 and 1,129 cm{sup -}1, respectively) in the sucrose skeleton and glycoside bonds among sucrose molecules. The water concentration affected the diffusion coefficient significantly due to its dependence on the physical structure of the food. (Author) 27 refs.

  9. Identification of SFBB-containing canonical and noncanonical SCF complexes in pollen of apple (Malus × domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai F Minamikawa

    Full Text Available Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI of Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae is controlled by a single polymorphic S locus. The S locus contains at least two genes, S-RNase and F-box protein encoding gene SLF/SFB/SFBB that control pistil and pollen specificity, respectively. Generally, the F-box protein forms an E3 ligase complex, SCF complex with Skp1, Cullin1 (CUL1 and Rbx1, however, in Petunia inflata, SBP1 (S-RNase binding protein1 was reported to play the role of Skp1 and Rbx1, and form an SCFSLF-like complex for ubiquitination of non-self S-RNases. On the other hand, in Petunia hybrida and Petunia inflata of Solanaceae, Prunus avium and Pyrus bretschneideri of Rosaceae, SSK1 (SLF-interacting Skp1-like protein1 is considered to form the SCFSLF/SFB complex. Here, we isolated pollen-expressed apple homologs of SSK1 and CUL1, and named MdSSK1, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B. MdSSK1 was preferentially expressed in pollen, but weakly in other organs analyzed, while, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B were almost equally expressed in all the organs analyzed. MdSSK1 transcript abundance was significantly (>100 times higher than that of MdSBP1. In vitro binding assays showed that MdSSK1 and MdSBP1 interacted with MdSFBB1-S9 and MdCUL1, and MdSFBB1-S9 interacted more strongly with MdSSK1 than with MdSBP1. The results suggest that both MdSSK1-containing SCFSFBB1 and MdSBP1-containing SCFSFBB1-like complexes function in pollen of apple, and the former plays a major role.

  10. Identification of SFBB-containing canonical and noncanonical SCF complexes in pollen of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Mai F; Koyano, Ruriko; Kikuchi, Shinji; Koba, Takato; Sassa, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) of Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae is controlled by a single polymorphic S locus. The S locus contains at least two genes, S-RNase and F-box protein encoding gene SLF/SFB/SFBB that control pistil and pollen specificity, respectively. Generally, the F-box protein forms an E3 ligase complex, SCF complex with Skp1, Cullin1 (CUL1) and Rbx1, however, in Petunia inflata, SBP1 (S-RNase binding protein1) was reported to play the role of Skp1 and Rbx1, and form an SCFSLF-like complex for ubiquitination of non-self S-RNases. On the other hand, in Petunia hybrida and Petunia inflata of Solanaceae, Prunus avium and Pyrus bretschneideri of Rosaceae, SSK1 (SLF-interacting Skp1-like protein1) is considered to form the SCFSLF/SFB complex. Here, we isolated pollen-expressed apple homologs of SSK1 and CUL1, and named MdSSK1, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B. MdSSK1 was preferentially expressed in pollen, but weakly in other organs analyzed, while, MdCUL1A and MdCUL1B were almost equally expressed in all the organs analyzed. MdSSK1 transcript abundance was significantly (>100 times) higher than that of MdSBP1. In vitro binding assays showed that MdSSK1 and MdSBP1 interacted with MdSFBB1-S9 and MdCUL1, and MdSFBB1-S9 interacted more strongly with MdSSK1 than with MdSBP1. The results suggest that both MdSSK1-containing SCFSFBB1 and MdSBP1-containing SCFSFBB1-like complexes function in pollen of apple, and the former plays a major role.

  11. Determination of Quantities of Host Protein after Infection with Erwinia amylovora of Apple, Pear And Quince Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Çetin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora is a destructive bacterial pathogen mainly on pears, apples and quinces from Rosaceae family. In this study, it was aimed determination of total protein amounts in different apple cultivars (Braeburn, Fuji, Gala and Golden, pear cultivars (Santa Maria and Williams and quince cultivars (Eşme and Ekmek in the infections of two virulent E. amylovora strains (Ea234-1 and Ea240-3 according as the time. It was taken leaf samples after leaf inoculation with E. amylovora (108 CFU ml-1 at 24th, 36th and 72nd hours. For verification of the infections, re-isolations were made from bacteria inoculated plants and the agent was identified as E. amylovora by biochemical, physiological and molecular tests. In determining the amounts of total protein and in the SDS-PAGE analyses were used Bradford and Laemmli methods, respectively, and absorbance values of protein extracts derived from the leaf samples taken, were obtained at 595 nm wavelength. According to the findings obtained; after infection of E. amylovora in the apple varieties comparing to controls, total protein concentrations at 24th hours increased and a decrease in the amount of 36th to 72nd hours and Braeburn has the highest protein content was determined. In the pear varieties, while total protein concentrations at 24th and 36th hours increased, a decrease in the amount of 72nd hour, and Santa Maria variety has the highest protein content was detected. In the quince varieties, total protein concentrations at 72th hour increased and Eşme variety has the highest protein content was identified. As a result of SDS-PAGE analysis, protein fractions which have different molecular weights were obtained. The protein bands were defined approximately 55-70 kDa and 35-55 kDa molecule weight on apple and quince varieties, respectively and also approx. 55-70 kDa in pear varieties.

  12. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolic Content and Mineral Composition of Different Fruit Tissue of Five Apple Cultivars Grown in Chile Determinación de la Capacidad Antioxidante, contenido de Fenoles totales y Composición Mineral de Diferentes Tejidos de Frutos de Cinco Variedades de Manzana cultivadas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henríquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apples (Malus domestica Borkh. have been identified as one of the main dietary sources of antioxidants, mainly phenolic compounds. These compounds vary in their composition and concentration, among cultivars and fruit tissues. In this research, the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau assay, antioxidant capacity (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, FRAP assay and mineral composition in three fruit tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit, of apple cultivars commonly used for dried apple production in Chile, were studied. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics (dry weight, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids content and color were also evaluated. The results indicated that the total phenolic content, the antioxidant capacity, and the mineral composition, of peel were substantially higher than those of whole fruit, and pulp for all the cultivars studied. Among cultivars, ‘Red Delicious’ apple peels have a significantly much higher content of total phenolic (11.6 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] g-1 FW and a higher FRAP (209.9 µmol Fe+2 g-1 FW. Additionally, a high correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in all the cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed, except in the apple pulp. On the other hand, the physical and chemical composition differed among cultivars and fruit tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, mineral composition, and physical and chemical characteristics vary considerably depending on the apple cultivars and fruit tissues analyzed.Las manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh. han sido identificadas como una de las principales fuentes de antioxidantes en la dieta, principalmente de compuestos fenólicos. Estos compuestos varían en su composición y concentración según el cultivar y el tejido del fruto. En esta investigación se determinó: el contenido de fenoles totales (ensayo de Folin-Ciocalteau, la capacidad

  13. The effects of sous-vide cooking parameters on texture and cell wall modifications in two apple cultivars: A response surface methodology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abel; Le Meurlay, Dominique; Lara, Isabel; Symoneaux, Ronan; Madieta, Emmanuel; Mehinagic, Emira

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of 'Mondial Gala' and 'Granny Smith' apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. 'Mondial Gala' fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than 'Granny Smith' apples. Pectin methylesterase activity levels in 'Mondial Gala' apples were enhanced at mild temperatures and pectins in this cultivar displayed a lower degree of methylation. Therefore, the establishment of calcium-mediated linkages between cell wall polymers might have been favoured in 'Mondial Gala' apples, thus reinforcing tissues and improving the preservation of textural attributes, in comparison to 'Granny Smith' samples.

  14. Impact of sulfur and vitamin C on the allergenicity of Mal d 2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Gorji; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Brunner, Richard; Gruber, Clemens; Hahn, Rainer; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Laimer, Margit

    2014-07-30

    Mal d 2 is a minor allergen from apple which shows a high conformational stability due to its eight conserved disulfide bridges. Chemical reduction of disulfide bridges and linearization of Mal d 2 lead to enhanced IgE reactivity in vitro and indicate a higher potential for allergenicity. Since food preservatives such as sulfur and vitamin C are reducing and denaturing agents, their influence on Mal d 2 allergenicity was verified by simulated food processing conditions. The immunoreactivity of purified Mal d 2 was investigated after different treatments in vitro and in vivo using IgG/IgE Western blotting, mediator-releasing cell assay, and skin prick and oral smear tests. The conformational changes of Mal d 2 upon addition of 1% and 5% vitamin C were also monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show no positive skin and oral smear test reactivity to native, heated, or vitamin C-treated purified Mal d 2. Furthermore, the results confirm that sulfur in combination with heat treatment can influence the structural integrity and thus the allergenicity of Mal d 2, while vitamin C is too weak as a reducing agent to change allergenicity.

  15. Valorization of Pomace Powder Obtained from Native Mexican Apple (Malus domestica var. rayada): Chemical, Techno-functional and Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Tapia, Angélica; Pérez-Chabela, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Álvarez, José Ángel; Fernández-López, Juana; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the work were to determine the chemical, techno-functional and antioxidant properties of native Mexican apple pomace powder (MAPP) obtained from cider industry. The proximate composition and the total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre content were determined, as well as the water holding (WHC), oil holding (OHC), swelling (SWC) capacities and the polyphenolic profile. For antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (DPPH, FIC and FRAP). The total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber content of MAPP was 70.91, 48.43 and 22.48 g/100 g, respectively. MAPP had a WHC, OHC and SWC of 4.2 g water/g sample, 1.69 g oil/g sample and 3.2 mL/g sample, respectively. Polyphenolic profile showed 10 flavonoid compounds identified mainly quercetin glycosides. MAPP showed good antioxidant activity with high correlation between total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The results obtained showed that MAPP could be considered a good source of bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  16. Calcium Forms,Subcelluar Distribution and Ultrastructure of Pulp Cells as Influenced by Calcium Deficiency in Apple (Malus pumila) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hui; ZHOU Wei

    2004-01-01

    Calcium in Red Fuji and Starkrimson apples during storage were fractionated by sequent extracting. Localization and distribution of calcium and influence of calcium nutrition on cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy combined with in situ precipitation of calcium with an improved method of potassium pyroantimonate technique. Results indicated that spraying calcium solution on surface of young fruits increased contents of calcium in all forms. During storage, contents of soluble calcium and pectic calcium declined and thosein calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium silicate increased. Calcium contents of Red Fuji in all forms were higher than those of Starkrimson, indicating that calcium accumulating capability of Red Fuji fruits preceded that of Starkrimson. Under transmission electron microscopy, calcium antimonite precipitates (CaAP) was mainly distributed in cell wall, tonoplast, nuclear membrane and nucleoplasm,much more CaAP deposited in vacuole. Calcium deficiency during storage leads to decrease of CaAP in locations mentioned above, disappearance of compartmentation, and entrance of CaAP to cytoplasm. Transformation from soluble calcium and pectic calcium to calcium phosphate,oxalate and damages of biomembranes structuraly and functionally resulted from calcium deficiency during storage were the crucial causation of physiological disorder.

  17. Study on Characteristics of Calcium Uptake by Young Fruit of Apple (Malus pumila) and Its Regulation by Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Field trial, pot experiment with 45Ca tracer, plant analysis were used to investigate the characteristics of calcium uptake by young fruit of apple and its regulation by IAA, GA and NAA. The results indicated that calcium should be applied directly on the surface of young fruits because calcium applied on leaves could be hardly transfered to fruits. The proper Ca applying period was the first month of young fruits formation, and the proper concentration of CaCl2 applied was 0. 5%. Applying Ca directly on the surface of young fruits could increase the weight and quality of fruits. The process of transfering Ca2+ from fruit surface into pulp tissue could be accelerated by IAA, GA or NAA, which also led to an increment on 2% HOAc extractable Ca. Meanwhile, the Ca existed in the stalk and leaves could be strongly transported into fruits by applying IAA on the fruit surface, resulting in too much accumulation of Ca in fruit and bad quality of fruit, while no such sighs were observed with GA or NAA.

  18. Genomic structure and sequence polymorphism of E,E-alphafarnesene synthase gene in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Primer pairs were designed to amplify the genomic DNA sequence of the alpha-farnesene synthase (AFS) gene by PCR.The PCR products were sequenced,spliced and compared to Cdna sequences in the GenBank (accession No.AY182241).The genomic sequence and intron-exon organization of the AFS gene were thus obtained.The AFS genomic sequence has been registered in the GenBank (accession No.DQ901739).It has 6 introns and 7 exons,encoding a protein of 576 amino acids.The sizes of the 6 introns were 108 bp,113 bp,>1000 bp,125 bp,220 bp and 88 bp,and their phases were 0,1,2,2,0,0,respectively.The sizes of the deduced amino acids of the 7 exons were 57,89,127,73,48,83 and 99,respectively.The AFS protein contained three motifs:the RR(X8)W motif encoded by a sequence in exon 1,and the RxR motif and DDxxD motif encoded by two sequences in exon 4.After comparing the AFS genomic sequence (accession No.DQ901739) to the Cdna sequence (accession No.AY523409) in the GenBank,it was found that there were 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms between the two sequences,four of which caused mutations at the amino acid level.Interestingly,one amino acid mutation (291R→G) was found in the RxR motif,and further investigation is needed to determine whether the alpha-farnesene synthesis ability and superficial scald susceptibility of apples are influenced by this amino acid mutation and other mutations.

  19. Forecasting Fruit Diameter of ‘Fuji’Apples (Malus pumila Mill )at Harvest During Early Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Guo-qing; YU Ke-shun; LI Shao-hua; LIU Guo-jie; MENG Zhao-qing; ZHU Jun

    2002-01-01

    The fruit growth evolution on 35 tagged‘Fuji'apple trees was studied in three successive growing seasons from 1994 to 1996 to explore a new method for forecasting the fruit diameter at harvest during early growing season. Daily fruit growth rate (DFGR) (based on fruit diameter, fruit dry weight, fruit fresh weight, or fruit volume) during the early growing season, 30 - 50 d after full bloom (DAFB), or during midgrowing season (60 - 120 DAFB), displayed a strong positive linear correlation with the fruit diameter at harvest, and the correlation between the fruit diameter at harvest and DFGR during early and mid-growing season was much better than that between the fruit diameter at harvest and either fruit diameter at a given time or the relative growth rate during early or mid-growing season. The fruit diameters obtained in the field were compared with the mean fruit diameters estimated based on different criteria, such as DFGRs (based on fruit diameter, fruit dry weight, fruit fresh weight, or fruit volume) during early and mid-growing season, and fruit diameter at 120 DAFB. Results showed that daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB was the best criterion for forecasting fruit diameter at harvest. There was no significant difference in mean fruit diameter between the value measured in the field at harvest and that estimated based on the daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB (equations for forecasting: y = 153. 571 x + 73. 492) either for the individual trees or for different vigor groups of trees. Daily growth rate of fruit diameter during 30 - 50 DAFB can be used as the basis for forecasting fruit diameter at harvest.

  20. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  1. Genome-Wide Sequence Variation Identification and Floral-Associated Trait Comparisons Based on the Re-sequencing of the 'Nagafu No. 2' and 'Qinguan' Varieties of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Song, Xiaomin; Weng, Kai; Shen, Yawen; Li, Youmei; Zhao, Caiping; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a commercially important fruit worldwide. Detailed information on genomic DNA polymorphisms, which are important for understanding phenotypic traits, is lacking for the apple. We re-sequenced two elite apple varieties, 'Nagafu No. 2' and 'Qinguan,' which have different characteristics. We identified many genomic variations, including 2,771,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 82,663 structural variations (SVs), and 1,572,803 insertion/deletions (INDELs) in 'Nagafu No. 2' and 2,262,888 SNPs, 63,764 SVs, and 1,294,060 INDELs in 'Qinguan.' The 'SNP,' 'INDEL,' and 'SV' distributions were non-random, with variation-rich or -poor regions throughout the genomes. In 'Nagafu No. 2' and 'Qinguan' there were 171,520 and 147,090 non-synonymous SNPs spanning 23,111 and 21,400 genes, respectively; 3,963 and 3,196 SVs in 3,431 and 2,815 genes, respectively; and 1,834 and 1,451 INDELs in 1,681 and 1,345 genes, respectively. Genetic linkage maps of 190 flowering genes associated with multiple flowering pathways in 'Nagafu No. 2,' 'Qinguan,' and 'Golden Delicious,' identified complex regulatory mechanisms involved in floral induction, flower bud formation, and flowering characteristics, which might reflect the genetic variation of the flowering genes. Expression profiling of key flowering genes in buds and leaves suggested that the photoperiod and autonomous flowering pathways are major contributors to the different floral-associated traits between 'Nagafu No. 2' and 'Qinguan.' The genome variation data provided a foundation for the further exploration of apple diversity and gene-phenotype relationships, and for future research on molecular breeding to improve apple and related species.

  2. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; M.Cooney, Janine; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; A.Laing, William

    2016-01-01

    Summary Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane‐, oleanane‐, and lupane‐type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology‐based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with co...

  3. Genotyping of pedigreed apple breeding material with a genome covering set of SSRs: Trueness to type of cultivars and their parentages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, K.M.; Patocchi, A.; Rezzonico, F.; Mathis-Jeanneteau, F.; Durel, C.E.; Fernandez-Fernandez, F.; Boudichevskaia, A.; Dunemann, F.; Stankiewicz-Kosyl, M.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Komjanc, M.; Lateur, M.; Madduri, M.; Noordijk, Y.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2011-01-01

    Apple cultivars and breeding lines that represent much of the diversity currently present in major European breeding programmes and are genetically related by their pedigree were examined for the trueness of their identity and parentage by consistency in marker scores using a genome-covering set of

  4. Investigation of wild species potential to increase genetic diversity useful for apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of testing new apple cultivars and the possibility to induce valuable traits is directly dependent on the availability of sufficient genetic diversity, while apple breeding has narrowed the genetic ground of commercial cultivars. Wild species were studied in regard to their influence upon progenies and their capacity to enlarge apple genetic diversity. The interspecific seedlings were framed in five biparental mating (paired crosses, in which Malus species were crossed with different cultivars, obtaining half-sib families. The number of F1 progenies per combination varied from 31 (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda up to 142 (Reinette Baumann × M. floribunda, with a total of 1650 hybrids F1. The influences upon vigour and juvenile period and possible correlation among fruit size and taste were analyzed. Juvenile period varied from 6.00 (M. zumi × Jonathan to 9.31 years (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda. Data based on correlation coefficient illustrated that the fructification year was not influenced by the vigour of trees. The highest value of correlation for fruit’s size and taste was obtained among M. coronaria hybrids. This result might suggest that once the fruit are larger, there is a high chance the taste is also more appreciative and fruit quality for mouth feels increase. Depending on the parental formula, additive effects may be inferior compared to genetic effects of dominance and epistasis. Although M. zumi and M. floribunda achieved the same genetic gain (0.31, M. zumi had a higher expected selection response for fruit size. The difficulty of obtaining seedlings with tasty and large fruit when wild Malus species are used as genitors is resulting from the values of expected selection response data, but in the same time results confirm that wild Malus species are suitable resources for genetic variability, both for dessert and ornamental apple cultivars.

  5. Apple peels, from seven cultivars, have lipase-inhibitory activity and contain numerous ursenoic acids as identified by LC-ESI-QTOF-HRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, Tony K; Hudault, Sébastien; Lunken, Rona C M; Christeller, John T

    2012-01-11

    Apple peel contains numerous phytochemicals, many of which show bioactivity. This study investigated the identity of triterpenoid compounds contained in ethanolic extracts of peel from seven apple cultivars. Using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-HRMS, accurate mass information was obtained for 43 compounds, and chemical identity was inferred from the calculated elemental composition, fragment masses, ms/ms, and a limited set of authentic standards. Compounds were identified as triterpene acids and tentatively identified as ursenoic (or oleanoic) acid derivatives containing hydroxyl, oxo, and coumaroyloxy groups. These apple skin extracts exhibited lipase-inhibitory activity, which may be linked to the ursenoic acid content. Furthermore, both triterpene content and lipase-inhibitory activity varied by cultivar.

  6. Morfogênese in vitro de brotos de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh. a partir de fragmentos delgados de folhas In vitro morphogenesis of shoots of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh. Starting from thin fragments of leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Cristiano Erig

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O pré-requisito para se obter sucesso na transformação genética de plantas, e também para a multiplicação rápida do genótipo modificado pela micropropagação, é um protocolo de regeneração eficiente. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar a expressão do potencial morfogenético de fragmentos delgados de folhas de macieira e otimizar um protocolo de regeneração visando futuros trabalhos de transformação genética. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 6, com três cultivares de macieira (Galaxy, Maxigala e Mastergala, dois tipos de explantes (fragmentos finos de folhas cortados no sentido transversal e longitudinal, e seis concentrações de thidiazuron (TDZ no meio de cultura (0; 4,54; 9,08; 13,62; 18,16 e 22,7 µM, totalizando 36 tratamentos. Os sais e vitaminas do meio MS foram acrescidos de mio-inositol (100 mg.L-1, sacarose (30 g.L-1, ágar (6 g.L-1 e adicionados de 1,6 µM ácido naftalenoacético (ANA. Foram utilizados frascos com capacidade para 150 mL com 6 mL de meio de cultura. Os explantes foram obtidos de plantas cultivadas in vitro, em fase de multiplicação, 45 dias após a repicagem, e se constituíram de finos fragmentos da parte mediana de folhas, cortados no sentido transversal (comprimento de 8 a 10 mm ou longitudinal (comprimento de 10 a 12 mm, ambos com largura aproximada de 1 mm. A porcentagem de regeneração, a intensidade de formação de calo e o número de brotos por explante foram avaliados aos 45 dias de cultivo. A partir dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que a expressão do potencial morfogenético dos fragmentos delgados de folhas cortados no sentido transversal é maior do que o daqueles cortados no sentido longitudinal, e o seu cultivo em meio de cultura com 4,54 µM de TDZ, propicia, simultaneamente, elevada porcentagem de regeneração, maior número de brotos e menor intensidade de calo.The prerequisite to obtain success in the

  7. Identification of genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes in 'Red Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.cv.Red) and their expression and melatonin production during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiong; Wang, Lin; Tan, Dun-Xian; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Hao; Li, Qing-Tian; Zuo, Bi-Xiao; Kong, Jin

    2013-11-01

    Melatonin is present in many edible fruits; however, the presence of melatonin in apple has not previously been reported. In this study, the genes for melatonin synthetic enzymes including tryptophan decarboxylase, tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase were identified in 'Red Fuji' apple. Each gene has several homologous genes. Sequence analysis shows that these genes have little homology with those of animals and they only have limited homology with known genes of rice melatonin synthetic enzymes. Multiple origins of melatonin synthetic genes during the evolution are expected. The expression of these genes is fully coordinated with melatonin production in apple development. Melatonin levels in apple exhibit an inverse relationship with the content of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Two major melatonin synthetic peaks appeared on July 17 and on October 8 in both unbagged and bagged apple samples. At the periods mentioned above, apples experienced rapid expansion and increased respiration. These episodes significantly elevate reactive oxygen species production in the apple. Current data further confirmed that melatonin produced in apple was used to neutralize the toxic oxidants and protect the developing apple against oxidative stress.

  8. Effect of 'Gutingen V' as an intensive training system on agromorphological characters of some apple cultivars in Karaj region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadashpour Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available V-shape systems represent an efficient and popular option to increase yields and fruit quality in fruit trees. Hence, this paper attempts to compare some vegetative and yield characteristics of five apple cultivars grown at horticultural research station in Karaj, Iran. The selected apple cultivars were included: 'Golab-kohans' (Iranian cultivar, 'Fuji', 'Gala', 'Starking' and 'Delbar estival' (commercial foreign cultivars that were grafted on M.9 rootstock which were trained in a V system. All of these trees were planted in winter 2005. The time of irrigation started from the second experimental year after planting and the method of irrigation was drip irrigation system. Results showed that the 'Golab-kohans' had the most tree height (278.63 cm, trunk cross sectional area (7.308 cm2 and mean shoot length (100.58 cm. Also 'Delbar estival' had the most yield (0.98 kg, yield efficiency (0.550 kg/cm2. Consistently, Results revealed that among the investigated cultivars, 'Delbar estival' can be introduced as a prone and productive cultivar for V system in Karaj's climatic conditions.

  9. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  10. Role of the genes Md-ACO1 and Md-ACS1 in ethylene production and shelf life of apple (Malus domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Stella, S.; Weg, van de W.E.; Guerra, W.; Cecchinel, M.; Dallavia, J.; Koller, B.; Sansavini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Shelf life determines the economic life time of mature apples, which can be either freshly harvested or stored. Good shelf life is highly associated with a slow decrease of fruit firmness at room temperature. Apple is a climacteric fruit, in which loss of firmness seems to be physiologically related

  11. Life history of hawthorn spider mite Amphitetranychus viennensis (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on various apple cultivars and at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Ismail

    2003-01-01

    Development duration and reproduction rate of hawthorn spider mite Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher) were carried out on five different apple cultivars (Amasya (local cultivar), Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Starking Delicious and Starkrimson Delicious) at 25 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% RH and 16:8 L:D. In addition, the same parameters were determined on Golden Delicious leaves at three constant temperatures (20, 30 and 35 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% RH and 16:8 L:D) in the laboratory. A. viennensis showed a better performance on Golden Delicious than on the other apple cultivars. This was mainly due to a short development time (10.7 days), high daily egg production (5.2 eggs/female/day) and early reproduction peak. The highest intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) was determined on the variety Golden Delicious (rm = 0.247/day), while the lowest one was observed on the variety Starking Delicious (rm = 0.215/day). The developmental periods of A. viennensis varied from 7.4 to 18.8 days at 35 and 20 degrees C for females, while it varied from 7.9 to 17.2 days at 30 and 20 degrees C for males. The development threshold of the eggs and pre-adult stages were 9.72 and 9.07 degrees C, total effective temperature was 72.99 and 185.18 degree-days, respectively. The mean generation time (To) of the population ranged from 16.13 days at 30 degrees C to 29.15 days at 20 degrees C. The net reproductive rate (R0) increased from 54.33 female/female at 20 degrees C to 78.34 female/female at 25 degrees C, and decreased to 75.71 female/female at 30 degrees C. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was reached at 30 C (rm = 0.268/day), the lowest one at 20 degrees C (rm = 0.136/day).

  12. Viabilidade do pólen e desenvolvimento do tubo polínico em macieira (Malus spp. Germination of pollen and the development of pollen tubes in apple (Malus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, estudaram-se características associadas à germinação in vitro e ao desenvolvimento in vivo do tubo polínico em seis variedades-copa e de porta-enxertos de macieira como subsídios para o estabelecimento de programas de melhoramento genético. Utilizou-se de pólen de seis cultivares de macieira inoculado em meio de cultura com ágar (10 g.L-1 em água destilada, combinados com concentrações de sacarose (0; 10; 20; 30; 40 e 50% e ácido bórico (0 e 40 mg.L-1. Para o estudo do desenvolvimento do tubo polínico, realizou-se coleta das flores em quatro períodos (6; 12; 24 e 48 horas após as polinizações em M9 x Marubakaido e a autofecundação em M9, sendo os tubos polínicos analisados em coloração de azul de anilina acidificada/carmim acético e em fluorescência. A sacarose, em concentrações entre 15% a 25%, pode ser empregada com sucesso para a germinação in vitro de grãos de pólen da macieira. O ácido bórico não teve efeito positivo para esta característica. Na ausência do ácido bórico e na presença de 15% de sacarose, observaram-se os maiores percentuais de germinação: Fuji (51,1%, Imperatriz (31,7%, M.9 (20,8%, Catarina (19,2%, Gala (13,7% e Marubakaido (6,1%. Quanto ao desenvolvimento do tubo polínico, com 12 horas da polinização, iniciou-se a germinação no pólen, no estigma, no cruzamento M.9 x Marubakaido, e após 24 horas da polinização observou-se 83% de germinação. As técnicas de coloração com azul de anilina acidificada com carmim acético e de visualização em fluorescência foram eficientes na visualização e coloração dos grãos de pólen e do desenvolvimento dos tubos polínicos.In the present work it was studied features associated to the germination of pollen and the development of pollen tubes in six apple varieties as subsidies for the establishment of genetic improvement programs. Pollen grains were inoculated in culture medium with distilled water, agar (10

  13. Rentabilidade da cultura da macieira cultivar Gala em duas densidades de plantio Investment return for Gala apple cultivar using two planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leomar Kreuz

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute, com base em um estudo de caso, a viabilidade econômica de ampliar a densidade de plantio de macieiras cultivar Gala de 1.000 plantas por hectare para 3.378 plantas por hectare. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa interna de retorno não variou (próxima de 1,61% ao mês, independentemente da densidade utilizada, o que sugere o uso da menor densidade de plantio, uma vez que esta requer um menor volume de recursos financeiros. O custo unitário de produção também se mantém praticamente o mesmo ao se variar a densidade de plantio.The present study was carried out to analyse economic performances of Gala apple orchards at different planting densities. Two orchard densities (1,000 and 3,378 plants/ha were evaluated in an orchard near Fraiburgo, SC, Brazil. The use of both planting densities resulted in the same internal rate of return (approximately 1.6% a month. It is suggested to use a lower planting system, once it requires less capital. Unit cost also remained the same for both planting densities used in this study.

  14. A Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Chemometric Approach to Improve Apple Fruit Quality Management: A Case Study on the Cultivars "Cripps Pink" and "Braeburn".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstecken, Daniela; Panarese, Alessia; Robatscher, Peter; Huck, Christian W; Zanella, Angelo; Oberhuber, Michael

    2015-07-24

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the wavelength range of 1000-2500 nm for predicting quality parameters such as total soluble solids (TSS), acidity (TA), firmness, and individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and xylose) for two cultivars of apples ("Braeburn" and "Cripps Pink") was studied during the pre- and post-storage periods. Simultaneously, a qualitative investigation on the capability of NIRS to discriminate varieties, harvest dates, storage periods and fruit inhomogeneity was carried out. In order to generate a sample set with high variability within the most relevant apple quality traits, three different harvest time points in combination with five different storage periods were chosen, and the evolution of important quality parameters was followed both with NIRS and wet chemical methods. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA) a differentiation between the two cultivars, freshly harvested vs. long-term stored apples and, notably, between the sun-exposed vs. shaded side of apples could be found. For the determination of quality parameters effective prediction models for titratable acid (TA) and individual sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose by using partial least square (PLS) regression have been developed. Our results complement earlier reports, highlighting the versatility of NIRS as a fast, non-invasive method for quantitative and qualitative studies on apples.

  15. A Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS and Chemometric Approach to Improve Apple Fruit Quality Management: A Case Study on the Cultivars “Cripps Pink” and “Braeburn”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Eisenstecken

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in the wavelength range of 1000–2500 nm for predicting quality parameters such as total soluble solids (TSS, acidity (TA, firmness, and individual sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and xylose for two cultivars of apples (“Braeburn” and “Cripps Pink” was studied during the pre- and post-storage periods. Simultaneously, a qualitative investigation on the capability of NIRS to discriminate varieties, harvest dates, storage periods and fruit inhomogeneity was carried out. In order to generate a sample set with high variability within the most relevant apple quality traits, three different harvest time points in combination with five different storage periods were chosen, and the evolution of important quality parameters was followed both with NIRS and wet chemical methods. By applying a principal component analysis (PCA a differentiation between the two cultivars, freshly harvested vs. long-term stored apples and, notably, between the sun-exposed vs. shaded side of apples could be found. For the determination of quality parameters effective prediction models for titratable acid (TA and individual sugars such as fructose, glucose and sucrose by using partial least square (PLS regression have been developed. Our results complement earlier reports, highlighting the versatility of NIRS as a fast, non-invasive method for quantitative and qualitative studies on apples.

  16. 苹果钙依赖型蛋白激酶基因家族的进化研究%Evolution of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase Gene Family in Apple (Malus domestica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 尹欢; 梁英海; 蔡斌

    2013-01-01

    The 26 characterized Calcium -dependent Protein Kinase ( CDPK) genes were encoded from the genome of apple ( Malus domestica) .The similarities and differences among CDPK members were acquired by comparison of gene structure and do-main organization .Through the analysis of third -class structure of protein , the mutation of apple CDPK at key locus was obtained , which might cause major differences in auto -inhibition and activation of CDPK structure.The phylogenetic tree of the members of apple CDPK was analyzed , which got the origin of the 26 CDPKs and 21 amplifications .The preliminary expression of CDPK in ap-ple was understood by EST data .The complex evolutionary history of perfect apple CDPK members laid the foundation on carrying out the validation of functional contact and gene utilization .%在全基因组水平挖掘了26个苹果的CDPK基因,并通过基因结构和结构域组织的比较得到各成员之间的异同点,再通过蛋白质三级结构的分析,获得了苹果CDPK在重要的关键位点的突变,而这可能引起结构的自抑制和激活的重大差别。结合多个物种CDPK的挖掘,并与苹果CDPK各成员建立的系统发育树进行分析,得到了苹果26个CDPK的起源和21次扩增历史。借助于苹果CDPK表达的EST数据了解了苹果CDPK的初步表达情况,这些完善的苹果CDPK成员间复杂的进化历史对于开展后续验证成员间彼此的功能联系以及基因的利用奠定了基础。

  17. Advances in Apple Transformation Technology to Confer Resistance to Fungal Diseases in Apple Crops: A Chilean Perspective Avances de la Tecnología de Transformación del Manzano para Conferir Resistencia a Enfermedades Fungosas en su Cultivo: Una Perspectiva Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Polanco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. is one of the most consumed fruit in the world. Genetic transformation is a key process to sustain this demand by permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as the development of new cultivars resistant to pests, diseases, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. This review summarizes the advances of genetic engineering applied to the development of resistant apple cultivars to fungus disease, with particular attention in the generation of apples resistant to Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, the main phytosanitary problem that affects apple crops in Chile.La manzana (Malus domestica Borkh. es una de las frutas más consumidas en el mundo. La transformación genética es un proceso clave para sustentar esta demanda, permitiendo el mejoramiento potencial de los cultivares existentes, así como el desarrollo de nuevas variedades resistentes a plagas, enfermedades y problemas de almacenamiento que se originan en las zonas de producción más importantes. Esta revisión resume los avances de la ingeniería genética aplicada al desarrollo de variedades de manzana resistentes a enfermedades fungosas, con especial atención en la generación de manzanas resistentes a Venturia inaequalis (Cooke G.Winter, el principal problema fitosanitario que afecta a los cultivos de manzana en Chile.

  18. Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavan-3-ols in Dry Cider of Both Fuji and Rails Apples (Malus pumila Mill. )%苹果酒中酚酸、黄烷-3-醇的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志奇; 王秀芹; 战吉宬; 黄卫东

    2012-01-01

    The fresh of Ralls apples (Malus pumila Mill. ) , Fuji and apple cider were selected as the test mate- rials. The contents of phenolic compounds in apple juice and cider were determined by HPLC. The result indicated that there were 4 phenolic acids ( Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid) and 2 fla- van-3-ols ( (-)-epicatechin and ( + )-catechin) in apples and ciders. Contents of phenolic compounds in different varieties of apple juice and apple cider are significantly different. The total contents of phenolic compounds in Rails apples and cider from Ralls apples were higher than that from the other two. The most important phenolic compounds were Chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin. The flavan-3-ols with highest content was (-)-Epicatechin. The result in- dicated that the contents of all the phenolic compounds increased obviously during the fermentation, and phenolic compounds in ciders were more than that in apples. Contents showed an increasing trend of S-type. The increasing trend was first flat and then faster and then fiat.%以小国光(Rails)和富士(Fuji)及其所酿制的新鲜苹果酒为试验材料,采用反相高效液相色谱法测定分析苹果原汁、发酵中酒样和苹果成品酒中11种酚酸、5种黄烷-3-醇的含量。结果表明:苹果和苹果酒中存在4种酚酸(原儿茶酸、绿原酸、咖啡酸、对-香豆酸)、2种黄烷-3-醇(儿茶素和表儿茶素);不同品种的苹果原汁和苹果成品酒中酚类物质的含量都存在显著差异。其中,小国光苹果和小国光苹果酒中的酚类物质总含量较高;对于每个品种,绿原酸都是最主要的酚酸类物质,含量最高的黄烷-3-醇类物质都是表儿茶素。随着发酵过程的进行,苹果酒中酚类物质的含量有不同程度的增加。其增加趋势为s型曲线,即先平缓再较快再平缓。

  19. Effect of gala apples (Malus domestica Borkh on lipidemia of hyperlipidemic rats Efeito da maçã gala (Malus domestica Borkh na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A healthy life style and a balanced diet, associated with a high fruit and vegetable intake, are linked to good health and the prevention of diseases. Apples contain bioactive compounds that help in the prevention and control of hyperlipidemia. One of the Public Health concerns in Brazil is to reduce cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of Gala apples and to study the effect of their consumption on weight gain, food intake, serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides, hepatic cholesterol and fecal cholesterol in male albino Wistar rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. Six animals were utilized for each treatment (control, 5, 15 and 25% apple diet, during 30 and 60 days. This study showed that one apple (200 g can provide 14.5% of recommended total fiber and 55% of recommended vitamin C, besides supplying considerable quantities of phenolic compounds (0.38 g.100 g-1 and tannins (0.16 g.100 g-1. All animals showed a non-significant reduction in their weight gain and food intake with an increase in the concentration of apple in the diets. At the end of 30 days, all of the diets provided a significant reduction in the levels of triglycerides compared to the control group. The 15 and 25% apple diets showed significant reductions in the serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C and an increase in the level of fecal cholesterol in relation to the control group. The 25% apple diet provided a significant reduction in the hepatic cholesterol levels compared to the control group. After 60 days, the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides in rats fed with 5, 15 and 25% apple diets were similar to the control group. This probably happened due to a revertion of the process. These results show the importance of Gala apples in the control of hyperlipidemia in rats. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits, including apples, associated to a healthy life

  20. HPLC Determination and FT-MIR Prediction of Sugars from Juices of Different Apple Cultivars during Fruits Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andruţa E. MUREȘAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual sugars were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in samples of apple juices obtained from the fruits of ‘Jonathan’, ‘Starkrimson’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ cultivars. Samples were harvested from the inside and the periphery of the crown, at different periods during fruits growth, from 7 to 144 days after full bloom (DAFB. Values from 0.42 to 14.33%, 0.29 to 4.06% and 0 to 4.28% were determined for fructose, glucose and sucrose, respectively. The values of fructose and glucose have increased significantly (p<0.05, starting with the seventh DAFB, regardless of the studied cultivar, while sucrose increased slowly at the beginning and then faster starting 65 DAFB. Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR analysis confirmed the differences between juice samples, the region 900-1500 cm-1 being the most specific to sugars signals. FT-MIR coupled to partial least squares (PLS calibration models for predicting individual sugars of apple juices were developed. The optimal regions and pre-treatments of the spectra were 900-1500 cm-1 and Savitzky Golay first derivative (d1 for fructose, 900-1200 cm-1 and d2 for glucose and 900-1200 cm-1 and standard normal variate for sucrose. In cross-validation, the PLS calibration models showed very good performance for fructose (Rcval2=0.95; standard error of cross-validation (SECV =0.907 and acceptable for glucose (Rcval2=0.85; SECV=0.424, while for sucrose showed only satisfactory performance (Rcval2=0.75; SECV=0.561. For practical relevance, the FT-MIR predicted values were compared against the HPLC determined reference values in external validations tests. The best results were achieved for fructose (Rp2=0.94; RPD=4.9, while glucose (Rp2=0.84; RPD=2.61 and sucrose (Rp2=0.7; RPD=2.08 models reached satisfactory values.

  1. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  2. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of the cystatin gene family in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Wang, Suncai; Liang, Dong; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2014-06-01

    Cystatins or phytocystatins (PhyCys) comprise a family of plant-specific inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Such inhibitors are thought to be involved in the regulation of several endogenous processes as well as defense against biotic or abiotic stresses. However, information about this family is limited in apple. We identified 26 PhyCys genes within the entire apple genome. They were clustered into three distinct groups distributed across several chromosomes. All of their putative proteins contained one or two typical cystatin domains, which shared the characteristic motifs of PhyCys. Eight selected genes displayed differential expression patterns in various tissues. Moreover, their transcript levels were also up-regulated significantly in leaves during maturation, senescence or in response to treatment with one or more abiotic stresses. Our results indicated that members of this family may function in tissue development, leaf senescence, and adaptation to adverse environments in apple.

  3. In vitro morphogenetic response of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. and pear (Pyrus communis L. to the elevated levels of copper and myo-inositol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafail S. Toma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevated levels of copper and myo-inositol in the MS medium were demonstrated to enhance culture growth and morphogenetic response of apple and pear explants. The results revealed that the highest number of branches per explant (2.80 for apple was obtained from the levels of 0.0+ 100 and 0.050+400 mg/l of both copper and myo-inositol, respectively (C1M2 and C4M4, while for pear 3.40 branches per explant were achieved from the same treatment. The mean length of branches was significantly lower in the case of the control treatment (the absence of copper and inositol. The highest number of leaves per explant (29.73 and 29.80 for both apple and pear, respectively, was recorded for treatment C4M4 (0.050+ 400 mg/l of both copper and myo-inositol, respectively. At the rooting stage, the elevated levels of copper and myo-inositol were very effective in stimulating root formation in both apple and pear shoots. The highest number of roots in apple (2.00 roots/ explant was achieved while using 0.100+ 800 (C5M5 of both copper and myo-inositol, whereas the highest number of roots for pear (3.17 roots/ explant was recorded for C6M6 (0.200+ 1600. The highest mean length of roots for apple reached 1.23 cm in treatment C3M3 and 1.10 cm for pear in treatment C6M6. These data suggest that the higher levels of copper and myo-inositol enabled shoot and root formation in the explants, and it might be necessary to use higher levels of these two medium components in order to enhance morphogenetic potential of explants.

  4. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  5. Application of an Optimized HPLC Method for the Detection of Various Phenolic Compounds in Apples from Lithuanian Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liaudanskas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A specific analytical procedure including sample preparation and HPLC analysis was developed and validated for the detection of phenolic compounds in the samples of different apples from popular Lithuanian cultivars “Aldas,” “Auksis,” “Ligol,” and “Šampion.” The conditions for phenol extraction were optimized: the solvent of the extraction was 70% (v/v ethanol, and the extraction was performed in an ultrasound bath for 20 min at the temperature of 40°C. The HPLC mobile phase consisted of 2% (v/v acetic acid in water and 100% (v/v acetonitrile. Using the HPLC technique, 11 analytes were identified, and their specificity was confirmed: procyanidin B1, (+-catechin, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, (−-epicatechin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, and phloridzin. Chlorogenic acid was the major component in “Aldas,” “Auksis,” and “Ligol” and procyanidin B2 in “Šampion.” Hyperoside and avicularin were the dominant compounds of all the identified quercetin derivatives in “Aldas” and “Auksis;” hyperoside in “Šampion;” and quercitrin in “Ligol.” The total content of phenolic compounds varied from 1641.0 ± 47.9 μg/g (cv. “Ligol” to 4291.3 ± 154.2 μg/g (cv. “Aldas”.

  6. Influence of floral structure and flower bud quality on productivity and fruit shape in different apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Hansen Madail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between floral structure and bud quality with the productivity and fruit shape of Gala, Fuji and Daiane apple cultivars under the mild winter conditions in Southern Brazil. Six different types of floral structures were characterized in field growing plants, according to their nature and bud size: spurs, short and long twigs with weak and vigorous buds. Variables related to the phenology and the productivity for these different structures were evaluated. Gala and Fuji cvs. showed earlier phenological development in the twigs, and cv. Daiane in the spurs. For the three cvs. the highest percentage of buds in each phenological phase was observed in the long twigs. The long twigs also showed the highest sprout and fruit set index, floral number per cluster, and leaf area in the three cvs., while the bud abortion was higher in the spurs than in the twigs. No difference was observed among the structures in cvs. Gala and Fuji regarding to the fruit shape. In the cv. Daiane, however, a tendency to higher length diameter ratio of the fruits produced by the long twigs was observed.

  7. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line.

  8. Transcript profiles of auxin efflux carrier and IAA-amido synthetase genes suggest the role of auxin on apple (Malus x domestica) fruit maturation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant growth regulators are known to regulate fruit development at various stages including flowering, fruit growth, maturation and ripening. Recent transcriptome studies indicated that auxin might play an essential role in regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening beside the well-defined role...

  9. Viabilidade do pólen e desenvolvimento do tubo polínico em macieira (Malus spp.) Germination of pollen and the development of pollen tubes in apple (Malus spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Cibele de Mesquita Dantas; Maria Luisa Peixoto; Rubens Onofre Nodari; Miguel Pedro Guerra

    2005-01-01

    No presente trabalho, estudaram-se características associadas à germinação in vitro e ao desenvolvimento in vivo do tubo polínico em seis variedades-copa e de porta-enxertos de macieira como subsídios para o estabelecimento de programas de melhoramento genético. Utilizou-se de pólen de seis cultivares de macieira inoculado em meio de cultura com ágar (10 g.L-1) em água destilada, combinados com concentrações de sacarose (0; 10; 20; 30; 40 e 50%) e ácido bórico (0 e 40 mg.L-1). Para o estudo d...

  10. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  11. Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of Metallothionein-like Protein Gene ( MdFjMT2 ) from Apple ( Malus domestica)%苹果金属硫蛋白基因MdFjMT2克隆及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊连梅; 刘更森; 刘成连; 原永兵

    2011-01-01

    An apple EST local database of apple fruit (Malus domestica cv Red Fuji) was constructed by differential screening and a large number of sequencing against the suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA library from M. Domestica cultivar Red Fuji coloring type sports and its wild type. A metallothionein (MT) gene, named MdFjMT2 ( Accession No. HQ730757) was cloned by RT-PCR and splicing of 42 cDNA sequences that were obtained by Blastn searching against the EST local database. The full length cDNA encoding metallothionein gene Md-FJMT2 was 684bp. Including 97bp of 5' untranslated region and 347bp of 3' untranslated region. It had a coding sequence (CDS) of 240 bp. Encoding 79 ami no acid residues. The protein molecular weight was 7.7938 kD and the theoretical pI was 4. 75. Gene MdFjMT2 contained the conserved domains of all known MT. With 14 Cys (C) residues, ranking in the feature of CC,CXC,and CXXC,and locating at protein N terminus and C terminus. The phylo-genetic tree analysis revealed that the amino acids sequence of MdFjMT2 shared higher similarity with Pyrus Pyrifo-lia M. Domestica, and M. Xiaojinensis, but lower similarity with Prunus dulcis, Salix matsudana, and Actinidia delicio-sa. Bioinformatio analysis showed that MdFjMT2 was mainly located in chloroplasts. It had no signal peptide and belonged to the hydrophilic non-transmembrane protein. MdFjMT2 had no functional domains and random coil was the major components of its secondary structure. These results provided information for further structure and functional study of MdFjMT2. The results would be useful to study the functions of gene,and clarify molecular mechanisms of apple coloring.%以红富士苹果(Malus domestica CV Red Fuji)浓红型芽变和其条红母株为试材,构建抑制性差减杂交(Suppression Subtractive Hybridization,SSH)文库,差异筛选SSH-cDNA文库,经过大量测序构建成红富士苹果EST序列本地数据库,对本地数据库进行Blastn检淡,得到42条

  12. Enhanced salt resistance in apple plants overexpressing a Malus vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene is associated with differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wei, Zhiwei; Liang, Dong; Zhou, Shasha; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Changhai; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-09-01

    High salinity is a major abiotic factor that limits crop production. The dwarfing apple rootstock M.26 is sensitive to such stress. To obtain an apple that is adaptable to saline soils, we transformed this rootstock with a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, MdNHX1. Differences in salt tolerance between transgenic and wild-type (WT) rootstocks were examined under field conditions. We also compared differences when 'Naganofuji No. 2' apple was grafted onto these transgenic or WT rootstocks. Plants on the transgenic rootstocks grew well during 60 d of mild stress (100 mM NaCl) while the WT exhibited chlorosis, inhibited growth and even death. Compared with the untreated control, the stomatal density was greater in both non-grafted and grafted WT plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl. In contrast, that density was significantly decreased in leaves from grafted transgenic plants. At 200 mM NaCl, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and chlorophyll contents were markedly reduced in the WT, whereas the declines in those values were only minor in similarly stressed transgenic plants. Therefore, we conclude that overexpressing plants utilize a better protective mechanism for retaining higher photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, this contrast in tolerance and adaptability to stress is linked to differences in stomatal behavior and photosynthetic rates.

  13. Temperature-dependent responses of the photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes of apple (Malus domestica) leaves during a sustained high temperature event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to follow changes in the temperature-dependent responses of photosynthesis and photosystem II performance in leaves of field-grown trees of Malus domestica (Borkh.) cv. 'Red Gala' before and after exposure to a long-term heat event occurring late in the growing season. Light-saturated photosynthesis was optimal at 25 °C before the heat event. The high temperatures caused a reduction in rates at low temperatures (15-20 °C) but increased rates at high temperatures (30-40 °C) and a shift in optimum to 30 °C. Rates at all temperatures increased after the heat event and the optimum shifted to 33 °C, indicative of some acclimation to the high temperatures occurring. Photosystem II attributes were all highly temperature-dependent. The operating quantum efficiency of PSII during the heat event declined, but mostly at high temperatures, partly because of decreased photochemical quenching but also from increased non-photochemical quenching. However, a further reduction in PSII operating efficiency occurred after the heat event subsided. Non-photochemical quenching had subsided, whereas photochemical quenching had increased in the post-heat event period and consistent with a greater fraction of open PSII reaction centres. What remained uncertain was why these effects on PSII performance appeared to have no effect on the process of light-saturated photosynthesis. However, the results provide an enhanced understanding of the impacts of sustained high temperatures on the photosynthetic process and its underlying reactions, notably photochemistry.

  14. 苹果优良砧木资源--变叶海棠%MALUS TORINGOIDES (REHD.) HUGHES - A PROMISING STOCK FOR APPLE TREES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石胜友; 成明昊; 梁国鲁

    2004-01-01

    变叶海棠(Malus toringoides (Rehd.) Hughes)的形态特征、种质特性、分布的生态环境具有极其复杂的多样性,也是苹果属植物中具有多种高抗性的种类.作苹果砧木利用,嫁接亲和性好,嫁接树半矮化,进入结果期早,果实品质好,是极重要的苹果砧木资源.变叶海棠种群是变叶海棠与陇东海棠和花叶海棠3 个种的杂交复合体,由于杂种的全部或部分能育子代中发生的基因重组和增加基因的突变率,丰富了物种的基因库,从而深入的揭示了变叶海棠具有高抗性的遗传机理.变叶海棠是横断山脉地区特有种,是极珍贵的种质资源.因此,对变叶海棠及其近缘种(陇东海棠和花叶海棠)的保护,对于研究物种生物学理论以及资源利用都具有重要的科学意义和应用前景.

  15. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  16. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Kumar

    Full Text Available Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover

  17. Chilling-Mediated DNA Methylation Changes during Dormancy and Its Release Reveal the Importance of Epigenetic Regulation during Winter Dormancy in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Rattan, Usha Kumari; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association

  18. Relationship between Indole-3-Acetic Acid Levels in Apple (Malus pumila Mill) Rootstocks Cultured in Vitro and Adventitious Root Formation in the Presence of Indole-3-Butyric Acid 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Nissen, Scott J.; Sutter, Ellen G.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro rooting response and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were examined in two genetically related dwarfing apple (Malus pumila Mill) rootstocks. M.26 and M.9 were cultured in vitro using Linsmaier-Skoog medium supplemented with benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (PG). Rooting response was tested in Lepoivre medium supplemented with IBA and PG. IBA concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 micromolar induced the maximum rooting percentages for M.9 and M.26, respectively. At these concentrations rooting response was 100% for M.26 and 80% for M.9. Free and conjugated IAA levels were determined in M.26 and M.9 shoots prior to root inducing treatment by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using 13[C6]IAA as internal standard. Basal sections of M.26 shoots contained 2.8 times more free IAA than similar tissue in M.9 (477.1 ± 6.5 versus 166.6 ± 6.7 nanograms per gram fresh weight), while free IAA levels in apical sections of M.26 and M.9 shoots were comparable (298.0 ± 4.4 versus 263.7 ± 9.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight). Conjugated IAA levels were significantly higher in M.9 than in M.26 indicating that a greater proportion of total IAA was present as a conjugate in M.9. These data suggest that differences between M.26 and M.9 rooting responses may be related to differences in free IAA levels in the shoot base. PMID:16666562

  19. 苹果内根-贝壳杉烯氧化酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of ent-Kaurene Oxidase Gene in apple( Malus×domestica )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田伟; 田义轲; 王彩虹; 宋伟; 李节法; 殷豪

    2011-01-01

    内根-贝壳杉烯氧化酶(KO)是赤霉素合成代谢的关键酶.以苹果(Malus×domestica Borkh.)品种富士(Fuji)为供试材料,应用同源克隆和RACE方法从其茎尖中克隆到KO的cDNA全长序列,命名为MdKO,GenBank登录号:AY563549,其长度为1 859 bp.MdKO的开放性阅读框(ORF)编码514个氨基酸残基,推断其相对分子量为58.9 ku,等电点为7.63.氨基酸同源性分析表明,MdKO与已报道的其他植物的KO氨基酸序列具有较高的相似性;氨基酸聚类分析表明,苹果和梨首先聚类,其次是葡萄;序列结构分析表明MdKO属于细胞色素超家族P450系,具有细胞色素P450的血红素结构域FXXGXRXCXG和跨膜结构域;亚细胞定位分析发现MdKO可能位于内质网膜上.%Ent-Kaurene oxidase(KO)is a critical enzyme in the pathway of gibberellins biosynthesis. In this research, ent-kaurene oxidase gene in apple, designated as MdKO(GenBank accession number:AY563549), was isolated from the apical tissue of Fuji apple stem. The full cDNA was 1 859 bp in length with an open reading frame(ORF)of 1 545 bp encoding a protein of 514 amino acids. The protein molecular weight and isoelectric point were predicted to be 58.9 ku and 7.63, respectively. Amino acids homology analysis indicated a high similarity with its counterparts in other species. Amino acids cluster analysis showed that KO from pear was clustered together with MdKO firstly, and followed by that from grape. Sequence analysis exhibited that MdKO belonged to cytochrome P450 superfamily and contained cysteine heme-iron ligand signature (FXXGXRXCXG)and transmembrane region. Moreover, MdKO was located in endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

  20. The knock-down of the expression of MdMLO19 reduces susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Stefano; Angeli, Dario; Martens, Stefan; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Salamini, Francesco; Velasco, Riccardo; Schouten, Henk J; Malnoy, Mickael

    2016-10-01

    Varieties resistant to powdery mildew (PM; caused by Podosphaera leucotricha) are a major component of sustainable apple production. Resistance can be achieved by knocking-out susceptibility S-genes to be singled out among members of the MLO (Mildew Locus O) gene family. Candidates are MLO S-genes of phylogenetic clade V up-regulated upon PM inoculation, such as MdMLO11 and 19 (clade V) and MdMLO18 (clade VII). We report the knock-down through RNA interference of MdMLO11 and 19, as well as the complementation of resistance with MdMLO18 in the Arabidopsis thaliana triple mlo mutant Atmlo2/6/12. The knock-down of MdMLO19 reduced PM disease severity by 75%, whereas the knock-down of MdMLO11, alone or in combination with MdMLO19, did not result in any reduction or additional reduction of susceptibility compared with MdMLO19 alone. The test in A. thaliana excluded a role for MdMLO18 in PM susceptibility. Cell wall appositions (papillae) were present in both PM-resistant and PM-susceptible plants, but were larger in resistant lines. No obvious negative phenotype was observed in plants with mlo genes knocked down. Apparently, MdMLO19 plays the pivotal role in apple PM susceptibility and its knock-down induces a very significant level of resistance.

  1. Ethylene regulates Apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening through a dose x time-dependent mechanism and through differential sensitivities and dependencies of cell wall-modifying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Hilary S; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Muddumage, Ratnasiri; Tacken, Emma J; Putterill, Jo; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    In fleshy fruit species that have a strong requirement for ethylene to ripen, ethylene is synthesized autocatalytically, producing increasing concentrations as the fruits ripen. Apple fruit with the ACC OXIDASE 1 (ACO1) gene suppressed cannot produce ethylene autocatalytically at ripening. Using these apple lines, an ethylene sensitivity dependency model was previously proposed, with traits such as softening showing a high dependency for ethylene as well as low sensitivity. In this study, it is shown that the molecular control of fruit softening is a complex process, with different cell wall-related genes being independently regulated and exhibiting differential sensitivities to and dependencies on ethylene at the transcriptional level. This regulation is controlled through a dose × time mechanism, which results in a temporal transcriptional response that would allow for progressive cell wall disassembly and thus softening. This research builds on the sensitivity dependency model and shows that ethylene-dependent traits can progress over time to the same degree with lower levels of ethylene. This suggests that a developmental clock measuring cumulative ethylene controls the fruit ripening process.

  2. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): an assessment of factors affecting gene transfer efficiency during early transformation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bondt, A; Eggermont, K; Druart, P; De Vil, M; Goderis, I; Vanderleyden, J; Broekaert, W F

    1994-07-01

    The factors influencing transfer of an intron - containing β-glucuronidase gene to apple leaf explants were studied during early steps of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure. The gene transfer process was evaluated by counting the number of β-glucuronidase expressing leaf zones immediately after cocultivation, as well as by counting the number of β-glucuronidase expressing calli developing on the explants after 6 weeks of postcultivation in the presence of 50 mg/l kanamycin. Of three different tested disarmed A. tumefaciens strains, EHA101(pEHA101) was the most effective for apple transformation. Cocultivation of leaf explants with A. tumefaciens on a medium with a high cytokinin level was more conducive to gene transfer than cocultivation on media with high auxin concentrations. Precultivation of leaf explants, prior to cocultivation, slightly increased the number of β-glucuronidase expressing zones measured immediately after cocultivation, but it drastically decreased the number of transformed calli appearing on the explants 6 weeks after infection. Other factors examined were: Agrobacterium cell density during infection, bacterial growth phase, nature of the carbon source, explant age, and explant genotype.

  4. Screening and Validation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR during Coloring Period in Apple (Malus domestica)%苹果着色期实时定量PCR内参基因的筛选和验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊连梅; 王超; 刘更森; 原永兵

    2014-01-01

    苹果果实着色期基因表达水平的变化对果实品质形成具有重要影响,选择适合的内参基因是提高实时荧光定量PCR分析准确性的首要条件。本试验以‘富士’苹果着色过程中不同取样时间的果皮为材料,通过qRT-PCR分析了常用候选持家基因β-actin、EF-1α、GAPDH和18S rRNA的表达变化,借助geNorm和NormFinder程序筛选出在果实着色期qRT-PCR分析的理想内参基因。结果表明, EF-1α的表达水平高且最稳定,其次是18S rRNA,而β-actin和GAPDH的相对表达水平较低;同时,用筛选的内参基因EF-1α和18S rRNA分析苹果花青苷合成途径的二氢黄酮醇-4-还原酶基因的表达水平,其表达规律比较一致,均呈现正态分布。因此, EF-1α和18S rRNA是研究苹果着色期表达的理想的内参基因。%The change of gene expression level during coloring period is crucial for the formation of apple fruit quality. The selection of a suitable reference gene is an important factor for accurate gene expression analysis by real-time lfuorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, peels of apple (Malus domestica cv.‘Fuji’) were taken as materials sampled at different time during coloring stage. The expression level of four commonly used housekeeping genesβ-actin, EF-1α, GAPDH and 18S rRNA were studied by qRT-PCR, and reliable refer-ence gene were screened to use for gene expression during coloring stage of fruit by geNorm and NormFinder software. The results showed that the expression level of EF-1αwas highest and most stable, followed by 18S rRNA. However, the expression level ofβ-actin and GAPDH were relatively low. Meanwhile, the expression of lfavonoid-4-reductase gene (MdDFR) in the pathway of apple anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed, and the results indicated that the variation tendency of MdDFR was exactly consistent and presented normal distribu-tion using EF-1αand 18S rRNA as reference gene. Therefore, EF-1αand 18S r

  5. Triterpene acids from apple peel inhibit lepidopteran larval midgut lipases and larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeller, John T; McGhie, Tony K; Poulton, Joanne; Markwick, Ngaire P

    2014-07-01

    Fruit extracts from apple, kiwifruit, feijoa, boysenberry, and blueberry were screened for the presence of lipase inhibitory compounds against lepidopteran larval midgut crude extracts. From 120 extracts, six showed significant inhibition with an extract from the peel of Malus × domestica cv. "Big Red" showing highest levels of inhibition. Because this sample was the only apple peel sample in the initial screen, a survey of peels from seven apple cultivars was undertaken and showed that, despite considerable variation, all had inhibitory activity. Successive solvent fractionation and LC-MS of cv. "Big Red" apple peel extract identified triterpene acids as the most important inhibitory compounds, of which ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were the major components and oxo- and hydroxyl-triterpene acids were minor components. When ursolic acid was incorporated into artificial diet and fed to Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) larvae at 0.16% w/v, a significant decrease in larval weight was observed after 21 days. This concentration of ursolic acid is less than half the concentration reported in the skin of some apple cultivars.

  6. Three-dimensional pore space quantification of apple tissue using X-ray computed microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernando; Verboven, Pieter; Mebatsion, Hibru K; Kerckhofs, Greet; Wevers, Martine; Nicolaï, Bart

    2007-08-01

    The microstructure and the connectivity of the pore space are important variables for better understanding of the complex gas transport phenomena that occur in plant tissues. In this study, we present an experimental procedure for image acquisition and image processing to quantitatively characterize in 3D the pore space of apple tissues (Malus domestica Borkh.) for two cultivars (Jonagold and Braeburn) taken from the fleshy part of the cortex using X-ray computer microtomography. Preliminary sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the effect of the resolution and the volume size (REV, representative elementary volume analysis) on the computed porosity of apple samples. For comparison among cultivars, geometrical properties such as porosity, specific surface area, number of disconnected pore volumes and their distribution parameters were extracted and analyzed in triplicate based on the 3D skeletonization of the pore space (medial axis analysis). The results showed that microtomography provides a resolution at the micrometer level to quantitatively analyze and characterize the 3D topology of the pore space in apple tissue. The computed porosity was confirmed to be highly dependent of the resolution used, and the minimum REV of the cortical flesh of apple fruit was estimated to be 1.3 mm(3). Comparisons among the two cultivars using a resolution of 8.5 mum with a minimum REV cube showed that in spite of the complexity and variability of the pore space network observed in Jonagold and Braeburn apples, the extracted parameters from the medial axis were significantly different (P-value < 0.05). Medial axis parameters showed potential to differentiate the microstructure between the two evaluated apple cultivars.

  7. 苹果品种用于加工鲜榨汁的适宜性评价%Suitability evaluation of apple cultivars for fresh juice-processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继云; 毋永龙; 李海飞; 王昆; 李静; 李志霞; 徐国锋

    2013-01-01

      为科学评价苹果品种的鲜榨汁加工适宜性,以122个单果质量在100 g以上的品种为对象,运用相关分析、因子分析、概率分级、层次分析、K-均值聚类、判别分析等方法建立苹果品种鲜榨汁加工适宜性评价技术。结果表明:果实与鲜榨汁间可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量、固酸比和糖酸比5项指标均呈极显著相关,相关系数分别为0.8967、0.9393、0.8413、0.9036和0.9099。果实可溶性固形物含量、固酸比、出汁率、单宁含量等4项指标被确定为苹果品种鲜榨汁加工适宜性评价指标。4项指标均划分为服从或近似服从正态分布的5级,即极低、低、中、高和极高。根据指标权重和指标分级标准,建立了4项指标的评分标准。建立的苹果品种鲜榨汁加工适宜性判别函数有极高的判别准确性,正确判别率达到94.74%(建模样本)和96.55%(检验样本)。筛选出的58个优良品种中,红富士、乔纳金、津轻等43个品种适于加工鲜榨汁,澳洲青苹、红玉、金冠等15个品种极适于加工鲜榨汁。%To establish a scientific evaluation technique of fresh juice-processing suitability of apple cultivars, fruit and fresh juice of one hundred and twenty-two apple cultivars with a fruit mass above 100 g were studied. Fruits were harvested in the National Germplasm Repository of Pear and Apple (Xingcheng, China) and juiced by a household juicer. Correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between fruit and fresh juice. Evaluation indices of the fresh juice-processing suitability of apple cultivars were screened by factor analysis and graded by probability distribution, and their weight was decided by analytic hierarchy process. Discrimination functions of fresh juice-processing suitability of apple cultivars were established by K-means cluster and discriminant analysis. The results showed that each index

  8. Germination of embryos from stratified and non-stratified seeds and growth of apple seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh cv. "Antonówka"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Czerski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The germination of whole seeds, the seeds without coat and isolated embryos of apple cv. "Antonówka Zwykła" after 90 days of cold-stratification was compared with the germination of embryos isolated from non-stratified seeds. They were germinated under 16hrs during a day at temperature 25°C and 20°C during the night. It has been found that after 2 weeks whole stratified seeds germinated in 5 per cent, seeds without coat in 25 per cent and isolated embryos in 98 per cent. Isolated embryos from nun-stratified seeds, after 2 weeks, germinated in the range from 75 to 88 per cent. The results indicate the similar germination ability of embryos isolated from nun-stratified seeds. The seedling populations obtained from embryo's stratified and non-stratified seeds were fully comparable and they evaluated: 1 a wide range of individual differences within population, 2 a similar number of seedlings in each class of shoot length, 3 a similar morphological habitus in each class of shoot length, 4 a similar fresh leaf weight and whole plant increment.

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the apple (Malus domestica) HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase family and expression analysis of their responsiveness to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianing; Xing, Shanshan; Cui, Haoran; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) directly participate in ubiquitin (Ub) transferring to the target proteins in the ubiquitination pathway. The HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase (UPL), one type of E3s, is characterized as containing a conserved HECT domain of approximately 350 amino acids in the C terminus. Some UPLs were found to be involved in trichome development and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. However, studies on plant UPLs, such as characteristics of the protein structure, predicted functional motifs of the HECT domain, and the regulatory expression of UPLs have all been limited. Here, we present genome-wide identification of the genes encoding UPLs (HECT gene) in apple. The 13 genes (named as MdUPL1-MdUPL13) from ten different chromosomes were divided into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. Among these groups, the encoding genes in the intron-exon structure and the included additional functional domains were quite different. Notably, the F-box domain was first found in MdUPL7 in plant UPLs. The HECT domain in different MdUPL groups also presented different spatial features and three types of conservative motifs were identified. The promoters of each MdUPL member carried multiple stress-response related elements by cis-acting element analysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the expressions of several MdUPLs were quite sensitive to cold-, drought-, and salt-stresses by qRT-PCR assay. The results of this study helped to elucidate the functions of HECT proteins, especially in Rosaceae plants.

  10. Metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids in chlorotic leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus domestica Borkh) with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huicong; Ma, Fangfang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2010-07-01

    Metabolite profiles and activities of key enzymes in the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids were compared between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves of 'Honeycrisp' apple to understand how accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates affects the metabolism of organic acids, nitrogen and amino acids. Excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and much lower CO(2) assimilation were found in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves, confirming feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in chlorotic leaves. Dark respiration and activities of several key enzymes in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, ATP-phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, citrate synthase, aconitase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, concentrations of most organic acids including phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), pyruvate, oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and fumarate, and activities of key enzymes involved in the anapleurotic pathway including PEP carboxylase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase and NAD-malic enzyme were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Concentrations of soluble proteins and most free amino acids were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. Activities of key enzymes in nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis, including nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, ferredoxin and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. It was concluded that, in response to excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated to "consume" the excess carbon available, whereas the anapleurotic pathway, nitrogen assimilation and amino acid synthesis were down-regulated to reduce the overall rate of amino acid and protein synthesis.

  11. Identificação de compostos voláteis de maçãs (Malus domestica cultivar Fuji, por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANZANNTTI Natália S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos voláteis da maçã cultivar Fuji foram estudados durante 2 anos consecutivos (1994 e 1995. O isolamento dos compostos voláteis da maçã Fuji foi feito utilizando-se uma técnica de enriquecimento dos voláteis do "headspace" em Porapak Q e eluição com hexano. Foram detectados 84 componentes voláteis na maçã Fuji, por cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução, dos quais trinta foram identificados por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas, aliada aos índices de Kovats. Os compostos majoritários foram os ésteres acetato de butila, acetato de 2-metil butila, acetato de hexila e o terpeno µ-farneseno. A classe química predominante, entre compostos voláteis na maçã Fuji, foi a dos ésteres.

  12. Impact of long term water deficit on production and flowering occurrence in the ‘Granny Smith’ apple tree cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    Pallas, Benoit; Yang, Weiwei; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Martinez, Sébastien; Costes, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Apple trees are usually irrigated to avoid yield losses due to water deficit but the shortage of water has become a critical problem in apple orchards. Nevertheless, most of the studies that have been conducted on tree responses to water stress have focused on shoot, leaf and fruit growth during a single growing season. This study presents the results of an experiment performed over 8 years on Granny Smith trees subjected to well watered and water stressed conditions. The yearly production of...

  13. SSR Analysis on Genetic Relationships of Xinjiang Malus Germplasm Resources%新疆苹果种质资源亲缘关系的SSR分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 刘立强; 廖康; 耿文娟; 唐芳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this thesis is to analyze the genetci relationships of 21 portions of apple germplasm resources in Xinjiang to provide the important key basis for inference of source of Xinjiang Malus. [Method] SSR techniques of molecular biology were used to provide the important basis for the diduction based on which Xinjiang Malus varieties were directly domesticated from Xinjiang Wild apple varieties, through DNA extraction, purity and concentration detection, SSR amplification procedures and composition of the system, primers selection, PCR amplification and data analysis to explore the genetic relationships between Xinjiang Malus germplasm resources. [ Result] The twenty - one portions of materials were divided three groups when the genetic similarity coefficient was 0.63 . The results of clustenng germplasm resources showed the cultivars in Xinjiang M. sieversii cross - distribution, the cultivar in Xinjiang M. sieversii had the same genetic background, the high genetic similarity and closer ggnetic relationship. [ Cociclusion] Local apple varieties in Xinjiang may be domesticated directly from Malus sieversii Roem for the long - term breeding of domesticated or cultivated hybrid genetic variation .%[目的]以21份新疆苹果种质资源为实验材料,研究新疆苹果种质资源的亲缘关系,以期为新疆地方苹果品种可能是由新疆野苹果直接驯化而来的推论提供重要证据.[方法]利用分子生物学SSR技术,通过DNA的提取、纯度与浓度检测,SSR扩增反应的程序和体系组成、引物选择、PCR扩增及数据分析等,探讨新疆苹果资源间亲缘关系.[结果]若以遗传相似系数0.63为阈值,可将新疆苹果21份地方资源聚类成3组,新疆野苹果和新疆地方苹果品种交叉分布,说明新疆地方苹果品种与新疆野苹果具有相同的遗传背景,遗传相似度高,亲缘关系很近.[结论]新疆地方苹果品种可能是由新疆野苹果直接驯化而来,或是

  14. Identification of QTLs for resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in Malus sieversii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malus sieversii (Ms) is the progenitor of the domestic apple. Ms PI613981 is elite scion material collected at a xerophytic site in Kazakhstan from a tree free of disease and insect damage. The F1 family GMAL4593 (‘Royal Gala’ X PI631981) is segregating for resistance to both apple scab and fire bl...

  15. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple product

  16. Phylogenetic Relationship Between Xinjiang Wild Apple (Malus sieversii Roem.) and Chinese Apple (Malus × domestica subsp.chinesnsis) Based on ITS and matK Sequences%基于ITS和matK序列探讨新疆野苹果与中国苹果的系统演化关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱元娣; 曹敏格; 许正; 王昆; 张文

    2014-01-01

    以新疆地区不同居群的52份新疆野苹果[Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem.]、9份中国苹果品种(Malus×domestica subsp.chinensis Li.)、1份森林苹果(M.sylvestris Miller)种质为试材,进行核糖体DNA内转录间隔区(ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers,ITS)和叶绿体成熟酶K(matK)基因的测序分析.从GenBank中获取了11个苹果栽培品种、14个塞威士苹果、26个苹果属其它种及1个外类群欧洲梨(Pyrus communis)的ITS及matK序列.利用MEGA (ver.4.0)计算不同序列间的碱基组成频率、简约信息位点数、转换/颠换比率、序列间成对距离,以最大简约法与邻接法进行系统发育分析.结果表明,采集的“新疆野苹果”与“中国苹果”的ITS序列长度在589 ~ 594 bp,含有148个简约信息位点,转换/颠换比率(R)为1.029; MatK序列长度为1 451 ~1 461 bp,没有复制子Ⅱ序列,含有16个简约信息位点,转换/颠换为1.442.ITS分析将中国苹果、新疆野苹果(来自中国新疆)和塞威士苹果(来自GenBank)聚类于一个大的发育枝内,新疆野苹果5个居群的系统演化按新源、巩留、霍城和塔城的先后次序发生.MatK序列的系统发育分析将中国苹果和新疆野苹果聚类在一个大的发育枝内,但自展支持率低.由此说明,中国苹果由新疆野苹果驯化而来.matK不适于栽培苹果种内的系统发育分析.

  17. Rentabilidade da cultura da macieira cultivar Gala em duas densidades de plantio Investment return for Gala apple cultivar using two planting densities

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho discute, com base em um estudo de caso, a viabilidade econômica de ampliar a densidade de plantio de macieiras cultivar Gala de 1.000 plantas por hectare para 3.378 plantas por hectare. Os resultados mostraram que a taxa interna de retorno não variou (próxima de 1,61% ao mês), independentemente da densidade utilizada, o que sugere o uso da menor densidade de plantio, uma vez que esta requer um menor volume de recursos financeiros. O custo unitário de produção também se man...

  18. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry analysis linked with chemometrics for food classification - a case study: geographical provenance and cultivar classification of monovarietal clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Heng-Hui; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we have evaluated for first time the feasibility of APCI-MS volatile compound fingerprinting in conjunction with chemometrics (PLS-DA) as a new strategy for rapid and non-destructive food classification. For this purpose 202 clarified monovarietal juices extracted from apples differing in their botanical and geographical origin were used for evaluation of the performance of APCI-MS as a classification tool. For an independent test set PLS-DA analyses of pre-treated spectral data gave 100% and 94.2% correct classification rate for the classification by cultivar and geographical origin, respectively. Moreover, PLS-DA analysis of APCI-MS in conjunction with GC-MS data revealed that masses within the spectral ACPI-MS data set were related with parent ions or fragments of alkyesters, carbonyl compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-hexanol, 1-butanol, cis-3-hexenol) and had significant discriminating power both in terms of cultivar and geographical origin.

  19. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under... of M. domestica apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to...

  20. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  1. Apple pomace from eleven cultivars: an approach to identify sources of bioactive compounds = Bagaço de maçã de 11 cultivares: uma abordagem identificando fontes de compostos bioativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fátima Sato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dried apple pomace composition of eleven cultivars was assessed in this work. The drying process of apple pomace spread in a thin layer in the trays of an oven with circulating heated air at 60oC showed a 3rd order polynomial tendency and after 10 hours theproduct, with an equilibrium moisture of 10%, showed an homogeneous appearance according to colorimetric parameters. There are significant differences in the content of lipids, proteins,total titratable acids, total reducing sugars, dietetic fibers total phenol compounds and also in an oxidant activity. Total dietary fibers include pectin, 35%, and insoluble fibers (65%. The contentof total phenolic compound, determined with the Folin Ciocalteu reagent and expressed as catechin, goes from 2.29 to 7.15 g kg-1 of dried apple pomace and the antioxidant capacity, expressed as total equivalent (TEAC, from 17.41 to 77.48 mMol g-1. A correlation of 82%between both these quality factors was found. The principal component analysis established the efficiency of total phenol compound, antioxidative capacity, total fiber and total reducing sugarsto identify the best cultivar set as source of bioactive compound. Cv. M-2/00 shows high content of total phenol compound and antioxidant capacity, cv. Catarina, of pectin while cv. MRC 11/95,M-12/00, M-8/00, M6/00 e M-11/00, of malic acid and of total reducing sugars. The other cultivars show high content of fibers, ashes and lipids.A composição do bagaço seco de maçã de 11 novas cultivares foi determinada neste trabalho. A secagem do bagaço de maçã disposto em camada fina em estufa de secagem por convecção com ar aquecido a 60oC apresentou uma tendência polinomial cúbica e após 10 horas o produto continha uma umidade de equilíbrio de 10% com uma aparência homogêna, conforme parâmetros colorimétricos, sem evidências de superaquecimento. Houve diferenças significativas entre os teores de lipídeos, de ácido malico, de compostos fen

  2. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  3. Update on comparative genome mapping between Malus and Pyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Nishitani Chikako; Terakami Shingo; Tustin Stuart D; Chagné David; Celton Jean-Marc; Yamamoto Toshiya; Gardiner Susan E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Comparative genome mapping determines the linkage between homologous genes of related taxa. It has already been used in plants to characterize agronomically important genes in lesser studied species, using information from better studied species. In the Maloideae sub-family, which includes fruit species such as apple, pear, loquat and quince, genome co-linearity has been suggested between the genera Malus and Pyrus; however map comparisons are incomplete to date. Findings ...

  4. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that grow...

  5. 苹果内根-贝壳杉烯合成酶基因的克隆及表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Ent-Kaurene Synthase Gene MdKS in Apple(Malus domestica Borkh)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晓云; 戴洪义; 梁美霞

    2013-01-01

      以柱型苹果茎尖为试材,采用同源克隆的方法克隆得到赤霉素合成代谢关键酶内根-贝壳杉烯合成酶的cDNA全长序列,命名为MdKS。 MdKS的开放阅读框(ORF)全长2214 bp,编码737个氨基酸。 KS属于萜类合成酶亚家族,具有DDXXD保守结构域。氨基酸聚类分析表明,MdKS与梨同源性最高,为98%,其次是板栗,为73%;实时荧光定量PCR分析表明,在苹果的生长季节,MdKS基因在柱型和普通型苹果中均能表达。在苹果的生长初期,普通型苹果MdKS基因的表达量均明显高于柱型苹果,而在6月初,其表达量却略低于柱型苹果。%Ent-kaurene synthase(KS) is a critical enzyme in the pathway of gibberellins biosynthesis .In this research,ent-kaurene synthase gene in columnar apple ,designated as MdKS,was isolated from apple(Malus domes-tica Borkh)stem apical tissue by homologous cloning technology .The full-length cDNA consisted of 2 214 nucleo-tides encoding a putative protein of 737 amino acids.MdKS contained a core functional domain DDXXD of plant class terpene synthase.Amino acids cluster analysis showed that KS from apple was highly homologous with PpKS firstly,had 98%similarity,and followed by that from Castanea sativa ,had 73%similarity.The Real-time quantita-tive PCR analysis showed that MdKS gene were always expressed in columnar and standard apple trees during the growing season.In the early growing season,the MdKS of standard apples were expressed at higher level than that of columnar apples,but on early June,it was opposite.

  6. Potencial da variedade Joaquina para o processamento de suco clarificado e vinho seco de maçã Evaluation of apple cultivar Joaquina as raw material for juice and wine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Cristina Ramos Fertonani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Na classificação das maçãs para o comércio doméstico, uma parcela de até 30% pode ser descartada. As frutas de descarte, também chamadas de industriais, apresentam potencial tecnológico e podem ser aproveitadas na fabricação de diversos produtos, como sucos e fermentados alcoólicos. Cerca de 90% da produção brasileira de maçãs correspondem as cultivares Fuji e Gala, que apresentam baixa aptidão industrial, entretanto outras cultivares podem apresentar características que tornem o produto final com qualidade superior. Assim, foi avaliado o potencial tecnológico da cultivar Joaquina para a fabricação de suco clarificado e de vinho de maçã em comparação com as cultivares Fuji e Gala. Maçãs das cultivares Fuji e Gala foram obtidas no comercio local e da cultivar Joaquina, colocadas à disposição pela Estação Experimental de São Joaquim (Epagri. O suco clarificado e o vinho de maçã foram obtidos em bancada de laboratório com protocolos definidos. O suco varietal da Joaquina, quando comparado físico-quimicamente com os da Fuji e da Gala não diferiu significativamente, porém os julgadores em avaliação sensorial atribuíram-lhe as menores notas (3,78, com alto grau de rejeição (64%. O vinho varietal da maçã Joaquina, físico-quimicamente idêntico aos da Fuji e da Gala, foi considerado de aceitação semelhante ao da Gala (4,52 sendo o da Fuji (3,80 absolutamente rejeitado, com 67%. Assim, a maçã da variedade Joaquina pode ser usada com parcimônia no processamento de suco e com segurança na produção de vinho.The classification process of apples to domestic market, around 30% can be considered as a sub-product, but still with some economical value: they are the so-called industrial fruits. They have a very high technological potential and can be used in the processing of many food products, as apple juices and alcoholic beverage. Around 90% of the apple production are related to Fuji and Gala varieties

  7. Expression of MaMAPK Gene in Seedlings of Malus L. under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Xin PENG; Ling-Kun GU; Cheng-Chao ZHENG; De-Quan LI; Huai-Rui SHU

    2006-01-01

    Seedlings of three species of Malus were used to study the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to water stress: Malus hupehensis, a drought-sensitive species; Malus sieversii, a drought-tolerant species; and Malus micromalus, a middle type. Results showed that Malus MAPK (MaMAPK, GenBank accession No. AF435805) was expressed in both roots and leaves of seedlings of the three Malus species treated with 20% polyethylene glycol for different time periods. Expression levels peaked at 1.5 h after treatment with polyethylene glycol, then decreased to their lowest levels. Liquid kinase assays indicated that the dynamic changes of MAPK activity were very similar to those of the relative expression of MaMAPK mRNA. However, the peak of the former occurred slightly behind the latter. It was noticed that, although the kinase activity decreased after the peak, it was still higher than that of the control during the whole time period. These results suggested that MaMAPK was regulated not only by water stress at the transcription level, but also by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at the protein level. In addition,of these three apple species, the highest MAPK activity and MaMAPK expression level was found in M.sieversii, followed by M. micromalus and M. hupehensis, suggesting that MAPK might be correlated with drought tolerance in these three species. The different expression levels might be one of the molecular mechanisms of the different drought tolerances in Malus.

  8. Genetic Variation of F 1 Population Between Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana and Apple Varieties and Evaluation on Fruit Characters of Functional Apple Excellent Strains%新疆红肉苹果杂种一代的遗传变异及功能型苹果优株评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学森; 李敏; 张晶; 刘大亮; 冀晓昊; 张宗营; 张芮; 毛志泉; 张艳敏; 王立霞

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To provide basic date for the conservation and sustainable use of Malus sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana. resources and create functional apple breeding theory and technology system, the fruit juvenile period, genetic variation characteristics of fruit and the evaluation of excellent strains for functional apple were studied. [Method] Six F 1 hybrid groups were developed by Taeraerma and Xiahongrou as male parents and Hanfu, Starkrimson, Golden Delicious and Fuji as female parents. The fruit juvenile period, single fruit weight, hard crispness, soluble solids, Vc, titratable acidity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content, antioxidant ability, the content and components of flavonoids of 868 seedlings and 4 excellent strains from the six F1 hybrid groups were detected and compared with ‘Dehongcui’, which was introduced from foreign countries, and ‘Golden Delicious’. Furthermore, functional apple breeding techniques were discussed.[Result]The flowering rates of 5 groups with M. sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana as female parent were all more than 15%in the third year and the juvenile phases were only 2.33-4.33 years, while the flowering rate of Golden Delicious×Hanfu was only 8.0%in the 4th year and the juvenile phase was 3.33-5.33 years. Variations in most characters of F1 were wide and the variation coefficients were all more than 20%. It indicated that they have a large potential for further selection. The broad-sense heritabilities of total phenols in peel and flesh, acid, anthocyanin and Fe were more than 85%, which had powerful hereditary abilities. The 5 groups with M. sieversii f. neidzwetzkyana as female parent all existed red-soft, red-brittle, white-soft and white-brittle individuals. The anthocyanin and flavonoids content, antioxidant ability and flavonoids species of red strains ‘Hongcui 1’ and ‘Hongcui 10’, whose red area were nearly 1/3-1/2 of full apple area, were extremely significantly higher than reddish apple, such as

  9. Cisgenic Approach for improved disease resistance in apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broggini, G.A.L.; Durel, C.E.; Vergne, E.; Chevreau, E.; Fahrentrapp, J.; Vanblaere, T.; Peil, A.; Flachowsky, H.; Hanke, M.V.; Krens, F.A.; Schouten, H.J.; Gessler, C.

    2013-01-01

    Swiss and more generally European apple (Malus × domestica) production is hampered by several diseases, the most destructive being fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. On the other hand, there are apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis and powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera leucotricha, w

  10. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to ...

  11. Análise da aptidão industrial de seis cultivares de maçãs, considerando suas avaliações físico-químicas (Dados da Safra 2001/2002 Industrial fitness analysis of six apple cultivars, considering their physico-chemical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Paganini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A agroindústria da maçã no Brasil utiliza como matéria-prima frutas de descarte provenientes dos processos de seleção para o mercado de frutas in natura. Esse descarte pode representar 30% da produção total. Essas frutas são processadas à medida que são encaminhadas para a indústria. Em países europeus, entretanto, tanto para a obtenção de sucos quanto para sidras, são utilizadas frutas de cultivares selecionadas para tal fim, sendo usados como marcadores de qualidade industrial os teores de acidez, taninos e açúcares. Esses componentes são importantes para a qualidade do produto e envolvem os critérios de cor, sabor e aromas, atributos envolvidos no processo de compra e no hábito dos consumidores. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas seis cultivares de maçãs (Gala, Eva, Rainha, Fred Hough, Imperatriz e Sansa em relação aos parâmetros: teores de sólidos solúveis totais, açúcares totais e redutores, sacarose, glucose, frutose e compostos fenólicos totais, além da acidez total titulável. Foram determinadas as razões entre açúcares totais/acidez total, grau brix/acidez total e a proporção entre glucose, sacarose e frutose. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que a cultivar Imperatriz apresentou a maior porcentagem de frutose: 66%. O indicador industrial, calculado a partir da razão açúcar/acidez, que apresenta como critério o valor 20, estabelece que essas cultivares podem ser classificadas como de interesse comercial, e não industrial, uma vez que as seis cultivares apresentaram valores superiores a esse critério, ou seja, com baixa acidez. As cultivares Sansa, Rainha e Imperatriz apresentaram valores superiores a 200 ppm de compostos fenólicos (valor referencial, o que lhes confere características interessantes para serem exploradas pelo setor industrial.The apple processing in Brazil is done with fruits that do not reach the standart of quality stablished for commercial purposes, which are named industrial

  12. First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification : Mal d 1-silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, A. E. J.; Pagliarani, G.; Brouwer, R. M.; Kollen, B. J.; Dragsted, L. O.; Eriksen, F. D.; Callesen, O.; Gilissen, L. J. W. J.; Krens, F. A.; Visser, R. G. F.; Smulders, M. J. M.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundGenetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. MethodsWe performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples which ha

  13. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR RESPONSE ATTACK OF VENTURIA INAEQUALIS IN DIFFERENT APPLE GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca PATRASCU

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis, is an important disease, spread worldwide, having a major negative impact in apple production. In this study, there were analyzed four apple cultivars (Liberty, Florina, Starkrimson, Golden Spur, used as genitors in a diallel cross, and their seedlings. In the field, plants selection was done after presence or absence of the scab on leaves, and afterwards, phenotipically selection was completed by marker assisted selection. The molecular analysis conducted with the markers AL-07, AM-19 and U1400, detects the presence of the Vf gene, introgressed from Malus floribunda 821, which confers resistance to the pathogen, in the parental cultivars Liberty and Florina, and in all the F1 hybrids belonging these two genitors. Starkrimson and Golden Spur were susceptible scab parents with recessive homozygous genotype (vfvf, while Liberty and Florina were identified as heterozygous scab resistant parents with genotype (Vfvf. From the 60 apple seedlings analyzed, grouped in six combinations after their genitors (in each combinations were selected ten hybrids, among them five resistant and five susceptible to apple scab attack 28 were resistant and heterozygous for Vf gene (Vfvf and 32 were susceptible to scab with recessive homozygous genotypes (vfvf, being obtained almost Mendelian ratio for response to the pathogen, 50% resistant: 50% susceptible. Seedlings belonging to Starkrimson x Golden Spur were only recessive homozygous genotype (vfvf, and in combination resistant x resistant (Liberty x Florina were identified susceptible and resistant offspring, but at last, only with heterozygous for Vf gene (Vfvf and no one with dominant homozygous genotypes (VfVf.

  14. First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification: Mal d 1-silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, A. E. J.; Pagliarani, G.; Brouwer, R. M.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. METHODS: We performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples...... which had undergone gene silencing of the major allergen of apple, Mal d 1, by RNA interference. Downregulation of Mal d 1 gene expression in the apples was verified by qRT-PCR. Clinical responses to the genetically modified apples were compared to those seen with the wild-type Elstar using a visual...... analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: Gene silencing produced two genetically modified apple lines expressing Mal d 1.02 and other Mal d 1 gene mRNA levels which were extensively downregulated, that is only 0.1-16.4% (e-DR1) and 0.2-9.9% (e-DR2) of those of the wild-type Elstar, respectively. Challenges...

  15. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  16. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Citrate Synthase Gene (MbCS1) in Apple (Malus baccata Borkh)%苹果属山定子柠檬酸合成酶基因(MbCS1)的克隆及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柳霞; 王忆; 朱斌; 王少甲; 张新忠; 许雪峰; 韩振海

    2012-01-01

    为了研究不同铁效率基因型苹果砧木铁吸收利用的分子机理,本研究以铁低效基因型山定子(Malus baccata Borkh)为试材,根据实验室从铁高效基因型小金海棠(Malus xiaojinensis)克隆到与铁运输相关的基因柠檬酸合成酶基因(MxCS1)的全长序列设计特异引物,通过RT-PCR方法从山定子cDNA中克隆到柠檬酸合成酶基因CS,基因全长为1 422 bp,与金冠(Malus domestica Borkh cv.Golden Delicious)、小金海棠中的CS基因具有较高的同源性,将该基因命名为MbCS1 (GenBank登录号:JQ898346).利用生物信息学软件对山定子柠檬酸合成酶基因(MbCS1)进行预测分析,结果显示该基因预测编码473个氨基酸,相对分子量为54.26 kD,理论等电点为8.95.亚细胞定位显示MbCS1蛋白定位在细胞膜上.半定量RT-PCR及Real-time PCR分析均表明,正常供铁时,该基因在山定子的根、茎、新叶中都有表达;缺铁处理(EDTA-NaFe,4μmol/L)时,该基因在根、茎和新叶中的表达加强,第9天达到最高值,之后开始下降;但各检测器官中表达增强的程度不同,其中茎中受缺铁诱导表达最明显.与小金海棠中MxCS1基因的表达趋势有明显的差别.本研究为高等植物抗性机理的深入研究以及铁低效资源型砧木资源的改良提供了基础资料.%In order to study the iron absorption and utilization molecular mechanism of different Fe efficiency genotypes apple rootstocks, we used the Malus baccata Borkh as material, which is an iron-inefficient genotype apple rootstock. Through the full-length of citrate synthase gene MxCSl was obtained from M. Xiaojinensis, which is an iron-efficient the gene encoding citrate synthase in Golden Delicious (M. Domestica Borkh ) and M. Xiaojinensis, thus we designated it as MbCS1 (GenBank accession No. JQ898346). The bioinformatics analysis showed that citrate synthase gene from M. Baccata Borkh encoded 473 amino acids, whose relative molecular weight was

  17. Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios.The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination

  18. Impacto da intensificação da densidade de plantio na rentabilidade em duas cultivares de macieira em Fraiburgo-SC Economic analysis of investment in the agribusiness of the apples in Fraiburgo, state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leomar Kreuz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as expectativas de retorno associadas ao agronegócio da maçã, com base em pomares existentes na região de Fraiburgo-SC. Detalham-se os custos de produção das cultivares Gala e Fuji implantadas em sistemas de alta e superalta densidade. Os resultados indicam ser apenas mediana a rentabilidade do agronegócio em análise. A intensificação tecnológica via ampliação da densidade de plantio, propicia um incremento na rentabilidade. O mesmo pode ser dito da cultivar Fuji em relação à cultivar Gala.The present article aims at analyzing the production costs, profitability and risks involved in the apple agro-business concerning two varieties grown in Fraiburgo, Brazil: Gala and Fuji. Production costs, profitability and risks involved in this activity are described based on two plant densities. The methodology, based on the discounted cash flow, generated return and risk indicators. These indicators show medium profitability associated with this agro-business. Nevertheless use of technology, measured by plant density, improves profitability, as well as to change cultivar Gala by Fuji.

  19. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; Cooney, Janine M; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Laing, William A

    2016-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane-, oleanane-, and lupane-type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology-based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with contrasting triterpene profiles. MdOSC4 encodes a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase producing an oleanane-type triterpene, putatively identified as germanicol, as well as β-amyrin and lupeol, in the proportion 82 : 14 : 4. MdOSC5 cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene into lupeol and β-amyrin at a ratio of 95 : 5. CYP716A175 catalyses the C-28 oxidation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and germanicol, producing ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and putatively morolic acid. The gene expression of MdOSC1 was linked to the concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid, whereas the expression of MdOSC5 was correlated with the concentrations of betulinic acid and its caffeate derivatives. Two new multifuntional triterpene synthases as well as a multifunctional triterpene C-28 oxidase were identified in Malus × domestica. This study also suggests that MdOSC1 and MdOSC5 are key genes in apple fruit triterpene biosynthesis.

  20. Revision of the nomenclature of the differential host-pathogen interactions of Venturia inaequalis and Malus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Vincent G M; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Caffier, Valérie; Durel, Charles-Eric; Plummer, Kim M

    2011-01-01

    The apple scab (Venturia inaequalis-Malus) pathosystem was one of the first systems for which Flor's concept of gene-for-gene (GfG) relationships between the host plant and the pathogen was demonstrated. There is a rich resource of host resistance genes present in Malus germplasm that could potentially be marshalled to confer durable resistance against this most important apple disease. A comprehensive understanding of the host-pathogen interactions occurring in this pathosystem is a prerequisite for effectively manipulating these host resistance factors. An accurate means of identification of specific resistance and consistent use of gene nomenclature is critical for this process. A set of universally available, differentially resistant hosts is described, which will be followed by a set of defined pathogen races at a later stage. We review pertinent aspects of the history of apple scab research, describe the current status and future directions of this research, and resolve some outstanding issues.

  1. Optimization of extraction of apple aroma by dynamic headspace and influence of saliva on extraction of volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehinagic, Emira; Prost, Carole; Demaimay, Michel

    2004-08-11

    The dynamic headspace procedure of aroma extraction was optimized on Gala apples (Malus domestica). Two parameters affecting the extractability of compounds were studied: temperature and purge time. The influence of artificial saliva was also included. An increase in purge time and temperature caused an increase in the extraction of volatiles from the apple matrix. The optimum point of extraction was 40 degrees C and 70 min of purge. The study also showed that the addition of saliva influenced the extraction of volatile compounds, but this effect was different from one compound to another. To verify that the headspace extracts presented a global odor representativeness of fresh apple under these conditions of extraction, eight assessors compared the odor of extracts with fresh fruit odor for three different cultivars. With regard to the sensory profiles of extracts, the optimal conditions of extraction were suitable for extraction of volatile compounds, even if cooked apple odor appeared in some extracts. The similarity marks of extracts were low but acceptable.

  2. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere. Lesio

  3. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies.

  4. Pathogen-Induced Leaf Chlorosis: Products of Chlorophyll Breakdown Found in Degreened Leaves of Phytoplasma-Infected Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) and Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Trees Relate to the Pheophorbide a Oxygenase / Phyllobilin Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelberger, Cecilia; Yalcinkaya, Hacer; Pichler, Christa; Gasser, Johanna; Scherzer, Gerhard; Erhart, Theresia; Schumacher, Sandra; Holzner, Barbara; Janik, Katrin; Robatscher, Peter; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard; Oberhuber, Michael

    2017-03-07

    Phytoplasmoses such as Apple Proliferation (AP) and European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) cause severe economic losses in fruit production. A common symptom of both phytoplasma diseases is the early yellowing or leaf chlorosis. Even though chlorosis is a well-studied symptom of biotic and abiotic stress, its biochemical pathways are hardly known. In particular, in this context, a potential role of the senescence-related pheophorbide a oxygenase/phyllobilin (PaO/PB) pathway is elusive, which degrades chlorophyll (Chl) to phyllobilins (PBs), most notably to colorless non-fluorescent Chl catabolites (NCCs). In this work, we identified the Chl catabolites in extracts of healthy senescent apple and apricot leaves. In extracts of apple tree leaves, a total of 12 Chl catabolites were detected, in extracts of leaves of the apricot tree 16 Chl catabolites were found. The major seven NCC fractions in the leaves of both fruit tree species were identical, and displayed known structures. All of the major Chl catabolites were also found in leaf extracts from AP- or ESFY-infected trees, providing the first evidence that the PaO/PB pathway is relevant also for pathogen-induced chlorosis. This work supports the hypothesis that Chl breakdown in senescence and phytoplasma infection proceeds via a common pathway in some members of the Rosaceae family.

  5. Inheritance studies of apple scab resistance and identification of Rvi14, a new major gene that acts together with other broad-spectrum QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufflet-Freslon, V; Gianfranceschi, L; Patocchi, A; Durel, C-E

    2008-08-01

    Scab, caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus xdomestica). The fungal races 6 and 7 have now overcome the major resistance gene Vf, which is widely used in apple breeding programmes. New breeding strategies to achieve durable resistance are thus necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic basis of quantitative resistance of the apple cultivar 'Dülmener Rosenapfel', known to be scab resistant under different environmental conditions. An F1 progeny derived from the cross between the susceptible cultivar 'Gala' and 'Dülmener Rosenapfel' was tested in a greenhouse with a multi-isolate inoculum of V. inaequalis. Rvi14, a new major gene that conditions a chlorotic-type reaction, was mapped on linkage group (LG) 6 in a genomic region not known to be involved in disease resistance. A further three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance were identified. One co-localized with Rvi14 on LG6, whereas the remaining two were detected on LG11 and LG17, in genomic regions already reported to carry broad-spectrum QTL in other genetic backgrounds. Since a selective genotyping approach was used to detect QTL, an expectation-maximization (EM) computation was used to estimate the corrected QTL contributions to phenotypic variation and was validated by entire progeny genotyping.

  6. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Rui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Results Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ, sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. Conclusions This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible

  7. Influence of salt stress on growth and antioxidant responses of two malus species at callus and plantlet stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil salinization has become a significant factor limiting apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some areas of China. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of salt stress i.e. 150 mmol/L NaCl in Murashige and Skoog medium on growth and antioxidant responses of 15-d old callus and ...

  8. Responses of twenty-two apple cultivars and rootstocks to thermotherapy for virus elimination in vitro%22个苹果品种和砧木试管苗对热处理脱毒效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏娜; 孙建设; 邵建柱; 高仪; 李玲

    2009-01-01

    3 latent viruses in 22 apple cultivars and rootstocks were detected by RT - PCR technology, and their responses to alternating heat therapy in combination with shoot tip culture for virus elimination in vitro were studied. The results showed that the heat resistance was different among these 22 apple cultivars and rootstocks, of which 'Orin', 'Jonagold', 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious', 'Zumi' and 'P_(22)' exhibited the highest heat resistance,' Huimin spur Fuji',' Deep red Fuji', ' Tianhong No. 1', ' B_9', ' M_9 ', ' P_(59)', ' 77-34 ', ' Tianhong No. 2' and 'Jazz' presented the moderate heat resistance,and that of 'GM_(256)',' Hirosaki' and 'SH' series was the lowest. The apple latent virus elimination rate of different apple genotypes under the same treatment was different. The virus elimination rate of ' Huimin Spur Fuji', ' SH_(17) ', 'M_9','GM_(256)' and 'Hirosakis' was the highest, followed by '77-34','P_(59)','P_(22)' and 'Tianhong No. 1',and that of 'Jonagold', 'SH_(40) ', 'SH_(38)' and 'Deep Red Fuji' was the lowest. The availability of virus elimination depended on its species. The apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was the easiest to eliminate,followed by apple stem pitting virus(ASPV) ,and apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) was the most difficult .%用RT-PCR对22个苹果品种和砧木携带3种潜隐性病毒的情况进行了检测,并用变温热处理结合茎尖培养对22个苹果品种和砧木组培苗脱除潜隐性病毒的效应进行了研究.结果表明:不同的苹果品种和砧木耐热性不同.其中'王林'、'乔纳金'、'嘎啦'、'金冠'、'珠美海棠'、'P22'的耐热性最强;'GM256'、'弘前'、'SH'系耐热性最差;'惠民短枝富士'、'浓红富士'、'天红1号'、'B_9'、'M_9'、'P_(59)'、'77-34'、'天红2号'、'Jazz'的耐热性居中.在相同处理条件下,不同的苹果基因型脱毒率存在差异.'惠民短枝富士'、'SH_(17)'、'M_9'、'GM_(256)'、'弘前'脱毒率最高,'77-34'、'P_(59)'、'P_(22

  9. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liaudanskas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.

  10. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the apple ASR gene family in response to Alternaria alternata f. sp. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaihui; Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Zheng, Dan; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2016-10-01

    The ABA/water stress/ripening-induced (ASR) gene family exists universally in higher plants, and many ASR genes are up-regulated during periods of environmental stress and fruit ripening. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed investigating ASR gene response to abiotic stresses, relatively little is known about their roles in response to biotic stresses. In this report, we identified five ASR genes in apple (Malus × domestica) and explored their phylogenetic relationship, duplication events, and selective pressure. Five apple ASR genes (Md-ASR) were divided into two clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific duplication was detected in M. domestica ASR genes. Leaves of 'Golden delicious' and 'Starking' were infected with Alternaria alternata f. sp. mali, which causes apple blotch disease, and examined for the expression of the ASR genes in lesion areas during the first 72 h after inoculation. Md-ASR genes showed different expression patterns at different sampling times in 'Golden delicious' and 'Starking'. The activities of stress-related enzymes, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured in different stages of disease development in two cultivars. The ASR gene expression patterns and theses physiological indexes for disease resistance suggested that Md-ASR genes are involved in biotic stress responses in apple.

  11. First report of Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot and Elsinoe pyri on apple in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Schiller, Michaela; Lund, Ole Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    An apple disease, known as “Topaz spot” in northern Europe (Trapman and Jansonius, 2008) has since year 2000 become widespread in Danish organic apple orchards (Malus domestica). Characteristic symptoms are small spots (black on fruits, brown on leaves) having a silvery-grey cen- tre. The associa...

  12. QTL analysis of the genetic architecture determining resistance to fire blight in an apple progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Drouet, D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Brisset, M.N.; Paulin, J.P.; Durel, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica). In order to analyse the genetic determinism of resistance to fire blight in apple, a quantitative trait analysis (QTL) approach was used. A F1 progeny of 164 individ

  13. Cloning and characterization of three apple MADS box genes isolated from vegetative tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der C.G.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of finding genes involved in the floral transition of woody species four MADS box genes containing cDNAs from apple (Malus domestica) have been isolated. Three genes were isolated from vegetative tissue of apple, but were homologues of known genes that specify floral organ identity. MdM

  14. Wound responses of wild apples suggest multiple resistance mechanism against blue mold decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold caused primarily by Penicillium expansum and to a lesser extent other Penicillium spp. is the most destructive disease of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apple germplasms, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central...

  15. The Relation Between Endogenous Hormones and Late-Germination in Buds of Avrolles Apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Dong; WANG Jin-zheng; GUO Jian-min; ZHAI Heng

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide the physiological bases for selecting late-germination cultivars that can avoid late frost damage,the very late-germination variety Avrolles (Malus domestica) was used to study the relation between the dynamic changes and balance of endogenous hormones and germination time.The concentrations of endogenous GA3,ABA,IAA,and ZR were determined in buds of Avrolles and Judeline (Malus domestica) from dormancy releasing to germination by capillary electrophoresis.The dynamic changes of endogenous hormones concentration in buds of Avrolles and Judeline were similar; but the magnitude and time of the change were significantly different between the two varieties,especially for GA3.GA3 concentration increased with dormancy releasing,then decreased,and increased again before germination in the two varieties.GA3 concentration in Avrolles was 1.72 times that in Judeline at the first peak,the gap increased to 2.22 times at germination.ZR concentration exhibited a continuous increase trend,but it decreased sharply before germination.ZR accumulation in Avrolles took 36 days longer than in Judeline,the peak value was 44% higher than in Judeline.Before germination,ZR concentration in Avrolles was 2.12 times that in Judeline.The differences between IAA and ABA concentration were relatively small in the two varieties,while the ratios of GA3/ABA and (GA3 + IAA + ZR)/ABA in Avrolles were 2.08 and 1.58 times those in Judeline,respectively.The germination of apple bud was regulated by the endogenous hormones.For the late-germination apple Avrolles,its germination requires higher concentration of GA3 and ZR,which leads to the high ratios of GA3/ABA and (GA3 + IAA + ZR)/ABA.

  16. Apple skin patterning is associated with differential expression of MYB10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Andrew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. varieties have attractive striping patterns, a quality attribute that is important for determining apple fruit market acceptance. Most apple cultivars (e.g. 'Royal Gala' produce fruit with a defined fruit pigment pattern, but in the case of 'Honeycrisp' apple, trees can produce fruits of two different kinds: striped and blushed. The causes of this phenomenon are unknown. Results Here we show that striped areas of 'Honeycrisp' and 'Royal Gala' are due to sectorial increases in anthocyanin concentration. Transcript levels of the major biosynthetic genes and MYB10, a transcription factor that upregulates apple anthocyanin production, correlated with increased anthocyanin concentration in stripes. However, nucleotide changes in the promoter and coding sequence of MYB10 do not correlate with skin pattern in 'Honeycrisp' and other cultivars differing in peel pigmentation patterns. A survey of methylation levels throughout the coding region of MYB10 and a 2.5 Kb region 5' of the ATG translation start site indicated that an area 900 bp long, starting 1400 bp upstream of the translation start site, is highly methylated. Cytosine methylation was present in all three contexts, with higher methylation levels observed for CHH and CHG (where H is A, C or T than for CG. Comparisons of methylation levels of the MYB10 promoter in 'Honeycrisp' red and green stripes indicated that they correlate with peel phenotypes, with an enrichment of methylation observed in green stripes. Conclusions Differences in anthocyanin levels between red and green stripes can be explained by differential transcript accumulation of MYB10. Different levels of MYB10 transcript in red versus green stripes are inversely associated with methylation levels in the promoter region. Although observed methylation differences are modest, trends are consistent across years and differences are statistically significant. Methylation may be

  17. Callus formation from leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Malus Xdomestica Borkh. cv. Greensleeves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, S; Power, J B

    1988-05-01

    Large yields (1.85 × 10(7)/g.f.wt.) of viable protoplasts were obtained from leaves of axenic shoot cultures of Malus Xdomestica Borkh. cv. 'Greensleeves'. Protoplasts cultured in liquid or agarose semi-solidified KM8P medium underwent cell wall regeneration and colony formation.Protoplast-derived cell colonies developed to callus on semi-solid KM8 medium. This is the first report of callus formation from mesophyll protoplasts of apple.

  18. PENERAPAN PULSED ELECTRIC FIELD PADA PASTEURISASI SARI BUAH APEL VARIETAS ANA: KAJIAN KARAKTERISTIK NILAI GIZI, SIFAT FISIK, SIFAT KIMIAWI DAN MIKROBIA TOTAL Application of Pulsed Electric Field in Pasteurization of Apple Juice of Ana Cultivar : Study on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Choviya Hawa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, extracted from apple of ana cultivar , was pasteurized using a pulsed electric field (PEF method. The aimof this research was to analyze the changes on nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes from apple juice after pasteurization. The research was conducted from July until Oktober 2009 located in Malang. The PEF treatment was carried out using treatment time variation for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 seconds. Several parameters of vitamin A and C, water content, density, pH, total soluable solid and total microbes were observed. The results showed that PEF treatment did not significantly change nutritional, physical and chemical properties and total microbes after pasteurization with PEF in compared with no treatment pasteurization. The highest degradation was found in treatment time for 60 seconds, i.e. 93.53 %. ABSTRAK Sari buah apel, yang diekstrak dari apel varietas ana, dipasteurisasi dengan metode pulsed electric field (PEF. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perubahan karakteristik nilai gizi, sifat fisik, kimiawi dan total mikrobia sari buah apel sesudah dipasteurisasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan bulan Juli sampai dengan Oktober 2009 di Malang. Penelitian ini menggunakan variasi waktu pengolahan 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 dan 60 detik. Parameter pengamatan yaitu vitamin A dan C, kadar air, berat jenis, pH, total padatan terlarut dan total mikrobia. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai gizi, sifat fisik dan kimiawi dari sari apel  tidak mengalami perubahan signifikan dibandingkan sari apel tanpa perlakuan PEF. Penurunan total mikrobia terbesar pada waktu perlakuan 60 detik dengan efektivitas pembunuhan sebesar 93,53%.

  19. Analysis of contents and constituents of sugar and organic acid in different apple cultivars%不同品种苹果果实中糖酸组成与含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁俊; 郭燕; 刘玉莲; 李敏敏; 赵政阳

    2011-01-01

    【目的】分析不同品种苹果果实中主要糖、有机酸的种类和含量,为苹果品质评价和品种改良提供依据。【方法】采用高效液相色谱法,分离和测定了12个苹果品种果实中的可溶性糖和有机酸的主要组成及其含量。【结果】苹果果实中的可溶性糖为果糖、蔗糖、葡萄糖、山梨醇,且果糖含量明显高于其他3种糖,秦冠、新红星、富士Ⅰ、富士Ⅱ果实中的4种糖含量高低顺序为果糖〉葡萄糖〉蔗糖〉山梨醇,弘前富士、金冠、华冠、粉红女士、乔纳金、皮诺娃、红玉、澳洲青苹果实中的4种糖含量高低顺序为果糖〉蔗糖〉葡萄糖〉山梨醇。苹果果实中的有机酸有苹果酸、琥珀酸、草酸、柠檬酸、酒石酸和乙酸,其中苹果酸为主要有机酸。甜度/总酸值比较高的是华冠和秦冠(〉400),金冠、弘前富士、富士Ⅰ、富士Ⅱ、乔纳金介于200~400,较低的是新红星、澳洲青苹、红玉、皮诺娃和粉红女士(〈200)。【结论】弘前富士、富士Ⅰ、富士Ⅱ、秦冠、金冠、乔纳金、新红星、皮诺娃、华冠果实中的主要可溶性糖为果糖,粉红女士、澳洲青苹、红玉中主要为果糖和蔗糖;12个苹果品种果实中的有机酸均主要为苹果酸。甜度/总酸值是影响苹果果实甜酸风味的一个重要因素。%【Objective】 Primary sugars and organic acids of different apple cultivars were analyzed.The results could provide a theoretical basis for quality evaluation and quality improvement in apple.【Method】 HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method was used to measure the soluble sugar and organic acid contents of 12 apple cultivars in this study.【Result】 The results indicated that the soluble sugars in apple fruit flesh included fructose,sucrose,glucose,and sorbitol,of which fructose content was much more than other sugars.Four apple cultivars

  20. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  1. 低温诱导下苹果花药差异表达基因分析%Differentially expressed gene analysis of apple (Malus domestica) anther under low temperature induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧珍; 邓舒; 张春芬; 肖蓉; 王卉; 孟玉平; 曹秋芬

    2016-01-01

    低温处理是苹果花药培养诱导胚状体形成的关键步骤,花药中的小孢子在经过一定时间的低温诱导后才能获得胚性潜能。本文通过转录组测序的方法对低温处理前和低温处理30 d的苹果花药进行研究,分析低温诱导条件下花药中的差异表达基因。结果表明:转录组测序共得到10.90 Gb的Clean Data。基因表达分析结果显示,共有4105个基因发生差异表达,包括表达上调基因1849个,表达下调基因2256个。注释到GO、COG、KEGG、Swiss-Prot和nr数据库的差异表达基因分别有3325个、1504个、733个、2993个和3758个。差异表达基因主要富集在与糖类代谢和激素信号转导有关的过程中,其中在淀粉和蔗糖代谢、植物激素信号转导这两个代谢通路中富集的差异表达基因最多。筛选出的差异表达基因中控制蔗糖合成、细胞分裂素、脱落酸和油菜素内酯信号转导的相关基因表达量上调,控制淀粉合成、生长素信号转导的相关基因表达量下调。差异表达基因的荧光定量PCR结果显示测序结果和实际结果变化趋势完全一致。由此可见,苹果花药经低温诱导后,影响蔗糖、淀粉生物合成和生长素、细胞分裂素、脱落酸、赤霉素和油菜素内酯信号转导相关基因的表达变化是影响小孢子获得胚性潜能的关键。%Low temperature treatment is the key step in the induction of the formation of embryoid during apple anther culture, and pollen in anthers can acquire the embryogenic potential after a certain period of low tem-perature induction. In this study, the research on the two group apple anther that one was treated by 30 days low temperature and the other untreated were carried out by the method of RNA-Seq, and the DEG (differentially expressed genes) in the process of embryoid formation was analyzed. The results showed that: A total of 10.90 Gb clean data was generated using the

  2. Heat shock transcriptional factors in Malus domestica: identification, classification and expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorno Filomena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock transcriptional factors (Hsfs play a crucial role in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress conditions and in plant growth and development. Apple (Malus domestica Borkh is an economically important fruit tree whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for this crop plant. Results A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Malus domestica to identify heat shock transcriptional factor (Hsf genes, named MdHsfs. Twenty five MdHsfs were identified and classified in three main groups (class A, B and C according to the structural characteristics and to the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. Chromosomal duplications were analyzed and segmental duplications were shown to have occurred more frequently in the expansion of Hsf genes in the apple genome. Furthermore, MdHsfs transcripts were detected in several apple organs, and expression changes were observed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis in developing flowers and fruits as well as in leaves, harvested from trees grown in the field and exposed to the naturally increased temperatures. Conclusions The apple genome comprises 25 full length Hsf genes. The data obtained from this investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Hsf gene family in apple, and provide the basis for further studies to dissect Hsf function during development as well as in response to environmental stimuli.

  3. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Kost

    Full Text Available The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5, and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight.

  4. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves.

  5. Studies on Taste Evaluation Indices for Fresh Apple Juice Based on 159 Cultivars%基于159个品种的苹果鲜榨汁风味评价指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继云; 李海飞; 李静; 王昆; 李志霞; 毋永龙

    2012-01-01

    Using 159 cultivars of apple as samples,relationships among taste,titrable acids(Ta), soluble solid(sSSo),soluble sugar(sSSu),soluble solids/titrable acid(sSSo/Ta),and soluble sugar/titrable acids(SSu/Ta) of fresh apple juice were investigated,and the suitable quantitative evaluation indices for taste of fresh juice and their grading standards were established. The results denoted that:Taste value (Tv),Ta,SSo,SSu,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta of fresh apple juice had different dispersion,their coefficient of variation were between 12.2% and 60.7%;Both Ta and SSo of fresh apple juice distributed normally, SSu also distributed normally after 2 cultivars were removed,while Tv distributed near normally;Among Tv,Ta,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta of fresh apple juice,there were highly significant simple linear equations or power functions with coefficient of determination up to 0.8811–0.9740;Ta,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta were all suitable quantitative evaluation indices for taste of fresh apple juice,among which Ta is the most handy and accurate one;Ta,SSo/Ta,and SSu/Ta of fresh apple juice were all divided into 5 grades(the corresponding taste of fresh apple juice were respectively sweet,sour-sweet,sour-sweet moderately, sweet-sour,and sour),and the average cultivar ratio of the 5 grades were 3.35%,20.55%,40.67%, 22.64%,and 12.79%,respectively.%以159个苹果品种为试材,探讨了鲜榨汁风味、可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量、固酸比及糖酸比之间的相互关系,明确了苹果鲜榨汁风味的适宜定量评价指标及其分级标准。苹果鲜榨汁风味值、可滴定酸含量、可溶性固形物含量、可溶性糖含量、固酸比和糖酸比离散度不同,变异系数在12.2%~60.7%;鲜榨汁可滴定酸含量和可溶性固形物含量均符合正态分布,在去掉两个拖尾品种后可溶性糖含量也符合正态分布,风味值近似正态分布;风味值、可滴定酸含量、固酸比和糖酸比之间存在极显著的一

  6. Superação in vitro da dormência de embriões do porta-enxerto de macieira M9 (Malus pumilla Mill. Suppression of in vitro dormancy in embryos of rootstock of apple M9 (Malus pumilla Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CIBELE DE MESQUITA DANTAS

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A dormência em sementes de macieira é um dos fatores limitantes para o avanço nos programas de melhoramento genético nesta espécie. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou estudar a germinação in vitro de embriões dormentes do porta-enxerto de macieira M9, oriundos da EE São Joaquim da EPAGRI/SC. Os embriões foram excisados de sementes maduras e inoculados em meio basal MS, adicionado de sacarose (30 g.L-1, ágar (6 g.L-1, água de coco (15%, caseína hidrolisada (CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (0 e 14 µM; AG3 (0 e 1,5 µM, Kin (5 µM, 2-iP (12 µM; BAP (4 µM. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro por 10 dias e transferidas para sala de crescimento sob regime de luz de 16 horas, temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e 40 µmol de radiação luminosa. A maior percentagem de germinação (75% foi obtida em meio MS suplementado com CH (500 mg.L-1, AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e Kin (5 µM. Quando a Kin foi substituída por BAP (4µM, observou-se a formação de calo, sobre o qual se originaram gemas e brotações, cujos valores médios foram de 2,3 brotos por embrião e 12,3 gemas por brotação. Em relação ao comprimento das brotações, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. A maior percentagem de indução de calos ocorreu em meio de cultura suplementado com AIA, Kin e 2-iP. O meio de cultura MS/2 suplementado com CH e água de coco e isento de fitorreguladores, resultou em 25% de germinação. Já, o número de raízes foi maior no meio de cultura MS suplementado com AIA (14 µM, AG3 (1,5 µM e CH. O comprimento médio das raízes (4,0 cm não foi afetado por nenhum tratamento em particular. Desta forma, esta técnica é uma alternativa eficiente ao uso de tratamentos de frio para a superação da dormência.The embryo dormancy in apple is a limiting factor in breeding programs with this species. Thus the present work was carried out in order to study the in vitro germination of M9 apple dormant embryos, originated from the Experimental

  7. Effects of calcium on activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase and catalase in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) fruits%钙对苹果果实超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶活性及其基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国庆; 孙静文; 周卫; 王秀斌

    2011-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), O2- and H2O2 in apple ( Malus pumila Mill. ) fruits were investigated under the hydroponic condition with 0,1,10 mmol/L CaCl2 and 5 mmol/L EGTA, and expression patterns of SOD and CAT1 gene were analyzed by real-time PCR. Addition of 10 mmol/L CaCl2 to the culture solution with 12 h and 24 h exposure significantly improved the activities of SOD and CAT, respectively, and simultaneously decreased O2 and H2O2 accumulation. Addition of 5 mmol/L EGTA, as a specific chelator of Ca, induced O2- and H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in SOD and CAT activities. The abundance of SOD gene was up-regulated by calcium addition after 12 h exposure in accordance with change of SOD activity, indicating that SOD activity was modified by SOD gene expression. However, expression of CAT1 gene was not in accordance with change of CAT activity. It seemed that CAT activity was modified by CAT1 gene expression particularly at the level of posttranslational modification. It was concluded that calcium addition might protect apple fruit tissues against oxidative stress by up-regulating gene expressions and activities of SOD and CAT, then precisely controlling O2- and H2O2 accumulation.%采用果实薄片培养试验研究不同钙浓度(0、1和10 mmo1/L CaCl2,5 mmol/L EGTA)和处理时间(6、12、24和48 h)下苹果果实活性氧代谢特征;运用荧光定量PGR方法分析编码苹果超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)基因在分子水平的表达.高钙处理12 h后,SOD酶的活性显著增加,O2-产生速率显著下降;高钙处理24h后,CAT酶的活性显著增加,H2O2含量显著下降;缺钙处理下SOD酶和CAT酶的活性受到抑制,O2-形成速率和H2O2含量显著增加.基因表达实验显示,高钙处理12 h后,SOD基因的表达量增加,与SOD酶活性变化一致,说明SOD酶的活性取决于SOD基因的表达量;高钙处理12 h后,CAT1基因的表达量增加,而CAT酶的活性是在加钙处理24

  8. Are apple and hawthorn fruit volatiles more attractive than ammonium carbonate to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. In the eastern U.S. where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonel...

  9. Detection of an apple-infesting popoulation of Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) 1867 (Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of apples (Malus domesica Borkh.) (Rosaceae) throughout much of the United States. The fly is endemic to the eastern U.S., where its primary host plants are several species of native hawthorns (C...

  10. Wound response and ROS production in blue mold resistant wild apple germplasm from Kazakhstan and central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most destructive pathogen of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apples, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central Asia maintained in a germplasm collection in Geneva, NY. We ini...

  11. Comparison of Gibberellin Acid Content and the Genes Relatived to GA Biosynthesis Between ‘Changfu 2’ Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and Its Spur Sport%GA含量与其合成酶基因在‘长富2号’苹果及其短枝型芽变品种之间的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋杨; 张艳敏; 刘金; 王传增; 刘美艳; 冯守千; 陈学森

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The relationship between intemode length of shoots, endogenous hormones gibberellic acid (GA) and the structure and expression of genes related to GA synthesis in apple (Mains domesiica Borkh.) is a basis for further exploration of the spur type development mechanism and breeding of cultivars of spur type apple. [ Method ] The shoots and leaves of 'Changfu 2' and its spur sport 'Longfuduanzhi' were used as experimental materials for measuring the content of GA and cloning the genes which involved in the GA synthesis pathway at the four time points days after flowering and researching the relationship between GA and the intemode length of shoots at shoot development stage. [ Result ] The GA content was significantly different between the spur type apple and non-spur type apple on 80th day after flowering. The GA content was lower in spur type sport compared with in non-spur type apple varieties on 80th day after flowering. The sequences analysis showed that the cDNA sequences of GA20ox and KO, key genes involved in GA synthesis, were the same between 'Longfuduanzhi' and 'Changfu 2'. The mutation, insertion and deletion were not appeared in GA20ox and KO. The real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the relative expression of GA20ox and KO were significantly different between 'Longfuduanzhi' and 'Changfu 2' on 20th and 80th day after flowering. The relative expression of GA20ox and KO was lower in spur type apple compared with non-spur type apple on 20th and 80th day after flowering. [ Conclusion ] The research results showed that the difference of GA content and key genes expression of GA synthesis pathway were related to shoot internode length of spur sport apple. The lower GA content and genes involved in GA synthesis pathway were down-regulated expression which inhibited the normal development of spur sport apple shoots. This study has provided basic information for further exploration of the spur type development mechanism.%[目的]研究苹

  12. Biphenyl 4-Hydroxylases Involved in Aucuparin Biosynthesis in Rowan and Apple Are Cytochrome P450 736A Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Debabrata; Gaid, Mariam M; Chizzali, Cornelia; Reckwell, Dennis; Kaufholdt, David; Beuerle, Till; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Flachowsky, Henryk; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-06-01

    Upon pathogen attack, fruit trees such as apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) accumulate biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins, with aucuparin as a major biphenyl compound. 4-Hydroxylation of the biphenyl scaffold, formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (CYP). The biphenyl 4-hydroxylase (B4H) coding sequence of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) was isolated and functionally expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). SaB4H was named CYP736A107. No catalytic function of CYP736 was known previously. SaB4H exhibited absolute specificity for 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl. In rowan cell cultures treated with elicitor from the scab fungus, transient increases in the SaB4H, SaBIS, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase transcript levels preceded phytoalexin accumulation. Transient expression of a carboxyl-terminal reporter gene construct directed SaB4H to the endoplasmic reticulum. A construct lacking the amino-terminal leader and transmembrane domain caused cytoplasmic localization. Functional B4H coding sequences were also isolated from two apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars. The MdB4Hs were named CYP736A163. When stems of cv Golden Delicious were infected with the fire blight bacterium, highest MdB4H transcript levels were observed in the transition zone. In a phylogenetic tree, the three B4Hs were closest to coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylases involved in lignin biosynthesis, suggesting a common ancestor. Coniferaldehyde and related compounds were not converted by SaB4H.

  13. Biphenyl 4-Hydroxylases Involved in Aucuparin Biosynthesis in Rowan and Apple Are Cytochrome P450 736A Proteins1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufholdt, David; Broggini, Giovanni A.L.; Flachowsky, Henryk; Hänsch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Upon pathogen attack, fruit trees such as apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) accumulate biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins, with aucuparin as a major biphenyl compound. 4-Hydroxylation of the biphenyl scaffold, formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (CYP). The biphenyl 4-hydroxylase (B4H) coding sequence of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) was isolated and functionally expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). SaB4H was named CYP736A107. No catalytic function of CYP736 was known previously. SaB4H exhibited absolute specificity for 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl. In rowan cell cultures treated with elicitor from the scab fungus, transient increases in the SaB4H, SaBIS, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase transcript levels preceded phytoalexin accumulation. Transient expression of a carboxyl-terminal reporter gene construct directed SaB4H to the endoplasmic reticulum. A construct lacking the amino-terminal leader and transmembrane domain caused cytoplasmic localization. Functional B4H coding sequences were also isolated from two apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars. The MdB4Hs were named CYP736A163. When stems of cv Golden Delicious were infected with the fire blight bacterium, highest MdB4H transcript levels were observed in the transition zone. In a phylogenetic tree, the three B4Hs were closest to coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylases involved in lignin biosynthesis, suggesting a common ancestor. Coniferaldehyde and related compounds were not converted by SaB4H. PMID:25862456

  14. [AFLP Analysis of Genetic Diversity in the Genus Mallus Mill. (Apple)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, E N; Kudryavtsev, A M

    2015-10-01

    The first molecular genetic analysis of the apple species and varieties from Russian collections with the AFLP marker system was performed in order to study the genetic diversity of the genus Malus, as well as to clarify the phylogeny and solve some systematic issues of the genus. Nienty-one apple accessions, including species from five sections of the genus Malus and hybrid species, were examined. The level of polymorphism constituted 90.2%. It was demonstrated that the classical taxonomy of the genus Malus, which identifies five sections based on differences in their morphological characters, is valid and may be used to classify apple species. The species assignment of the Antonovka landraces was established. All of them belonged to the species M. domestica. It was demonstrated that the Yakutskaya apple variety was a domesticated species of the section Gymnomeles, presumably, M. baccata. AFLP analysis confirmed the hybrid nature of many species. The relationships between apple varieties of the Golden group with American wild species were demonstrated. The data suggest that the species M. sieversii was the ancestor of not only the domestic apple but also of other species of the Malus sections.

  15. Effect of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols on chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in apple fruit: signature analysis, assessment, modelling, and relevance to photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlyak, Mark N; Melø, Thor Bernt; Naqvi, K Razi

    2008-01-01

    Whole apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) widely differing in pigment content and composition has been examined by recording its chlorophyll fluorescence excitation and diffuse reflection spectra in the visible and near UV regions. Spectral bands sensitive to the pigment concentration have been identified, and linear models for non-destructive assessment of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols via chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are put forward. The adaptation of apple fruit to high light stress involves accumulation of these protective pigments, which absorb solar radiation in broad spectral ranges extending from UV to the green and, in anthocyanin-containing cultivars, to the red regions of the spectrum. In ripening apples the protective effect in the blue region could be attributed to extrathylakoid carotenoids. A simple model, which allows the simulation of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in the visible range and a quantitative evaluation of competitive absorption by anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols, is described. Evidence is presented to support the view that anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols play, in fruit with low-to-moderate pigment content, the role of internal traps (insofar as they compete with chlorophylls for the absorption of incident light in specific spectral bands), affecting thereby the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum.

  16. Identification of S-gene in Self-compatible Apple Cultivar%自交亲和苹果品种S基因型的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅; 李保国; 秦立者; 齐国辉; 郭素萍

    2009-01-01

    In order to discuss the mechanism of apple self-compatibility, the primer PI:5'-TTTACGCAGC AATATCAG-3' and P2:5'-ACGTTCGGCCAAATA/CATT-3' of apple style S gene were designed according to the conser-vative amino acid sequence,the primer P SLFKupriver 5-3':CTGGTGGTGTTCTTTCCTGTGTAT;backward position 5'-3': ACTTAACTCTTCCCTCAACTCA) and P SLF9 ( upriver 5-3' CAGGTGCGTGAAAGTGAAA; backward position 5-3': TGAGCCAAGCATAAGAACCT) of apple pollen S gene were designed according to the SLF1 (DQ422810) and SLF9 (AB270792)in GeneBank,the molecular character of self-compatible apple Zaohongxiang was studied in the method of PCR-RFLP,clone and sequence.The result showed that:tow style S gene of self- compatible apple Zaohongxiang did not variation. DNA sequence of pollen S gene which was amplified through pollen S gene primer P SLF1 and P SLF9 com-pared with the sequence of MdSLF2 and MdSLF9 had a high similarity, which arrived at 94% and 96% , amino acid sim-ilarity was 94% and 97% .The similarity of Pollen S gene SLF1? which was amplified through P SLF1 and DNA se-quence of MdSLFl was 83 %, and the differ bases were distributed in the whole DNA sequence, so that pollen S gene SLF? could changed into MdSLF2 .%为了探讨苹果自交亲和的发生机理,根据保守氨基酸序列"FTQQYQ"和"anti-1/WⅠPNV"设计了苹果花柱S基因的通用引物:P1:5'-TTTACGCAGCAATATCAG-3';P2:5'-ACGTTCGGCCAAATA/CATT-3',根据 GeneBank登陆的花粉SLF1(DQ422810)、SLF9(AB270792)基因设计了花粉S基因的引物分别为:P SLF1(上游5'-3':CTGGTGGTGTTCTTTCCTGTGTAT;下游5'-3':ACTTAACTCTTCCCTCAACTCA)和P SLF9(上游5'-3'CAGGTGCGTGAAAGTGAAA;下游5'-3':TGAGCCAAGCATAAGAACCT),以自交亲和的苹果品种早红香为试验材料,利用PCR-RFLP、克隆、测序等方法研究早红香苹果发生自交亲和的分子性状.结果表明:自交亲和的早红香苹果2条花柱S基因没有发生变异.经BLAST比较,由花粉S基因引物P SLF1 和P SLF9扩增得到的

  17. Thidiazuron effects on shoot growth, return bloom, fruit set and nutrition of apples Efeito do thidiazuron no crescimento, no florescimento, na frutificação e na nutrição em macieiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. trees, cultivars Gala and Fuji, were sprayed at full bloom with thidiazuron (TDZ at doses of 0, 5, 10, or 20 g ha-1 of a.i. in order to evaluate its effects on plant growth and development, return bloom, fruit set, nutrition, and fruit yield. Fruit set increased with TDZ dose in 'Gala' but not in 'Fuji'. TDZ did not affect fruit yield in any cultivar. In 'Gala', the return bloom was reduced in about 50% at TDZ doses of 10 or 20 g ha-1. TDZ increased shoot growth in both cultivars. In leaves, TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and Mg in 'Gala' and of Mg in 'Fuji', but did not affect the chlorophyll content, leaf area, length, width, and dry mass per cm² regardless of cultivar. In fruits, the effect of TDZ varied according to the portion evaluated. Highest doses of TDZ decreased the concentration of Ca and K in 'Gala' and of K in 'Fuji' in the entire fruits (flesh + skin; in the skin, highest doses of TDZ reduced the levels of N, Ca, and Mg in both cultivars, in addition to the level of K in 'Fuji'.Macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh., cultivares Gala e Fuji, foram pulverizadas na plena floração com thidiazuron (TDZ nas doses de 0, 5, 10 e 20 g ha-1 de ingrediente ativo com o objetivo de serem avaliadas quanto ao crescimento, florescimento, nutrição, frutificação e rendimento de frutos. A frutificação efetiva aumentou com a dose de TDZ na cultivar Gala, mas não na cultivar Fuji. Os tratamentos não afetaram o rendimento de frutos em nenhuma cultivar. Na cultivar Gala o florescimento no ano posterior ao da aplicação de TDZ foi reduzido em cerca de 50% nas doses de 10 e 20 g ha-1. O TDZ promoveu aumento no crescimento dos ramos do ano em ambas as cultivares. Nas folhas, o aumento nas doses de TDZ reduziu os teores de Ca e Mg na cultivar Gala, e de Mg na cultivar Fuji mas não afetou o conteúdo de clorofila, área, comprimento, diâmetro e massa seca cm-2 da folha, em ambas as cultivares. Em frutos inteiros

  18. Fruit self-thinning: a trait to consider for genetic improvement of apple tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celton, Jean-Marc; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Martinez, Sébastien; Bechti, Abdel; Khelifi Touhami, Amina; James, Marie José; Durel, Charles-Eric; Laurens, François; Costes, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    In apple (Malus×domestica Borkh), as in many fruiting crops, fruit maintenance vs abscission is a major criteria for production profitability. Growers routinely make use of chemical thinning agents to control total fruit load. However, serious threats for the environment lead to the demand for new apple cultivars with self-thinning properties. In this project, we studied the genetic determinism of this trait using a F1 progeny derived from the cross between the hybrid INRA X3263, assumed to possess the self-thinning trait, and the cultivar 'Belrène'. Both counting and percentage variables were considered to capture the fruiting behaviour on different shoot types and over three consecutive years. Besides low to moderate but significant genetic effects, mixed models showed considerable effects of the year and the shoot type, as well as an interaction effect. Year effect resulted mainly from biennial fruiting. Eight Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) were detected on several linkage groups (LG), either independent or specific of the year of observation or the shoot type. The QTL with highest LOD value was located on the top third of LG10. The screening of three QTL zones for candidate genes revealed a list of transcription factors and genes involved in fruit nutrition, xylem differentiation, plant responses to starvation and organ abscission that open new avenues for further molecular investigations. The detailed phenotyping performed revealed the dependency between the self-thinning trait and the fruiting status of the trees. Despite a moderate genetic control of the self-thinning trait, QTL and candidate genes were identified which will need further analyses involving other progenies and molecular investigations.

  19. Fruit self-thinning: a trait to consider for genetic improvement of apple tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Celton

    Full Text Available In apple (Malus×domestica Borkh, as in many fruiting crops, fruit maintenance vs abscission is a major criteria for production profitability. Growers routinely make use of chemical thinning agents to control total fruit load. However, serious threats for the environment lead to the demand for new apple cultivars with self-thinning properties. In this project, we studied the genetic determinism of this trait using a F1 progeny derived from the cross between the hybrid INRA X3263, assumed to possess the self-thinning trait, and the cultivar 'Belrène'. Both counting and percentage variables were considered to capture the fruiting behaviour on different shoot types and over three consecutive years. Besides low to moderate but significant genetic effects, mixed models showed considerable effects of the year and the shoot type, as well as an interaction effect. Year effect resulted mainly from biennial fruiting. Eight Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL were detected on several linkage groups (LG, either independent or specific of the year of observation or the shoot type. The QTL with highest LOD value was located on the top third of LG10. The screening of three QTL zones for candidate genes revealed a list of transcription factors and genes involved in fruit nutrition, xylem differentiation, plant responses to starvation and organ abscission that open new avenues for further molecular investigations. The detailed phenotyping performed revealed the dependency between the self-thinning trait and the fruiting status of the trees. Despite a moderate genetic control of the self-thinning trait, QTL and candidate genes were identified which will need further analyses involving other progenies and molecular investigations.

  20. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  1. A aplicação de nitrogênio ao solo em diferentes estádios não afetou o rendimento de frutos de cultivares de macieira Application of nitrogen to the soil in different stages did not affect on fruit yield of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Ernani

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanto o excesso quanto a deficiência de N causam efeitos negativos na produtividade e na qualidade dos frutos de macieira. Como a taxa de absorção de N pelas árvores de macieira é afetada pela demanda das mesmas, dentro da estação de crescimento, e pelo N disponível no solo, é importante conhecer a necessidade da adição suplementar desse nutriente e a melhor época para aplicá-lo. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da época de aplicação de N ao solo na produtividade de frutos de duas cultivares de macieira. Os experimentos, um para a Gala e outro para a Fuji, foram conduzidos de 1990 a 1996, em Vacaria, RS, num pomar plantado em 1988, na densidade de1481 árvores ha-1, sobre um Latossolo bruno com 4,0% de matéria orgânica, 60% de argila e pH 6,9. Os tratamentos constaram de 50kg de N ha-1 nos três primeiros anos, e 60kg de N ha-1 nas outras três safras, aplicados no inchamento das gemas (IG, ou na queda de pétalas (QP, ou dividido 2/3 no IG + 1/3 na QP, ou 2/3 na QP + 1/3 trinta dias após. O N foi sempre aplicado sobre a superfície do solo, sem incorporação, numa faixa de 2,0m ao longo da fila de plantio. Houve também um tratamento sem a aplicação de N. A produtividade média anual de frutos variou de 40 a 112t ha-1 para a cultivar Gala e de 38 a 76t ha-1 para a Fuji, e a produtividade média da Gala, no período, foi 35% superior à da Fuji. A aplicação de N ao solo, independentemente da época, não teve efeito na produtividade de frutos, no tamanho das brotações, na concentração de N nas folhas e no diâmetro do tronco das duas cultivares. Presume-se, portanto, que a quantidade de N liberada a partir da decomposição da matéria orgânica do solo foi suficiente para atender à demanda das plantas e permitir uma alta produtividade de frutos de macieira.Excess or deficiency of N have deleterious effects on apple yield and fruit quality. Since the rate of N uptake by apple trees depends on crop

  2. Toxin production by Alternaria alternata in tomatoes and apples stored under various conditions and quantitation of the toxins by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, S; Ozcelik, N; Beuchat, L R

    1990-12-01

    Alternaria alternata strain 8442-3 was inoculated into tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and Red Delicious cultivar apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Half of the lots of each fruit were shrink-wrapped in high-density polyethylene film. Wrapped and unwrapped fruits were incubated under darkness at 4, 15 and 25 degrees C for up to 5 weeks. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME), and altenuene (ALT). Shrink-wrapping retarded, but did not completely inhibit growth in tomatoes for 3-7 days. Concentrations of up to 120.6 mg of AOH and 63.7 mg of AME per 100 g of tissue were produced in unwrapped tomatoes stored at 15 degrees C for 4 weeks; 19.0 mg of ALT per 100 g of tomato tissue was produced after 3 weeks at 25 degrees C. AOH, AME and ALT were also produced in unwrapped tomatoes stored at 4 degrees C; however, no TeA was detected in decayed tomatoes, regardless of type of wrapping or storage temperature. Shrink-wrapping resulted in decreased production of AOH, AME, and ALT. Alternaria toxins were not detected in apples stored at 4 and 15 degrees C. The highest concentration of AOH produced (48.8 mg per 100 g of tissue) was in unwrapped apples stored at 25 degrees C for 2 weeks; 12.3 mg per 100 g of tissue of shrink-wrapped apples was detected after 5 weeks of storage at 25 degrees C, while ALT reached 5.7 mg per 100 g after 4 weeks. TeA was not detected in apples infected with A. alternata.

  3. Cloning and Expression Analysis of GlutathioneS-Transferase GeneMdGSTF3 from Apple (Malus domestica)%苹果谷胱甘肽S-转移酶基因MdGSTF3的克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊连梅; 刘更森; 李思琪; 原永兵

    2015-01-01

    A full-length glutathioneS-transferase gene namedMdGSTF3 was cloned with RT-PCR and RACE-PCR fromMalus domestica cv. ‘Fuji’ peel. The GenBank accession number was KP234026.MdGSTF3was 868 bp in length including 49 bp of 5' untranslated region, 151 bp of 3' untranslated region and 26 bp polyA. It had a coding sequence (CDS) of 642 bp, encoding 213 amino acid residues. This predicted polypeptide includ-ed 19 kinds of amino acids except for cysteine, with the molecular mass of 23.993 kDa, isoelectric point of 6.17. Real-time lfuorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level ofMdGSTF3 in stems, leaves, lfowers of striped-red ‘Fuji’ was higher than that of the mutant blushed-red ‘Fuji’, but the expression level of MdGSTF3 in peel and pulp of blushed-red ‘Fuji’ was higher than that of striped-red ‘Fuji’. The most relative expression quantity ofMdGSTF3 from peel and pulp of blushed-red ‘Fuji’ were 46.6% and 22.1% higher than that of striped-red ‘Fuji’ respectively. The results indicated that the expression level ofMdGSTF3was closely related with anthocyanin accumulation and distribution of apple peel.%以‘富士’苹果果皮为试材,利用RT-PCR和RACE-PCR克隆得到1个全长为868 bp的苹果谷胱甘肽S-转移酶基因MdGSTF3全长cDNA序列, GenBank的登录号为KP234026,该基因5'非翻译区49 bp,3'非翻译区151 bp,含有26 bp的PolyA尾,编码区为642 bp,编码213个氨基酸,编码的蛋白质含有19种氨基酸,不含有半胱氨酸Cys,相对分子质量为23.993 kDa,等电点为6.17。氨基酸多重序列比对分析结果表明MdGST与梅的PmGST蛋白(XP_008235026)遗传相似性为83%。实时荧光定量PCR结果表明, MdGSTF3在条红‘富士’的茎、叶和花中表达量高于其突变体片红‘富士’;而在果皮和果肉中,片红‘富士’该基因的表达量高于条红‘富士’;在表达量达到最大值时,片红‘富士’比条红‘富士’分别高出46.6%和22

  4. Response of Some Malus Мill. Species Representatives to Extreme Low Temperatures in Baikal Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Batuyeva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of study of maximal frost resistance of apple-tree varieties of Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Buryat, Canadian selection by the method of artificial freezing. The research found virtually all apple-tree varieties to withstand the temperature as low as -45оС without serious damage to bark, cambium and wood; with only Melba variety exhibiting significant bark damage. Apple-tree varieties of Buryat ACRI selection, regardless of cultivation location, demonstrated high tissue resistance to critical low negative temperatures. The investigated forms of Malus baccata L. Borkh, are characterized by high frost resistance in the middle of winter regardless of their location. Critical temperatures of -50о and -55оС proved lethal for Lada, Krasnaya Grozd’ varieties, as well as for Melba variety of Canadian selection.

  5. Identification of a major QTL together with several minor additive or epistatic QTLs for resistance to fire blight in apple in two related progenies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Drouet, D.; Denance, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Brisset, M.N.; Paulin, J.P.; Durel, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Although fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica) worldwide, no major, qualitative gene for resistance to this disease has been identified to date in apple. We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in t

  6. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SOIL TEMPERATURE AND PLANT GROWTH STAGE ON NITROGEN UPTAKE AND AMINO ACID CONTENT OF APPLE NURSERY STOCK DURING EARLY SPRING GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spring, nitrogen (N) uptake by apple roots is known to be delayed about three weeks after bud break. We used one-year-old 'Fuji' (Malus domestica Borkh) on M26 bare-root apple trees to determine whether timing of N uptake in the spring is dependant solely on the growth st...

  7. New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Gladieux, P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Laurens, F.; Cam, le B.; Nersesyan, A.; Clavel, J.; Olonova, M.; Feugey, L.; Gabrielyan, I.; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, M.I.; Giraud, T.

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cult

  8. Phenylpropanoid metabolites and expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in the shaded peel of apple fruit in response to sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2013-08-01

    The shaded peel of 'Fortune' (a red cultivar) and 'Mutsu' (a yellow/green cultivar) apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) was exposed to full sun by turning fruit 180° at about one week before harvest to determine the expression of key genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis in response to sunlight exposure and their relationships with the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolics. For the unturned (control) fruit, the shaded peel had lower expression levels of MdMYB10 (a transcriptional factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis) and seven structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis (MdPAL, MdCHS, MdCHI, MdF3H, MdDFR1, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT), and lower levels of anthocyanins and flavonols than the sun-exposed peel in both cultivars. Exposure of the shaded peel to full sun caused marked up-regulation of the expression of MdMYB10 and all seven structural genes, which peaked between 6 h and 30 h after fruit turning, consequently leading to higher levels of anthocyanins, flavonols, and total phenolics than in the shaded peel and even in the sun-exposed peel of control fruit. Interestingly, the levels of flavonols were higher in the shaded peel of turned fruit (the original sun-exposed peel) than in the sun-exposed peel of both control and turned fruit in both cultivars, suggesting that competition for substrates exists in different branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway. These results indicate that sunlight exposure stimulates the expression of MdMYB10 and structural genes in anthocyanin synthesis, thereby elevating the levels of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds in both red and yellow/green cultivars.

  9. Lavagem e sanitização em maçã (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivar Royal Gala: avaliação na redução de pesticidas organofosforados
    Washing and sanitizing in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. Royal Gala cultivate: evaluation in reducing organophospho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. ROCHA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lavar e sanitizar produtos hortifrutíferos para impedir doenças transmitidas por agentes biológicos é importante e se faz necessário. Normalmente os estudos avaliam a efi cácia desses processos em relação a destruição dos microrganismos patogênicos e deteriorantes, enquanto que as respostas sobre a remoção dos resíduos de agrotóxicos não são conclusivos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os métodos de sanitização utilizados rotineiramente em Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição para sanitização de frutas e hortaliças com vista à redução de agrotóxico organofosforado Parationa-Metílica, muito utilizado nos tratos culturais de hortifruticolas. Foram contaminadas amostras de maçãs em solução de 5ppm do agrotóxico e posteriormente foram submersas por 15 e 60 minutos nos seguintes veículos sanitizantes: água potável, solução de detergente 10% v/v, solução de bicarbonato de sódio 1% p/v, solução de vinagre 6% v/v, solução de água sanitária 200ppm de cloro ativo. Verifi cou-se após a aplicação dos métodos de sanitização que a solução de vinagre teve o melhor resultado, seguido pelo detergente, água potável, bicarbonato de sódio e água sanitária, os respectivos resultados atingiram 32%, 22%, 16%, 12% e 12,5% de efi ciência. Mesmo tendo ocorrido a redução de resíduos de Parationa-Metílica, não foram sufi cientes para assegurar que o alimento se tornasse isento de resíduos de agrotóxicos ou mesmo permanecesse abaixo da ingestão diária aceitável (IDA, não garantindo, após a aplicação dos métodos de sanitização, a segurança do alimento, no aspecto toxicológico. Estudos que avaliem resíduos de agrotóxicos nos alimentos consumidos “in natura” após aplicação dos métodos de lavagem e sanitização e o consumo per capita desses pela população são necessários, objetivando dados mais precisos sobre o consumo crônico de agrotóxicos através das frutas e hortaliças.

  10. Chemical and instrumental characterization of pectin from dried pomace of eleven apple cultivars = Caracterização química e instrumental de pectinas isoladas de bagaço de 11 cultivares de maçã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Carla Rigoni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pectic substances from eleven samples of dried apple pomace were extracted using an acid procedure (100 mM HNO3, 10 min., 80ºC, dried, ground and stored in a P2O5 atmosphere. The degree of esterification was determined by the classical titrimetric method and confirmed by the instrumental FTIR method. The samples showed an average DE of 73% and the typical fingerprint in IR spectrogram. The steric exclusion chromatograms obtained with the multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS and refraction index (RI detectors showed that all samples had a high molar fraction eluted at 36-38 min.,another large polysaccharide family had an elution time around 43 min, and some samples showed yet another low molecular oligosaccharide that appeared at 58-60 min. Gas chromatography of alditol acetate allowed estimates of the proportion of the neutral sugar in the samples. The ratio of galacturonic acid and rhamnose may give the average size of the galacturonan fraction. These results showed that yields of pectin extracted by the same acid procedure were slightly different. However, the degree of esterification of pectin was similar, with both factors pointing to the best sources in this group of varieties.Substâncias pécticas de 11 amostras de bagaço desidratado de maçã foram extraídas usando um procedimento ácido (HNO3 100 Mm, 10 min., 80oC, desidratadas, moídas e armazenadas em atmosfera de P2O5. O grau de esterificação das amostras foi determinado pelo método titulométrico, confirmado pelo instrumental FTIR. As amostras mostraram DE médio de 73% e o fingerprint característico no espectrograma em infravermelho. Os cromatogramas de exclusão estérica, obtidos com o detector para espalhamento multiangular de luz a laser (MALLS e com o índice de refração (RI, indicaram que todas as amostras apresentam fração de elevada massa molar, eluída a 36-38 min. e outra grande família de polissacarídeos com tempo de eluição de 43 min. Outros

  11. CHLOROPHYLL AND CAROTENOID PIGMENTS IN THE PEEL AND FLESH OF COMMERCIAL APPLE FRUITS VARIETIES.

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2014-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) has always been considered a fruit with low chlorophyll and carotenoid contents; however these pigments contribute also to the external (peel) and internal (flesh) fruit colouration, as well as to the health benefits associated with the regular consumption of this fruit. In the present work we studied the chlorophyll and carotenoid composition of the peel and flesh of thirteen marketed apple varieties presenting different external colouration (gr...

  12. Novel genomic approaches unravel genetic architecture of complex traits in apple.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Garrick, D.J.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Whitworth, C.; Chagné, D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is important for developing genome-based crop improvement methods. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful technique for mining novel functional variants. Using a family-based design involving 1,200 apple (Malus × d

  13. Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

  14. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  15. Evaluation on peels texture of different apple cultivars based on rheological properties%基于流变特性的不同品种苹果果皮质地评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菊霞; 崔清亮; 李红波; 刘亚平; 王愈

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore crack damage of apple peel in the process of naturally growing and evaluate quality of different peels varieties, peel samples coming the shadow side and sunlit side of three apple cultivars,Danxia, Fuji, Star-krimson were chosen for longitudinal tests of tensile stress relaxation and creep by means of electronic universal testing machine. Stress-time curve of relaxation test and strain-time curve of creep test were obtained from the tests; and initial stress, residual stress and strain holding of peel relaxation and initial strain, stress holding and creep value of peel creep were also gained. We then set up relaxation five component Maxwell model and creep Burgers model by use of experimental data; and established relaxation and creep characteristic parameters for correlation analysis; and used the relaxation and creep model parameters for principle component analysis. The results indicated that under the action of the same load, discrete degree of peel initial stress was far lower than that of peel residual stress. The standard deviation of initial stress was within 0.4 percent of the average, but the residual stress standard deviation reached about 10% of its average. Initial stress, residual stress, strain holding, initial strain, and stress holding of Star-krimson peel had significant differences (p<0.01) from Danxia and Fuji peels. For different varieties, peel relaxation initial stress, relaxation residual stress; and creep initial strain were large, but creep value was small. For relaxation model parameters of peel, the equilibrium modulus of Star-krimson peel was much larger (p < 0.01) than that of Danxia and Fuji peel; but its relaxation time were much less (p < 0.05) than that of Danxia and Fuji peel. Viscosity factors of Star-krimson peel showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) from that of Fuji peel. For creep model parameters of peel, the mean value of instant elastic modulus of Star-krimson peel was the greatest and that of

  16. Variations in zonal fruit starch concentrations of apples - a developmental phenomenon or an indication of ripening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Franziska C; Miller, William B; Nock, Jacqueline F; Watkins, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of starch hydrolysis in stem, equatorial, and calyx zones of 'Honeycrisp' and 'Empire' apples (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.) during maturation and ripening, and in 'Gala' apples in response to propylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments after harvest, were studied. Differences in zonal starch concentrations were found for 'Empire' and 'Gala' fruits, but not for 'Honeycrisp'. During maturation and ripening of 'Empire', the concentration of starch was highest in the calyx end and lowest in the stem region. Differences in rates of starch hydrolysis among zones were not detected. 'Honeycrisp' and 'Empire' had the highest concentration of sorbitol in the calyx region, whereas it was highest in the stem-end region in 'Gala'. The distribution differences of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were similar in all three cultivars; higher fructose and glucose concentrations in the stem region, and higher sucrose concentrations in the calyx end of the fruit. Postharvest treatment of 'Gala' with propylene did not affect the internal ethylene concentration of the fruit but 1-MCP markedly inhibited it. Starch concentrations were highest in the calyx end but gradients of starch among zones were not changed by postharvest treatment. The rate of hydrolysis was slowed by 1-MCP treatment, but was unaffected by propylene. Postharvest treatments influenced sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations. Patterns of starch concentration among the zones did not confirm differences in ripening, but reflected its uneven distribution throughout the fruit during development. Therefore, measured differences in zonal starch are most likely related to starch accumulation during fruit development, rather than differences in rates of starch degradation during ripening.

  17. Is there room for improving the nutraceutical composition of apple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Masuero, Domenico; Costa, Fabrizio; Magnago, Pierluigi; Malnoy, Mickael; Costa, Guglielmo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we assessed the main bioactive compounds of a broad apple germplasm collection, composed by 247 accessions of wild (97) and domesticated (150) species. Among the stilbenes, trans- and cis-piceid were found to be ubiquitary components of both wild and cultivated apples. Apple was suggested to be the second dietary source of resveratrols. Results confirmed that the selection pressure of breeding and domestication did not uniformly affect all the phytochemicals contained in apples. For instance, organic acids (malic and ascorbic acid) and some phenolics (stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) were significantly influenced by selection, while some relevant flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols) and triterpenoids (ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acids) were not. This comprehensive screening will assist in the selection of Malus accessions with specific nutraceutical traits suitable to establish innovative breeding strategies or to patent new functional foods and beverages.

  18. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  19. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  20. Return bloom in 'Stayman' apple with NAA and/or ethephon: 2007 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following a season in which apple trees produce a full crop, many cultivars fail to produce enough bloom the next year for an adequate crop. Obtaining good return bloom is a problem for many apple growers. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are recommended to enhance return bloom in apple. This study...

  1. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cusin

    Full Text Available Abstract Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  2. Ubiquitous distribution and different subcellular localization of sorbitol dehydrogenase in fruit and leaf of apple

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), a key enzyme in sorbitol metabolism, plays an important role in regulating sink strength and determining the quality of apple fruit. Understanding the tissue and subcellular localization of NAD-SDH is helpful for understanding sorbitol metabolism in the apple. In this study, two NAD-SDH cDNA sequences were isolated from apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) and named MdSDH5 and MdSDH6. Immunohistochemical analysis re...

  3. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of ‘Gala’ apple. Genes for sugar alcohol (including 17 sorbitol transporters), sucrose, and monosacch...

  4. Breeding Potential in Danish Apple Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne

    , including several rare alleles. Using historical gene bank records, including aroma volatile analysis, sugar and acid data and other fruit- and tree character records, we established genotype-phenotype relationships, performing a genome-wide association study. A number of SNP markers are presented that can...... be used directly for marker-assisted selection. In addition, we suggest a number of candidate genes involved in the control of several important fruit quality traits. Future studies and breeding attempts can therefore benefit from the results, including genetic fingerprints and pedigree reconstruction...

  5. Genetic analysis of metabolites in apple fruits indicates an mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds on linkage group 16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Chibon, P.Y.F.R.P.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Schipper, B.A.; Walraven, A.E.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Dijk, van T.; Finkers, H.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Weg, van de W.E.; Bovy, A.G.; Cestaro, A.; Velasco, R.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) is among the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The genetic basis of the quantitative variations of these potentially beneficial phenolic compounds was investigated. A segregating F(1) population was used to map metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQT

  6. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  7. Protein Changes during the Stratification of Malus domestica Borkh. Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholtz, D A; Robitaille, H A; Herrmann, K M

    1983-07-01

    Apple seeds (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious) were stratified at 5 and 15 degrees C for various lengths, weighed, and soluble protein of axis and cotyledon tissue was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only seeds treated at 5 degrees C germinated; seeds treated at 15 degrees C did not germinate. Optimal germination required 63 days of stratification. Excised embryos required less stratification time for germination than intact seeds. When stratification was less than 35 days, the resulting seedlings from 5 degrees C stratified embryos were dwarfed and epinastic. After 63 days of stratification, axes from 5 and 15 degrees C treated intact seeds had increased in fresh weight by 72 and 28% (w/w), respectively. The dry weights of the axes did not change significantly and both fresh and dry weights of cotyledons remained unchanged during stratification. Total soluble protein in axes and cotyledons changed very little during stratification. However, axis polypeptide profiles changed. Most obvious was the occurrence of a new polypeptide and the increase of four other clearly identifiable polypeptides during 5 degrees C treatment. The levels of the five most predominant axis proteins decreased at the same time. We observed no changes in the profiles of soluble cotyledon proteins. Control seeds kept at -10 degrees C showed none of the reported changes.

  8. Resistance of Malus domestica fruit to Botrytis cinerea depends on endogenous ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Aya; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Stotz, Henrik U

    2011-11-01

    The plant hormone ethylene regulates fruit ripening, other developmental processes, and a subset of defense responses. Here, we show that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS)-silenced apple (Malus domestica) fruit that express a sense construct of ACS were more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea than untransformed apple, demonstrating that ethylene strengthens fruit resistance to B. cinerea infection. Because ethylene response factors (ERFs) are known to contribute to resistance against B. cinerea via the ethylene-signaling pathway, we cloned four ERF cDNAs from fruit of M. domestica: MdERF3, -4, -5, and -6. Expression of all four MdERF mRNAs was ethylene dependent and induced by wounding or by B. cinerea infection. B. cinerea infection suppressed rapid induction of wound-related MdERF expression. MdERF3 was the only mRNA induced by wounding and B. cinerea infection in ACS-suppressed apple fruit, although its induction was reduced compared with wild-type apple. Promoter regions of all four MdERF genes were cloned and putative cis-elements were identified in each promoter. Transient expression of MdERF3 in tobacco increased expression of the GCC-box containing gene chitinase 48.

  9. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  10. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cornille

    Full Text Available The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica, on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  11. A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Tai

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

  12. Sistem Bonus Malus sebagai Model Rantai Markov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Supandi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistem bonus-malus (BMS yang dibangun mempunyai  tujuan untuk membuat premi yang dibayarkan oleh tertanggung sedekat mungkin dengan harapan terjadinya klaim setiap tahunnya. Bila kita ingin meneliti bagaimana efisiensi suatu BMS, kita harus melihat bagaimana premi itu bergantung  pada frekuensi klaim. Efisiensi sistem bonus-malus dicari melalui model Markovnya,  yaitu dengan mencari distribusi stasioner dari rantai markov BMS-nya. Dalam paper ini BMS yang digunakan adalah BMS Brasil dan modifkasinya pada nilai preminya untuk keadaan bawah. Dari modifikasi ini akan dibahas pengaruh perubahan premi terhadap  efisiensi BMS tersebut. Kata kunci : BMS, rantai markov, stationer,  efisiensi

  13. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the synonymous codon usage patterns in apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; SUN Mei-hong; JIANG Ze-sheng; SHU Huai-rui; ZHANG Shi-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica) has been proposed as an important woody plant and the major cultivated fruit trees in temperate regions. Apple whole genome sequencing has been completed, which provided an excelent opportunity for genome-wide analysis of the synonymous codon usage patterns. In this study, a multivariate bioinformatics analysis was performed to reveal the characteristics of synonymous codon usage and the main factors affecting codon bias in apple. The neutrality, correspondence, and correlation analyses were performed by CodonW and SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solu-tions) programs, indicating that the apple genome codon usage patterns were affected by mutational pressure and selective constraint. Meanwhile, coding sequence length and the hydrophobicity of proteins could also inlfuence the codon usage patterns. In short, codon usage pattern analysis and determination of optimal codons has laid an important theoretical basis for genetic engineering, gene prediction and molecular evolution studies in apple.

  15. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Fonseca, Nuno A; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  16. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  17. Advances in apple culture worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Robinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance

  18. Characteristics of blooming, floral nectaries and nectar of Malus sargentii Rehd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2007-2008, the flowering biology of Malus sargentii, an ornamental apple tree native to Japan, was studied in the conditions of Lublin (Poland. The daily rate of flower opening, flowering duration and flower visitation by insects were determined. The amount of nectar produced per flower and sugar content in the nectar were investigated. The size of nectaries and the micromorphology of their surface were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the greatest amount of flowers opened between 11.00 and 13.00. During this time, the largest number of insects was observed in the flowers. Bees (90% were predominant among the insects, with a much smaller number of bumblebees (6% and butterflies (4%. The flower life span was 5 days. Over this period, the flower produced, on the average, 0.71 mg of nectar with an average sugar content of 32%. The nectaries of Malus sargentii are orange-yellow coloured and they represent the hypanthial type. Due to the protrusion of the nectariferous tissue, they are classified as automorphic nectaries. The surface of the epidermal cells of the nectary was distinguished by distinct cuticle folds. A small number of stomata were located only in the basal part of the nectary. At the beginning of flowering, all stomata were closed, but secretion traces were observed near well-developed outer cuticular ledges.

  19. Genomewide analysis of ABCBs with a focus on ABCB1 and ABCB19 in Malus domestica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Juan Juan Ma; Mingyu Han

    2016-03-01

    The B subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins (ABCB) plays a vital role in auxin efflux. However, no systematic study has been done in apple. In this study, we performed genomewide identification and expression analyses of the ABCB family in Malus domestica for the first time. We identified a total of 25 apple ABCBs that were divided into three clusters based on the phylogenetic analysis. Most ABCBs within the same cluster demonstrated a similar exon–intron organization. Additionally, the digital expression profiles of ABCB genes shed light on their functional divergence. ABCB1 and ABCB19 are two well-studied auxin efflux carrier genes, and we found that their expression levels are higher in young shoots of M106 than in young shoots of M9. Since young shoots are the main source of auxin synthesis and auxin efflux involves in tree height control. This suggests that ABCB1 and ABCB19 may also take a part in the auxin efflux and tree height control in apple.

  20. Genomewide analysis of TCP transcription factor gene family in Malus domestica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruirui Xu; Peng Sun; Fengjuan Jia; Longtao Lu; Yuanyuan Li; Shizhong Zhang; Jinguang Huang

    2014-12-01

    Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor1 (TCP) proteins are a large family of transcriptional regulators in angiosperms. They are involved in various biological processes, including development and plant metabolism pathways. In this study, a total of 52 TCP genes were identified in apple (Malus domestica) genome. Bioinformatic methods were employed to predicate and analyse their relevant gene classification, gene structure, chromosome location, sequence alignment and conserved domains of MdTCP proteins. Expression analysis from microarray data showed that the expression levels of 28 and 51 MdTCP genes changed during the ripening and rootstock–scion interaction processes, respectively. The expression patterns of 12 selected MdTCP genes were analysed in different tissues and in response to abiotic stresses. All of the selected genes were detected in at least one of the tissues tested, and most of them were modulated by adverse treatments indicating that the MdTCPs were involved in various developmental and physiological processes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of a genomewide analysis of apple TCP gene family. These results provide valuable information for studies on functions of the TCP transcription factor genes in apple.

  1. Impacto da intensificação da densidade de plantio na rentabilidade em duas cultivares de macieira em Fraiburgo-SC Economic analysis of investment in the agribusiness of the apples in Fraiburgo, state of Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo analisa as expectativas de retorno associadas ao agronegócio da maçã, com base em pomares existentes na região de Fraiburgo-SC. Detalham-se os custos de produção das cultivares Gala e Fuji implantadas em sistemas de alta e superalta densidade. Os resultados indicam ser apenas mediana a rentabilidade do agronegócio em análise. A intensificação tecnológica via ampliação da densidade de plantio, propicia um incremento na rentabilidade. O mesmo pode ser dito da cultivar Fuji em relaçã...

  2. Real time-based targeted Metabolomic approach as risk assessment tools for controlling superficial scald in ‘Granny Smith’ apples during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of superficial scald incidence in ‘Granny Smith’ apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit during cold or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage increases with increased storage duration and oxygen level during CA storage. The objective of this study was to invest...

  3. Identification of the Er1 resistence gene and RNase S-alleles in Malus prunifolia var. ringo rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zanon Agapito-Tenfen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Woolly apple aphid (WAA; Eriosoma lanigerum Hausm. is a major insect pest that has significant economic impact on apple growers worldwide. Modern breeding technologies rely on several molecular tools to help breeders select genetic determinants for traits of interest. Consequently, there is a need for specific markers linked to the genes of interest. Apple scions and rootstocks have an additional barrier to the introduction of pest resistance genes due to the presence of self-incompatibility S-RNase alleles. The genetic characterization and early identification of these alleles can amplify the contribution of a breeding program to the selection of resistant genitors that are as compatible as possible. In this study, we identified the Er1 gene involved in the resistance to WAA in Malus prunifolia var. ringo, also known as ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstock, and we analyzed the inheritance pattern of the WAA resistance Er1 gene in a segregant population derived from Malus pumila ‘M.9’ and ‘Maruba Kaido’ rootstocks. The self-incompatibility of S-RNase alleles S6S26 of ‘Maruba Kaido’ were also identified along with their inheritance pattern. We also confirmed the identification of the S1S3 alleles in the ‘M.9’ rootstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize WAA resistance and RNase S-alleles in ‘Maruba Kaido’. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of the genetic markers for these genes and their potential impact on apple breeding programs.

  4. Replanting Affects the Tree Growth and Fruit Quality of Gala Apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU En-tai; WANG Gong-shuai; LI Yuan-yuan; SHEN Xiang; CHEN Xue-sen; SONG Fu-hai; WU Shu-jing; CHEN Qiang; MAO Zhi-quan

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) causes the inhibition of root system development, stunts tree growth and so on. To further investigate the effects of ARD on apple fruits, a 25-year-old apple orchard was remediated to establish a replant orchard between November 2008 and March 2009. A rotational cropping orchard was established on an adjacent wheat ifeld. The cultivar and rootstock-scion combination used in the newly established orchards was Royal Gala/M26/Malus hupehensis Rehd. Ripe fruits were collected in mid-August 2011 and mid-August 2012, meanwhile, the following indices were measured:yield per plant;fruit weight;the fruit shape index;the contents of anthocyanin, carotenoid and chlorophyll;the soluble sugar content in the lfesh;titratable acid;the sugar-acid ratio;ifrmness;and aroma components;apple plant ground diameter, plant height increment and the total length of the current-year shoots. The results showed that compared to rotational cropping, continuous cropping yielded statistically signiifcant reductions in fruit weight and yield per plant of 39.8 and 76.5%, respectively. However, there were no changes in the fruit shape index. The anthocyanin and carotenoid contents decreased by 81.7 and 37.7%, respectively, while the chlorophyll content increased by 251.0%. All of these differences in content were statistically signiifcant. The soluble sugar levels and sugar-acid ratio decreased by 25.4 and 60.9%, respectively, but the titratable acid levels and fruit ifrmness increased by 90.9 and 42.8%, respectively. Ten of the most important esters contributing to the apple aroma were analyzed, and the following changes were observed:hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, hexyl butyrate, acetate-2-methyl butyl, 2-methyl-hexyl butyrate, amyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 2-methyl-butyl butyrate, hexyl propionate and hexyl hexanoate decreased by 25.5, 78.4, 89.1, 55.5, 79.5, 77.2, 86.8, 69.9, 61.2, and 68.1%, respectively. The contents of three other aroma components, (E)-2-hexenal

  5. Volatile profiles of members of the USDA Geneva Malus Core Collection: utility in evaluation of a hypothesized biosynthetic pathway for esters derived from 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutan-1-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Nobuko; Forsline, Philip; Beaudry, Randolph

    2015-02-25

    The volatile ester and alcohol profiles of ripening apple fruit from 184 germplasm lines in the USDA Malus Germplasm Repository at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva, NY, USA, were evaluated. Cluster analysis suggested biochemical relationships exist between several ester classes. A strong linkage was revealed between 2-methylbutanoate, propanoate, and butanoate esters, suggesting the influence of the recently proposed "citramalic acid pathway" in apple fruit. Those lines with a high content of esters formed from 2-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-methylbutanoate (2MB) relative to straight-chain (SC) esters (high 2MB/SC ratio) exhibited a marked increase in isoleucine and citramalic acid during ripening, but those lines with a low content did not. Thus, the data were consistent with the existence of the hypothesized citramalic acid pathway and suggest that the Geneva Malus Germplasm Repository, appropriately used, could be helpful in expanding our understanding of mechanisms for fruit volatile synthesis and other aspects of secondary metabolism.

  6. Expression Analysis of the SUPERMAN Family Genes in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Function Analysis of MdSUP3%苹果SUPERMAN家族基因的组织特异表达及MdSUP3的功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许轲; 刘娜; 谢璇; 朱元娣

    2016-01-01

    通过半定量RT-PCR分析SUPERMAN家族基因在‘富士’苹果(Malus×domestica Borkh.‘Fuji’)叶芽、幼叶、花芽、花蕾、花、皮部组织和幼果中的表达模式,通过MdSUP3自主启动子驱动的GUS基因表达和MdSUP3异位表达分析其功能.结果表明,MdSUP3、MdSUP11和MdSUP9a在所检测的组织器官中均有表达,MdSUP9b主要在营养器官中表达,MdSUP5a、MdSUP1b主要在生殖器官中表达.MdSUP3启动子驱动GUS基因在植株根尖、幼叶、幼茎和花等器官中表达.超表达MdSUP3的转基因烟草植株矮化、节间缩短、叶片卷缩、花器官颜色改变和部分花器官形态异常;与对照相比,转基因烟草中ABA合成酶基因NtNCED3-2,花青素合成途径的NtDFR2和NtANS1基因表达显著上升,细胞分裂素氧化酶基因NtCKX和赤霉素氧化酶基因NtGA2ox4表达显著下降.异位过量表达删除C端DLELRL基序的MdSUP3基因不影响转基因烟草的生长发育,证明DLELRL是基因必不可少的功能域.

  7. Apple pie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    美国人很喜欢吃apple pie,它是一种用烤箱制作的甜点,外面是一层面粉,里面是用苹果做的馅儿。汉语中把appie pie翻译成“苹果派”。据说苹果派起源于欧洲,但现在它已成为典型的美式食品。苹果派的流行使美国成了世界上最大的苹果生产国。

  8. A WD40-repeat gene from Malus x domestica is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Julian; Weisshaar, Bernd; Sagasser, Martin

    2010-03-01

    The WD40 repeat protein TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) is involved in a multitude of developmental and biochemical reactions in Arabidopsis thaliana such as the production of seed coat colour and mucilage, pigmentation by anthocyanins as well as the formation of trichomes and root hairs. In this study, a putative TTG1 homologue was isolated from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) showing 80.2% identity to A. thaliana TTG1 on nucleotide and 90.7% similarity on amino acid level. The MdTTG1 candidate was able to activate the AtBAN promoter in cooperation with the A. thaliana transcription factors TT2 and TT8 in A. thaliana protoplasts. This indicates that the encoded protein can be integrated into the complex that activates BAN in A. thaliana, and that a similar complex might also be present in apple. When transformed into ttg1 mutants of A. thaliana, the apple sequence was able to restore trichome growth, anthocyanin production in young seedlings as well as proanthocyanidin production in seeds. Additionally, roots of complemented mutant plants showed root hair formation resembling wild type. These results show that the studied apple WD40 gene is a functional homologue of AtTTG1 and we refer to this gene as MdTTG1.

  9. Mapping of the apple scab-resistance gene Vb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdin, N; Tartarini, S; Broggini, G A L; Gennari, F; Sansavini, S; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2006-10-01

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the major production constraint in temperate zones with humid springs. Normally, its control relies on frequent and regular fungicide applications. Because this control strategy has come under increasing criticism, major efforts are being directed toward the breeding of scab-resistant apple cultivars. Modern apple breeding programs include the use of molecular markers, making it possible to combine several different scab-resistance genes in 1 apple cultivar (pyramiding) and to speed up the breeding process. The apple scab-resistance gene Vb is derived from the Siberian crab apple 'Hansen's baccata #2', and is 1 of the 6 "historical" major apple scab-resistance genes (Vf, Va, Vr, Vbj, Vm, and Vb). Molecular markers have been published for all these genes, except Vr. In testcross experiments conducted in the 1960s, it was reported that Vb segregated independently from 3 other major resistance genes, including Vf. Recently, however, Vb and Vf have both been mapped on linkage group 1, a result that contrasts with the findings from former testcross experiments. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify the precise position of Vb in a cross of 'Golden Delicious' (vbvb) and 'Hansen's baccata #2' (Vbvb). A genome scanning approach, a fast method already used to map apple scab-resistance genes Vr2 and Vm, was used, and the Vb locus was identified on linkage group 12, between the SSR markers Hi02d05 and Hi07f01. This finding confirms the independent segregation of Vb from Vf. With the identification of SSR markers linked to Vb, another major apple scab-resistance gene has become available; breeders can use it to develop durable resistant cultivars with several different resistance genes.

  10. Towards identification of the gene responsible for the columnar phenotype of 'McIntosh 'Wijcik" apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, P.J.; Schouten, H.J.; Velasco, R.; Salvi, S.; Komjanc, M.; Si-Ammour, A.; Baldi, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Wijcik' mutant of the apple cultivar 'McIntosh' shows columnar-type growth, characterized by altered branching and a thick stem. Instead of normal branches, spur-like branches are produced on 'Wijcik' trees, leading to apples produced close to the stem. Columnar-type growth is a desirable tr

  11. 苹果UV-B受体基因UVR8的克隆及生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of UV-B Receptor Gene UV R 8 in Apple (Malus dome s tic a Borhkcv. Fuji)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文展; 张高龙; 樊连梅; 刘更森; 隋秀奇; 原永兵

    2015-01-01

    本研究以‘富士’苹果红色芽变品种‘烟富8’果皮为试验材料,采用RT-PCR方法,克隆获得苹果UV-B受体基因UV R 8的全长序列,命名为MdUV R 8。结果显示,开放阅读框长度为1359 bp,编码452个氨基酸,相对分子质量48.487 kD,等电点(PI)为5.56。蛋白质保守域分析表明,苹果UVR8蛋白包含7个RCC1结构域。蛋白质二级结构预测显示,苹果UVR8蛋白含有10个α-螺旋,16个β折叠,41个β-转角。氨基酸同源性比对分析表明,苹果UVR8与已报道的其他植物的氨基酸序列相似性在69.54%~88.94%之间。核苷酸聚类分析表明,苹果和白梨首先聚为一类,其次是梅。本研究为苹果光受体对光应答的分子机理的进一步研究奠定了基础。%This research used‘Yanfu 8’that was red bud mutation variety from‘Fuji’as the experimental mate-rial, cloned UV-B receptor gene named MdUV R 8 by RT-PCR from fruit peel. The results showed that the full-len-gth of UV R8 gene open reading frame (ORF) was 1 359 bp in size and encoded 452 amino acids residues (Mw=48.487 kD, pI=5.56). Conservative protein domain analysis showed that apple UVR8 protein contains seven RCC1 domain structure, moreover, protein secondary structure prediction revealed that it contains 10 alpha helixes, 16 be-ta folds and 41 beta turns. Amino acids homology comparison analysis indicated that sequence had 69.54%~88.94%similarity with those of other reported plants. Nucleotide cluster analysis showed that UV R8 from Pyrus bretsch-neideri was clustered together with apple's UV R8 firstly, and followed by which from Prunus mume. This research laid a foundation for further research of the molecular mechanism of photoreceptor response to light in apple.

  12. Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner Susan E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1 and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90. In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY

  13. Induction of embryoid development from apple pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kubicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globular 32 and 64 celled embryoids were obtained from uninucleate apple microspores (cultivar Jonathan after 5 weeks of culture on a modified Murashige and Skoog (1962 medium. A similar induction of microspore development was not observed in younger or older stages of anther development. In such anthers only callus was formed from diploid tissues.

  14. Proteome Analysis for Defense Response of Apple Leaves Induced by Alternaria Blotch ,Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Zhang; Zhuang Li; Liyi Zhang; Yi Tian; Guodong Kang; Ying Chen; Peihua Cong

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Ma/us domestica) is considered a model fruit plant owing to its world-wide economic importance,and a large number of cultivars dominate world fruit production.To date,the cultivation of apple has been limited by many kinds of fungal diseases,and among the many fungal diseases affecting apple trees,Alternaria blotch,the disease caused by Alternaria alternata apple pathotype,is spreading worldwide and results in severe negative effect on apple production.Currently,management of a fungal disease such as Alternaria blotch mainly through traditional chemical control agents instead of using resistant cultivars.As in apple,the molecular mechanism of disease resistance against A.altemata apple pathotype has not been illustrated clearly,although most of the genes have been identified in apple,little is known about the biological roles for each protein in that plant.Considering that apple Altemaria blotch is the usual diseases influencing apple production,further studies about the interaction mechanism between the pathogen and its host,particularly some host self-defense response mechanisms which closely related to the anti-disease properties of apple should be performed.In this work we aimed to generate fundamental insights into the plant' s defense responses to infection with Altemaria blotch using a proteomics approach,to aid in the development and breeding of high-quality disease-resistant apple varieties.One seedlings which derived from the cross of ‘Huacui’ and ‘Golden Delicious’,with highly resistant,were chosen to be hosts for this study.The sample leaves were inoculated with spore suspension of A.altemata apple pathotype,and the control samples were treated with water instead of inoculums.Following inoculation,the samples were harvested 48 h after inoculation.The whole experiment was repeated three times in order to get a reliable result.The total soluble protein extracts prepared using modified phenol-precipitation procedures.Total protein extracts

  15. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  16. Genes and quality trait loci (QTLs) associated with firmness in Malus x domestica

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2013-03-31

    Fruit firmness, a quality quantitative trait, has long been established as a key textural property and one of the essential parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life of apples. Loss of firmness, also referred to as fruit softening, is undesirable in apples and represents a serious problem for growers in many countries. This results in the reduction of apple shelf life and in turn influences its commercialization. Low firmness impacts negatively on the sensory values of juiciness, crunchiness and crispness. Fruit firmness is affected by the inheritance of alleles at multiple loci and their possible interactions with the environment. Identification of these loci is key for the determination of genetic candidate markers that can be implemented in marker assisted selection and breeding for trees and/or cultivars that can yield firmer fruits with economic value. In turn, this technique can help reduce the time needed to evaluate plants and new cultivars could become available faster. This review provides an overview of quantitative trait loci (QTL), including additional putative QTLs that we have identified, and genes associated with firmness and their importance to biotechnology, the breeding industry and eventually the consumers.

  17. Polyphenolic Compound and the Degree of Browning in Processing Apple Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ye; YAO Yu-xin; ZHAI Heng; DU Yuan-peng; CHEN Feng; WEI Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    Polyphenolic compound in processing apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) varieties and the relationship between polyphenol content and enzymatic browning were studied to provide reference for raw material selection and processing method optimization. The content of polyphenol compound in 10 processing apple varieties (4 cider and 6 juice varieties) were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and HPLC. The degree of browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase were also studied. The content and proportion of the polyphenol varied depending on the variety. Bitter varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than sweet or acid varieties. Proanthocyanidins, chlorogenic acid,(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin were high-concentrated polyphenols in apple fruits. Phloridzin, the unique polyphenol of apple, was abundant in the bitter variety Frequin rouge fruit. Total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, (+)-catechin, and phloridzin had higher correlations with browning. The correlation was low between chlorogenic acid and browning. The polyphenolic profiles were correlated with the apple types. Cider apples contained more polyphenol than juice apple varieties. The content of flavan-3-ol has a close relationship with fruit browning.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Malus domestica and the import-driven hypothesis of mitochondrial genome expansion in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Lockhart, Peter J; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial genomes of spermatophytes are the largest of all organellar genomes. Their large size has been attributed to various factors; however, the relative contribution of these factors to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expansion remains undetermined. We estimated their relative contribution in Malus domestica (apple). The mitochondrial genome of apple has a size of 396 947 bp and a one to nine ratio of coding to non-coding DNA, close to the corresponding average values for angiosperms. We determined that 71.5% of the apple mtDNA sequence was highly similar to sequences of its nuclear DNA. Using nuclear gene exons, nuclear transposable elements and chloroplast DNA as markers of promiscuous DNA content in mtDNA, we estimated that approximately 20% of the apple mtDNA consisted of DNA sequences imported from other cell compartments, mostly from the nucleus. Similar marker-based estimates of promiscuous DNA content in the mitochondrial genomes of other species ranged between 21.2 and 25.3% of the total mtDNA length for grape, between 23.1 and 38.6% for rice, and between 47.1 and 78.4% for maize. All these estimates are conservative, because they underestimate the import of non-functional DNA. We propose that the import of promiscuous DNA is a core mechanism for mtDNA size expansion in seed plants. In apple, maize and grape this mechanism contributed far more to genome expansion than did homologous recombination. In rice the estimated contribution of both mechanisms was found to be similar.

  19. Gene-for-gene relationship in the host-pathogen system Malus × robusta 5-Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Isabelle; Wöhner, Thomas; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Sundin, George W; Wensing, Annette; Savory, Elizabeth A; Geider, Klaus; Day, Brad; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Peil, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Fire blight is a destructive bacterial disease caused by Erwinia amylovora affecting plants in the family Rosaceae, including apple. Host resistance to fire blight is present mainly in accessions of Malus spp. and is thought to be quantitative in this pathosystem. In this study we analyzed the importance of the E. amylovora effector avrRpt2(EA) , a homolog of Pseudomonas syringae avrRpt2, for resistance of Malus × robusta 5 (Mr5). The deletion mutant E. amylovora Ea1189ΔavrRpt2(EA) was able to overcome the fire blight resistance of Mr5. One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), resulting in an exchange of cysteine to serine in the encoded protein, was detected in avrRpt2(EA) of several Erwinia strains differing in virulence to Mr5. E. amylovora strains encoding serine (S-allele) were able to overcome resistance of Mr5, whereas strains encoding cysteine (C-allele) were not. Allele specificity was also observed in a coexpression assay with Arabidopsis thaliana RIN4 in Nicotiana benthamiana. A homolog of RIN4 has been detected and isolated in Mr5. These results suggest a system similar to the interaction of RPS2 from A. thaliana and AvrRpt2 from P. syringae with RIN4 as guard. Our data are suggestive of a gene-for-gene relationship for the host-pathogen system Mr5 and E. amylovora.

  20. Ethylene Emission of Apples Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Oleksandr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-harvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on ethylene emission in early-winter apple (cv. ‘Calville’, winter (‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Jonagold’, and late-winter cultivars (‘Granny Smith’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’ w as investigated. The fruits were picked at a commercial harvest time and half of them were treated with 1-MCP (‘SmartFresh™’ 0.068 gm-3 for 24 h at 5 °C. Then both groups of apples were placed in a common storage at the temperature of 2 °C. The intensity of fruit ethylene emission (rate of ethylene production was measured and 1 -MCP inhibition index was calculated. During storage, activity of ethylene emission by control apples of ‘Calville’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ showed typical climacteric pattern, while the intensity of ethylene emission of apples of other cultivars only increased gradually. The change of ethylene activity of early-winter apple cv. ‘Calville’ and winter cv. ‘Jonagold’, both treated with 1-MCP after harvest, had exponential character, especially actively increasing after 3 months of storage. At the same time ethylene emission of 1 -MCP treated fruits of other cultivars changed steadily to a low level and was effectively suppressed during the whole 6-month period of storage in normal atmosphere. The value of inhibition index of fruits treated by 1-MCP confirmed the consistent restoration of the ability to ethylene synthesis and thus to post-harvest ripening of some apples cultivars.

  1. Estudos histológicos preliminares da microenxertia de plantas micropropagadas de macieira Preliminaries histological studies from the micrografting of tissue cultured apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monita Fiori de Abreu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A fruticultura moderna necessita implantar tecnologias que possibilitem a produção de frutos de alta qualidade, com custos cada vez menores. A micropropagação associada à microenxertia possibilita altas taxas de multiplicação de plantas com alta qualidade fitossanitária, além de possibilitar a realização de estudos sobre compatibilidade de enxertia em diferentes clones. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo estudar o processo de soldadura entre genótipos de macieira (Malus domestica. Borkh multiplicadas in vitro após a microenxertia. Esta técnica foi realizada em fenda simples, sob condições assépticas. Os estudos histológicos foram realizados através de cortes longitudinais seriados de segmentos de 8 mm do ponto de enxertia. O processo de soldadura foi caracterizado pelo desenvolvimento de tecido meristemático, originando células parenquimáticas na interface do microenxerto, com a proliferação do tecido cambial da cultivar copa. Isso possibilita a ligação do sistema vascular da copa com o do porta-enxerto, resultando na sobrevivência do microenxerto.The modern fruitculture needs to introduce techniques that allow a less expensive production of high quality fruits. The micropropagation associate to micrografting provides high average of plant multiplication and disease free material. In addition it provides studies of grafting compatibilities. The present work aim to study the process of the micrografting union of tissue cultured apple (Malus domestica. Borkh. The scions were cleft-grafted on the rootstocks, under aseptic conditions. For histological studies specimens were trimmed down to 4mm above and below the graft union (longitudinal cuts. The graft union development resulted in the generation of meristem tissue, originating parenchymatous cells at the graft interface, and a cambial tissue proliferation from the scion. This procedure allows the vascular system connection between the scion and the rootstock

  2. THE BONUS-MALUS SYSTEM MODELLING USING THE TRANSITION MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA TEODORESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The motor insurance is an important branch of non-life insurance in many countries; in some of them, coming first in total premium income category (in Romania, for example. The Bonus-Malus system implementation is one of the solutions chosen by the insurance companies in order to increase the efficiency in the motor insurance domain. This system has been recently introduced by the Romanian insurers as well. In this paper I present the means for modelling the bonus-malus system using the transition matrix.

  3. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite.

  4. Genomewide identification and expression analysis of the ARF gene family in apple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Cui Luo; Mei-Hong Sun; Rui-Rui Xu; Huai-Rui Shu; Jai-Wei Wang; Shi-Zhong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Auxin response factors (ARF) are transcription factors that regulate auxin responses in plants. Although the genomewide analysis of this family has been performed in some species, little is known regarding ARF genes in apple (Malus domestica). In this study, 31 putative apple ARF genes have been identified and located within the apple genome. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that MdARFs could be divided into three subfamilies (groups I, II and III). The predicted MdARFs were distributed across 15 of 17 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, the analysis of exon–intron junctions and of the intron phase inside the predicted coding region of each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. Expression profile analyses of MdARF genes were performed in different tissues (root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit), and all the selected genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues that were tested, which indicated that MdARFs are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes of apple. To our knowledge, this report is the first to provide a genomewide analysis of the apple ARF gene family. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the ARF signal in apple.

  5. Characterization of MxFIT, an iron deficiency induced transcriptional factor in Malus xiaojinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lili; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Mudan; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai

    2014-02-01

    Iron deficiency often results in nutritional disorder in fruit trees. Transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of iron uptake. In this study, we isolated an iron deficiency response transcription factor gene, MxFIT, from an iron-efficient apple genotype of Malus xiaojinensis. MxFIT encoded a basic helix-loop-helix protein and contained a 966 bp open reading frame. MxFIT protein was targeted to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells and showed strong transcriptional activation in yeast cells. Spatiotemporal expression analysis revealed that MxFIT was up-regulated in roots under iron deficiency at both mRNA and protein levels, while almost no expression was detected in leaves irrespective of iron supply. Ectopic expression of MxFIT resulted in enhanced iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis under iron deficiency and stronger resistance to iron deficiency. Thus, MxFIT might be involved in iron uptake and plays an important role in iron deficiency response.

  6. Protein Changes during the Stratification of Malus domestica Borkh. Seed 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholtz, David A.; Robitaille, Henry A.; Herrmann, Klaus M.

    1983-01-01

    Apple seeds (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious) were stratified at 5 and 15°C for various lengths, weighed, and soluble protein of axis and cotyledon tissue was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only seeds treated at 5°C germinated; seeds treated at 15°C did not germinate. Optimal germination required 63 days of stratification. Excised embryos required less stratification time for germination than intact seeds. When stratification was less than 35 days, the resulting seedlings from 5°C stratified embryos were dwarfed and epinastic. After 63 days of stratification, axes from 5 and 15°C treated intact seeds had increased in fresh weight by 72 and 28% (w/w), respectively. The dry weights of the axes did not change significantly and both fresh and dry weights of cotyledons remained unchanged during stratification. Total soluble protein in axes and cotyledons changed very little during stratification. However, axis polypeptide profiles changed. Most obvious was the occurrence of a new polypeptide and the increase of four other clearly identifiable polypeptides during 5°C treatment. The levels of the five most predominant axis proteins decreased at the same time. We observed no changes in the profiles of soluble cotyledon proteins. Control seeds kept at −10°C showed none of the reported changes. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16663079

  7. 苹果果胶研究进展%Research progress of apple pectin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立军; 郭玉蓉; 田兰兰

    2012-01-01

    苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)是我国北方广泛种植的经济作物。近年来,很多学者从苹果渣中提取分离得到苹果果胶。现代医学和生物学研究表明,苹果果胶具有抗氧化、降血脂、抗菌及抗癌的功效。本文介绍了苹果果胶的结构、组分分级与特性研究,着重阐述了目前国内外对于苹果果胶的提取、分离的最新进展及其生物活性,讨论了目前研究中存在的问题,并对其发展前景进行了展望。%Apple(Malus pumila Mill.) tree is a common kind of plant in the northern part of our country.In recent years,apple pectin has been isolated from apple pomace by many researchers.Researchers in medicine and biology have proved that apple pectin has many biology activities such as oxidation resistance,hypolipemic,antibiosis and anticancer.In this review,structure of apple pectin,pectin fraction and properties of different molecular weights were reviewed and the latest methods of extraction,biological activities,problems of studies on apple pectin and its prospects were also elaborated.

  8. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing the Lc gene of maize show an altered growth habit and increased resistance to apple scab and fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Fischer, Thilo C; Richter, Klaus; Peil, Andreas; Höfer, Monika; Dörschel, Claudia; Schmoock, Sylvia; Gau, Achim E; Halbwirth, Heidrun; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2010-02-01

    Transgenic apple plants (Malus x domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox') overexpressing the Leaf Colour (Lc) gene from maize (Zea mays) exhibit strongly increased production of anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols (catechins, proanthocyanidins). Greenhouse plants investigated in this study exhibit altered phenotypes with regard to growth habit and resistance traits. Lc-transgenic plants show reduced size, transversal gravitropism of lateral shoots, reduced trichome development, and frequently reduced shoot diameter and abnormal leaf development with fused leaves. Such phenotypes seem to be in accordance with a direct or an indirect effect on polar-auxin-transport in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, leaves often develop necrotic lesions resembling hypersensitive response lesions. In tests, higher resistance against fire blight (caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora) and against scab (caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis) is observed. These phenotypes are discussed with respect to the underlying altered physiology of the Lc-transgenic plants. The results are expected to be considered in apple breeding strategies.

  9. Reduction of colonic inflammation in HLA-B27 transgenic rats by feeding Marie Ménard apples, rich in polyphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castagnini, C.; Luceri, C.; Toti, S.; Bigagli, E.; Caderni, G.; Femia, A.P.; Giovannelli, L.; Lodovici, M.; Pitozzi, V.; Salvadori, M.; Messerini, L.; Martin, R.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Gaj, S.; Eijssen, L.; Evelo, C.; Renard, C.M.; Baron, A.; Dolara, P.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are immunomediated ailments affecting millions of individuals. Although diet is regarded as an important factor influencing IBD, there are no accepted dietary recommendations presently available. We administered 7.6 % lyophilised apples obtained from two cultivars (

  10. Effect of rootstock diameter on apple saplings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAHID AVDIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of a field trial with managed nursery trees including two apple cultivars Golden Reinders and Gala Galaxy on the rootstocks M9 and MM 106. In April 2011, the saplings (bench grafted in March 2011 were planted in the distance 100 cm x 35 cm in randomized block design in threecombinations of rootstock diameters (5-7 mm, 7-9 mm, 9-11 mm with threereplications (in total 60 saplings for each apple cultivar-rootstock and combinations in Mirovica, Kosovo. The following parameters were examined: growth, rootstock diameter, scion diameter, and stocks growth dynamic. The experimental design was a ANOVAs one-way analysing two different factors cultivars, rootstocks types and treatments (three combinations of rootstocks diameter. Significant differences were found in scion thickness and sapling growth among the three different combinations of rootstock diameter, dimensions and cultivars. Insignificant were differences were found within factors as cultivar, rootstock and their combinations Key words: Amino acids, Moringa oleifera, poultry manure.

  11. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eWei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of ‘Gala’ apple. Genes for sugar alcohol (including 17 sorbitol transporters, sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  12. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Fengli; Chen, Cheng; Ma, Fengwang; Li, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of "Gala" apple. Genes for sugar alcohol [including 17 sorbitol transporters (SOTs)], sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs). Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  13. Development and validation of high-performance thin layer chromatographic method for ursolic acid in Malus domestica peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P H Nikam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica. The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2 =0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 ΅g/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid.

  14. Development and Validation of High-performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Method for Ursolic Acid in Malus domestica Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, P H; Kareparamban, J A; Jadhav, A P; Kadam, V J

    2013-07-01

    Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. It shows hypoglycemic, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, diuretic and cynogenic activity. It is commonly present in plants especially coating of leaves and fruits, such as apple fruit, vinca leaves, rosemary leaves, and eucalyptus leaves. A simple high-performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for the quantification of ursolic acid from apple peel (Malus domestica). The samples dissolved in methanol and linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber. The mobile phase was selected as toluene:ethyl acetate:glacial acetic acid (70:30:2). The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r(2)=0.9982 in the concentration range 0.2-7 μg/spot with respect to peak area. According to the ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of ursolic acid.

  15. Apple hypanthium firmness: New insights from comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2012-06-26

    Fruit firmness constitutes an important textural property and is one of the key parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life, which has a major impact on commercialization. In order to decipher the mechanisms related to firmness of apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to compare the total proteome of high and low firmness phenotypes from apple hypanthia of a \\'Golden Delicious\\' × \\'Dietrich\\' population. A total of 36 differentially regulated protein spots were positively identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and then validated against the Malus expressed sequence tags (EST) database. The findings of this study indicated a lower expression of ethylene biosynthesis related proteins in the high firmness phenotype, which could be linked to the slowing down of the ripening and softening processes. The reduced accumulation of proteins involved in ethylene biosynthesis juxtaposed to the upregulation of a transposase and a GTP-binding protein in the high firmness phenotype. The results also showed higher expression of cytoskeleton proteins in the high firmness phenotype compared to the low firmness phenotype, which play a role in maintaining cell structure and possibly fruit integrity. Finally, a number of proteins involved in detoxification and defense were expressed in fruit hypanthium. This proteomic study provides a contribution towards a better understanding of regulatory networks involved in fruit hypanthium firmness and/or softening, which could be instrumental in the development of improved fruit quality. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Ammonium carbonate is more attractive than apple and hawthorn fruit volatile lures to Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Nash, Meralee J; Goughnour, Robert B; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2014-08-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), is an introduced, quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In the eastern United States where the fly is native, fruit volatiles have been reported to be more attractive than ammonia compounds to R. pomonella. However, the opposite may be true in the western United States. Here, we determined whether newly identified western apple and western hawthorn fruit volatiles are more attractive than ammonium carbonate (AC) to R. pomonella in apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn trees in western Washington State. In all three host trees, sticky red sphere or yellow panel traps baited with AC generally caught more flies than traps baited with lures containing the four newly developed fruit blends (modified eastern apple, western apple, western ornamental hawthorn, and western black hawthorn) or two older blends (eastern apple and eastern downy hawthorn). Fruit volatiles also displayed more variation among trapping studies conducted at different sites, in different host trees, and across years than AC. The results imply that traps baited with AC represent the best approach to monitoring R. pomonella in Washington State.

  17. A molecular method for S-allele identification in apple based on allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, G A; Goderis, I J; Broekaert, W F; Broothaerts, W

    1995-09-01

    cDNA sequences corresponding to two self-incompatibility alleles (S-alleles) of the apple cv 'Golden Delicious' have previously been described, and now we report the identification of three additional S-allele cDNAs of apple, one of which was isolated from a pistil cDNA library of cv 'Idared' and two of which were obtained by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) on pistil RNA of cv 'Queen's Cox'. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of these five S-allele cDNAs revealed an average homology of 69%. Based on the nucleotide sequences of these S-allele cDNAs, we developed a molecular technique for the diagnostic identification of the five different S-alleles in apple cultivars. The method used consists of allele-specific PCR amplification of genomic DNA followed by digestion of the amplification product with an allele-specific restriction endonuclease. Analysis of a number of apple cultivars with known S-phenotype consistently showed coincidence of phenotypic and direct molecular data of the S-allele constitution of the cultivars. It is concluded that the S-allele identification approach reported here provides a rapid and useful method to determine the S-genotype of apple cultivars.

  18. Genetic transformation of apple (Malus x domestica) without use of a selectable marker gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selectable marker genes are widely used for the efficient transformation of crop plants. In most cases, antibiotic or herbicide resistance marker genes are preferred, because they tend to be most efficient. Due mainly to consumer and grower concerns, considerable effort is being put into developin...

  19. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  20. The mQTL hotspot on linkage group 16 for phenolic compounds in apple fruits is probably the result of a leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene at that locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Schaart, J.; Beekwilder, J.; Allan, A.C.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our previous study on ripe apples from a progeny of a cross between the apple cultivars 'Prima' and 'Fiesta' showed a hotspot of mQTLs for phenolic compounds at the top of LG16, both in peel and in flesh tissues. In order to find the underlying gene(s) of this mQTL hotspot, we investigat

  1. Anti-inflammatory procyanidins and triterpenes in 109 apple varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Walker, Edward G; Rassam, Maysoon; Sullivan, Michael; Evers, Danièle; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A

    2012-10-24

    We evaluated the potential of apple to reduce inflammation. Phenolic compounds and triterpenes were analyzed in 109 apple cultivars. Total phenolics ranged from 29 to 7882 μg g(-1) of fresh weight (FW) in the flesh and from 733 to 4868 μg g(-1) FW in the skin, with flavanols including epicatechin and procyanidins as major components. Ursolic (44.7 to 3522 μg g(-1) FW) and oleanolic (47.2 to 838 μg g(-1) FW) acids dominated the skin triterpene profile. Five chemically contrasting cultivars were fractionated and their immune-modulating activity measured using two cell-based assays targeting key points in the inflammation process. Cultivars exhibiting high contents of procyanidins were the most potent at inhibiting NF-κB while triterpene-rich fractions reduced the promoter activity of the gene of TNFα. This study provides new insights into how apple genetic diversity could be used to alleviate inflammation.

  2. Estudio comparativo entre metodologías para el diseño de Sistemas Bonus-Malus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez del Prado, José Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar un método para hacer comparaciones entre Sistemas Bonus Malus. Se comparan Sistemas Bonus Malus obtenidos mediante la metodología GPBM, basada en Programación por Metas y Sistemas Bonus Malus obtenidos mediante la metodología clásica, conocida como Escala de Bayes.

  3. Effect of strategic irrigation on infection of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Strategic irrigation is a method to prevent Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis). It is performed by irrigating the orchard floor in dry periods during spring, 24 hours before rain forecast. Irrigating the old leaves on the orchard floor will elicit the release of ascospores, but due to the dry trees....... Apple scab on fruit and leaves was reduced by strategic irrigation in ‘Elshof’ at the University field in both years. In the organic orchard the strategic irrigation reduced the infection of leaves by apple scab and Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot in some cultivars and some years. Studies of the ejection...

  4. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  5. What Makes Apple Golden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Betsy Morrish

    2008-01-01

    @@ The mass market is supposed to be dead, but you would nover know it from Apple.In Felmuny the iTunes Store became the second-largest music retailer in the U.S., right behind Wal-Mart.The iPod is to music players what Kleenex is to tissue or Xerox is to copiers.Almost everything Apple makes transcends gender, geography, age,and race.An Apple Store is a demographic melting pot, with computer games for kids and a Genius Bar for their parents and so much cool stuff to touch that it's a magnet for teens and twentysomethings.

  6. Dynamics of ascorbic acid in ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Gala’ apples during on-tree development and storage in atmospheres conducive to internal browning development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The underlying causes as well as chemical and biochemical alleviation for CO2-induced browning in apple fruit are poorly understood. Ascorbic acid (AsA) dynamics in ‘Braeburn,’ a susceptible cultivar, and ‘Gala,’ a resistant cultivar, were evaluated during on-tree development and storage at 0.5' C ...

  7. [Evaluation of zinc deficiency tolerance in different kinds of apple rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-dan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yan-an; Fu, Chun-xia; Yan, Yu-jing; Sha, Guang-li; Shu, Huai-rui

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the zinc deficiency tolerance among eight apple rootstocks, i.e., Malus baccata, M. rockii, M. xiaojinensis, M. sikkimensis, M. sieversii, M. robusta, M. hupehensis and Malus 'Flame'. The experiment took these 8 kinds of root-stocks as the research materials to observe and analyze the index of the rootstock's height, dry biomass, root architecture and zinc concentration, and with help of the fuzzy membership function to work out a comprehensive evaluation on their zinc deficiency tolerance. The result showed that several obvious zinc deficiency symptoms were observed in three kinds of rootstocks (M. rockii, M. sikkimensis and M. sieversii), such as dwarfed plant and newborn small leaves, while such symptoms were not obvious in M. xiaojinensis and M. 'Flame'. The plant biomass, height and zinc accumulation of aerial part greatly decreased under zinc deficiency stress, while smaller reduction was observed in M. xiaojinensis than in other rootstocks. M. xiaojinensis and M. baccata had higher zinc concentrations in leaves than others. According to the fuzzy membership function and cluster analysis, the resistance of the eight apple rootstocks to zinc deficiency was ranked: M. xiaojinensis was the highest one; M. 'Flame' was the second; M. baccata, M. sikkimensis, M. robusta and M. hupehensis were rather weaker; M. rockii and M. sieversii demonstrated the highest sensitivity to zinc deficiency.

  8. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea.

  9. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis.

  10. Localization of the Ethylene-synthesizing System in Apple Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, A K; Lieberman, M

    1977-11-01

    Apple (Malus sp.) slices gradually lost the ability to synthesize ethylene when incubated with a mixture of enzymes that digest cell walls. The released protoplasts did not produce ethylene. The release of protoplasts was faster from climacteric fruit slices than from preclimacteric tissue. In protoplast suspension culture, as new cell wall was deposited (as judged by the intensity of fluorescence of regenerating protoplasts stained with Calcofluor White and the incorporation of labeled myo-inositol into their ethanol-insoluble residue), ethylene synthesis was gradually regained. Restored ethylene synthesis reached a maximum after 80 hours in protoplasts from preclimacteric fruit and in 120 hours in those from climacteric tissue. Addition of methionine (1 mm) to the culture medium was essential for appreciable synthesis of ethylene; and this synthesis was inhibited by the aminoethoxy analogue of rhizobitoxine and by propyl gallate, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis in higher plants. We suggest that the ethylene-synthesizing enzyme system is highly structured in the apple cell and is localized in a cell wall-cell membrane complex.

  11. The Vf gene for scrab resistance in apple is linked to sub-lethal genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.S.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2006-01-01

    V f is the most widely used resistance gene in the breeding for scab resistant apple cultivars. Distorted segregation ratios for V f -resistance have frequently been reported. Here we revealed that sub-lethal genes caused the distorted segregation. The inheritance of V f was examined in six progenie

  12. DNA-Free Genetically Edited Grapevine and Apple Protoplast Using CRISPR/Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnoy, Mickael; Viola, Roberto; Jung, Min-Hee; Koo, Ok-Jae; Kim, Seokjoong; Kim, Jin-Soo; Velasco, Riccardo; Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda

    2016-01-01

    The combined availability of whole genome sequences and genome editing tools is set to revolutionize the field of fruit biotechnology by enabling the introduction of targeted genetic changes with unprecedented control and accuracy, both to explore emergent phenotypes and to introduce new functionalities. Although plasmid-mediated delivery of genome editing components to plant cells is very efficient, it also presents some drawbacks, such as possible random integration of plasmid sequences in the host genome. Additionally, it may well be intercepted by current process-based GMO regulations, complicating the path to commercialization of improved varieties. Here, we explore direct delivery of purified CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to the protoplast of grape cultivar Chardonnay and apple cultivar such as Golden delicious fruit crop plants for efficient targeted mutagenesis. We targeted MLO-7, a susceptible gene in order to increase resistance to powdery mildew in grape cultivar and DIPM-1, DIPM-2, and DIPM-4 in the apple to increase resistance to fire blight disease. Furthermore, efficient protoplast transformation, the molar ratio of Cas9 and sgRNAs were optimized for each grape and apple cultivar. The targeted mutagenesis insertion and deletion rate was analyzed using targeted deep sequencing. Our results demonstrate that direct delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 RNPs to the protoplast system enables targeted gene editing and paves the way to the generation of DNA-free genome edited grapevine and apple plants. PMID:28066464

  13. Morphological and biochemical characterization of Erwinia amylovora-induced hypersensitive cell death in apple leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, Elena T; Sobiczewski, Piotr; Michalczuk, Lech; Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak, Elżbieta; Mikiciński, Artur; Woltering, Ernst J

    2013-02-01

    In attached apple leaves, spot-inoculated with Erwinia amylovora, the phenotypic appearance of the hypersensitive response (HR) and the participation of ethylene, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) (a plant caspase-1-like protease) were analysed. The HR in both the resistant and susceptible genotypes expressed a similar pattern of distinguishable micro HR lesions that progressed into confined macro HR lesions. The HR symptoms in apple were compared to those in non-host tobacco. The morphology of dead cells (protoplast shrinkage and retraction from cell wall) in apple leaves resembled necrotic programmed cell death (PCD). Lesion formation in both cv. Free Redstar (resistant) and cv. Idared (highly susceptible) was preceded by ROS accumulation and elevation of ethylene levels. Treatment of infected leaves with an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis led to a decrease of ethylene emission and suppression of lesion development in both cultivars. In the resistant but not in the susceptible apple cultivar an early and late increase in VPE gene expression was detected. This suggests that VPE might be an underlying component of the response to E. amylovora in resistant apple cultivars. The findings show that in the studied pathosystem the cell death during the HR proceeds through a signal transduction cascade in which ROS, ethylene and VPE pathways play a role.

  14. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  15. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRS Saturno – triticale cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The triticale cultivar BRS Saturno was developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation inpartnership with the Fundação Pró-Sementes de Apoio à Pesquisa. It is the result of a cross between the genotypes PFT 512 and CEP28 – Guará, adapted to the environmental conditions of cultivation in southern Brazil.

  16. Research progress in virus elimination techniques for apple trees%苹果脱毒技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国君; 董雅凤; 张尊平; 范旭东; 任芳; 朱红娟

    2014-01-01

    Apple(Malus pumila Mill.)is affected by many viral diseases. The major measure for controlling apple virus diseases is eliminating virus from mother trees,constructing parent plants for reproducing scion and stock materials and planting virus-free seedlings. Four kinds of viruses and one kind of viroid commonly occurred in ap-ple trees. This review summarized the measures applied for apple virus elimination,e.g. shoot tip culture,ther-motherapy,chemotherapy,shoot-tip micrografting and cold therapy,and analyzed the application efficiency and different approaches for different virus types. It will help the future research in the field of virus elimination from apple trees.%苹果(Malus pumila Mill.)普遍感染病毒。目前,培育无病毒原种母本树,建立用于繁殖接穗和营养系砧木的母本园,栽植无病毒苗木,是防治病毒病的根本措施。本文针对常见的4种苹果病毒及1种类病毒,综述了茎尖培养、热处理、化学处理、微茎尖嫁接以及低温处理脱除苹果病毒方法的研究进展,分析了不同方法的应用效果,及所适合脱除的病毒种类,以期为我国苹果病毒脱除技术研究提供参考信息。

  17. Intercropping competition between apple trees and crops in agroforestry systems on the Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lubo; Xu, Huasen; Bi, Huaxing; Xi, Weimin; Bao, Biao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Bi, Chao; Chang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    Agroforestry has been widely practiced in the Loess Plateau region of China because of its prominent effects in reducing soil and water losses, improving land-use efficiency and increasing economic returns. However, the agroforestry practices may lead to competition between crops and trees for underground soil moisture and nutrients, and the trees on the canopy layer may also lead to shortage of light for crops. In order to minimize interspecific competition and maximize the benefits of tree-based intercropping systems, we studied photosynthesis, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by measuring photosynthetically active radiation, net photosynthetic rate, soil moisture and soil nutrients in a plantation of apple (Malus pumila M.) at a spacing of 4 m × 5 m on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that for both intercropping systems in the study region, soil moisture was the primary factor affecting the crop yields followed by light. Deficiency of the soil nutrients also had a significant impact on crop yields. Compared with soybean, peanut was more suitable for intercropping with apple trees to obtain economic benefits in the region. We concluded that apple-soybean and apple-peanut intercropping systems can be practical and beneficial in the region. However, the distance between crops and tree rows should be adjusted to minimize interspecies competition. Agronomic measures such as regular canopy pruning, root barriers, additional irrigation and fertilization also should be applied in the intercropping systems.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Zinc Finger Protein Gene in Apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOQiu-Fen; MasatoWADA; MENGYu-Ping; SUNYi; CUIGui-Mei

    2004-01-01

    A cDNA library was created from stem apex tissue from Jonathan apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), harvested in June to August, during which the plant transitions from vegetative growth to reproductive growth. From this library, we isolated an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence containing a zinc finger motif, using this sequence, a 779 bp cDNA fragment was obtained by using 5' RACE, and a final full-length cDNA encoding an apple zinc finger protein (named MdZF1; GenBank accession number AB116545) was obtained by further PCR. This zinc finger motif of MdZF1 has high homology with INOETERMINATE1 (ID1) gene from maize which seemed to be involved in the transition to flowering. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the MdZF1 expressed in the root, stem, leaves, shoot apex and floral organs of the apple, with expression levels higher in root, stem, leaves and floral shoot apex than that in floral organs (sepals, petals, stamens and pistils). Genomic Southern analysis showed that there was a single copy gene in apple genome.

  19. Ubiquitous distribution and different subcellular localization of sorbitol dehydrogenase in fruit and leaf of apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Xu, Yan-Hong; Peng, Chang-Cao; Fan, Ren-Chun; Gao, Xin-Qi

    2009-01-01

    NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), a key enzyme in sorbitol metabolism, plays an important role in regulating sink strength and determining the quality of apple fruit. Understanding the tissue and subcellular localization of NAD-SDH is helpful for understanding sorbitol metabolism in the apple. In this study, two NAD-SDH cDNA sequences were isolated from apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) and named MdSDH5 and MdSDH6. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NAD-SDH is distributed in both the flesh and the vascular tissue of the fruit, and the vascular tissue and mesophyll tissue in the young and old leaves, indicating that it is a ubiquitous protein expressed in both sink and source organs. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that NAD-SDH is localized mainly in the cytoplasm and chloroplast of the fruit and leaves. The chloroplast localization of NAD-SDH was confirmed by the transient expression of MdSDH5-GFP and MdSDH6-GFP in the mesophyll protoplast of Arabidopsis. NAD-SDH was also found in electron opaque deposits of vacuoles in young and mature leaves. These data show that NAD-SDH has different subcellular localizations in fruit and leaves, indicating that it might play a different role in sorbitol metabolism in different tissues of apple.

  20. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  1. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  2. About APPLE II Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  3. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  4. SEBARAN STASIONER PADA SISTEM BONUS-MALUS SWISS SERTA MODIFIKASINYA (Stationary Distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System and its Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Galatia Ballangan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bonus-Malus System is a system in actuary that introduce the premium class (state partition, where the state is influenced by the number of annual claims reported by the policy holder. We could base the determination of the state on the stationary distribution that represent the number of policy holders in any state. Swiss Bonus-Malus System has 22 state. The number of state that involved in this system result in the difficulty of stationary distribution determination. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study a method to obtain stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System by recursive formula, with this recursive formula, the stationary distribution of Swiss Bonus-Malus System can be determined easier. Modification of this system with infinite state result in the changes of recursive formula to obtain the stationary. This changes including the determining of base value of the recursive formula. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sistem Bonus-Malus merupakan sistem dalam aktuaria yang memperkenalkan pembagian kelas premi (state yang dipengaruhi oleh jumlah klaim yang diajukan oleh pemegang polis tiap tahunnya. Penetapan state dalam sistem ini didasarkan pada pencarian sebaran stasioner yang menyatakan banyaknya pemegang polis dalam tiap state. Sistem Bonus-Malus Swiss (BMS memiliki 22 state. Banyaknya state yang terlibat dalam sistem ini mengakibatkan sulitnya penentuan sebaran stasioner pada sistem BMS tersebut. Karena itu dalam tulisan ini dipelajari suatu metode penentuan sebaran stasioner dari sistem BMS tersebut, yaitu dengan menggunakan formula rekursif. Dengan formula rekursif ini, sebaran stasioner sistem BMS dapat ditentukan dengan mudah. Modifikasi sistem BMS untuk jumlah state yang tak hingga mengakibatkan perubahan pada formula rekursif untuk mencari sebaran stasionernya. Perubahan ini meliputi penetapan nilai awal dari formula rekursif tersebut. Kata kunci: sebaran stasioner, formula rekursif, sistem Monus-Malus Swiss.

  5. AppleScript

    CERN Document Server

    Munro, Mark Conway

    2010-01-01

    Developers will advance their AppleScript skills easily with this guide. Part of the Developer Reference series, this book is packed with professional secrets for designing and building automated solutions with AppleScript, the powerful, system-level scripting language built into every Mac. Programmers will discover new ways to increase their professional efficiency and become more valuable in their jobs. With up to date coverage of Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard and loaded with real-world tips and techniques, this guide includes best practices and conventions along with informative lessons. You'l

  6. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  7. Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells.

  8. Apple Shuns Tracking Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Apple Inc. is advising software de- velopers to stop using a feature in software for its iPhones and iPads .that has been linked to privacyconcerns, a move that would also take away a widely used tool for tracking users and their behavior. Developers who write programs for Apple's lOS operating system have been using a unique.

  9. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  10. Genus Malus Mill. in Arboretum collection of Peter the Great Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadiy

    2015-12-01

    Some of the types and forms of species from genus Malus from the collection of the Garden, can be regarded as promising for the needs of green building and modern urbanofloristic. They are also of interest as decorative and suitable for testing as fruit trees, and as a basis for future breeding selection. Many types of freezes earlier species of Malus, in a changing and global warming can be quite promising for breeding now for the conditions of St. Petersburg.

  11. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We indicated that O. cornifrons seemed to use both petals and anthers as foraging indicator, and that not only female, but also males contributed to apple pollination and fertilization by the pollen grains attached to them from visiting flowers, including those at the balloon stage. It was confirmed that O. cornifrons acts as a useful pollinator in an apple orchard consisting of one kind of cultivar with pollinizers planted not more than 10 m from commercial cultivars.

  12. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF WEED VEGETATION IN DIFFERENT APPLE GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera TASSEVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 2001-2003 in an orchard of the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, created in the spring of 1996 on leached cinnamonic forest soil. The weed populations under four different farming technologies of growing of apple cultivar Florina were investigated. It was established, that the apple growing technologies influence the weed association composition. The highest weed diversity was found in the organic technology - 16 weed species were found. In the application of resource economical and integrated technologies, the development of 13-14 weed species was established. The smallest weed diversity was observed in the conventional technology - eight species, which was due to the twofold herbicide application.

  13. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY DURING STORAGE OF APPLES SUBJECTED TO IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of studies about fruit conservation as well as the benefits of consumption of foods rich in antioxidant compounds was increased. This study aimed to quantify antioxidant compounds and their activity and to evaluate the physical and chemical changes during the post-harvest storage of Eva's apple cultivars that were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. The antioxidant activity was measured by the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the β-carotene/linolenic acid methods. Levels of total phenolics, ascorbic acid, color, and soluble solids were evaluated. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation dose, there was an increase in % SRL during post-harvest storage of Eva's apples. Low irradiation doses were able to preserve the phenolic compounds, maintain the ascorbic acid levels and avoid an increase in the soluble solids content.

  14. Flavonoid and hydroxycinnamate profiles of english apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Serena C; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2007-10-17

    Seventeen phenolic compounds in 23 English apple ciders were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS (2). The total phenolic content of the ciders varied greatly ranging from 44 to 1559 mg/L. Four groups of compounds were identified, flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and dihydrochalcones. Hydroxycinnamates were the predominant group of phenolics in the majority of the ciders. Procyanidins were analyzed by HPLC after thiolysis, and total procyanidin content ranged from 8 to 722 mg/L and an average degree of polymerization of 2.5-3.5. This investigation of a wide range of ciders has shown a substantial variation in the profile and quantity of the phenolics. The analysis of single variety ciders highlighted the importance of using an apple cultivar with a high phenolic content to produce a phenolic-rich cider. Adaptations to the cider-making process could be used to increase the phenolic content with potential health benefits.

  15. Prospects of fatty acid profile and bioactive composition from lipid seeds for the discrimination of apple varieties with the application of chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arain, S.; Sherazzi, S. T. H.; Bhanger, M. I.; Memon, N.; Mahesar, S. A.; Rajput, M. T.

    2012-11-01

    The extracted oils from four apple seed varieties (Royal Gala, Red Delicious, Pyrus Malus and Golden Delicious) from Pakistan were investigated for their fatty acid profiles and lipid biactives by GC-MS. The oil contents in the seeds of the apple varieties ranged from 26.8-28.7%. The results revealed that linoleic acid (40.5-49.6%) was the main fatty acid in the Royal Gala, Red Delicious and Pyrus Malus seeds, and oleic acid (38.7-45.5%) was the main fatty acid in the Golden Delicious seeds. Palmitic acid (6.1-7.4%) and stearic acid (2.0-3.1%) were the dominant saturated fatty acids, besides the small amount of palmitoleic, heptadecanoic, linolenic, archidic, eicosanoic, and behenic acids. Sterols, tocopherols, hydrocarbons and some other minor components were also identified from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction. The variation among the results of both fatty acids and lipid bio actives for the four different varieties was assessed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cluster analyses. The results conclude that both oil fractions could be applied as a useful tool to discriminate among the apple seed varieties. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. The occurrence of postharvest diseases on apples resistant to scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bryk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of storage diseases on fruit of seven scab resistant apple cultivars (Freedom, Rajka, Topaz, Rubinola, Enterprise, Goldstar, GoldRush grafted on M.9 was investigated in 2001-2005. The trees were planted in 1995. It was found that after storage (4 and 6 months at 2°C, 85-90% RH the most severe appeared to be bull's eye rot (Pezicula spp.. The most sensitive cultivars to this disease were: Topaz, Freedom, Goldstar, the least sensitive were Rubinola, Enterprise, Rajka. Other postharvest diseases like gray mold (Botrytis cinerea, blue mold (Penicillium expansum and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena were not common. 'Rajka' and 'Goldstar' were susceptible to bitter pit, and 'Freedom' to superficial scald.

  17. Equity Research - Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, João Carlos Portela Marques dos

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças O presente Trabalho Final de Mestrado tem como objectivo a avaliação da empresa norteamericana Apple Inc. de forma a obter um preço-alvo para as suas acções com referência a 29 de Setembro de 2012, data de fim do ano fiscal da empresa. O processo de avaliação da empresa envolveu, numa primeira fase, uma análise detalhada ao negócio da Apple (e suas perspectivas de crescimento) e ao seu posicionamento estratégico. Em segundo lugar, foram aplicadas técnicas de avaliação ...

  18. Apple Image Processing Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  19. Apple proliferation phytoplasma influences the pattern of plant volatiles emitted depending on pathogen virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit eRid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple proliferation (AP and pear decline (PD are the most severe diseases in pome fruit growing areas. AP-infected trees show typical symptoms such as witches’ broom, enlarged stipules, tasteless and dwarf fruits. PD-infected pears show a progressive weakening, reduced terminal growth, smaller fruits and die within weeks (quick decline or years (slow decline. The diseases are caused by the cell-wall lacking bacteria Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (AP phytoplasma and Ca. P. pyri (PD phytoplasma, respectively. In previous studies it has been shown that AP-infected apple trees emitted higher amounts of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene, an attractant of the insect vector Cacopsylla picta (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, thereby facilitating the dispersal of AP phytoplasma. In the present study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs occurring in the headspace of plants infected with Ca. P. mali strains causing different severity of symptoms in apple plants were collected, analyzed and identified. Headspace samples from healthy and AP-infected model plant tobacco (Nicotiana occidentalis and apple (Malus domestica as well as from healthy and PD-infected pear (Pyrus communis were investigated via thermodesorption and GC-MS analysis. Significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate were produced in all phytoplasma-infected plants compared to healthy ones and an as yet unidentified sesquiterpene differed between the odor bouquets of healthy and by Ca. P. mali infected tobacco plants. Additionally, statistically significant higher amounts of both compounds were measured in the headspace of plants infected by the virulent AP strain. In apple, significantly higher concentrations of ethyl benzoate and methyl salicylate were observed for trees infected with strains of Ca. P. mali. Ethyl benzoate was also detected in the headspace of pear trees infected with Ca. P. pyri.

  20. The Induction of Root Formation by Urea, IBA and Sheep Dung in Young Apple Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-qiang; JIE Yu-ling; HUANG Tian-dong; SHU Huai-rui

    2002-01-01

    The effect of plant growth substance and fertilizer on root formation was studied in a newly planted apple tree (Malus pumila Mill / Malus hupenensis Rhed). The results indicated that urea and IBA (indole butyric acid) and sheep dung all increased the total number and activity of new roots and changed the ratio of absorbing root to extensive roots obviously. Urea increased the number of extensive root and decreased the ratio of the root to shoot mostly. IBA lengthened the extensive root and increased the ratio of root to shoot obviously. Sheep dung increased the nu mber of absorbing root and increased the ratio of absorbing root to ex-tensive root, divided new root into many branches, increased the fresh weight of the root and thickened the extensive root. The fresh weight of root increased and the ratio of root to shoot declined after urea was added to sheep dung. Both the ratio of absorbing root to extensive root and root fresh weight was increased after IBA was added to sheep dung, then the ratio of root to shoot had no change obviously.

  1. Chemical constituents of gold-red apple and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian-Qian; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

    2014-10-01

    Ten compounds were isolated and purified from the peels of gold-red apple (Malus domestica) for the 1st time. The identified compounds are 3β, 20β-dihydroxyursan-28-oic acid (1), 2α-hydroxyoleanolic acid (2), euscaphic acid (3), 3-O-p-coumaroyl tormentic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), 2α-hydroxyursolic acid (6), oleanolic acid (7), betulinic acid (8), linolic acid (9), and α-linolenic acid (10). Their structures were determined by interpreting their nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, and by comparison with literature data. Compound 1 is new, and compound 2 is herein reported for the 1st time for the genus Malus. α-Glucosidase inhibition assay revealed 6 of the triterpenoid isolates as remarkable α-glucosidase inhibitors, with betulinic acid showing the strongest inhibition (IC50 = 15.19 μM). Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization MS analysis of the fruit peels, pomace, flesh, and juice revealed that the peels and pomace contained high levels of triterpenes, suggesting that wastes from the fruit juice industry could serve as rich sources of bioactive triterpenes.

  2. Molecular cloning of cryptochrome 1 from apple and its functional characterization in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Zhao, Yu-Jin

    2013-06-01

    Cryptochromes are blue-light photoreceptors involved in regulating many aspects of plant growth and development. Investigations of cryptochromes in plants have largely focused on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), rice (Oryza sativa) and pea (Pisum sativum). Here, we isolated the cryptochrome 1 gene from apple (Malus domestica) (MdCRY1) and analyzed its function in transgenic Arabidopsis. The predicted MdCRY1 protein was most closely homologous to strawberry CRY1. In terms of transcript levels, MdCRY1 expression was up-regulated by light. The function of MdCRY1 was analyzed through heterologous expression in Arabidopsis. Overexpression of MdCRY1 in Arabidopsis is able to rescue the cry1 mutant phenotype, inhibit hypocotyl elongation, promote root growth, and enhance anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type seedlings under blue light. These data provide functional evidence for a role of MdCRY1 in controlling photomorphogenesis under blue light and indicate that CRY1 function is conserved between Arabidopsis and apple. Furthermore, we found that MdCRY1 interacts with AtCOP1 in both yeast and onion cells. This interaction may represent an important regulatory mechanism in blue-light signaling pathway in apple.

  3. Effects of progressive drought on photosynthesis and partitioning of absorbed light in apple trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ping; BAI Tuan-hui; MA Feng-wang

    2015-01-01

    To understand how drought stress affects CO2 assimilation and energy partitioning in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), we investigated photosynthesis and photo-protective mechanisms when irrigation was withheld from potted Fuji trees. As the drought progressing, soil relative water content (SRWC) decreased from 87 to 24%in 15 d;this combined the decreasing in leaf relative water content (LRWC), net photosynthesis rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs). However, the concen-trations of chlorophyl s (Chl) remained unchanged while Pn values were declining. Photochemistry reactions were slightly down-regulated only under severe drought. Rubisco activity was signiifcantly decreased as drought conditions became more severe. The actual efifciency of photosystem II (ΦPSI ) was diminished as drought became more intense. Consequently, xanthophyl-regulated dissipation of thermal energy was greatly enhanced. Simultaneously, the ratio ofΦPSI to the quantum yield of carbon metabolism, which is measured under non-photorespiratory conditions, increased in paral el with drought severity. Our results indicate that, under progressive drought stress, the reduction in photosynthesis in apple leaves can be attributed primarily to stomatal limitations and the inhibited capacity for CO2 ifxation. Xanthophyl cycle-dependent ther-mal dissipation and the Mehler reaction are the most important pathways for dispersing excess energy from apple leaves during periods of drought stress.

  4. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌杰; 陈昆松; FERGUSONIanB

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple celi death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  5. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-jie; Chen, Kun-song; Ferguson, Ian B

    2004-02-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  6. Programmed cell death features in apple suspension cells under low oxygen culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-jie(徐昌杰); CHEN Kun-song(陈昆松); FERGUSON Ian B.

    2004-01-01

    Suspension-cultured apple fruit cells (Malus pumila Mill. cv. Braeburn) were exposed to a low oxygen atmosphere to test whether programmed cell death (PCD) has a role in cell dysfunction and death under hypoxic conditions. Protoplasts were prepared at various times after low oxygen conditions were established, and viability tested by triple staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA), propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst33342 (HO342). DNA breakdown and phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane were observed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and annexin V binding. About 30% of protoplasts from cells after 48 h under low oxygen showed an increased accumulation of HO342, indicating increased membrane permeability. Positive TUNEL and annexin V results were also only obtained with protoplasts from cells under low oxygen. The results suggest that apple cell death under low oxygen is at least partially PCD mediated, and may explain tissue breakdown under controlled atmosphere (low oxygen) conditions in apple fruit.

  7. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  8. Chromosomal localization of ribosomal DNA sequences in an apple rootstock using a digoxygenin detection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER

    1995-01-01

    A 6kb rDNA probe comprising the 18S coding plus spacer sequences has been hybridized to the metaphase chromosomes of apple rootstock cultivar MM106 demonstrating the localization of ribosomal gene arrays in the vicinity of the telomeric regions of the short arms of chromosomes 6 and 14.The in situ results using digoxygenin labelling coupled to an alkaline phosphatase immunoassay were confirmed by silver staining for NORs and nucleoli.This study demonstrates the feasibility of molecular cytogenetic analysis of very small chromosomes(1.0-2.7μm) of apple.

  9. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  10. Efeito de auxinas sintéticas no enraizamento in vitro da macieira Effects of synthetic auxins on the in vitro rooting of apple tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Quezada Centellas

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Brotações de macieira (Malus domestica, Borkh, cv. Fred Hough, oriundas do processo de multiplicação in vitro, foram inoculadas em meio MS e MS/2, testando-se os reguladores de crescimento: ácido indol-3-acético (AIA; ácido indolbutírico (AIB e ácido naftaleno acético (ANA, nas concentrações de 0, 1, 3 e 5 miM com o objetivo de observar o efeito dessas auxinas sobre o enraizamento da cultivar. Foram acrescentadas aos meios as vitaminas MS mio-inositol (100 mg/L e sacarose (30 g/L em meio de ágar (6 g/L. O pH do meio foi ajustado para 5,8 e a cultura foi incubada a 25 ± 2º C e 16 horas de fotoperíodo a 2.000 lux, permanecendo por 30 dias. Os tratamentos foram repetidos cinco vezes e cada repetição constou de cinco explantes inoculados em frasco de 250 mL contendo 40 mL do meio. O meio MS/2 em todas as concentrações testadas foi melhor que o MS. O ANA e o AIB, ambos na concentração de 3 miM, em meio MS/2, tiveram comportamento semelhante na porcentagem de enraizamento e no número de raízes produzidas; no entanto, o ANA provocou efeitos indesejáveis na qualidade destas, havendo formação de calo na base das brotações e raízes grossas. O AIA obteve melhor resposta nas altas concentrações, mas não foi melhor que o AIB e ANA.Apple shoots (Malus domestica, Borkh, cv. Fred Hough derived from in vitro multiplication process were inoculated in MS and MS/2 basal media added by growth substances indol acetic acid (IAA; indol butiric acid (IBA and naphtalene acetic acid (NAA at 0, 1, 3 and 5 µM. The media also included: MS vitamins, myo-inositol (100.0 mg/L; sucrose (30.0 g/L; agar (6.0 g/L. The pH was adjusted to 5.8 before autoclaving. The treatments were incubated in a growth room at 25±2ºC, 16 hours photoperiod under light intensity of 2,000 lux during 30 days. The treatments were replicated five times. Each replicate was composed by a 250 mL flask containing 40 mL medium with five explants. The medium MS/2 in all the

  11. The role of lipases in the removal of dormancy in apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarska-Maciejewska, B; St Lewak

    1976-01-01

    It was found that the temperature optimum for apple (Malus domestica Borb.) seed acid lipase is the same as that for seed after-ripening process. The activity of the enzyme occurs between the 40th and 70th days of stratification, whereas the activity of alkaline lipase very low at that time appears about 20 days later. The changes of both enzyme activities were also studied during dark and light culture of embryos isolated from seeds after different times of stratification. Only the alkaline enzyme activity is under the control of light. It was concluded that essentially the same process, i.e. the hydrolysis of reserve fats is catalysed by two different enzymes: acid lipase acting during the cold-mediated breaking of embryo dormancy and alkaline lipase acting during the germination of dormant embryos, thus being under light control.

  12. Efficient sampling to determine the distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    'fractionator' tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica 'Fuji Raku Raku') in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... distributed across 36 trees for yield estimation. A sub-sample of 56 fruit (one per branch segment) was removed; and, individual fruit mass, firmness and contents of malic acid, soluble solids and starch were measured in the laboratory. The data also were used to obtain an imprecise, but unbiased, estimate......In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...

  13. Efficient sampling to determine distribution of fruit quality and yield in a commercial apple orchard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, D.; Zamora, I.

    2012-01-01

    ‘fractionator’ tree sampling procedure and supporting handheld software (Gardi et al., 2007; Wulfsohn et al., 2012) to obtain representative samples of fruit from a 7.6-ha apple orchard (Malus ×domestica ‘Fuji Raku Raku’) in central Chile. The resulting sample consisted of 70 fruit on 56 branch segments...... distributed across 36 trees for yield estimation. A sub-sample of 56 fruit (one per branch segment) was removed; and, individual fruit mass, firmness and contents of malic acid, soluble solids and starch were measured in the laboratory. The data also were used to obtain an imprecise, but unbiased, estimate......In situ assessment of fruit quality and yield can provide critical data for marketing and for logistical planning of the harvest, as well as for site-specific management. Our objective was to develop and validate efficient field sampling procedures for this purpose. We used the previously reported...

  14. 新疆野苹果逆境响应机制研究进展%Research Progress of Adversity Response Mechanism of Malus sieversii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佳宁; 刘钢; 马盼; 黄翊鹏; 杨艳丽

    2014-01-01

    Malus sieversii (Lebed.) Roem.is a precious tertiary relict plant, which mainly distributed in Tianshan wild fruit forest in Xinjiang .Malus sieversii is a wild apple species with cold , insect , disease and drought resistances and other good traits .It is not only an important wildlife resource , but also a good germ-plasm resource for stress -resistant breeding of fruit tree in our country .It would be significant to plant stress -resistant breeding and production increasing to know about the life activity laws of Malus sieversii in adversity. The recent research progresses of response mechnism to adversity in M.sieversii were summerized in this paper from gene,protein,physiological and biochemical levels .It was also put forward that the research on response mechanism to adversity should be more further at molecular biological level .%新疆野苹果是我国新疆天山野果林区中珍贵的第三纪孑遗植物,具有抗寒性强、耐虫、耐病、耐旱等优良性状。新疆野苹果不仅是我国苹果属重要的野生资源,也是我国果树遗传育种优质的抗逆种质资源。了解新疆野苹果在逆境条件下的生命活动规律,对植物抗逆育种和增产增收都具有十分重要的意义。本文综述了近年来新疆野苹果在基因水平、蛋白质水平和生理生化水平逆境响应机制的研究进展,提出未来对新疆野苹果的逆境响应机制研究应更深入到分子生物学水平。

  15. Effect of Different Growing Systems of Apple on Trunk and Branch Diseases and Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented study aimed to determine apples trunk and branch diseases and pests in three growing systems conventional, integrated and biological (organic. The investigations were made on an experimental apple orchard (1 ha of the Institute of Agriculture at Kyustendil, Southwest Bulgaria in four consecutive years from 2007 to 2010. Three scab resistant cultivars Prima, Florina and Erwin Baur grafted on rootstocks MM106 were planted in 1996. The orchard was divided into four plots. One plot was treated conventionally with a normal pesticide programme, two plots were treated integrated according to the general principles, rules and standards of integrated apple production and one plot for biological (organic. The monitoring of pests and diseases and assessment of their density were done every two weeks. It was established that during the experimental period important disease and pests on apple trees in different growing systems were black rot Botryosphaeria obtusa, apple clearwig moth Synanthedon myopaeformis and shorthole borer Scolytus rugulosus. The damages by trunk and branch diseases and pests on apple were considerable higher in biological growing system. The mean rate of attack of cultivar Erwin Baur by Botryosphaeria obtusa in biological and conventional growing systems was 52.35% and 4.65%, respectively. The percentage of damaged by Scolytus rugulosus trunk and branch area per tree reach to 58.74 in biological and 0.23 in conventional system. Reduced vitality of apple trees growing with out pesticides and mineral fertilizers in biological growing system was the reason for strong infection of Botryosphaeria obtusa and attack of Synanthedon myopaeformis and Scolytus rugulosus.

  16. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana a

  17. Evolution of pathogenicity traits in the apple scab fungal pathogen in response to the domestication of its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê Van, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Lemaire, Christophe; Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Durel, Charles-Eric; Caffier, Valérie; Le Cam, Bruno

    2012-11-01

    Understanding how pathogens emerge is essential to bring disease-causing agents under durable human control. Here, we used cross-pathogenicity tests to investigate the changes in life-history traits of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis associated with host-tracking during the domestication of apple and subsequent host-range expansion on the wild European crabapple (Malus sylvestris). Pathogenicity of 40 isolates collected in wild and domesticated ecosystems was assessed on the domesticated apple, its Central Asian main progenitor (M. sieversii) and M. sylvestris. Isolates from wild habitats in the centre of origin of the crop were not pathogenic on the domesticated apple and less aggressive than other isolates on their host of origin. Isolates from the agro-ecosystem in Central Asia infected a higher proportion of plants with higher aggressiveness, on both the domesticated host and its progenitor. Isolates from the European crabapple were still able to cause disease on other species but were less aggressive and less frequently virulent on these hosts than their endemic populations. Our results suggest that the domestication of apple was associated with the acquisition of virulence in the pathogen following host-tracking. The spread of the disease in the agro-ecosystem would also have been accompanied by an increase in overall pathogenicity.

  18. The beneficial effect of small toxic molecules on dormancy alleviation and germination of apple embryos is due to NO formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Krasuska, Urszula; Debska, Karolina; Andryka, Paulina; Bogatek, Renata

    2010-09-01

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds is terminated by a 3-month-long cold stratification. It is expressed by rapid germination of seeds and undisturbed growth of seedlings. However, stimulation of germination of isolated apple embryos is also observed after applying inhibitors of cytochrome c oxidase: nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during the first 3-6 h of imbibition of dormant embryos. The aim of this work was to compare the effect of yet another toxic gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO) with the effects of HCN and NO on germination of apple embryos and growth and development of young seedlings. We demonstrated that stimulation of germination after short-term pre-treatment with HCN, NO or CO was accompanied by enhanced NO emission from the embryo axes during their elongation. Moreover, similarly high NO production from non-dormant embryos, after cold stratification, was detected. Therefore, we propose that NO may act as signaling molecule in apple embryo dormancy break.

  19. Genotyping-by-sequencing markers facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to Penicillium expansum in Malus sieversii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Michael; Fazio, Gennaro; Burchard, Erik; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Levin, Elena; Droby, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most important postharvest disease of apple worldwide and results in significant financial losses. There are no defined sources of resistance to blue mold in domesticated apple. However, resistance has been described in wild Malus sieversii accessions, including plant introduction (PI)613981. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic loci controlling resistance to blue mold in this accession. We describe the first quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the Rosaceae tribe Maleae conditioning resistance to P. expansum on genetic linkage group 3 (qM-Pe3.1) and linkage group 10 (qM-Pe10.1). These loci were identified in a M.× domestica ‘Royal Gala’ X M. sieversii PI613981 family (GMAL4593) based on blue mold lesion diameter seven days post-inoculation in mature, wounded apple fruit inoculated with P. expansum. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in 169 progeny over a four year period. PI613981 was the source of the resistance allele for qM-Pe3.1, a QTL with a major effect on blue mold resistance, accounting for 27.5% of the experimental variability. The QTL mapped from 67.3 to 74 cM on linkage group 3 of the GMAL4593 genetic linkage map. qM-Pe10.1 mapped from 73.6 to 81.8 cM on linkage group 10. It had less of an effect on resistance, accounting for 14% of the experimental variation. ‘Royal Gala’ was the primary contributor to the resistance effect of this QTL. However, resistance-associated alleles in both parents appeared to contribute to the least square mean blue mold lesion diameter in an additive manner at qM-Pe10.1. A GMAL4593 genetic linkage map composed of simple sequence repeats and ‘Golden Delicious’ single nucleotide polymorphism markers was able to detect qM-Pe10.1, but failed to detect qM-Pe3.1. The subsequent addition of genotyping-by-sequencing markers to the linkage map provided better coverage of the PI613981 genome on linkage group 3 and facilitated discovery of q

  20. Genotyping-by-sequencing markers facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to Penicillium expansum in Malus sieversii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norelli, John L; Wisniewski, Michael; Fazio, Gennaro; Burchard, Erik; Gutierrez, Benjamin; Levin, Elena; Droby, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum is the most important postharvest disease of apple worldwide and results in significant financial losses. There are no defined sources of resistance to blue mold in domesticated apple. However, resistance has been described in wild Malus sieversii accessions, including plant introduction (PI)613981. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic loci controlling resistance to blue mold in this accession. We describe the first quantitative trait loci (QTL) reported in the Rosaceae tribe Maleae conditioning resistance to P. expansum on genetic linkage group 3 (qM-Pe3.1) and linkage group 10 (qM-Pe10.1). These loci were identified in a M.× domestica 'Royal Gala' X M. sieversii PI613981 family (GMAL4593) based on blue mold lesion diameter seven days post-inoculation in mature, wounded apple fruit inoculated with P. expansum. Phenotypic analyses were conducted in 169 progeny over a four year period. PI613981 was the source of the resistance allele for qM-Pe3.1, a QTL with a major effect on blue mold resistance, accounting for 27.5% of the experimental variability. The QTL mapped from 67.3 to 74 cM on linkage group 3 of the GMAL4593 genetic linkage map. qM-Pe10.1 mapped from 73.6 to 81.8 cM on linkage group 10. It had less of an effect on resistance, accounting for 14% of the experimental variation. 'Royal Gala' was the primary contributor to the resistance effect of this QTL. However, resistance-associated alleles in both parents appeared to contribute to the least square mean blue mold lesion diameter in an additive manner at qM-Pe10.1. A GMAL4593 genetic linkage map composed of simple sequence repeats and 'Golden Delicious' single nucleotide polymorphism markers was able to detect qM-Pe10.1, but failed to detect qM-Pe3.1. The subsequent addition of genotyping-by-sequencing markers to the linkage map provided better coverage of the PI613981 genome on linkage group 3 and facilitated discovery of qM-Pe3.1. A DNA

  1. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  2. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  3. The gravity apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  4. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  5. Apple Inc. : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Gonçalo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation presents a valuation of Apple Inc., an American company that sits amongst the largest companies in the world, in market capitalization terms. Although it started as a computer company, back in 1976, nowadays it is best known for its smartphone flagship – the iPhone, introduced in 2007, it revolutionized the entire mobile phone industry. Today, the iPhone represents about 66% of total sales, however there are other products in Apple’s product line that are considered by a lar...

  6. Apple vs. Android

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelland, Johannes; Canright, Geoff; Engø-Monsen, Kenth

    It has long been known among marketers that our social network matters when we make purchasing decisions, and that having positive word of mouth about a product can be a key to success; see e.g. [1] for a review of studies on social networks within marketing. Traditionally, data on social network...... can be measured by studying this network. In this paper, we do a comparative study of social spreading effects for two competing types of smartphones - the Apple iPhone, and smartphones based on Google’s Android OS....

  7. Non-destructive prediction of quality of intact apple using near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the wavelength range of 900–1700 nm for determination of sweetness (total soluble solids, TSS); sourness (acidity) and their ratio for 5 cultivars of apple was studied. Partial least square and multiple linear regression (MLR) employing pre-processing techniques were carried out. MLR models were found to be the best for prediction after treating the spectral data with multiple scatter correction technique. The multiple correlation coefficients...

  8. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  9. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  10. Effect of Timing on Callus Formation and Rooting Ability in IBA-Treated Hardwood Stem Cuttings of Persian Walnut, Hazelnut and Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi TAJBAKHSH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of callus formation and rooting in hardwood stem cuttings of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., hazelnut (C. maxima and apple Malus pumila were evaluated by taking cuttings every two weeks from December 2001 through November 2002. Cuttings were treated with 4-indol-3-butyric acid (IBA at 3000 ppm for 6 s, placed in a greenhouse under intermittent mist, and evaluated after 8 weeks. There were three replications of each species and sampling date. The results showed that the rooting of cuttings was zero in late spring, summer, and early autumn, whereas there was a significant increase in percentage rooting, with rapid and complete callus formation in late autumn, winter, and early spring. For example, in December, callus formation and rooting percentages were: Persian walnut (80 and 6%, hazelnut (49 and 36%, and Apple (43 and 31.5%, respectively.

  11. Variation in host and pathogen in the Neonectria/Malus interaction; towards an understanding of the genetic basis of resistance to European canker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gomez-Cortecero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple canker caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Neonectria ditissima is an economically important disease, which has spread in recent years to almost all pome-producing regions of the world. N. ditissima is able to cross-infect a wide range of apple varieties and causes branch and trunk lesions, known as cankers. Most modern apple varieties are susceptible and in extreme cases suffer from high mortality (up to 50% in the early phase of orchard establishment. There is no known race structure of the pathogen and the global level of genetic diversity of the pathogen population is unknown. Resistance breeding is underway in many global breeding programmes, but nevertheless, a total resistance to canker has not yet been demonstrated. Here we present preliminary data from a survey of the phylogenetic relationships between global isolates of N. ditissima which reveals only slight evidence for population structure. In addition we report the results of four rapid screening tests to assess the response to N. ditissima in different apple scion and rootstock varieties, which reveals abundant variation in resistance responses in both cultivar and rootstock material. Further seedling tests show that the segregation patterns of resistance and susceptibility vary widely between crosses. We discuss inconsistencies in test performance with field observations and discuss future research opportunities in this area.

  12. Forested landscapes promote richness and abundance of native bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in Wisconsin apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J C; Wolf, A T; Ascher, J S

    2011-06-01

    Wild bees provide vital pollination services for many native and agricultural plant species, yet the landscape conditions needed to support wild bee populations are not well understood or appreciated. We assessed the influence of landscape composition on bee abundance and species richness in apple (Malus spp.) orchards of northeastern Wisconsin during the spring flowering period. A diverse community of bee species occurs in these apple orchards, dominated by wild bees in the families Andrenidae and Halictidae and the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Proportion of forest area in the surrounding landscape was a significant positive predictor of wild bee abundance in orchards, with strongest effects at a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) buffer distance of 1,000 m or greater. Forest area also was positively associated with species richness, showing strongest effects at a buffer distance of 2,000 m. Nonagricultural developed land (homes, lawns, etcetera) was significantly negatively associated with species richness at buffer distances >750 m and wild bee abundance in bowl traps at all distances. Other landscape variables statistically associated with species richness or abundance of wild bees included proportion area of pasture (positive) and proportion area of roads (negative). Forest area was not associated with honey bee abundance at any buffer distance. These results provide clear evidence that the landscape surrounding apple orchards, especially the proportion of forest area, affects richness and abundance of wild bees during the spring flowering period and should be a part of sustainable land management strategies in agro-ecosystems of northeastern Wisconsin and other apple growing regions.

  13. Characterization of an Autophagy-related Gene MdATG8i from apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient deficiencies restrict apple (Malus sp. tree growth and productivity in Northwest China. The process of autophagy, a conserved degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells, has important roles in nutrient-recycling and helps improve plant performance during periods of nutrient-starvation. Little is known about the functioning of autophagy-related genes (ATGs in apple. In this study, one of the ATG8 gene family members MdATG8i was isolated from M. domestica. MdATG8i has conserved putative tubulin binding sites and ATG7 interaction domains. A 1865-bp promoter region cloned from apple genome DNA was predicated to have cis-regulatory elements responsive to light, environmental stresses and hormones. MdATG8i transcriptions were induced in response to leaf senescence, nitrogen depletion, and oxidative stress. At cellular level, MdATG8i protein was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Yeast two-hybrid tests showed that MdATG8i could interact with MdATG7a and MdATG7b. In Arabidopsis, its heterologous expression was associated with enhanced vegetative growth, leaf senescence, and tolerance to nitrogen- and carbon-starvation. MdATG8i-overexpressing ‘Orin’ apple callus lines also displayed improved tolerance to nutrient-limited conditions. Our results demonstrate that MdATG8i protein could function in autophagy in a conserved way, as a positive regulator in the response to nutrient-starvation.

  14. Expression of arginine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase genes in apple cells and stressed shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu-Jin; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Honda, Chikako; Nada, Kazuyoshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2005-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are two important enzymes responsible for putrescine biosynthesis. In this study, a full-length ADC cDNA (MdADC) was isolated from apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. Meanwhile, a partial ODC (pMdODC) could be amplified only by a second RCR from the RT-PCR products, whereas a full-length ODC could not be obtained by either cDNA library screening or 5'- and 3'-RACEs, suggesting quite low expression. Moreover, D-arginine, an ADC inhibitor, caused a decrease in ADC activity and severely inhibited the growth of apple callus, which could be partially resumed by exogenous addition of putrescine, whereas alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor for ODC, caused the incomplete repression of callus growth without changing ODC activity. RNA gel blot showed that the expression level of MdADC was high in young tissues/organs with rapid cell division and was positively induced by chilling, salt, and dehydration, implying its involvement in both cell growth and these stress responses. By contrast, the transcript of ODC could not be detected by RNA gel blot analysis. Based on the present study, it is possible to conclude that (i) the ODC pathway is active in apple, although the expression level of the pMdODC gene homologous with its counterparts found in other plant species is quite low; and (ii) MdADC expression correlates with cell growth and stress responses to chilling, salt, and dehydration, suggesting that ADC is a primary biosynthetic pathway for putrescine biosynthesis in apple.

  15. Complete control of Penicillium expansum on apple fruit using a combination of antagonistic yeast Candida oleophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Guerrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Candida oleophila strains (L06, L07 smooth, and L07 rough were evaluated in vivo and in vitro as biocontrol agents against Penicillium expansum on postharvest 'Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh. in Chihuahua, Mexico. The in vivo and in vitro activity of exo-β-1,3-glucanase was measured as a possible biocontrol mode of action for C. oleophila. Mean disease incidence caused by P. expansum was 0.3% for apples treated with fludioxonil + ciprodinil, which were used as a positive control, and 1% for fruits treated with a combination of the three C. oleophila strains; the effects of these treatments were significantly equivalent. Disease incidence in control apples was 39% and was significantly different from the other treatments. The in vivo exo-β-1,3-glucanase activity began at 24 h and peaked at 72 and 96 h for all treatments. Strain L06 had the highest activity (7.96 nKat and a specific activity of 2.92 nKat μg-1. Candida albicans had the lowest activity (2.83 nKat and a specific activity of 0.67 nKat ug-1. The highest in vitro activity was for C. albicans (85.03 nKat and the lowest for strain L06 (78.2 nKat. Significant differences in both in vivo and in vitro enzymatic activity were observed between strain L06 and C. albicans. Polynomial regression analysis (R² = 0.96 in vitro and 0.68 in vivo indicated that increased enzymatic activity was associated with reduced fruit disease incidence. The production of exo-β-1,3-glucanase by C. oleophila is a possible mode of action for the efficient biocontrol of P. expansum on postharvest apples.

  16. Overexpression of MsDREB6.2 results in cytokinin-deficient developmental phenotypes and enhances drought tolerance in transgenic apple plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiong; Guo, Xiao; Wang, Qi; Wang, Yantao; Zhao, Di; Yao, Liping; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Guojie; Li, Tianhong

    2017-02-01

    Dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling pathways in model plants. However, little is known about the function of DREBs in apple (Malus × domestica), a widely cultivated crop that is frequently threatened by drought. We isolated a DREB gene from Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem., MsDREB6.2, and investigated its functions using overexpression analysis and chimeric repressor gene-silencing technology (CRES-T). We identified possible target genes of the protein encoded by MsDREB6.2 using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Overexpression of MsDREB6.2 increased the expression of a key cytokinin (CK) catabolism gene, MdCKX4a, which led to a significant reduction in endogenous CK levels, and caused a decrease in shoot:root ratio in transgenic apple plants. Overexpression of MsDREB6.2 resulted in a decrease in stomatal aperture and density and an increase in root hydraulic conductance (L0 ), and thereby enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. Furthermore, manipulating the level of MsDREB6.2 expression altered the expression of two aquaporin (AQP) genes. The effect of the two AQP genes on L0 was further characterized using the AQP inhibitor HgCl2 . Based on these observations, we conclude that MsDREB6.2 enhances drought tolerance and that its function may be due, at least in part, to its influence on stomatal opening, root growth, and AQP expression. These results may have applications in apple rootstock breeding programs aimed at developing drought-resistant apple varieties.

  17. Apple Watch的N个细节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Citizen

    2015-01-01

    3月10日,苹果公司正式发布Apple Watch智能手表,包括Apple Watch Sport、Apple Watch和Apple Watch Edition等3款产品。中国作为首批发售国之一,消费者从4月24日起就可以在国内市场购买到Apple Watch智能手表。

  18. Evaluation of vinegar-making characteristics by different apple varieties%不同苹果品种(系)制醋适性的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 王玉莹; 张玉刚; 梁美霞; 祝军; 戴洪义

    2012-01-01

    16 apple (Malus domestica Borkh) varieties were used to make vinegars. The physical and chemical indexes and sensory characteristic were evaluated. Results indicated that there were significant differences in the contents of acetic acid, tannin, total polyphenol and clarity between apple vinegars. Lujia 6 and Hokkaido 9 are suitable for vinegar-making due to their soft sour and fruity taste.%以16个苹果(Malus domestica Borkh)品种(系)为原料酿醋,对制成的苹果醋进行理化指标,感官指标分析.结果表明,不同苹果品种(系)制出的醋在醋酸、单宁、总酚含量及澄清度方面差异较大,其中用北海道9号(Hakkaido 9)和鲁加6号(Lujia 6)制的醋酸味柔和,果味浓郁,醋体澄清透明,较为稳定.

  19. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Bellard, C.; Tellier, A.; Cam, le B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Kleinschmit, J.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past cli

  20. Genome-wide analysis and identification of stress-responsive genes of the NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2 transcription factor family in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongyan; Zhang, Shizhong; Yuan, Xiaowei; Chen, Changtian; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-10-01

    NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, and CUC2) proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors. To date, little is known about the NAC genes in the apple (Malus domestica). In this study, a total of 180 NAC genes were identified in the apple genome and were phylogenetically clustered into six groups (I-VI) with the NAC genes from Arabidopsis and rice. The predicted apple NAC genes were distributed across all of 17 chromosomes at various densities. Additionally, the gene structure and motif compositions of the apple NAC genes were analyzed. Moreover, the expression of 29 selected apple NAC genes was analyzed in different tissues and under different abiotic stress conditions. All of the selected genes, with the exception of four genes, were expressed in at least one of the tissues tested, which indicates that the NAC genes are involved in various aspects of the physiological and developmental processes of the apple. Encouragingly, 17 of the selected genes were found to respond to one or more of the abiotic stress treatments, and these 17 genes included not only the expected 7 genes that were clustered with the well-known stress-related marker genes in group IV but also 10 genes located in other subgroups, none of which contains members that have been reported to be stress-related. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first genome-wide analysis of the apple NAC gene family, and the results should provide valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of this family.

  1. Modeling and performance of Bonus-Malus Systems: Stationarity versus age-correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren

    In a bonus-malus system in car insurance, the bonus class of a customer is updated from a year to the next as a function of the current class and the number of claims in the year (assumed Poisson). Thus the sequence of classes of a customer in consecutive years forms a Markov chain, and most...

  2. Evidence from the domestication of apple for the maintenance of autumn colours by coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco

    2009-07-22

    The adaptive value of autumn colours is still a puzzle for evolutionary biology. It has been suggested that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects that use the trees as a host. I show that aphids (Dysaphis plantaginea) avoid apple trees (Malus pumila) with red leaves in autumn and that their fitness in spring is lower on these trees, which suggests that red leaves are an honest signal of the quality of the tree as a host. Autumn colours are common in wild populations but not among cultivated apple varieties, which are no longer under natural selection against insects. I show that autumn colours remain only in the varieties that are very susceptible to the effects of a common insect-borne disease, fire blight, and therefore are more in need of avoiding insects. Moreover, varieties with red leaves have smaller fruits, which shows that they have been under less effective artificial selection. This suggests a possible trade off between fruit size, leaf colour and resistance to parasites. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that autumn colours are a warning signal to insects, but not with other hypotheses.

  3. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem.

  4. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  5. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  6. A new versatile database created for geneticists and breeders to link molecular and phenotypic data in perennial crops: the AppleBreed DataBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antofie, A.; Lateur, M.; Oger, R.; Patocchi, A.; Durel, C.E.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: AppleBreed DataBase (DB) aims to store genotypic and phenotypic data from multiple pedigree verified plant populations (crosses, breeding selections and commercial cultivars) so that they are easily accessible for geneticists and breeders. It will help in elucidating the genetics of econo

  7. Response of Organic Acids to Zinc Homeostasis in Zinc-Deficient and Zinc-Toxic Apple Rootstock Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Di; LIU Ai-Hong; HE Chen; WANG Jin-Hua; WANG Yan-An

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of tolerance to zinc (Zn) deficiency and Zn toxicity in the root of apple trees,the apple rootstock Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd seedlings were selected to study the responses of organic acids to Zn homeostasis in roots under low Zn (0 μmol L-1),adequate Zn (as control,4 μmol L-1) and toxic Zn (100 μmol L-1) treatments.The differences of Zn concentrations and accumulations in the roots were highest,compared with those in the stems and leaves,when apple seedlings were subjected to low and toxic Zn treatments for 1 d.The concentrations and accumulations of oxalic and malic acids in the roots in the low and toxic Zn treatments increased by 20% to 60% compared with those of the control treatment.Significantly negative correlations were found between the total Zn concentrations and the concentrations of oxalic and malic acids in the roots under 1 d of low Zn treatment.However,contrary correlations were found for the toxic Zn treatment.Meanwhile,the maximum influx rates of Zn2+ under low and toxic Zn treatments increased by 30% and 20%,respectively,compared with the rate of the control treatment.Both Zn deficiency and Zn toxicity increased the concentrations of organic acids in root after short-time Zn treatment,which could resist Zn stress through balanding Zn homeostasis in M.hupehensis Rehd.

  8. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  9. Molecular characterization of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuepeng eHan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are the major component of phenolics in apple, but mechanisms involved in PA biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, the relationship between the PA biosynthesis and the expression of genes encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR was investigated in fruit skin of one apple cultivar and three crabapples. Transcript levels of LAR1 and ANR2 genes were significantly correlated with the contents of catechin and epicatechin, respectively, which suggests their active roles in PA synthesis. Surprisingly, transcript levels for both LAR1 and LAR2 genes were almost undetectable in two crabapples that accumulated both flavan-3-ols and PAs. This contradicts the previous finding that LAR1 gene is a strong candidate regulating the accumulation of metabolites such as epicatechin and PAs in apple. Ectopic expression of apple MdLAR1 gene in tobacco suppresses expression of the late genes in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, resulting in loss of anthocyanin in flowers. Interestingly, a decrease in PA biosynthesis was also observed in flowers of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing the MdLAR1 gene, which could be attributed to decreased expression of both the NtANR1 and NtANR2 genes. Our study not only confirms the in vivo function of apple LAR1 gene, but it is also helpful for understanding the mechanism of PA biosynthesis.

  10. Identification of a QTL for postharvest disease resistance to Penicillium expansum in Malus sieversii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold of apple caused by Penicillium expansum is one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit. Little attention has been devoted to postharvest disease resistance in apple breeding programs due both to a lack of sources of genetic resistance and to the time required for seedlings t...

  11. Effects of spraying PBO on flowering rate and carbohydrate accumulation of ‘ Fuji' apple trees%PBO喷施对矮化富士幼树成花及碳水化合物积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢利博; 张晓云; 宋晓敏; 宋春晖; 韩明玉; 赵彩平; 李高潮

    2013-01-01

    In attempt to investigate the effects of spraying PBO on flowering rate and carbohydrate accumulation of ‘ Fuji' apple trees,different concentrations of PBP were sprayed on young apple (Malus domestica Borth.) cultivar ‘ Fuji' Nagafu No.2.The flowering rate,shoot growth and carbohydrate content changes of leaf and bud in apple trees were studied also.The results showed that:(1)spraying PBO treatment could,to certain extent,improve flowering rate and restrain shoot growth in upper,middle and basal part of ‘Fuji' young apple trees.The spraying PBO with different concentrations had different effects on carbohydrate content changes of leaf and bud of in upper,middle and basal part of ‘ Fuji' young apple trees.Compared with control,spraying PBO with higher concentrations (4000 mg· L-1 and 6667 mg · L-1) could increase the content of the sucrose,glucose,sorbitol,total soluble sugar in leaf in upper,middle and basal part of ‘Fuji' young apple tree in the early growth stage (from May to July),but significantly reduced starch content in leaf during this period.Similarly,spraying PBO with higher concentration significantly increased content of sorbitol and total soluble sugar in bud in June and significantly reduced starch content in bud in July.(2)Flower bud formation was closely correlated to translocation or conversion of carbohydrate between leaf and bud.Spraying PBO of highest concentration (6667 mg· L-1) leaded to a significant positive correlation between sorbitol and total soluble sugar content and leaf and bud; however,corresponding correlation between starch content and leaf and bud was not significant.According to experinent results of this study and taking production investment into consideration,we proposed that spraying PBO treatment with 4000 mg· L-1 is effective in promoting flower bud formation of ‘ Fuji' apple trees in the period from May to July (the critical period for physiological differentiation of apple flower buds).%以‘长富2号'

  12. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai Peach cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.The peach breeding program of Embrapa Clima Temperado has, among the objectives the development of fresh market cultivars that fulfill the consumer's preference. Some of the largest consumer centers, such as São Paulo and Curitiba, prefer white flesh peaches with sweet flavor. Cultivar BRS Kampai originated from a cross between 'Chimarrita' and 'Flordaprince', adds the low chilling requirement, advantageous for subtropical areas, to the good appearance and flavor superior to any of the parents. The harvest period of this cultivar begins mid November, in Pelotas, RS, a few days before Rubimel (yellow flesh and Premier (white flesh cultivars (and in the second half of October, in Atibaia, SP being a good substitute for the later.

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLLEN FROM SOME VARIETIES OF MALUS DOMESTICA, PYRUS COMMUNIS, PRUNUS DOMESTICA, PRUNUS PERSICA AND PRUNUS ARMENIACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare Rosaceae genotypes from for their pollen viability and morphology. The pollen of some varieties of Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus armeniaca was identified. Pollen from mature anthers was collected. Pollen grains of all genera of Rosaceae surveyed occur as radially symmetric isopolar monads. The main aspect studied were the shape of pollen in the polar view (polar perimeter and polar area of pollen. Shape of pollen is triangular-obtuse-convex in polar view. The pollen class is trizonocolpate-obtus-triangular while the sculpturing of exine surface is striate. The number of colpi is three while the spines are absent. Apart from fully developed pollen grains, also much smaller, not completely developed pollen were found in the samples of the examined species. The viability of the pollen was determined on 1% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC. Viable, semi-viable and dead pollen numbers and their percentages were determined. This stain test may be used to determine pollen viability in these species to provide only a rough estimate of viability. The results presented here are important for improving our understanding of Rosaceae reproduction biology. Knowledge of reproduction biology, particularly pollen viability and quality, is critical for the newly-developed cultivars.

  14. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple pr

  15. Big Book of Apple Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Bigger in size, longer in length, broader in scope, and even more useful than our original Mac OS X Hacks, the new Big Book of Apple Hacks offers a grab bag of tips, tricks and hacks to get the most out of Mac OS X Leopard, as well as the new line of iPods, iPhone, and Apple TV. With 125 entirely new hacks presented in step-by-step fashion, this practical book is for serious Apple computer and gadget users who really want to take control of these systems. Many of the hacks take you under the hood and show you how to tweak system preferences, alter or add keyboard shortcuts, mount drives and

  16. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  17. Apple of One’s Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    Apple is one of the favorite fruits among the western people and there are many idioms with the word. Apple is popular among people,not only because of its sweet flavor and rich nutrient(营养); people love it mainly because of its shape. Red and round apple is the symbol of happiness and good luck.

  18. Influence of impact and compression mechanical damage on respiration of Fuji Suprema and Royal Gala apples Influência do dano mecânico de impacto e compressão sobre a respiração de maçãs cultivares Fuji Suprema e Royal Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Salete Andreazza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of cell respiration is related to the storage potential of a horticultural product. In the case of apples the main modification during storage is the metabolization of organic acids. Mechanical damage is frequent in fruit post harvest handling and the external forces involved can accelerate the respiratory pattern of fruits leading to further losses. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effects of mechanical damage by impact and compressing on the respiratory pattern of Fuji Suprema and Royal Gala apples. The experiments consisted of five treatments with three repetitions of six fruit each. After the treatment application, fruit were set in closed flasks and maintained in room temperature during the CO2 determination (ml CO2 kg-1 h-1. The measurements were made with a CO2 analyzer equipped with a zircon detector. The readings were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 e 168 hours after the treatment and data were submitted to a regression analysis. There was an increase in fruit respiration after the treatment application. The respiratory profiles along the evaluated period show increase of the respiratory rate after the treatment application. The greatest increase for most treatments occurred within the first six hours after the treatment, with posterior reduction. The regression curves of the respiratory rate in function of the treatment applied showed there is an increment in the respiratory rates associated with the intensity of applied forces. The increments of respiratory rates were greater for Gala than Fuji apples and impacts produce a greater effect over the respiration than compression forces. A intensidade da respiração celular está relacionada com o potencial de armazenamento nos produtos hortícolas; no caso de maçãs, a principal modificação é a metabolização dos ácidos orgânicos. Danos mecânicos são freqüentes na pós-colheita de frutos, e estas forças externas podem acelerar o padrão respirat

  19. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  20. Assessment of allelic diversity in intron-containing Mal d 1 genes and their association to apple allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhaar Suzanne THP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mal d 1 is a major apple allergen causing food allergic symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS in birch-pollen sensitised patients. The Mal d 1 gene family is known to have at least 7 intron-containing and 11 intronless members that have been mapped in clusters on three linkage groups. In this study, the allelic diversity of the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes was assessed among a set of apple cultivars by sequencing or indirectly through pedigree genotyping. Protein variant constitutions were subsequently compared with Skin Prick Test (SPT responses to study the association of deduced protein variants with allergenicity in a set of 14 cultivars. Results From the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes investigated, Mal d 1.01 and Mal d 1.02 were highly conserved, as nine out of ten cultivars coded for the same protein variant, while only one cultivar coded for a second variant. Mal d 1.04, Mal d 1.05 and Mal d 1.06 A, B and C were more variable, coding for three to six different protein variants. Comparison of Mal d 1 allelic composition between the high-allergenic cultivar Golden Delicious and the low-allergenic cultivars Santana and Priscilla, which are linked in pedigree, showed an association between the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A genes (both located on linkage group 16 with allergenicity. This association was confirmed in 10 other cultivars. In addition, Mal d 1.06A allele dosage effects associated with the degree of allergenicity based on prick to prick testing. Conversely, no associations were observed for the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.01 (on linkage group 13, -1.02, -1.06B, -1.06C genes (all on linkage group 16, nor by the Mal d 1.05 gene (on linkage group 6. Conclusion Protein variant compositions of Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A and, in case of Mal d 1.06A, allele doses are associated with the differences in allergenicity among fourteen apple cultivars. This information

  1. Differential Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Gene Family Members in Fire-Blight-Infected Apple ‘Holsteiner Cox’ 1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M.; Belkheir, Asma K.; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple ‘Golden Delicious’, nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple ‘Holsteiner Cox,’ heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple ‘Cox Orange,’ expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  2. Determination of Total Triterpenoids of Different Apple Varieties in Apple Peel and Apple Flesh%不同品种苹果果皮和果肉中总三萜含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 宋晓凯; 赵艳敏; 刘岱琳

    2014-01-01

    To establish a method for the determination of total triterpenoids from apple peel and apple flesh by folin-ciocalteu colorimetry. With ursolic acid as reference substance, total triterpenoids of apple peel and apple flesh from different apple varieties was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The linear equation was y=0.007x-0.035(R2=0.999 3), and the calibration curve was linear in the range of 21μg-136μg. The average recovery was 100.32 %. The content of total triterpenoids in apple peel and apple flesh of different cultivars were in the range of 13.2 mg/g-23.9 mg/g and 8.0 mg/g-15.0 mg/g respectively. The method is simple and reliable, also had the advantages of stableness and repeatability,and can be used to detect the content of apple total triterpenoids.%建立测定苹果中总三萜含量的方法。以熊果酸为标准品,用紫外-可见分光光度法测定不同品种苹果果皮和果肉中总三萜的含量。熊果酸的质量在21μg~136μg范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系,线性回归方程为y=0.007x-0.035(R2=0.9993),平均回收率为100.32%。不同品种苹果果皮的总三萜的含量范围为13.2 mg/g~23.9 mg/g,苹果果肉的总三萜的含量范围为8.0 mg/g~15.0 mg/g。该方法简单、可靠、稳定性好、重复性高,可用于苹果中功能营养成分总三萜含量的检测。

  3. Extreme Hypoxic Conditions Induce Selective Molecular Responses and Metabolic Reset in Detached Apple Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrov, Dubravka; Zermiani, Monica; Brizzolara, Stefano; Cestaro, Alessandro; Licausi, Francesco; Luchinat, Claudio; Santucci, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo; Van Veen, Hans; Zuccolo, Andrea; Ruperti, Benedetto; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The ripening physiology of detached fruit is altered by low oxygen conditions with profound effects on quality parameters. To study hypoxia-related processes and regulatory mechanisms, apple (Malus domestica, cv Granny Smith) fruit, harvested at commercial ripening, were kept at 1°C under normoxic (control) and hypoxic (0.4 and 0.8 kPa oxygen) conditions for up to 60 days. NMR analyses of cortex tissue identified eight metabolites showing significantly different accumulations between samples, with ethanol and alanine displaying the most pronounced difference between hypoxic and normoxic treatments. A rapid up-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate-related metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, alanine aminotransferase) gene expression was detected under both hypoxic conditions with a more pronounced effect induced by the lowest (0.4 kPa) oxygen concentration. Both hypoxic conditions negatively affected ACC synthase and ACC oxidase transcript accumulation. Analysis of RNA-seq data of samples collected after 24 days of hypoxic treatment identified more than 1000 genes differentially expressed when comparing 0.4 vs. 0.8 kPa oxygen concentration samples. Genes involved in cell-wall, minor and major CHO, amino acid and secondary metabolisms, fermentation and glycolysis as well as genes involved in transport, defense responses, and oxidation-reduction appeared to be selectively affected by treatments. The lowest oxygen concentration induced a higher expression of transcription factors belonging to AUX/IAA, WRKY, HB, Zinc-finger families, while MADS box family genes were more expressed when apples were kept under 0.8 kPa oxygen. Out of the eight group VII ERF members present in apple genome, two genes showed a rapid up-regulation under hypoxia, and western blot analysis showed that apple MdRAP2.12 proteins were differentially accumulated in normoxic and hypoxic samples, with the highest level reached under 0.4 kPa oxygen. These data suggest

  4. The comparison of nectaries structure of some varieties of ornamental apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of floral nectary structures of thirteen ornamental apple cultivars examined using light microscope (MS and scanning electron microscope (SEM was performed. It was found that nectary glands in the selected cultivars were located in the upper part of the flower receptacle, between the ovary of the pistil and the base of stamen filaments, and they generally belonged to the epimorphic or transitoric type. The nectary surface area, its thickness, the number of glandular tissue layers, the height of epidermal cells of the nectary and the thickness of the outer wall of the epidermis, together with the cuticle, were determined by light microscope. By using SEM, the structure of the surface of nectaries in four ornamental apple cultivars was observed. The epidermis of the upper part of the nectaries was composed of elongated cells of which outer cell wall was covered with a striated cuticle. The remaining part of the nectary was characterised by cells of similar arrangement and shape, but their surface was marked by a thinner and smoother layer of cuticle. Closed or opened stomata were generally situated at the level of the epidermal cells. Their pores were often filled with granular or plate-shaped structures.

  5. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  6. Nutrient Deficiency Affects Root Architecture of Young Seedlings of Malus hupehensis (Pamp) Rehd. Under Conditions of Artificial Medium Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wei-guo; YANG Hong-qiang

    2007-01-01

    What the researchers go in for is to establish models between root architecture (RA) changes and nutrition, mold ideal root architecture of apple trees, improve the nutrient uptake efficiency, and further explore the functional mechanism of nutrient elements during the course of RA construction. The cultivation system of filter paper is utilized to research the effect of nutrient deficiency on the RA of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. There may be eight types of RA. In complete Hogland solution, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root". With the lack of P, K or Ca, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper region primary root", and the "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root" types of RA decrease. But with shortage of P, the type of lateral roots clustering in the upper and lower regions of primary root increases, and the type of lateral roots clustering in the middle region of primary root decreases, with the types of RA diversified. Under the condition of K deficiency, the type of no lateral root increases and types of lateral roots clustering in the middle region of primary root decrease, and the percentage of such types as "no lateral root", "lateral roots clustering in the upper region of primary root", and "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root" accounts for 97.9% in all, with the types of RA simplified.With lack of Fe, Mg or Zn, the main type of RA is "lateral roots clustering in the upper and middle regions of primary root",but the type of lateral roots evenly-distributed on primary root increases. The main type of RA is "lateral roots evenlydistributed on primary root", under the condition of N deficiency, and the types of RA turn out to be diversified. There exists a close relation between nutrient deficiency and RA changes. Owing to various forms of nutrient deficiency,correspondingly different types of RA have

  7. Metabolic diversity in apple germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Chibon, P.Y.F.R.P.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed metabolic diversity in apples from wild species, elite material and a F1 population, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The evaluated elite material appeared to have strongly reduced levels of phenolic compounds, down to 1% of the concentrations in the investigat

  8. Ethylene production by apple protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J D; Lieberman, M; Stewart, R N

    1979-05-01

    Freshly prepared protoplasts from apple tissue that produced ethylene were obtained. Ethylene production was inhibited by osmotic shock, 0.01% Triton X-100, and aminoethoxyvinyl glycine. Protoplasts as well as the ethylene system were not greatly affected by protease treatment.

  9. Reduction of colonic inflammation in HLA-B27 transgenic rats by feeding Marie Ménard apples, rich in polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnini, Cinzia; Luceri, Cristina; Toti, Simona; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Caderni, Giovanna; Femia, Angelo P; Giovannelli, Lisa; Lodovici, Maura; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Salvadori, Maddalena; Messerini, Luca; Martin, Rocio; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Gaj, Stan; Eijssen, Lars; Evelo, Chris T; Renard, Catherine M G C; Baron, Alain; Dolara, Piero

    2009-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are immunomediated ailments affecting millions of individuals. Although diet is regarded as an important factor influencing IBD, there are no accepted dietary recommendations presently available. We administered 7.6 % lyophilised apples obtained from two cultivars (Golden Delicious and Marie Ménard, low and high in polyphenols, respectively) to HLA-B27 transgenic rats which develop spontaneous IBD. After 3 months feeding, rats fed Marie Ménard apples had reduced myeloperoxidase activity (3.6 (sem 0.3) v. 2.2 (sem 0.2) U/g tissue; P bacteria of the Bacteriodes fragilis group. In conclusion, the administration of Marie Ménard apples, rich in polyphenols and used at present only in the manufacturing of cider, ameliorates colon inflammation in transgenic rats developing spontaneous intestinal inflammation, suggesting the possible use of these and other apple varieties to control inflammation in IBD patients.

  10. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  11. Quality of cv. 'Gala Brookfield' and ‘Fuji Kiku 8' apples grown under and outside hail net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž GERMŠEK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-hail nets for the production of apples has become a normally action for a new or update an old apple orchard. In 2007 and 2008, the development of quality and maturity parameters of cv. 'Gala Brookfield' and ‘Fuji Kiku 8' apples grafted on M9 were studied in the Fruit growing centre Maribor-Gačnik as a factor of being grown under a  blackhail net. The results showed that when grown under  the black hail net fruit of both cultivars reach a higher mean mass,  lower soluble solids content (0.6 to 1 ° Brix, and lower starch index, while no effect of the black hail net was detected on fruit flesh firmness and yield.

  12. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  13. Non-destructive prediction of quality of intact apple using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S N; Garg, Ruchi

    2010-03-01

    Potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the wavelength range of 900-1700 nm for determination of sweetness (total soluble solids, TSS); sourness (acidity) and their ratio for 5 cultivars of apple was studied. Partial least square and multiple linear regression (MLR) employing pre-processing techniques were carried out. MLR models were found to be the best for prediction after treating the spectral data with multiple scatter correction technique. The multiple correlation coefficients for calibration and validation were found to be 0.887, 0.745 °Brix for TSS, 0.890, 0.752 % for acidity and 0.893, 0.751 for acidity/TSS ratio, respectively. The standard errors of calibration, prediction, biases and differences in them were low, which indicated that NIRS has potential to predict internal quality of apple non-destructively.

  14. Primary scab control using a "during-infection" spray timing and the effect on fruit quality and yield in organic apple production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in Europe depends to a great extent on the use of copper fungicides for scab control (Venturia inaequalis. The objective of this 6-year study (2003-2008 conducted in Belgium was to determine measures for reducing the use of copper fungicides in organic apple production. The effectiveness of a 'during-infection' spray strategy using wettable sulphur (with or without copper, lime sulphur, potassium bicarbonate, silicon and five natural plant extracts (orange peel, soapbark, tea seed, quinoa seed and grapefruit seed for controlling primary scab was investigated in a split-plot field experiment. Four apple cultivars that express a gradient of partial scab resistance were included: a high scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pinova', a medium scab-susceptible cultivar (cv. 'Pirouette' and two old cultivars expressing low to very low scab susceptibility (cvs. 'Reinette Hernaut' and 'Reinette des Capucins'. Apart from these cultivars, four monogenic Vf scab-resistant cultivars (cvs. 'Initial', 'Topaz', 'Zvatava' and 'JN 20/33/58' were also included in the experimental orchard. In order to reduce the amount of fungicide required, two strategies were used: a specific spray timing involving spraying during the infection processes, before fungal penetration, determined by the RIMpro software warning system, and a tunnel sprayer machine for optimal treatment applications. Depending on the year, a total of 8-12 applications were made annually. Under field conditions that were highly conducive disease, low rates of elemental sulphur (≤ 40 kg.ha-1 per year combined with low rates of copper (≤ 2.1 kg.ha-1 per year provided the best scab control and reduced scab severity on the leaves and fruits by 85-100%, depending on the year and cultivar, compared with the untreated control. In most cases, the lime sulphur spray treatment, which used more elemental sulphur but did not use copper, provided a similar level of scab control to the

  15. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  16. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple variet

  17. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed......-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

  18. Quality of different tropical fruit cultivars produced in the Lower Basin of the São Francisco Valley1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrício Ferreira Batista

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the physical, physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of fruit from commercial cultivars of the mango, acerola, guava, atemoya and custard apple, produced in the Lower Basin of the São Francisco Valley. Fruit harvested in commercial areas of the region were evaluated for weight, length, diameter, colouration of the peel and pulp, firmness, pH, titratable acidity (TA, soluble solids (SS, SS to TA ratio, and levels of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch and pectic substances. The data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Fruits from cultivars of the guava (Paluma, Rica and Pedro Sato, the custard apple and atemoya display a high level of pectic substances, a characteristic which favours industrial use. In the mango, a high level of pectic substances was noted in fruit of the cultivars Kent, Espada, Tommy Atkins and Van Dyke. Fruits of the acerola cultivar Costa Rica show high SS content and a low AT, favouring consumption in natura.

  19. Optimal vision system design for characterization of apples using US/VIS/NIR spectroscopy data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, three sparse regression methods; lasso, elastic-net and fused lasso are employed for estimation of the chemical and physical characteristics of one apple cultivar using their high dimensional spectroscopic measurements. The use of sparse regression reduces the number of required wavelengths...... for prediction and thus, simplifies the required vision set-up. It is shown that, considering a tradeoff between the number of selected bands and the corresponding validation performance during the training step can result in a significant reduction in the number of bands at a small price in the test performance...

  20. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  1. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  2. Apple russeting as seen through the RNA-seq lens: strong alterations in the exocarp cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legay, Sylvain; Guerriero, Gea; Deleruelle, Amélie; Lateur, Marc; Evers, Danièle; André, Christelle M; Hausman, Jean-Francois

    2015-05-01

    Russeting, a commercially important defect in the exocarp of apple (Malus × domestica), is mainly characterized by the accumulation of suberin on the inner part of the cell wall of the outer epidermal cell layers. However, knowledge on the underlying genetic components triggering this trait remains sketchy. Bulk transcriptomic profiling was performed on the exocarps of three russeted and three waxy apple varieties. This experimental design was chosen to lower the impact of genotype on the obtained results. Validation by qPCR was carried out on representative genes and additional varieties. Gene ontology enrichment revealed a repression of lignin and cuticle biosynthesis genes in russeted exocarps, concomitantly with an enhanced expression of suberin deposition, stress responsive, primary sensing, NAC and MYB-family transcription factors, and specific triterpene biosynthetic genes. Notably, a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.976) between the expression of a MYB93-like transcription factor and key suberin biosynthetic genes was found. Our results suggest that russeting is induced by a decreased expression of cuticle biosynthetic genes, leading to a stress response which not only affects suberin deposition, but also the entire structure of the cell wall. The large number of candidate genes identified in this study provides a solid foundation for further functional studies.

  3. Triterpenoic Acids from Apple Pomace Enhance the Activity of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbauer, Katharina; Seiringer, Günter; Nguyen, Dieu Linh; Winkler, Johannes; Blaschke, Michael; McKinnon, Ruxandra; Urban, Ernst; Ladurner, Angela; Dirsch, Verena M; Zehl, Martin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2016-01-13

    Pomace is an easy-accessible raw material for the isolation of fruit-derived compounds. Fruit consumption is associated with health-promoting effects, such as the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Increased vascular nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, for example, due to an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, could be one molecular mechanism mediating this effect. To identify compounds from apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pomace that have the potential to amplify NO bioavailability via eNOS activation, a bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol/water (70:30) extract has been performed using the (14)C-L-arginine to (14)C-L-citrulline conversion assay (ACCA) in the human endothelium-derived cell line EA.hy926. Phytochemical characterization of the active fractions was performed using the spectrophotometric assessment of the total phenolic content, as well as TLC, HPLC-DAD-ELSD, and HPLC-MS analyses. Eleven triterpenoic acids, of which one is a newly discovered compound, were identified as the main constituents in the most active fraction, accompanied by only minor contents of phenolic compounds. When tested individually, none of the tested compounds exhibited significant eNOS activation. Nevertheless, cell stimulation with the reconstituted compound mixture restored eNOS activation, validating the potential of apple pomace as a source of bioactive components.

  4. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  5. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  6. AppleScript The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Adam

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript: The Missing Manual is every beginner's guide to learning the Macintosh's ultimate scripting tool: AppleScript. Through dozens of hands-on scripting examples, this comprehensive guide ensures that anyone including novices can learn how to control Mac applications in timesaving and innovative ways. Thanks to AppleScript: The Missing Manual, the path from regular Mac fan to seasoned scripter has never been easier.

  7. Effects of Soil C/N Ratio on Apple Growth and Nitrogen Utilization,Residue and Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunfeng; GE; Yihua; REN; Ling; PENG; Haigang; XU; Mengmeng; JI; Shaochong; WEI; Yuanmao; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Soil C /N ratio is an important influencing factor in soil nitrogen cycling. Two-year old apple trees( Borkh. cv. ‘Fuji’/Malus hupehensis) were used to understand the effect of soil C/N ratio [6. 52( CK),10,15,20,25,30,35 and 40]on apple growth and nitrogen utilization and loss by using15N trace technique. The results showed that,with the increasing of soil C/N ratio,apple shoot length and fresh weight increased at first,and then decreased; the higher apple shoot length and fresh weight appeared in C/N = 15,20 and 25 treatments,and there were no significant differences among these three treatments,but significantly higher than the other treatments. Statistical analysis revealed that there was significant difference in nitrogen utilization rate between the different treatments,the highest N utilization rate was occurred in soil C/N = 25 treatment which value was 22. 87%,and there was no significant difference between soil C/N = 25 and C/N = 20 treatments,but both the two treatments were significantly higher than the other treatments; Soil C/N = 40 had the lowest N utilization rate which value was 15. 43%,and this value was less than CK( 16. 65%). The proportion of plant absorption nitrogen from fertilizer was much higher when the value of soil C/N ratio in the range of 15- 25,but the percentage of plant absorption nitrogen from soil was much higher when the soil C/N ratio was too low( < 15) or high( < 25). Amount of residual nitrogen in soil increased gradually with the soil C/N ratio increasing,the amount of residual nitrogen in C/N = 40 treatment was 1. 32 times than that in CK. With the increasing of soil C/N ratio,fertilizer nitrogen loss decreased at first,and then increased,fertilizer nitrogen loss was the minimum in C/N = 25 treatments( 49. 87%) and the maximum were occurred in CK( 61. 54%). Therefore,regarding the apple growth and nitrogen balance situation,the value of soil C/N ratio in the range of 15- 25 would be favorable for apple growth and could

  8. Characterization of a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Malus domestica highlights the evolutionary conservation of trihydroxycinnamoyl spermidines in pollen coat of core Eudicotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Papon, Nicolas; Courdavault, Vincent; St-Pierre, Benoit; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lanoue, Arnaud; Besseau, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Phenolamides, so called hydroxycinnamic acid amides, are specialized metabolites produced in higher plants, involved in development, reproduction and serve as defence compounds in biotic interactions. Among them, trihydroxycinnamoyl spermidine derivatives were initially found to be synthetized by a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (AtSHT) in Arabidopsis thaliana and to accumulate in the pollen coat. This study reports the identification, in Malus domestica, of an acyltransferase able to complement the sht mutant of Arabidopsis. The quantitative RT-PCR expression profile of MdSHT reveals a specific expression in flowers coordinated with anther development and tapetum cell activities. Three phenolamides including N (1),N (5),N (10)-tricoumaroyl spermidine and N (1),N (5)-dicoumaroyl-N (10)-caffeoyl spermidine identified by LC/MS, were shown to accumulate specifically in pollen grain coat of apple tree. Moreover, in vitro biochemical characterization confirmed MdSHT capacity to synthesize tri-substituted spermidine derivatives with a substrate specificity restricted to p-coumaroyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA as an acyl donor. Further investigations of the presence of tri-substituted hydroxycinnamoyl spermidine conjugates in higher plants were performed by targeted metabolic analyses in pollens coupled with bioinformatic analyses of putative SHT orthologues in a wide range of available plant genomes. This work highlights a probable early evolutionary appearance in the common ancestral core Eudicotyledons of a novel enzyme from the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily, dedicated to the synthesis of trihydroxycinnamoyl spermidines in pollen coat. This pathway was maintained in most species; however, recent evolutionary divergences have appeared among Eudicotyledons, such as an organ reallocation of SHT gene expression in Fabales and a loss of SHT in Malvales and Cucurbitales.

  9. Recent advances in the cryopreservation of shoot-derived germplasm of economically important fruit trees of Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Carla; De Carlo, Anna; Engelmann, Florent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the advances made over the last decade in cryopreservation of economically important vegetatively propagated fruit trees. Cryopreservation protocols have been established using both dormant buds sampled on field-grown plants and shoot tips sampled on in vitro plantlets. In the case of dormant buds, scions are partially dehydrated by storage at -5 °C, and then cooled slowly to -30 °C using low cooling rates (c.a. 1 °C/h) before immersion in liquid nitrogen. After slow rewarming and rehydration of samples, regrowth takes place either through grafting of buds on rootstocks or excision of apices and inoculation in vitro. In the case of shoot tips of in vitro plantlets, the cryopreservation techniques employed are the following: controlled rate cooling procedures involving slow prefreezing followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen or vitrification-based procedures including encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification. The current status of cryopreservation for a series of fruit tree species including Actinidia, Diospyros, Malus, Olea, Prunus, Pyrus and Vitis is presented. Routine application of cryopreservation for long-term germplasm storage in genebanks is currently limited to apple and pear, for which large cryopreserved collections have been established at NCGRP, Fort Collins (USA), using dormant buds and in vitro shoot tips, respectively. However, there are a growing number of examples of pilot scale testing experiments under way for different species in various countries. Progress in the further development and application of cryopreservation techniques will be made through a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to dehydration and cryopreservation in frozen explants.

  10. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  11. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  12. An unusual plant triterpene synthase with predominant α-amyrin-producing activity identified by characterizing oxidosqualene cyclases from Malus × domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendolise, Cyril; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Eberhard, Ellen D; Wang, Mindy; Chagne, David; Andre, Christelle; Greenwood, David R; Beuning, Lesley L

    2011-07-01

    The pentacyclic triterpenes, in particular ursolic acid and oleanolic acid and their derivatives, exist abundantly in the plant kingdom, where they are well known for their anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antimicrobial properties. α-Amyrin and β-amyrin are the precursors of ursolic and oleanolic acids, respectively, formed by concerted cyclization of squalene epoxide by a complex synthase reaction. We identified three full-length expressed sequence tag sequences in cDNA libraries constructed from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala') that were likely to encode triterpene synthases. Two of these expressed sequence tag sequences were essentially identical (> 99% amino acid similarity; MdOSC1 and MdOSC3). MdOSC1 and MdOSC2 were expressed by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and by expression in the yeast Pichia methanolica. The resulting products were analysed by GC and GC-MS. MdOSC1 was shown to be a mixed amyrin synthase (a 5 : 1 ratio of α-amyrin to β-amyrin). MdOSC1 is the only triterpene synthase so far identified in which the level of α-amyrin produced is > 80% of the total product and is, therefore, primarily an α-amyrin synthase. No product was evident for MdOSC2 when expressed either transiently or in yeast, suggesting that this putative triterpene synthase is either encoded by a pseudogene or does not express well in these systems. Transcript expression analysis in Royal Gala indicated that the genes are mostly expressed in apple peel, and that the MdOSC2 expression level was much lower than that of MdOSC1 and MdOSC3 in all the tissues tested. Amyrin content analysis was undertaken by LC-MS, and demonstrated that levels and ratios differ between tissues, but that the true consequence of synthase activity is reflected in the ursolic/oleanolic acid content and in further triterpenoids derived from them. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three triterpene synthase sequences with other triterpene synthases that encoded either

  13. Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning.

  14. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  15. THE ROLE OF MINERAL NUTRITION ON YIELDS AND FRUIT QUALITY IN GRAPEVINE, PEAR AND APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO BRUNETTO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fertilization of temperate fruit trees, such as grapevine ( Vitis spp., apple ( Malus domestica, and pear ( Pyrus communis is an important tool to achive maximum yield and fruit quality. Fertilizers are provided when soil fertility does not allow trees to express their genetic potential, and time and rate of application should be scheduled to promote fruit quality. Grapevine berries, must and wine quality are affected principally by N, that regulate the synthesis of some important compounds, such as anthocyanins, which are responsible for coloring of the must and the wine. Fermenation of the must may stop in grapes with low concentration of N because N is requested in high amount by yeasts. An N excess may increase the pulp to peel ratio, diluting the concentration of anthocyanins and promoting the migration of anthocyanins from berries to the growing plant organs; a decrease of grape juice soluble solid concentration is also expected because of an increase in vegetative growth. Potassium is also important for wine quality contributing to adequate berry maturation, concentration of sugars, synthesis of phenols and the regulation of pH and acidity. In apple and pear, Ca and K are important for fruit quality and storage. Potassium is the most important component of fruit, however, any excess should be avoided and an adequate K:Ca balance should be achieved. Adequate concentration of Ca in the fruit prevents pre- and post-harvest fruit disorders and, at the same time, increases tolerance to pathogens. Although N promotes adequate growth soil N availability should be monitored to avoid excessive N uptake that may decrease fruit skin color and storability.

  16. Fast and cost-effective genetic mapping in apple using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kyle M; Brown, Patrick; Cooke, Thomas F; Cann, Scott; Costa, Fabrizio; Bustamante, Carlos; Velasco, Riccardo; Troggio, Michela; Myles, Sean

    2014-07-16

    Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) produces vast amounts of DNA sequence data, but it is not specifically designed to generate data suitable for genetic mapping. Recently developed DNA library preparation methods for NGS have helped solve this problem, however, by combining the use of reduced representation libraries with DNA sample barcoding to generate genome-wide genotype data from a common set of genetic markers across a large number of samples. Here we use such a method, called genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), to produce a data set for genetic mapping in an F1 population of apples (Malus × domestica) segregating for skin color. We show that GBS produces a relatively large, but extremely sparse, genotype matrix: over 270,000 SNPs were discovered but most SNPs have too much missing data across samples to be useful for genetic mapping. After filtering for genotype quality and missing data, only 6% of the 85 million DNA sequence reads contributed to useful genotype calls. Despite this limitation, using existing software and a set of simple heuristics, we generated a final genotype matrix containing 3967 SNPs from 89 DNA samples from a single lane of Illumina HiSeq and used it to create a saturated genetic linkage map and to identify a known QTL underlying apple skin color. We therefore demonstrate that GBS is a cost-effective method for generating g