WorldWideScience

Sample records for appl phys lett

  1. Response to "Comment on `Performance of a spin-based insulated gate field effect transistor' [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 162503 (2006), cond-mat/0603260]" [cond-mat/0604532

    OpenAIRE

    Flatté, Michael E.; Hall, Kimberley C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent e-print (cond-mat/0604532) presented a proposed Comment to Applied Physics Letters on our publication Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 162503 (2006), cond-mat/0603260. Here is our Response. As the proposed Comment has now been rejected by Applied Physics Letters, neither the Comment nor the Response will be published in Applied Physics Letters in this form.

  2. Comment on "Deterministic six states protocol for quantum communication" [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85

    CERN Document Server

    El-Orany, Faisal A A

    2011-01-01

    In [J.S. Shaari, M. Lucamarini, M.R.B. Wahiddin, Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85-90] the deterministic six states protocol (6DP) for quantum communication has been developed. This protocol is based on three mutually unbiased bases and four encoding operators. Information is transmitted between the users via two qubits from different bases. Three attacks have been studied; namely intercept-resend attack (IRA), double-CNOT attack (2CNOTA) and quantum man-in-the-middle attack. In this Letter, we show that the IRA and 2CNOTA are not properly addressed. For instance, we show that the probability of detecting Eve in the control mode of the IRA is 70% instead of 50% in the previous study. Moreover, in the 2CNOTA, Eve can only obtain 50% of the data not all of it as argued earlier.

  3. Reply to “Comment on ‘Gauge invariance and k-factorization of exclusive processes’ [Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 176]” [Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, F.; Ma, J. P.; Wang, Q.

    2009-06-01

    A new method is proposed to calculate wave functions in kT-factorization in [H.-n. Li, S. Mishima, Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 182, arXiv:0808.1526] as a comment about our paper [F. Feng, J.P. Ma, Q. Wang, Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 176, arXiv:0807.0296]. We point out that the results obtained with the method are in conflict with the translation invariance and depend on the chosen contours for loop-integrals. Therefore, the method is in principle unacceptable and the results with the method cannot be correct.

  4. Comment on : "A novel approach for solving the Fisher equation using Exp-function method" [Phys. Lett. A 372 3836

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2009-01-01

    Using Exp-function method Ozis and Koroglu [T. Ozis, C. Koroglu, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 3836] have found exact "solutions" of the Fisher equation. In this comment we demonstrate that all these solutions do not satisfy the Fisher equation. The efficiency of application of Exp-function method to sea

  5. Comment on "Total Negative Refraction in Real Crystals for Ballistic Electrons and Light" (Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 157404 (2003))

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, H. -F.; Liu, J.-P.; Ke, B; Kuo, C. -H.; Ye, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Zhang et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 157404 (2003)) have demonstrated that an amphoteric refraction, i. e. both positive and negative refraction, may prevail at the interface of two uniaxial anisotropic crystals when their optical axes are in different directions. The authors subsequently made a correspondence between such a refraction with the negative refraction expected for Left Handed Materials (LHMs). Here we comment that the amphoteric refraction can be observed even with one un...

  6. Comment on "A three-loop radiative neutrino mass model with dark matter" [Phys. Lett. B 741 (2015) 163

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Tsai, Lu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the calculation of the three-loop diagrams for the radiative neutrino mass generation and consider some relevant constraints on the model recently proposed by L. Jin {\\it et al} [Phys. Lett. B 741 (2015) 163]. We find that the previous approximation is inappropriate due to the neglect of some important contributions, and the benchmark point proposed can neither give rise to enough neutrino masses nor accommodate these additional constraints, such as the validity of the perturbation theory, the electroweak precision measurements, and the neutrinoless double beta decays.

  7. Comment on "A new exactly solvable quantum model in $N$ dimensions" [Phys. Lett. A 375(2011)1431, arXiv:1007.1335

    CERN Document Server

    Ley, B L Moreno

    2011-01-01

    We pinpoint that the work about "a new exactly solvable quantum model in $N$ dimensions" by Ballesteros et al. [Phys. Lett. A {\\bf 375} (2011) 1431, arXiv:1007.1335] is not a new exactly solvable quantum model since the flaw of the position-dependent mass Hamiltonian proposed by them makes it less valuable in physics.

  8. Comment on: “Effects of including the counterrotating term and virtual photons on the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of a scalar photon collective emission theory” [Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 2514

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svidzinsky, Anatoly; Chang, Jun-Tao

    2008-08-01

    In a recent Letter [R. Friedberg, J.T. Manassah, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 2514] Friedberg and Manassah argue that effect of virtual photons has serious consequences for large atomic samples. Here we show that such effect is negligible for evolution of a uniformly excited atomic state prepared by absorption of a single photon.

  9. Comment on “Temperature dependence of atomic vibrations in mono-layer graphene” [J. Appl. Phys. 118, 074302 (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susi, T., E-mail: toma.susi@univie.ac.at; Kotakoski, J. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-02-14

    In an interesting recent study [Allen et al., J. Appl. Phys. 118, 074302 (2015)] (see also their Erratum [Allen et al., J. Appl. Phys. 118, 159902 (2015)]), Allen and co-workers measured the mean square amplitudes of graphene lattice vibrations between 100 and 1300 K and used a simplified theoretical approximation for the acoustic phonon modes to evaluate the maximum phonon wavelengths supported by the lattice. By fitting their data using the smallest wave-vector as the fitting parameter, they found this to be significantly smaller than the physical size of the graphene crystallites.

  10. Comment on "Structure and properties of reduced LaCoO3" [J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5553 (1973)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    A hexagonal crystal lattice with the perovskite structure can be treated as rhombohedral or pseudocubic structure. The publication by Sis and Wirtz [J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5553 (1973)] presented a schematic diagram to explain these relationships, but made a mistake in the hexagonal lattice, which is corrected here.

  11. 22C charge radius prediction: Addendum and erratum to “Constraints on two-neutron separation energy in the Borromean 22C nucleus” [Phys. Lett. B 697 (1) (2011) 90-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M. T.; Marques de Carvalho, R. S.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2012-08-01

    Relevant to experimental investigations on the 22C properties, we are correcting numerical results presented in [M.T. Yamashita, R.S. Marques de Carvalho, T. Frederico, L. Tomio, Phys. Lett. B 697 (2011) 90], updating our estimate for the two-neutron separation energy, and adding the charge radius prediction for this halo nucleus with respect to 20C: √{ - } ≳ 0.9 fm.

  12. Comment on "The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space" [J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094901 (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, C. H.

    2016-09-01

    A recent paper [A. Bejan and R. W. Wagstaff, J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094901 (2016)] concludes that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space are in a state of high internal tension. The tension is then relieved by rearrangement of the bodies into a non-uniform distribution of mass. In this Comment, it is shown that the conclusions are based upon calculations which are in error, and that the amount of tension is not in fact decreased by such a rearrangement.

  13. Comment on “Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium” [Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 011301 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowern, N. E. B., E-mail: nick.cowern@ncl.ac.uk; Simdyankin, S.; Goss, J. P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Napolitani, E.; De Salvador, D. [CNR-IMM-MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S. [CNR-IMM-MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ahn, C. [Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., 3655 North First Street, San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Bennett, N. S. [Institute of Mechanical, Process and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The authors of the above paper call into question recent evidence on the properties of self-interstitials, I, in Ge [Cowern et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 155501 (2013)]. We show that this judgment stems from invalid model assumptions during analysis of data on B marker-layer diffusion during proton irradiation, and that a corrected analysis fully supports the reported evidence. As previously stated, I-mediated self-diffusion in Ge exhibits two distinct regimes of temperature, T: high-T, dominated by amorphous-like mono-interstitial clusters—i-morphs—with self-diffusion entropy ≈30 k, and low-T, where transport is dominated by simple self-interstitials. In a transitional range centered on 475 °C both mechanisms contribute. The experimental I migration energy of 1.84 ± 0.26 eV reported by the Münster group based on measurements of self-diffusion during irradiation at 550 °C < T < 680 °C further establishes our proposed i-morph mechanism.

  14. Comment on ``Monte Carlo investigation of current voltage and avalanche noise in GaN double-drift impact diodes'' [J. Appl. Phys. 97, 043709 (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, G. N.

    2005-11-01

    The avalanche noise behavior of impact avalanche transit-time (IMPATT) diodes has been modeled by Reklaitis and Reggiani [J. Appl. Phys. 97, 043709 (2005)]. They have obtained general agreement of their results with those of McIntyre [IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164 (1966)]. However, McIntyre's theory predicts the opposite noise behavior from that observed in the IMPATT diode. Hence the applicability of the noise model of Reklaitis and Reggiani to IMPATT diode is questionable.

  15. Comment on "High-pressure synthesis of orthorhombic SrIrO3 perovskite and its positive magnetoresistance" [J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103706 (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, D.; Rondinelli, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In their article, Zhao et al. report the synthesis of SrIrO3 at high temperature and high pressure [J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103706 (2008)]. Under these conditions, the crystal structure of SrIrO3 can be stabilized as an orthorhombic perovskite with space group Pnma. They refine the lattice parameters and list the Wyckoff orbits and atomic coordinates. We believe that Zhao and coworkers made an unintentional error in reporting the crystal structure, which may adversely affect the description of the electronic structure. Indeed, we show the reported structure does not define a standard perovskite with nearly rigid IrO6 octahedral tilts and rather exhibits a structural discrepancy with respect to the equilibrium structure obtained from density functional calculations.

  16. Lab. of Appl. Math. Phys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels Christian

    1989-01-01

    A new system of poles for the Green's function for a dielectric-coated cylinder has been found. In general, these poles correspond to creeping waves, which are strongly attenuated except for very thick coatings. For radii below a critical value, one of the new poles replaces one of those previous...

  17. Reply to cond-mat/0211660: Comments on "A model for fatigue in ferroelectric perovskite thin films" published in Appl. Phys. Lett, 76, 1060 (2000); addendum, ibid. p.3655

    OpenAIRE

    Dawber, M.; Scott, J. F.

    2002-01-01

    This is a reply to cond-mat/0211660 by A.K. Taganstev, which consists of a set of criticisms of our publications on polarisation fatigue in Applied Physics Letters. Although his comments were rejected by Applied Physics Letters more than two years ago, Dr Tagantsev has published them in this archive on 29/11/2002. We reply to each of his criticisms here.

  18. Comment on “A study of vertical and in-plane electron mobility due to interface roughness scattering at low temperature in InAs-GaSb superlattices” [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szmulowicz, F., E-mail: Frank.Szmulowicz.ctr@wpafb.af.mil [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park Ave., Dayton, Ohio 45469-0072 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    The purpose of this comment is to point out that the paper by Safa, Asgari, and Faraone [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)] (SAF) on electronic transport in superlattices contains a number of errors in physics and execution. By dealing with a finite number of periods and forcing the wave function to be zero at the upper and lower boundaries of the superlattice stack, SAF have turned the system into a quantum well for which the momentum along the growth axis is not a good quantum number, so that the bands in the growth direction are flat and the corresponding carrier velocities and vertical mobilities are zero. A number of other errors allow the authors to get nonzero results and to reach conclusions that qualitatively mirror those of Szmulowicz, Haugan, Elhamri, and Brown [Phys. Rev. B 84, 155307 (2011)].

  19. Comment on "A study of vertical and in-plane electron mobility due to interface roughness scattering at low temperature in InAs-GaSb superlattices" [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmulowicz, F.

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this comment is to point out that the paper by Safa, Asgari, and Faraone [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)] (SAF) on electronic transport in superlattices contains a number of errors in physics and execution. By dealing with a finite number of periods and forcing the wave function to be zero at the upper and lower boundaries of the superlattice stack, SAF have turned the system into a quantum well for which the momentum along the growth axis is not a good quantum number, so that the bands in the growth direction are flat and the corresponding carrier velocities and vertical mobilities are zero. A number of other errors allow the authors to get nonzero results and to reach conclusions that qualitatively mirror those of Szmulowicz, Haugan, Elhamri, and Brown [Phys. Rev. B 84, 155307 (2011)].

  20. Classification of patterns representing Apples and Oranges in three-qubit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manu Pratap; Radhey, Kishori; Saraswat, V. K.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    The study of the classification of Apples and Oranges in a warehouse has been undertaken in a three-qubit system using the method of repeated iterations in Grover's algorithm and Ventura's algorithm separately. Operator describing an inversion about average has been constructed as a square matrix of order eight, the phase inversion operators and corresponding iteration operators for patterns separately representing Apples and Oranges have been derived, and various possible superpositions as the choice for search states for the classification of these patterns have been obtained for starting states consisting of two patterns and a single pattern, respectively. It has been demonstrated that on the second iteration of the exclusion superposition by the corresponding iteration operators, the patterns Apples and Oranges, respectively, are most suitably classified using the Grover's algorithm. The probabilities of classifications of Apples have also been calculated by using Ventura's algorithm (Ventura and Martinez in Inf Sci 124:273-296, 2000; Found Phys Lett 12:547-559, 1999) for all the possible superpositions as the search states, and the results have been compared with those of Grover's algorithm and it has been demonstrated that in general for classification of a given pattern (Apples) in three-qubit system, the Grover's and Ventura's algorithms are effective in the cases where the number of patterns in the stored database is larger or smaller, respectively.

  1. Erratum: Creation of X-Ray Transparency of Matter by Stimulated Elastic Forward Scattering [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 , 107402 (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöhr, J.; Scherz, A.

    2016-01-06

    X-ray absorption by matter has long been described by the famous Beer-Lambert law. Here we show how this fundamental law needs to be modified for high-intensity coherent x-ray pulses, now available at x-ray free electron lasers, due to the onset of stimulated elastic forward scattering. We present an analytical expression for the modified polarization-dependent Beer-Lambert law for the case of resonant core-to-valence electronic transitions and incident transform limited x-ray pulses. Upon transmission through a solid, the absorption and dichroic contrasts are found to vanish with increasing x-ray intensity, with the stimulation threshold lowered by orders of magnitude through a super-radiative coherent effect. Our results have broad implications for the study of matter with x-ray lasers.

  2. Erratum: Axion Dark Matter Coupling to Resonant Photons via Magnetic Field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 161804 (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ben T.; Parker, Stephen R.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    A recent comment highlights a discussion at the PATRAS Workshop on Axions, WIMPs and WISPs relating to a recent publication. We respond to this comment, and detail a calculation error in the original letter.

  3. Erratum: Finite-Amplitude Vibration of a Bubble [Chin. Phys. Lett. Vol.20, No.1 (2003) 80

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱祖文; 肖灵

    2003-01-01

    @@ The formula on the right column of p 81 should beT1pf(R3fmin-a3/Ps(R3smin-a3)s=5×1017×0.22/10 10×50.5 Ts=202×10 4Ts,and the values on the abscissae of Figs. 4(b) and 4(c) should be modified as shown here, and all conclusions are unaffected.

  4. Newton's Apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  5. Expanding the PhysTEC Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Fredrick

    2003-04-01

    The Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC) is a community of physics departments representing scientists and educators at institutions dedicated to improving the science preparation of future K-12 teachers. Now in its second year, PhysTEC requires physics and education faculty to work together to provide an education for future teachers that emphasizes interactive engagement and a student-centered approach to learning science. The first six Coalition members are the physics departments at Ball State University, Oregon State University, University of Arizona, University of Arkansas, Western Michigan University, and Xavier University of Louisiana. PhysTEC is creating a broad, active Coalition of physics departments that have implemented or are interested in implementing one or more of the PhysTEC Program Components. · A long-term, active collaboration among the physics department, the department of education, and the local schools. · A Teacher-in-Residence (TIR) program that provides for a full-time participant in assisting faculty in course revisions. · The redesign of physics courses based on results from physics education research. · The redesign of elementary and secondary science methods courses with an emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and learning. · The establishment of a mentoring program to provide a valuable induction experience for novice science teachers. · The participation of physics faculty in the improvement and expansion of school experiences. www.phystec.org

  6. Retraction notice to "On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution" [Phys. Lett. B 743 (2015) 492-502

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Alexis; Cardenas-Avendano, Alejandro; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2015-07-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief. The authors have plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in Adv. High Energy Physics, P. Nicolini, A. Orlandi, E. Spallucci, The Final Stage of Gravitationally Collapsed Thick Matter Layers, Vol 2013 (2013), Article ID 812084 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/812084. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  7. Comment on “A three-loop radiative neutrino mass model with dark matter” [Phys. Lett. B 741 (2015 163

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Qiang Geng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the calculation of the three-loop diagrams for the radiative neutrino mass generation and consider some relevant constraints on the model recently proposed by Jin et al. (2015 [1]. We find that the previous approximation is inappropriate due to the neglect of some important contributions, and the benchmark point proposed can neither give rise to enough neutrino masses nor accommodate these additional constraints, such as the validity of the perturbation theory, the electroweak precision measurements, and the neutrinoless double beta decays.

  8. Addendum to: “Quadrupole collectivity in silicon isotopes approaching neutron number N = 28” [Phys. Lett. B 652 (2007) 169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. M.; Aoi, N.; Bazin, D.; Bowen, M. D.; Brown, B. A.; Cook, J. M.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Horoi, M.; Kanno, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Riley, L. A.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, H.; Starosta, K.; Suzuki, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Terry, J. R.; Yoneda, K.; Zwahlen, H.

    2007-11-01

    Since the acceptance of this Letter, we have been reminded that enhanced collectivity was predicted in 40-42Si in Ref. [40] by Grevy et al. based on a QRPA analysis of the β-decay halflives of these isotopes. We regret this oversight. Furthermore, a Letter on the first gamma-ray spectroscopy of 42Si [41] was published after the acceptance of the present Letter. This new experiment found a lower 21+ energy in 42Si than is found in 40Si, pointing to enhanced collectivity and a breakdown of the N = 28 shell closure.

  9. Comment on Y. Couder and E. Fort: "Single-Particle Diffraction and Interference at a Macroscopic Scale", Phys. Rev. Lett. (2006)

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Anders; Reichelt, Christian; Ahl, Sonja Rosenlund; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T; Bohr, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    In a paper from 2006, Couder and Fort [1] describe a version of the famous double slit experiment performed with drops bouncing on a vibrated fluid surface, where interference in the particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the "walking" drop passes. It is one of the first papers in an impressive series, showing that such walking drops closely resemble de Broglie waves and can reproduce typical quantum phenomena like tunneling and quantized states [2-13]. The double slit experiment is, however, a more stringent test of quantum mechanics, because it relies upon superposition and phase coherence. In the present comment we first point out that the experimental data presented in [1] are not convincing, and secondly we argue that it is not possible in general to capture quantum mechanical results in a system, where the trajectory of the particle is well-defined.

  10. Comment on "Compact envelope dark solitary wave in a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line" [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 3801-3809

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamgoué, Serge Bruno; Pelap, François Beceau

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the derivation of the equation modeling envelope waves in a discrete nonlinear electrical transmission line (NLTL) considered a few years back in Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 3801-3809. Using a combination of rotating wave approximation and the Gardner-Morikawa transformation, we show that the modulated waves are described by a new type of extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In addition the expressions of several coefficients of this equation are found to be strongly different from those given earlier. As a consequence, key relationships between these coefficients that sustained the previous analysis are broken.

  11. Corrigendum to "Topological map of the Hofstadter butterfly: Fine structure of Chern numbers and Van Hove singularities" [Phys. Lett. A 380 (20) (2016) 1772-1780

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2016-10-01

    By error, in the last version of the manuscript it was deleted in Section 3 that the self-similar properties of the butterfly topological map was worked out by Indu Satija (private communication) in 2014. Some aspects can be found in the Archives, titled "Topology and Self-Similarity of the Hofstadter Butterfly", see http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.0263.

  12. Apple pie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    美国人很喜欢吃apple pie,它是一种用烤箱制作的甜点,外面是一层面粉,里面是用苹果做的馅儿。汉语中把appie pie翻译成“苹果派”。据说苹果派起源于欧洲,但现在它已成为典型的美式食品。苹果派的流行使美国成了世界上最大的苹果生产国。

  13. Investigation of Impurities in type-II InAs/GaSb Superlattices via Capacitance-Voltage Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    Phys. Lett. 92, 071102 (2008). 17T. V. Chandrasekhar Rao, J. Antoszewski, L. Faraone , J. B. Rodriguez, E. Plis, and S. Krishna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92...1993). 25G. A. Umana-Membreno, B. Klein, H. Kala, J. Antoszewski, N. Gautam, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, S. Krishna, and L. Faraone , Appl. Phys. Lett. 101

  14. High-Efficiency and High-Power Mid-Wave Infrared Cascade Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    22, pp. 218–221, 2007. [37] S. Katz , A. Friedrich , G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 92, p. 181103, 2008. [38] Sirtori, F...Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, and C. Sirtori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3690 (2004). [87] S. Katz , A. Friedrich , G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, Appl...S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 25 (2001). [24] S. Katz , A. Vizbaras, G. Boehm, and M.-C. Amann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151106

  15. Formation of Porous Silicon Carbide and its Suitability as a Chemical and Temperature Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-19

    Auner, G. W. J. Appl. Phys. 2000, 87, 3101. (7) Serina , F.; Ng, K. Y. S.; Huang, C.; Auner, G. W.; Rimai, L.; Naik, R. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2001, 79...Electrochemistry 2001, 70, 174. 119 (34) Serina , F.; Ng, K. Y. S.; Huang, C.; Auner, G. W.; Rimai, L.; Naik, R. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2001, 79, 3350

  16. Comment on ``Particle size distribution effects on sintering rates'' [J. Appl. Phys. 60, 383 (1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrett, T.

    1987-06-01

    A recent paper in the Journal of Applied Physics analyzed the dependence of sintering rate on power particle-size distribution to derive a basic relative rate constant for the process. The derivation involved rather cumbersome numerical quadratures of the lognormal functions concerned. This procedure is unnecessary, since an exact closed-form result, as given in this Comment, is easily obtained. Some fairly obvious incidental errors in the original presentation are also corrected. Several other lognormal distribution integrals, apparently unlisted in previous literature and which might prove similarly useful in connection with distribution problems, are also presented.

  17. Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of Quantum Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-15

    Wiegman . Appi. Phys. Lett. 41.635 (1982). Wehavedemonstratedthataquasi-iDquantumwirecan, ’Y..C. Chang, L. L. Chang. and L. Esaki. Appl. Phys. Lett. 47...Gossard, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegman . Appi. Phys. Left. 41, 635 (1982). [4] Y.-C. Chang, L. L. Chang, and L. Esaki. ..ppl. Phys. Lett. 47. 1324 (1985

  18. What Makes Apple Golden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Betsy Morrish

    2008-01-01

    @@ The mass market is supposed to be dead, but you would nover know it from Apple.In Felmuny the iTunes Store became the second-largest music retailer in the U.S., right behind Wal-Mart.The iPod is to music players what Kleenex is to tissue or Xerox is to copiers.Almost everything Apple makes transcends gender, geography, age,and race.An Apple Store is a demographic melting pot, with computer games for kids and a Genius Bar for their parents and so much cool stuff to touch that it's a magnet for teens and twentysomethings.

  19. Apple otsib kohta mobiiliturul / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Apple tahab siseneda mobiiliturule, demonstreeriti Motorola mudelit Rokr, mis mängib lugusid Apple'i Tunes'i online-muusikapoest. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia. Vt. samas: Apple on Eesti investorite meelisaktsiaid

  20. Research-based resources on PhysPort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    PhysPort (http://physport.org) is a website that supports physics faculty in implementing research-based teaching practices in their classrooms. We provide expert recommendations and practical information about teaching methods and assessment. The PhysPort Data Explorer is an intuitive online tool for physics faculty to analyze their assessment data. Faculty upload their students' responses using our secure interface. The Data Explorer matches their pre/post data, scores it, compares it to national data, and graphs it in an interactive and intuitive manner. The Periscope collection on Physport brings together classroom video of students working groups with professional development materials for faculty, pre-service teachers, and learning assistants. To support PhysPort's development efforts, we conduct research on faculty needs around teaching and assessment, secondary analysis of published PER studies, and primary analysis of assessment data. In this talk, I'll introduce some of PhysPort's research-based resources and the research results which support them.

  1. New Insights on the Apple and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Poulsen, Morten

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, Alzheimer disease etc. In this project, we focused on apples as a model fruit for some of this research due to its high contents of soluble and insoluble fibers......, flavonoids and phenolic acids and because of the high intakes of apples in northern parts of Europe. A series of 4-16 w rat feeding studies with fresh whole apples, dried apple, apple puree, clear and cloudy apple juices, apple pomace, and apple pectins have been conducted. A human cross-over dietary...... intervention study in 24 healthy volunteers with apple and apple products has also been performed. They supplemented a polyphenol and pectin restricted diet with whole apples, apple pomace, cloudy or clear apple juices or nothing for 4 weeks. Feeding rats with 10g apple/d reduced plasma total, HDL cholesterol...

  2. About APPLE II Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  3. Apple Watch for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Saltzman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Your all-encompassing guide to the Apple Watch Are you an Apple Watch enthusiast and want to master all of its features to impress friends and intimidate enemies? Or perhaps you're a less-than-tech-savvy newcomer to the ""wearable"" craze and want to get the most out of it? In Apple Watch For Dummies, you'll discover how this incredible device does way more than simply tell time. Through hands-on, easy-to-follow instruction, you'll find out how to send and receive text messages and emails, use Siri, find movie times, access your favorite apps and get directions]. Plus, you'll get a handle on

  4. InP Transferred Electron Cathodes: Basic to Manufacturing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-29

    4 R. Sankaran et al, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 932 (1976) 5 J. S. Escher , IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev. 27, 1244 (1980) 6 R. L. Bell et al, Appl. Phys...Lett. 19, 513 (1971) 7 J. S. Escher et al, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2591 (1978) 15 8 R. L. Bell, L. W. James, R. L. Moon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 645 (1974...9 J. S. Escher , R. Sankaran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 87 (1976) 10 J. S. Escher et al, CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Sci. 5, 577 (1975) 11 R. L. Bell, W

  5. Numerical Study of Low-Loss Cross Lett-Handed Metamaterials at Visible Frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei-Ren; ZHAO Xiao-Peng

    2009-01-01

    We present a numerical study of Lett-handed metamaterials (LHMs) composed of double cross pairs at visible frequency. The S-parameter retrieval method is adopted to confirm the negative refractive characteristic of this design. Compared with fishnet LHMs, the proposed cross LHMs have a much lower loss, which will greatly facilitate practical applications. It is also found that, with the same size of resonant ceils, the cross LHMs have a higher frequency than fishnet LHMs, which is explained using a simple effective LC circuit model.

  6. AppleScript

    CERN Document Server

    Munro, Mark Conway

    2010-01-01

    Developers will advance their AppleScript skills easily with this guide. Part of the Developer Reference series, this book is packed with professional secrets for designing and building automated solutions with AppleScript, the powerful, system-level scripting language built into every Mac. Programmers will discover new ways to increase their professional efficiency and become more valuable in their jobs. With up to date coverage of Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard and loaded with real-world tips and techniques, this guide includes best practices and conventions along with informative lessons. You'l

  7. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  8. Compact Solid State Terahertz Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-09

    Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski , Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005). [4] F.H. Pollak and H. Shen, Mater. Sci. Eng., R. 10, 275 (1993). [5...H. C. Liu, C. Y. Song, and Z. R. Wasilewski , Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231103 (2005). 3 Design of Be and Si δ-doped GaAs/AlAs quantum

  9. THE MOTIVE STRUCTURE OF THE PLAY “AUGUST: OSAGE COUNTY” BY TR. LETTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova M. P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the motive structure’s features in the play “August: Osage County” by a modern American writer Tr. Letts has been reviewed in this article. His drama is based on a compound of mass and elite, a playing and a moral. It allows to avoid the text’s tendentiousness and to keep the content. In the play “August: Osage County” Tr. Letts examines the family theme, which is very important for the American culture. The author reviews the destruction of family relationships as a sign of the society’s moral crisis. The main topic has been realized via motives (escapism, freedom, death, and incest, they create the semantic frame of the play and unite separate episodes of the plot’s development. The motives become special tools of the characters’ psychological analysis and are an explanation of the feelings’ contradictory. The image of the house has a special meaning. It’s the symbol of the human disunity and a destruction of the family relations. As a result the synthesis of the motives, symbolism, intertextuality, multilayer has been viewed as a particular tool of the author’s opinion realization and the philosophical implication’s creation

  10. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  11. Apple Shuns Tracking Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Apple Inc. is advising software de- velopers to stop using a feature in software for its iPhones and iPads .that has been linked to privacyconcerns, a move that would also take away a widely used tool for tracking users and their behavior. Developers who write programs for Apple's lOS operating system have been using a unique.

  12. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  13. Comments on ``The Euclidean gravitational action as black hole entropy, singularities, and space-time voids'' [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2009-04-01

    We point out that the space-time void inferred by Castro [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)] results from his choice of a discontinuous radial gauge. Further since the integration constant α0=2M0 (G =c=1) occurring in the vacuum Hilbert/Schwarzschild solution of a neutral "point mass" is zero [Arnowitt et al., in Gravitation: An Introduction to Current Research, edited by L. Witten (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 7, p. 227; also Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 375 (1960). A. Mitra, Adv. Space Res. 38, 2917 (2006); Proceedings of the XIth Marcel-Grossmann Conference on General Relativity (World Scientific, Singapore, 2008), Vol. 3, p. 1968], Castro's gauge reduces to the well behaved and physical Hilbert gauge. Physically this means that true Hilbert/Schwarzschild black holes have unique gravitational mass M =0. Accordingly, the unphysical space-time void inferred by Castro is actually nonexistent.

  14. Super-GCA connection with tensionless strings: Addendum to “Super-GCA from N=(2,2 super-Virasoro” [Phys. Lett. B 754 (2016 195–200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Mandal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this addendum, we consider the connection between certain 2d super-GCA, obtained from the parametric contractions of 2d SCFTs, which can describe the constraint algebra of null spinning strings.

  15. Erratum: Experimental Study on Preparation Efficiency of Microstructured-Fiber Based Heralded Single-Photon Source at 1.5 μm [Chin.Phys.Lett.26(2009)034206

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Si-Tuo; ZHANG Wei; ZHOU Qiang; HUANG Yi-Dong; PENG Jiang-De

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the definition in the Letter,the preparation efficiency should be calculated according to Eq.(2).However,the data in Fig.4 were not divided by η_(SPD2)=0.15,while all the pertinent discussion is correct.We correct this mistake and show the revised figure here.

  16. On the sensitivity of extracting the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C(a,g) reaction from existing data [Comment on Schuermann et al. Phys. Lett. B711(2012)35

    CERN Document Server

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    We address a conflicting report on the value and uncertainty of the astrophysical cross section factor of the 12C(a,g) reaction extracted from existing data. In sharp contrast to previously reported ambiguities (by up to a factor 8), Schuermann et al. suggest an accuracy of 12%. We demonstrate that the so claimed "rigorous data selection criteria" used by Schuermann et al. relies on the s-factors extracted by Assuncao et al. But these results were shown in a later analysis (by this author) to have large error bars (considerably larger than claimed by Assuncao em et al.) which render these data not appropriate for a rigorous analysis. When their "rigorous data selection" is adjusted to remove the results of Assuncao et al. the astrophysical cross section factor cannot be extracted with 12% accuracy, or even close to it. Such data on the S_E2 values at low energies deviate by up to a factor two from their fit and exhibit a sharper slope rising toward low energies, leading to strong doubt on their extrapolated S...

  17. Comment on 'Enhancement in the production of nucleating clusters due to dimethylamine and large uncertainties in the thermochemistry of amine-enhanced nucleation' by Nadykto et al., Chem. Phys. Lett., 609, 42-49 (2014)

    CERN Document Server

    Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Kurtén, Theo; Loukonen, Ville; Olenius, Tinja; Paasonen, Pauli; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    We comment on a study by Nadykto et al. recently published in this journal. Earlier work from our group has been misrepresented in this study, and we feel that the claims made need to be amended. Also the analysis of Nadykto et al. concerning the implications of their own density functional calculations is incomplete. We present cluster formation simulations allowing more conclusions to be drawn from their data, and also compare them to recent experimental results not cited in their work.

  18. Comment on the numerical measurements of the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence spectrum by A. Beresnyak (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 075001; MNRAS 422 (2012) 3495; ApJ 784 (2014) L20)

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J C; Boldyrev, S; Cattaneo, F

    2014-01-01

    The inertial-interval energy spectrum of strong magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a uniform background magnetic field was observed numerically to be close to $k^{-3/2}$ by a number of independent groups. A dissenting opinion has been voiced by Beresnyak, A. 2011, PRL, 106, 075001-. 2012, MNRAS, 422, 3495-. 2014, ApJ, 784, L20 that the spectral scaling is close to $k^{-5/3}$. The conclusions of these papers are however incorrect as they are based on numerical simulations that are drastically unresolved, so that the discrete numerical scheme does not approximate the physical solution at the scales where the measurements are performed. These results have been rebutted in our more detailed papers Perez, J. C., Mason, J., Boldyrev, S., & Cattaneo, F. 2012, PRX, 2, 041005-. 2014, ApJL, 793, L13; here, by popular demand, we present a brief and simple explanation of our major criticism of Beresnyak's work.

  19. Equity Research - Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, João Carlos Portela Marques dos

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças O presente Trabalho Final de Mestrado tem como objectivo a avaliação da empresa norteamericana Apple Inc. de forma a obter um preço-alvo para as suas acções com referência a 29 de Setembro de 2012, data de fim do ano fiscal da empresa. O processo de avaliação da empresa envolveu, numa primeira fase, uma análise detalhada ao negócio da Apple (e suas perspectivas de crescimento) e ao seu posicionamento estratégico. Em segundo lugar, foram aplicadas técnicas de avaliação ...

  20. Apple Image Processing Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  1. The PhysTEC Teacher Education Program at FIU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laird

    2010-10-01

    The FIU PhysTEC Project is an integral component of the Physics Department's educational transformation that has led to more than a ten-fold increase in majors. The transformation seeks to increase the quality and quantity of physics majors and future physics teachers, including those from historically underrepresented groups. Elements of the efforts include transformed introductory physics courses, establishment of a physics research and learning community, engagement of stakeholders spanning high school through the university administration, and advocacy by a physics education research group. The PhysTEC Project supports future physics teachers through a Learning Assistant program coupled to newly revised secondary education programs. The Learning Assistant program is an experiential program that recruits new students into teaching careers while providing a mechanism for transforming courses - undergraduates experience the rewards and intellectual challenges of teaching through providing interactive engagement learning experiences for their peers in introductory physics courses. Students that continue in the program enroll in a multidisciplinary teacher preparation program and may receive significant financial support. FIU is a minority-serving urban public research institution in Miami, Florida serving over 39,000 students, of which 64% are Hispanic, 13% are Black, and 56% are women. Programmatic strategies and impacts of the program will be provided.

  2. Teach yourself visually Apple Watch

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Master your new smartwatch quickly and easily with this highly visual guide Teach Yourself VISUALLY Apple Watch is a practical, accessible guide to mastering the powerful features and functionality of your new smartwatch. For Apple devotees and new users alike, this easy-to-follow guide features visually rich tutorials and step-by-step instructions that show you how to take advantage of all of the Apple watch's capabilities. You'll learn how to track your health, control household devices, download and install apps, sync your music, sync other Apple devices, and efficiently use the current O

  3. Luminescent Properties of Semiconductor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    5, 1467 (1972). 154. H. F. Taylor, W. E. Martin, Dl. B. Hall, and V. N. Smiley, Appi . Phys. Lett. 21, 95 (1972). 155. L. J. Brillson and E. M...Conwell, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5289 (1974). 156. W. E. Martin and D. B. Hall, Appi . Phys. Lett. 21, 325 (1972). 157. M. Kawabe, H. Kotani, K. Masuda, and S

  4. Comment on “Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic Lagrangian density in fractional form” [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033505 (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabei, Eqab M.; Al-Jamel, A.; Widyan, H. [Physics Department, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq (Jordan); Baleanu, D. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Cankaya University, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Space Sciences, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-03-15

    In a recent paper, Jaradat et al. [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033505 (2012)] have presented the fractional form of the electromagnetic Lagrangian density within the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. They claimed that the Agrawal procedure [O. P. Agrawal, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272, 368 (2002)] is used to obtain Maxwell's equations in the fractional form, and the Hamilton's equations of motion together with the conserved quantities obtained from fractional Noether's theorem are reported. In this comment, we draw the attention that there are some serious steps of the procedure used in their work are not applicable even though their final results are correct. Their work should have been done based on a formulation as reported by Baleanu and Muslih [Phys. Scr. 72, 119 (2005)].

  5. Consumer attitudes towards hypoallergenic apples that alleviate mild apple allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Maas, van der M.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) foods with benefits for consumers may be more acceptable than GM foods with benefits that accrue to industry or producers. The Santana apple is a novel hypoallergenic product suitable for many apple allergic consumers with mild symptomology. The Santana a

  6. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  7. Management of apple anthracnose canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose (caused by Neofabraea malicorticis anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora) is a fungal disease that causes cankers on trees and ‘Bull’s-eye rot’ on fruit. In western Washington, it is the canker phase of apple anthracnose that is considered most serious as it can result in death of ...

  8. The gravity apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  9. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  10. Apple Inc. : equity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Gonçalo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation presents a valuation of Apple Inc., an American company that sits amongst the largest companies in the world, in market capitalization terms. Although it started as a computer company, back in 1976, nowadays it is best known for its smartphone flagship – the iPhone, introduced in 2007, it revolutionized the entire mobile phone industry. Today, the iPhone represents about 66% of total sales, however there are other products in Apple’s product line that are considered by a lar...

  11. Apple vs. Android

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelland, Johannes; Canright, Geoff; Engø-Monsen, Kenth

    It has long been known among marketers that our social network matters when we make purchasing decisions, and that having positive word of mouth about a product can be a key to success; see e.g. [1] for a review of studies on social networks within marketing. Traditionally, data on social network...... can be measured by studying this network. In this paper, we do a comparative study of social spreading effects for two competing types of smartphones - the Apple iPhone, and smartphones based on Google’s Android OS....

  12. Experimental Evidence of Dipolar Interaction in Bilayer Nanocomposite Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-25

    105, 023912 (2009) 7. D.T. Margulies, M.E. Schabes , W.Mc. Chesney, E.E. Fullerton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 91 (2002) 8. S.S.P. Parkin, D. Mauri, Phys. Rev. B 44, 7131 (1991) 9. S.T. Chui, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4397 (1999)

  13. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from leather.

  14. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  15. Apple Watch的N个细节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Citizen

    2015-01-01

    3月10日,苹果公司正式发布Apple Watch智能手表,包括Apple Watch Sport、Apple Watch和Apple Watch Edition等3款产品。中国作为首批发售国之一,消费者从4月24日起就可以在国内市场购买到Apple Watch智能手表。

  16. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Wolfgang; Stutzmann, Martin; Hildebrandt, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The present special issue contains a collection of Original Papers dedicated to Professor Johannes Heydenreich on the occasion of his 75th birthday.Johannes Heydenreich, born on 20 June 1930 in Plauen/Vogtland near Dresden, studied physics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Potsdam, where he obtained his first academic degree Dipl. Phys. in 1958. He received his doctoral degree at the Martin Luther University in Halle in 1961 and the Habilitation degree in 1969. Already during his studies in Potsdam, he showed an interest in electron microscopy due to the influence of his teacher and supervisor Prof. Picht, one of the pioneers in electron optics. His interests were strengthened when Johannes Heydenreich did the experimental work for his Diploma degree at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Halle, where he met Prof. Heinz Bethge for the first time. This was the beginning of a fruitful and longstanding collaboration. In 1962 Johannes Heydenreich joined the team of the later Institute for Solid State Physics and Electron Microscopy of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR, in Halle, for which the basis was laid by Prof. Bethge in 1960.Heydenreich has been working as Assistant Director for many years and played a decisive role in introducing and organising the various techniques of electron microscopy in the institute.The research activities of Prof. Heydenreich covered a broad spectrum over the years. At the beginning of his career he made significant contributions in the field of electron mirror microscopy. After that, his main interests were focused on transmission electron microscopy, ranging from diffraction contrast analysis of crystal defects to high-resolution electron microscopy and image processing. His favourite field was studies of defect-induced phenomena in advanced materials. The so-called Bethge-Heydenreich, the book Electron Microscopy in Solid State Physics, published at first in a German edition in 1982 and later in a revised

  17. Towards sustainable intensification of apple production in China - Yield gaps and nutrient use efficiency in apple farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Na; Wolf, Joost; Zhang, Fu Suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globally with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China's apple is significantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple pr

  18. Big Book of Apple Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Seibold, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Bigger in size, longer in length, broader in scope, and even more useful than our original Mac OS X Hacks, the new Big Book of Apple Hacks offers a grab bag of tips, tricks and hacks to get the most out of Mac OS X Leopard, as well as the new line of iPods, iPhone, and Apple TV. With 125 entirely new hacks presented in step-by-step fashion, this practical book is for serious Apple computer and gadget users who really want to take control of these systems. Many of the hacks take you under the hood and show you how to tweak system preferences, alter or add keyboard shortcuts, mount drives and

  19. Multi-stack InAs/InGaAs Sub-monolayer Quantum Dots Infrared Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Phys. Lett. 102, 013509 (2013) Metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors based on graphene /p-type silicon Schottky junctions Appl. Phys. Lett. 102...devices, such as QD-based laser diodes ,2,3 infrared photodetectors,4,5 single photon emitters,6 and single-electron devices.7 Various techniques have

  20. The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Giraud, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Gladieux, P.

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple

  1. Apple of One’s Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    Apple is one of the favorite fruits among the western people and there are many idioms with the word. Apple is popular among people,not only because of its sweet flavor and rich nutrient(营养); people love it mainly because of its shape. Red and round apple is the symbol of happiness and good luck.

  2. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available.

  3. Comment on "On quantum plasma: A plea for a common sense [Europhys. Lett., 99 25001(2012)

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, J. Vranjes et al. [Europhys. Lett., 99 25001 (2012)] have questioned the validity and applications of quantum plasma theories. Based on a fallacious argument, they conclude that the physical applications of well founded quantum plasma theory is limited only to very high densities with much lower temperatures, such as those found in neutron-star core regions. Our objective here is to demonstrate that Vranjes et al's criterion for the applicability of the quantum plasma theory is misleading and erroneous.

  4. Metabolic diversity in apple germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Chibon, P.Y.F.R.P.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed metabolic diversity in apples from wild species, elite material and a F1 population, using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The evaluated elite material appeared to have strongly reduced levels of phenolic compounds, down to 1% of the concentrations in the investigat

  5. Ethylene production by apple protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J D; Lieberman, M; Stewart, R N

    1979-05-01

    Freshly prepared protoplasts from apple tissue that produced ethylene were obtained. Ethylene production was inhibited by osmotic shock, 0.01% Triton X-100, and aminoethoxyvinyl glycine. Protoplasts as well as the ethylene system were not greatly affected by protease treatment.

  6. Investigation of Heterojunctions and Multiple Quantum Well Structures Using Crystalline Organic Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-12

    R. Kearns, J. Chem. Phys., 45, 3966 (1966). 26. H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. P. Passner, and W. Wiegman , Appl...Venkatesan. A. C. Gossard. A. P. gthe measured carrier lifetime to theoret- Passner. and W. Wiegman , Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979). By comparing te

  7. Optoelectronic III-V Heterostructures on SI Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-14

    December 1989. VI. PERSONNEL Gary Y. Robinson, Principal Investigator Mike J. Hafich, Research Associate Todd E. Crumbaker, Graduate Student, Ph.D...and G.E. Stillman, AppL. Phys. Let- 54, 1457 (1989). 7. M.A. Haase, M.A. Emmanuel , S.C. Smith,. U. Coleman, and G.E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50

  8. Reliability-Limiting Defects in GaN/AlGaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy”, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 77, no. 18, pp. 2885- 2887, 2000. [24] A. Hierro , A. R. Arehart, B...defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides”, J. Appl. Phys., vol. 95, pp.3851-3879, 2004. [43] A. Hierro , S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S

  9. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  10. FACTORS EFFECTING TO THE AMOUNT OF PATULIN IN APPLE AND APPLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. In nature, it is found diffusely at various products and also in apple and apple products. Because of the negative effects of patulin on human health, ıt ıs started to be used as an important quality parameter especially in apple juice and various apple products. On the other hand, having water solubility and stability to the heat treatment properties acquired another importance to the patulin in apple juice and apple juice concentrate. Removal of rotten parts of apples that will be processed to the apple juice and apple juice concentrate made the end product reliable in view of patulin. At apple juice and apple juice concentrate factories, activated charcoal is used diffusely for the removal of patulin passed to the apple juice. Exterior of activated charcoal, with the addition of ascorbic acid and/or sorbates, sulfhydryl (SH components or different food ingredients (cinnamon oil, potassium sorbate e.t.c and treatment of low dose radiation and modified atmosphere to the apple juice were being effective at the reduction of patulin. There are contradictory results about the inactivation of patulin with heat treatment and storage.

  11. Assessment of the reduced allergenic properties of the Santana apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Helmi S.; Vlleg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Approximately 2% of the Northern and Central European population is allergic to apples. Because of symptoms of oral allergy syndrome, many individuals avoid eating fresh apples. A strategy to allow apple allergic individuals to eat apples is the development of hypoallergenic apple variet

  12. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed......-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, puree or pomace....

  13. Growth of GaN- and ZnO-Based Nanorod Compound Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    Salomon , X. Chen, C. Bougerol, J. P. Barnes, D. S. Dang, L. Rigutti, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, M. Tchernycheva, C. Durand, and J. Eymery, Nano Lett...Julien, C. Durand, X. J. Chen, D. Salomon , J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 233107 (2011). 21. G. Jacopin, A. D. L. Bugallo...P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, F. H. Jullien, L. F. Zagonel, M. Kociak, C. Durand, D. Salomon , X. J. Chen, J. Eymery, and M. Tchernycheva, Appl. Phys

  14. �Sauron� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new apple cultivar Sauron was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Sauron was identified in open pollinated population of Cluj 3/83 selection [Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated x NJ 46]. The trees have moderate vigour, upright then spread, with moderate productivity. Fruits are medium to large, usually red, with a portion being greenish or yellow-green and purple red vertically striped. The fruit has good quality, being soft eating apple due to their lack of crispness. Quality indices include firmness, crispness and excellent flavour. Fruits become ripe between 15 August and 5 September and the fruits are good quality, being proper for dessert and industrialization (juice, applesauce, pies, and cider.

  15. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  16. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  17. AppleScript The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Adam

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript: The Missing Manual is every beginner's guide to learning the Macintosh's ultimate scripting tool: AppleScript. Through dozens of hands-on scripting examples, this comprehensive guide ensures that anyone including novices can learn how to control Mac applications in timesaving and innovative ways. Thanks to AppleScript: The Missing Manual, the path from regular Mac fan to seasoned scripter has never been easier.

  18. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  19. Effects of Solvation on One- and Two-Photon Spectra of Coumarin Derivatives: A Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Study (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    2003. 15 A. Barik, S. Nath, and H. Pal, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10202 2003. 16 A. Fisher, C. Cremer , and E. H. K. Stelzer, Appl. Opt. 34, 1989 1995...23 L. R. Martins and M. S. Skaf, Chem. Phys. Lett. 370, 683 2003. 24 R. J. Cave, K. Burke, and E. W. Castner, Jr., J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 9294 2002

  20. Transverse and Quantum Effects in Light Control by Light; (A) Parallel Beams: Pump Dynamics for Three Level Superfluorescence; and (B) Counterflow Beams: An Algorithm for Transverse, Full Transient Effects in Optical Bi-Stability in a Fabryperot Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    dinamica (preprint, Polytechnico di Milano). . M.. Gibbs and R. E. Slusher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 505 (1971), Phys. Rev. AS, 1634 (1972) and Phys. Rev. A...finite per le equazioni delia fluide dinamica , Politechnico di Milano, pre- print. [391 G. Moretti, PIBAL Rep. 68-15 (1968). Polytechnic Institute of

  1. What would Apple do? how you can learn from Apple and make money

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Apple officially became the most valuable company of all time. iPod, iPad, iTunes, App Store? the list goes on. Apple's must-have products add up to one giant success story. So what's their secret? What makes Apple the most innovative company on the planet? The answer: Apple does exactly the opposite of what any other company would do. Unlike the competition, Apple develops devices and programs by concentrating on a small number of functions. Forget complex market analyses. Forget asking customers to help develop products. And, unlike Google and other internet giants, it wants y

  2. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: Role of apple pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Max; Bergström, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal...... microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding...... study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, puree or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed...

  3. Apple Pectin Behavior Separated by Ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Nong-xue; TIAN Yu-xia; QIAO Shu-tao; DENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    Separation conditions of ultrafiltration for apple pectin, and relations between apple pectin with different relative molecular weights and their structures and properties are studied. Five kinds of ultrafiltration membranes with different molecular weight cut-offs are used to separate apple pectin. FT-IR and HPGC are used individually to determine the structures and monosaccharide composition of apple pectin with different relative molecular weights. In the case of transmembrane pressure difference of 0.08 MPa, material concentration of 1 g L-1, and temperature of 50℃, 6 kinds of apple pectins with different molecular weights have been obtained. Molecular weight of apple pectin is correspondingly related to its physicochemical properties. The galacturonic acid contents and esterification and gelatination degrees increase relatively with an increase in molecular weight, and the monosaccharide composition relatively increase much more. And at the same time, the ultrafiltratiou has a better role to play in decoloring apple pectin solution. Accordingly, this research can be used as a new method for in-depth exploration of apple pectin.

  4. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  5. Preference mapping of apple varieties in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbó, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Höller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 – sweetne

  6. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  7. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar Saruman was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. Saruman was released by hybridization between Cluj III-VI-5-26 selection (Parmain dOr, open pollinated and NJ 46. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  8. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  9. Quantum Coherent Electron-Phonon Nanolaboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    published as “Single-crystal aluminum nitride nanomechanical resonators”, A.N. Cleland, M. Pophristic and I. Ferguson , Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2070 (2001...nanostructured phononic crystals”, Phys. Rev. B 64, 172301 (2001) A.N. Cleland, M. Pophristic and I. Ferguson , “Single-crystal aluminum nitride...Phys. Lett. 79, 1202 ~2001!. 6 M. J. Kelly, R. J. Brown, C. G. Smith, D. A. Wharam, M. Pepper , H. Ahmed, D. G. Hasko, D. C. Peacock, J. E. F. Frost, and

  10. Comment on “Planar Hall resistance ring sensor based on NiFe/Cu/IrMn trilayer structure” [J. Appl. Phys. 113, 063903 (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Sinha et al. compared sensitivities of planar Hall effect sensors with different geometries that are all based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance of permalloy. They write that the sensitivity of a planar Hall effect sensor with a ring geometry is a factor of √2 larger than...

  11. Response to ``Comment on `Optical properties of CdTe1-xSx (0<=x<=1): Experiment and modeling' '' [J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2172 (2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Fred H.

    2000-08-01

    This communication is a response to the Comment on "Optical properties of CdTeS: Experiment and modeling" by A. B. Djurišić and E. H. Li. The shortcomings of a number of schemes to model the optical constants of diamond- and zincblende-type semiconductors, which do not include continuum exciton effects at either the E0, E0+Δ0 or E1, E1+Δ1 critical points (CPs), are discussed. The Holden model, which has been used to fit the CdTeS data, does include these effects, making it possible to extract important parameters, such as the binding energy of the exciton associated with the E1, E1+Δ1 CPs, not deduced by the other approaches.

  12. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...

  13. Advances in apple culture worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Robinson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years, planting densities for apple have increased as improved management systems have been developed. Dwarfing rootstocks have been the key to the dramatic changes in tree size, spacing and early production. The Malling series of dwarfing rootstocks (M.9 and M.26 have been the most important dwarfing rootstocks in the world but are poorly adapted in some areas of the world and they are susceptible to the bacterial disease fire blight and the soil disease complex, apple replant disease which limits their uses in some areas. Rootstock breeding programs in several parts of the world are developing improved rootstocks with resistance to fire blight, and replant disease, and improved cold hardiness and yield efficiency. A second important trend has been the increasing importance of new cultivars. New cultivars have provided opportunities for higher prices until they are over-produced. A new trend is the "variety club" in which variety owners manage the production and marketing of a new unique cultivar to bring higher prices to the growers and variety owners. This has led to many fruit growers being unable to plant or grow some new cultivars. Important rootstock and cultivar genes have been mapped and can be used in marker assisted selection of future rootstock and cultivar selections. Other important improvements in apple culture include the development of pre-formed trees, the development of minimal pruning strategies and limb angle bending which have also contributed to the dramatic changes in early production in the 2nd-5th years after planting. Studies on light interception and distribution have led to improved tree forms with better fruit quality. Simple pruning strategies and labor positioning platform machines have resulted in partial mechanization of pruning which has reduced management costs. Improved plant growth regulators for thinning and the development of a thinning prediction model based on tree carbohydrate balance

  14. Transcriptomics Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longming; Ni, Weichen; Liu, Shuai; Cai, Binhua; Xing, Han; Wang, Sanhong

    2017-01-01

    Alternaria blotch disease of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), caused by the apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most serious fungal diseases to affect apples. To develop an understanding of how apples respond to A. alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, we examined the host transcript accumulation over the period between 0 and 72 h post AAAP inoculation. Large-scale gene expression analysis was conducted of the compatible interaction between “Starking Delicious” apple cultivar and AAAP using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling methods. Our results show that a total of 9080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected (>two-fold and FDR PRs) genes and phenylpropanoid/cyanoamino acid /flavonoid biosynthesis, were activated during this process. Our study also suggested that the cell wall defensive vulnerability and the down-regulation of most PRs and HSP70s in “Starking Delicious” following AAAP infection might interpret its susceptible to AAAP. PMID:28163714

  15. Biomarker Identification in Metabolomics of Dietary Studies on Apple and Apple Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela

    with a diet supplemented with two dosages (5 g/day and 10g/day) of whole fresh apple pieces through 16 weeks (PAPER I). Plasma samples were analysed by LC-MS. Due to the complexity of the design of the study, several chemometric analyses have been employed. Initially, ASCA was applied in order to isolate...... fermentation in the gut and an increase of a protective metabolite after apple intake. Furthermore, apple consumption seems to reduce some carboxylic acids, amides, long- and medium-chain acyl-carnitine species as well as some long chain lysoPCs, corticosterone and mineralocorticoids, and few other compounds...... of the other periods) in order to select the important features discriminating the difference between control and apple or apple products supplementations. Whole apples and pomace were characterized by having the strongest effect to decrease the levels of branched-chain amino acid and their gut microbial...

  16. Apple Watch说开去

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舒佳

    2015-01-01

    四月份数码圈里最火的话题估计就是关于Apple Warch的。4月lO日,AppleWatch首发预定时候的火爆场景估计很多人还记忆犹新。当时间过去了快一个月,Apple Watch究竟预售出去了多少台,苹果没何给出具体的数字,有一个调研精准的分析师kuo给出的大致数字是-230万块。

  17. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    In-Sook Cho; Davaajargal Igori; Seungmo Lim; Gug-Seoun Choi; John Hammond; Hyoun-Sub Lim; Jae Sun Moon

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. S...

  18. �Saruman� Apple Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SESTRAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The apple cultivar �Saruman� was obtained at Fruit Research Station Cluj, Romania (FRS Cluj, and homologated in 2007. �Saruman� was released by hybridization between �Cluj III-VI-5-26� selection (�Parmain d�Or�, open pollinated and �NJ 46�. The trees are vigorous, spreading shape, and with medium crop yield. The fruits have large size, conic shape and mostly red (purple coloration; they have white flesh with a sweet, crisp, aromatic flavour and low acidity. Fruits become ripe in the last decade of August, first decade of September and the fruits are proper for dessert and well suited for cooking, applesauce, cider, pies.

  19. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  20. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rempel, D. [University of California Berkeley/San Francisco (United States). Ergonomics Laboratory

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  1. Kinetics of microwave drying of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of main technological parameters was studied as a result of research of microwave drying of apples and the analysis of kinetic regularity of the process was performed.

  2. Biochemistry of Apple Aroma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Sepúlveda, David Roberto; González-Aguilar, Gustavo; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2016-12-01

    Flavour is a key quality attribute of apples defined by volatile aroma compounds. Biosynthesis of aroma compounds involves metabolic pathways in which the main precursors are fatty and amino acids, and the main products are aldehydes, alcohols and esters. Some enzymes are crucial in the production of volatile compounds, such as lipoxygenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and alcohol acyltransferase. Composition and concentration of volatiles in apples may be altered by pre- and postharvest factors that cause a decline in apple flavour. Addition of biosynthetic precursors of volatile compounds may be a strategy to promote aroma production in apples. The present manuscript compiles information regarding the biosynthesis of volatile aroma compounds, including metabolic pathways, enzymes and substrates involved, factors that may affect their production and also includes a wide number of studies focused on the addition of biosynthetic precursors in their production.

  3. Quanto Jobs c'è in Apple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tommasi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ItMolti vizi e virtù di Apple hanno le radici in vizi e virtù di Steve Jobs. Questi a loro volta derivano dalla spiccata originalità del suo percorso creativo e professionale e dai problemi piuttosto pressanti che questa ha creato. Ad essi egli ha reagito secondo la sua natura, determinando, in ultima analisi, la fisionomia caratteristica di Apple. Il testo seguente cercherà di illustrare alcuni punti di questa tesi.EnVices and virtues of Apple are rooted in vices and virtues of Steve Jobs. These, in turn, stem from the striking uniqueness of his creative path and from the severe problems it brought about. To them, he reacted following his own nature, eventually shaping the peculiar personality of Apple. The following paper will try to clarify such notion.

  4. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed.

  5. Production of apple snail for space diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  6. A HISTÓRIA DA APPLE COMPUTER

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Este artigo pretende mostrar os fatos e caminhos seguidos pela empresa de computadores Apple e seus fundadores no decorrer de sua história. Tem também o objetivo de relatar os desfechos e as grandes idéias que fizeram da Apple uma das maiores empresas fabricantes de softwares e computadores pessoais, desde sua criação em 1976.

  7. A HISTÓRIA DA APPLE COMPUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Franco

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende mostrar os fatos e caminhos seguidos pela empresa de computadores Apple e seus fundadores no decorrer de sua história. Tem também o objetivo de relatar os desfechos e as grandes idéias que fizeram da Apple uma das maiores empresas fabricantes de softwares e computadores pessoais, desde sua criação em 1976.

  8. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Truslove, C.L.; Coston, D. J.; Evans, R. L.; Moss, E. D.; Dodson, C.; Jenner, N.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to ...

  9. Chemistry Teacher Education Coalition: Extending the PhysTEC Model to Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Mary

    2012-02-01

    The American Association of Employment in Education reports that chemistry, like physics, faces ``some shortage'' of educators. Inspired by the success of the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC), the American Chemical Society (ACS) is developing the Chemistry Teacher Education Coalition (CTEC) to actively engage chemistry departments in the preparation of future chemistry teachers. Engaging chemistry departments in teacher preparation would increase the number and diversity of well-prepared high school chemistry teachers while catalyzing cultural change within chemistry departments. Many features of PhysTEC, such as a grant competition to create model teacher preparation programs and regular conferences, are directly applicable to chemistry. This presentation will provide an overview of ACS efforts to launch a successful CTEC initiative.

  10. Comment on Weakly dissipative dust-ion acoustic wave modulation (J. Plasma Phys. 82, 905820104, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourakis, I.; Elkamash, I. S.

    2016-10-01

    In a recent article (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 82, 2009, 905820104), weakly dissipative dust-ion acoustic wave modulation in dusty plasmas was considered. It is shown in this Comment that the analysis therein involved severe fallacies, and is in fact based on an erroneous plasma fluid model, which fails to satisfy an equilibrium condition, among other shortcomings. The subsequent analysis therefore is dubious and of limited scientific value.

  11. Self-Aligned, Extremely High Frequency III-V Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors on Rigid and Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Goffman , M. F.; Bourgoin, J.-P. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 233108. (5) Nougaret, L.; Happy, H.; Dambrine, G.; Derycke, V.; Bourgoin, J.-P.; Green, A. A...Krishna, S.; Chueh, Y.-L.; Guo, J.; Javey, A. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 2060−2066. (27) Chimot, N.; Derycke, V.; Goffman , M. F.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Happy, H

  12. Current Collapse Induced in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors by Bias Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-25

    structure where the traps causing current collapse can be passivated by forming H-defect complexes. Hierro et al.7 have shown, for example, that deep...Lett. 75, 4016 ~1999!. 7 A. Hierro , S. A. Ringel, M. Hansen, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1499 ~2000!. 8 S. J

  13. Determination of daminozide in apples and apple leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Dam, R.C.J. van; Vreeken, R.J.; Steijger, O.M.

    1999-01-01

    A straightforward and efficient method was developed for the determination of intact daminozide in apples and apple leaves. After extraction with methanol and a clean-up step using a graphitized carbon cartridge, the extract was analysed by ion-trap liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC

  14. The history of Newton's apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, R. G.

    1998-05-01

    This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of

  15. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans A. Krens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After three years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arkerF(ree vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic

  16. Studies of Bistable Optical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-15

    Alternate Switching, and Subharmonic Generation in Bistable Optical Devices" (J. A. Goldstone, P.-T. Ho, E. Garmire) Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 126 (1980). 7...demonstrated with modulators which are inherently slow, but have useful features. This includes driving a thin Fabry-Perot with a piezo -electric (McCall, Appl

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  18. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  19. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  20. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  1. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  2. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple production can suffer from several pests and diseases and among them scab is very important. Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by Venturia inaequalis. The pathogen is a facultative saprophyte that grow...

  3. Apple Watch之外的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    在智能腕表领域,Apple Watch并非开创者,它在功能与设定上也没明显的优势,再加上苹果不太厚道的定价,成功地将一大部分希望尝鲜的用户拒之门外。将Apple Watch排除在自己购物清单外也是合情合理的,相比起Apple Watch,我们有更符合Geek口味的智能穿戴设备,相信你见过之后就会认为它们同样也有着不同凡响的吸引力。

  4. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting, p

  5. Towards durabale resistance to apple scab using cisgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the important fruit crops of the world. It is mainly cultivated in temperate regions. Apple fruit contains many health beneficial compounds which may play an important role in reducing cancer cell proliferation and lowering the level of cholesterol. Apple product

  6. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... date. (2) If you relinquish your insurable share on any insurable acreage of apples on or before the... insurable share on any insurable acreage of apples after the acreage reporting date for the crop year... inability to market the apples for any reason other than actual physical damage from an insurable...

  7. Proteome Analysis for Defense Response of Apple Leaves Induced by Alternaria Blotch ,Alternaria alternata Apple Pathotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caixia Zhang; Zhuang Li; Liyi Zhang; Yi Tian; Guodong Kang; Ying Chen; Peihua Cong

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Ma/us domestica) is considered a model fruit plant owing to its world-wide economic importance,and a large number of cultivars dominate world fruit production.To date,the cultivation of apple has been limited by many kinds of fungal diseases,and among the many fungal diseases affecting apple trees,Alternaria blotch,the disease caused by Alternaria alternata apple pathotype,is spreading worldwide and results in severe negative effect on apple production.Currently,management of a fungal disease such as Alternaria blotch mainly through traditional chemical control agents instead of using resistant cultivars.As in apple,the molecular mechanism of disease resistance against A.altemata apple pathotype has not been illustrated clearly,although most of the genes have been identified in apple,little is known about the biological roles for each protein in that plant.Considering that apple Altemaria blotch is the usual diseases influencing apple production,further studies about the interaction mechanism between the pathogen and its host,particularly some host self-defense response mechanisms which closely related to the anti-disease properties of apple should be performed.In this work we aimed to generate fundamental insights into the plant' s defense responses to infection with Altemaria blotch using a proteomics approach,to aid in the development and breeding of high-quality disease-resistant apple varieties.One seedlings which derived from the cross of ‘Huacui’ and ‘Golden Delicious’,with highly resistant,were chosen to be hosts for this study.The sample leaves were inoculated with spore suspension of A.altemata apple pathotype,and the control samples were treated with water instead of inoculums.Following inoculation,the samples were harvested 48 h after inoculation.The whole experiment was repeated three times in order to get a reliable result.The total soluble protein extracts prepared using modified phenol-precipitation procedures.Total protein extracts

  8. Take control of Apple Mail in Leopard

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Go under the hood with new (and old) features in Apple Mail in Leopard! Are you using Apple Mail in Leopard effectively? In this book, completely updated from its previous Panther and Tiger editions, author Joe Kissell provides comprehensive guidance, with a focus on new and updated features. You'll learn how to use and customize the Mail window, control the size and styling of incoming messages, and make rules to move messages into different mailboxes automatically. The book covers outgoing mail, showing you smart ways to address messages, send attachments, and send HTML-based messages. Bu

  9. Statement on the identity of apple snails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Envir......Following a request by the European Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Plant Health was asked to deliver a statement to clarify the current scientific knowledge regarding the identity of the apple snails in the context of the evaluation of the pest risk analysis prepared by the Spanish Ministry...

  10. APPL proteins FRET at the BAR: direct observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR domain-mediated interactions on cell membranes using FRET microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi J Chial

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported. METHODOLOGY: Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species. CONCLUSIONS: All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2 and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2 manner on curved cell membranes

  11. The Importance of Network Structure in High-K Dielectrics: LaAlO3, Pr2O3, and Ta2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-19

    CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Arthur Edwards a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT...R. A. B. Devine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2021 1994. 26B. R. Sahu and L. Kleinman , Phys. Rev. B 69, 165202 2004. 27J. Westlinder, Y. Zhang, F

  12. Opto-EM and Devices Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    1983). 4. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegman Appl. Phys. Lett. 4. 925 (1983): 5. A. Ashkin, G. D...Phys. Rep. 2. 199 (1982). 8. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, Jr., A. Bossard, and W. Wiegman , IEEE J. Quantum

  13. Generation of Tunable Coherent Radiation in 3 Micrometers-5 Micrometers Region Using Semiconductor Lasers in External Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Nordland, and W. Wiegman , J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4509 (1976). 32. K. Vilhelmsson, B. Valk, and M. M. Salour, App[. Phys. Lett. 50, 13, (1987). •. ". 26 N fj *q,)F% *. TPRIT. -. Il Alh ’P % P Jft .P N Z %% --- - .- 0

  14. Life history data of the rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea (Pass.) (Homopt., Aphididae) on plantain and as migrant to apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers, L.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Vaal, F.W.N.M.

    2004-01-01

    The rosy apple aphid Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) is a key pest in western European apple orchards; the economic damage threshold is so low that outbreaks cannot be forecasted. A mass rearing of the species on plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) was initiated, with the aim to infest apple trees wi

  15. Towards sustainable intensiifcation of apple production in China-Yield gaps and nutrient use efifciency in apple farming systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Na; Joost Wolf; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2016-01-01

    China is in a dominant position in apple production globaly with both the largest apple growing area and the largest export of fresh apple fruits. However, the annual productivity of China’s apple is signiifcantly lower than that of other dominant apple producing countries. In addition, apple production is based on excessive application of chemical fertilizers and the nutrient use efifciency (especialy nitrogen) is therefore low and the nutrient emissions to the environment are high. Apple production in China is considerably contributes to farmers’ incomes and is important as export product. There is an urgent need to enhance apple productivity and improve nutrient use efifciencies in intensive apple production systems in the country. These can be attained by improved understanding of production potential, yield gaps, nutrient use and best management in apple orchards. To the end, priorities in research on apple production systems and required political support are described which may lead to more sustainable and environmental-friendly intensiifcation of apple production in China.

  16. Analysis of polyphenols in apple products

    OpenAIRE

    Picinelli, A.M. (Anna); Suárez, Belén; Mangas, J.J. (Juan)

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols of low molecular mass in apple samples were extracted by a C 18 solid-phase column, and analysed by HPLC. This extraction method had, in general, a greater extraction ability compared with liquidÐliquid extraction using the ethyl acetate method.

  17. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  18. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  19. Steven jobs and his apple computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春枝

    2002-01-01

    The designer(设计者)of apple computer,steven jobs,was not quite successful(成功的)in his early years.he was not among the best students at school,and from time to time he got into truble with either his schoolmates or his teachers.but he was full of new ideas,

  20. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  1. Degradation of apple fruit xyloglucan by endoglucanase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincken, J.P.; Beldman, G.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A purified, alkali-extractable apple fruit xyloglucan (APfxg) was treated by endoglucanase (endoIV) from Trichoderma viride. The degradation products were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography on BioGel P-2; the pentamer to dodecamer fractions were further fractionated by semi-preparative hi

  2. Scientific Computing and Apple's Intel Transition

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Intel's published processor roadmap and how it may affect the future of personal and scientific computing About the speaker: Eric Albert is Senior Software Engineer in Apple's Core Technologies group. During Mac OS X's transition to Intel processors he has worked on almost every part of the operating system, from the OS kernel and compiler tools to appli...

  3. Apple and pear rootstock research in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Kviklys, Darius

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents ongoing apple and pear rootstock trials at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. Rootstock research projects are established in following directions: rootstock and location interaction (Baltic fruit rootstock studies where Byelorussian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Polish research institutions are involved); budding high effect on rootstock performance; interstock trials; rootstock effect on fruit quality, ripening time and fruit storage; rootstock and tree trainin...

  4. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients.

  5. Comment on “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan, E-mail: unghosh1@rediffmail.com; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan 731235 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Recently Gun Li et al. discussed “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)]. The paper contains some serious errors which have been pointed out in this Comment.

  6. Variability in captan residues in apples from a Canadian orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Shields, J Brian; Conca, Giacomo; Sun, Wing-Fung; Lacroix, Gladys M A; Smith, Mark; Fouquet, André; Bélanger, André

    2007-02-01

    Apple trees in an orchard in Quebec, Canada were treated, following label directions, with the fungicide captan (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-N-(trichloromethylthio)phthalimide) during the 2003 agricultural season. A total of 142 apples from three rows of trees were selected for determination of captan by GC/MS. Individual apples were found to contain captan levels ranging from 16.9 to 6350 ng g-1. Only two individual apple samples exceeded the Canadian maximum residue limit (5000 ng g-1) for captan in apples. Six composite samples, comprising half portions of eight individual apples, were analysed from each of the three experimental rows. Composite samples ranged in concentration from 166 to 2620 ng g-1. The greatest uncertainty associated with the measured concentrations was due to variability among apples rather than the measurement of residue levels.

  7. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is to research China's apple juice export situation and problem using the comparative analysis method. To cut down the loss, this study is trying to offer a relative scientific research for fruit juice industry by analyzing how temperature and concentration influence on thermal conductivity of apple juice, affecting the whole juice industry. It is with great significance to solve the realistic problems and promote China apple juice industry and its international trade.

  8. Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew [Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev. Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field susceptibility of 13 scab-resistant apple cultivars to apple powdery mildew was evaluated in 1983-1986. Four groups of susceptibility were distinguished. None of the 13 tested scab-resistant apple trees exhibited complete field immunity to apple powdery mildew. Two cultivars, 'Prima' and 'Primula', were practically resistant. 'Liberty' and two numbered selections, NY-140-9 and NY-158-2, belonged to the group of lower susceptibility. Moderate susceptibility was shown by: 'Novamac', 'Freedom', 'Gavin', 'Prima' and 'Florina'. The group of apple trees most susceptible to Podosphaera leucotricha included: 'Macfree', 'Priscilla' and 'Nova Easygro'. It is not necessary to use chemical sprays to control powdery mildew on 'Prima' and 'Primula'. A reduced spraying program may be recommended only under high disease pressure on less susceptible apple cultivars. A regular spray schedule is needed on moderately susceptible apple trees, but improved chemical control is necessary on the most susceptible ones.

  9. Metal Nanostructures for Detection and Imaging Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    source spectrum, is delivered into a pig adipose sample. OCT is a widely used optical imaging technique for the diagnoses of many diseases [27-29... Fahr , C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Engineering the randomness for enhanced absorption in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 171114 (2008). 7. T...Rockstuhl, S. Fahr , and F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008). 31. A

  10. Microalloying Boron Carbide with Silicon to Achieve Dramatically Improved Ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Fracture Toughness in Nanostructured Diamond−SiC Composites. Appl . Phys. Lett. 2004, 84, 1356−1358. (8) Sigl, L. S.; Mataga, P. A.; Dalgleish, B. J...Commun. 2012, 3, 1052. (11) Sezer, A. O.; Brand , J. I. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Boron Carbide. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 2001, 79, 191−202. (12) Thevenot...23) Johnson, G. R.; Holmquist, T. J. Response of Boron Carbide Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates, and High Pressures. J. Appl . Phys. 1999

  11. Radiation Tolerance Characterization of Dual Band InAs/GaSb Type-II Strain-Layer Superlattice pBp Detectors Using 63 MeV Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    films J. Appl. Phys. 112, 073718 (2012) Additional information on Appl. Phys. Lett. Journal Homepage: http://apl.aip.org/ Journal Information...considered for space applications due to their relative advantage in manu- facturability, compared with conventional mercury -cadmium- telluride (MCT) IR...preliminary 1–2 MeV proton irradiation studies of Sb -based T2SLS photodiodes where the detectors were unbiased and at 300 K during irradiation, which

  12. PREFACE: International Symposium "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics 2011" (nanoPHYS'11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Susumu; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2011-07-01

    Quantum physics has developed modern views of nature for more than a century. In addition to this traditional role, quantum physics has acquired new significance in the 21st century as the field responsible for driving and supporting nanoscience research, which will have even greater importance in the future because nanoscience will be the academic foundation for new technologies. The Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, are now conducting a "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics" project (Physics G-COE project) supported by the Global Center of Excellence Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT) in order to promote research and education in these important academic fields. The International Symposium on Nanoscience and Quantum Physics, held in Tokyo, Japan, 26-28 January 2011 (nanoPHYS'11) was organized by the Physics G-COE project of the Tokyo Institute of Technology to provide an international forum for the open exchange of topical information and for stimulating discussion on novel concepts and future prospects of nanoscience and quantum physics. There were a total of 118 papers including 34 invited papers. This nanoPHYS'11 is the fourth symposium of this kind organized by the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Topics focused on in the symposium included: Category 1: Novel nanostructure (Nanowires, Nanotubes, Spin-related structure, etc) Category 2: Novel transport and electronic properties (Graphene, Topological insulators, Coherent control, etc) Category 3: Electronic and optical properties of nanostructure Category 4: Fundamental physics and new concept in quantum physics Category 5: Quantum Physics - Quantum information Category 6: Quantum Physics - Nuclear and Hadron Physics Category 7: Quantum Physics - Astrophysics, etc All the papers submitted to this issue have been reviewed under a stringent refereeing process, according to the normal rules of this Journal. The editors are grateful to all the

  13. PyDecay/GraphPhys: A Unified Language and Storage System for Particle Decay Process Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Jesse N.; /MIT /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To ease the tasks of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and event reconstruction (i.e. inferring particle-decay events from experimental data) for long-term BaBar data preservation and analysis, the following software components have been designed: a language ('GraphPhys') for specifying decay processes, common to both simulation and data analysis, allowing arbitrary parameters on particles, decays, and entire processes; an automated visualization tool to show graphically what decays have been specified; and a searchable database storage mechanism for decay specifications. Unlike HepML, a proposed XML standard for HEP metadata, the specification language is designed not for data interchange between computer systems, but rather for direct manipulation by human beings as well as computers. The components are interoperable: the information parsed from files in the specification language can easily be rendered as an image by the visualization package, and conversion between decay representations was implemented. Several proof-of-concept command-line tools were built based on this framework. Applications include building easier and more efficient interfaces to existing analysis tools for current projects (e.g. BaBar/BESII), providing a framework for analyses in future experimental settings (e.g. LHC/SuperB), and outreach programs that involve giving students access to BaBar data and analysis tools to give them a hands-on feel for scientific analysis.

  14. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yeon Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD and single breakpoint recombination (SBP analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  15. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.

  16. Apple Watch真的来了

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于斌

    2014-01-01

    作为一年一发的“爱疯”系列,iPhone6的发布仅仅是给人期待,没有带来惊喜。一加手机创始人刘作虎评价:前半场匆匆而过。没错,苹果将一大半的时间用来介绍它的新产品AppleWatch了。Apple Watch的强大之处是集齐电话、siri语音、信息、日历、地图等功能于便携手表中,让信息的传播更为方便,通过手表来调节iPhone里的GPS。

  17. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems.

  18. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  19. The PhysTEC project: A perspective on what it takes to recruit and educate more physics teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisch, Monica

    2012-03-01

    The PhysTEC project has more than doubled the number of physics teachers educated at supported sites. These institutions were selected for their potential to implement change primarily in physics departments and build model teacher education programs. Key components of PhysTEC programs include active recruiting, early teaching experiences, pedagogical content knowledge, Learning Assistants, and induction and mentoring. Important structural elements include a program champion, a Teacher in Residence, assessment, collaboration, and institutional commitment. The PhysTEC project has supported about 20 institutions to date. In order to more fully address the national need for qualified physics teachers, the effort would need to be scaled up substantially. There is evidence of growing interest among physics departments in taking on this issue, and a national coalition committed to improving the education of future physics teachers has expanded to include more than 250 member institutions. The project is experimenting with targeted sites, funded at a lower level, to implement focused programs. In addition, PhysTEC is partnering with aligned efforts to magnify its impact. PhysTEC is a project led by APS with AAPT, and supported by the NSF and the APS Campaign for the 21st Century.

  20. Investigation of Crystalline Iron-Platinum Nickel and Amorphous Rare Earth-Iron Alloys for Permanent Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    AppI . Phys. 52, 2549 (1981). 3. S. G. Cornelison, D. J. Sellmyer and G. Hadjipanayis, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1823 (1981). li * . 4. G. Hadjipanayis, M. Sc...23, 3349 (1981). 9. A. E. Clark, AppI . Phys. Lett. 23, 642 (1973). 10. H. T. Savage, A. E. Clark, S. J. Pickart, J. J. Rhyne and H. A. Alperin, IEEE...Trans. Magn. MAG-lO, 807 (1974). S 11. J.J. Croat, IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-18, 1442 (1982). 12. N. C. Koon and B. N. Das, Appi . Phys. Lett. 39, 840 (1981

  1. Terahertz Photovoltaic Detection of Cyclotron Resonance in the Regime of Radiation-Induced Magnetoresistance Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    Phys. Lett. 85, 4962 (2004). 9S. A. Studenikin, M. Potemski, P. T. Coleridge, A. S. Sachrajda, and Z. R. Wasilewski , Solid State Commun. 129, 341 (2004...Phys. Rev. B 74, 075313 (2006). 17R. G. Mani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 132103 (2007). 18S. A. Studenikin, A. S. Sachrajda, J. A. Gupta, Z. R. Wasilewski , O...G. Mani, and W. Wegscheider, Phys. Rev. B 83, 165303 (2011). 27O. M. Fedorych, M. Potemski, S. A. Studenikin, J. A. Gupta, Z. R. Wasilewski , and I. A

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apple Malus pumila Malus_pumila_L.png Malus_pumila_NL.png Malus_pumila_S.png Malus_...pumila_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malu...s+pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NS ...

  3. Consumer preferences for apple quality traits

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the marginal values consumers place on apple quality traits as part of a larger SCRI project whose goal is to increase the long-term economic sustainability of Rosacea crops by increasing the U.S. per-capita consumption of fruits. Information on consumers’ preferences and the value they place on fruit quality is important and may help breeders better establish trait priorities and make the breeding process more efficient. We conducted sensory tasting tests and experime...

  4. Apple IOS Devices for Network Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Timur; Gingo, Gerard; Stawchansky, Mike; White, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    As tablet devices continue to gain market share at the expense of the traditional PC, they become a more integral part of the corporate landscape. Tablets are no longer being utilized only by sales executives for presentation purposes, or as addition to the traditional laptop. Users are attempting to perform significant amounts of their daily work on tablet devices, some even abandoning the ubiquitous laptop or desktop entirely. Operating exclusively from a tablet device, specifically Apple I...

  5. The time of infection of apples by Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The time of infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. was studied. Artificial inoculations with conidial suspensions of B. cinerea were done at different stages of fruit developmment (flowers, sets, fruits. In autumn the apples were harvested and stored at a temperature of 2°C for 4 months after which rotting caused by B. cinerea was evaluated. B. cinerea presence in the calyx of apples was checked throughout the growing season. This was done by plating flowers, apple and set calyces on PDA medium. Latent infection of apples by B. cinerea was found. The infection took place in the orchard and the pathogen survived latently in the calyx; disease symptoms appeared in storage. Infection is possible during the whole vegetative season, but the most important time is flowering and just before or just after harvest of apples.

  6. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  7. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopaljee Jha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

  8. Triterpenes and phenolic compounds in apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), a popular and widely cultivated fruit world-wide, contains bioactive triterpenes and phenolic compounds with potentially valuable pharmacological functions. This thesis investigated the effects of pre-harvest and postharvest factors on concentrations of these bioactive compounds in apples. It also studied the effect of ozone treatment, before or during storage, combined with cold storage on triterpene and phenolic compound concentrations in apples and the ant...

  9. Does Apple Showroom Belong in a University Library?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently,students quietly studying in the library of Peking University (PKU) found that a new Apple showroom was under construction.The 40-square-meter showroom will be an exhibition hall for the latest products of Apple Inc.As soon as the news was released,people,including PKU teachers and students,discussed heatedly whether it is appropriate to open an Apple showroom in a university's library and,moreover,whether universities should welcome commercial behavior on campuses.

  10. Lower nitrogen supply gave better fruit quality in organic apples

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhard Pedersen, Hanne; Bertelsen , Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The use of scab resistant apple varieties is the best way to prevent infections of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis). In 1995 the then 10 most promising resistant apple varieties for Denmark where planted at Research Centre Årslev, Denmark in an organic production system. Tree different cover crops where established in the allyways. Weed cleaning in the tree row was done mechanically and the trees were kept unfertilised. The annual shoot growth, nutrients in leaf sample, mineralised nitroge...

  11. Sensory quality of scab-resistant apple cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two scab-resistant apple cultivars were harvested in autumn 1999 and evaluated for sensory quality the following October, November and December. Multivariate analysis was effective in describing the comblex relationships and variabillity among the numerous attributes used to characterise apple quality. Crispness, mealiness, skin toughness, apple flavour, sweetness, unripe flavour and overripe flavour were informative attributes describing the variation in the sensory quality. Texture a...

  12. Extraction of pectin from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helene Canteri-Schemin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As apple-processing units are now in expansion in Brazil, industrial by-products like pomace play an important role in pectin manufacture. The objective of this article was to determine a pratical follow-up to the extraction of pectin from apple pomace and to characterize it in a laboratory, on a small scale, aiming at establishing the optimum conditions for acid extraction. The highest yields were obtained when [1]apple pomace was dried and ground to obtain an apple flour to be used as raw material, [2] citric or nitric acids were used and [3] when the citric acid concentration was 6.2 g/100 ml and the time of reaction was 153 minutes. The apple variety in itself was not significant in pectin yield. The degree of esterification (DE = 68.84 % of the product obtained, as well as its physical looks, show the success of pectin extraction.No aproveitamento de resíduos das indústrias processadoras de maçã, em expansão no Brasil, a pectina alimentícia surge como importante subproduto. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram os seguintes: extração e caracterização da pectina de bagaço de maçã em bancada, em que as condições para maior rendimento de obtenção em relação ao tipo de ácido, ao tamanho das partículas e à variedade de maçã foram estabelecidas. Objetivou-se também a otimização da produção, levando-se em conta o tempo e a concentração do ácido cítrico. Foram considerados métodos de extração mais eficientes quanto ao rendimento: [1] acidificação com ácido cítrico ou ácido nítrico, [2] cominuição do bagaço, usando a farinha como matéria-prima, com partículas retidas no tamis de 106 µm, [3] concentração de ácido de 6,2 g% e tempo de extração de 153 minutos. A variedade da maçã não interferiu significativamente no rendimento. A alta metoxilação (DE= 68,84% das pectinas produzidas em bancada confirma o grau de maturidade das matérias-primas usadas nos experimentos.

  13. The time of infection of apples by Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bryk

    2013-01-01

    The time of infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. was studied. Artificial inoculations with conidial suspensions of B. cinerea were done at different stages of fruit developmment (flowers, sets, fruits). In autumn the apples were harvested and stored at a temperature of 2°C for 4 months after which rotting caused by B. cinerea was evaluated. B. cinerea presence in the calyx of apples was checked throughout the growing season. This was done by plating flowers, apple and set calyc...

  14. Intake of whole apples or clear apple juice has contrasting effects on plasma lipids in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Buch-Andersen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Fruit consumption is associated with a decreased risk of CVD in cohort studies and is therefore endorsed by health authorities as part of the '5 or more a day' campaigns. A glass of fruit juice is generally counted as one serving. Fruit may cause protection by affecting common risk factors...... of CVD. METHODS: Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits and were chosen for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study to assess the effects of whole apples (550 g/day), apple pomace (22 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), or no supplement on lipoproteins and blood...... for the cholesterol-lowering effect of apples in healthy humans and that clear apple juice may not be a suitable surrogate for the whole fruit in nutritional recommendations....

  15. Collective Ion Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Bostick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 296 (1979). 3. S. Humphries, R.N. Sudan, and IV. Condit, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 667 (1975). 4. D.S. Prono , J.M. Creedon, I...and to provide a good ion depenently by Creedon, Smith, and Prono ." In both source at the second anode A2. The ion flux from the of these approaches...and Ion Beam Research and Technology, (Ith- Let. 37, 1236 (1977). ac, New York,1977), Vol. 11, p. 819. 72. D. S. Prono , J. W. Shearer, and X J. Briggs

  16. Extraordinary TCR in Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites and Device Implications in Bolometric Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Moewes, Carbon 66, 539 (2014); A. Mathkar, D. Tozier, P. Cox, P. J. Ong , C. Galande, K. Balakrishnan, A. L. M. Reddy, and P. M. Ajayan, J Phys Chem...Tzolov, J. H. Kim, Z. J. Liu, and J. Xu, J Phys Chem C 114 (51), 22703(2010). P. L. Ong , W. B. Euler, and 1. A. Levitsky, ApplPhysLett96(3)(2010); M

  17. Cisgenic Approach for improved disease resistance in apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broggini, G.A.L.; Durel, C.E.; Vergne, E.; Chevreau, E.; Fahrentrapp, J.; Vanblaere, T.; Peil, A.; Flachowsky, H.; Hanke, M.V.; Krens, F.A.; Schouten, H.J.; Gessler, C.

    2013-01-01

    Swiss and more generally European apple (Malus × domestica) production is hampered by several diseases, the most destructive being fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. On the other hand, there are apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis and powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera leucotricha, w

  18. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  19. Current progress in trans- and cisgenic apple and strawberry Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krens, F.A.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Schaart, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    2012-01-01

    A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art in apple and strawberry biotechnological research going on in the department of Plant Breeding at Wageningen University and Research Centre. In apple, the research directed towards the introduction of scab resistance by inserting a barley gene has reach

  20. Apple anthracnose canker life cycle and disease cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple anthracnose [caused by Neofabraea malicorticis (H.S. Jacks) anamorph Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck)] is a fungal disease that impacts apple production. The pathogen produces cankers on trees as well as a rot on the fruit known as ‘Bull’s-eye rot’. The cankers cause severe damage to trees...

  1. Microsatellite markers spanning the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfverberg-Dilworth, E.; Matasci, C.L.; Weg, van de W.E.; Kaauwen, van M.P.W.; Walser, M.; Kodde, L.P.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Durel, C.E.; Costa, F.; Yamamoto, T.; Koller, B.; Gessler, C.; Patocchi, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new set of 148 apple microsatellite markers has been developed and mapped on the apple reference linkage map Fiesta x Discovery. One-hundred and seventeen markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched with the repeats GA, GT, AAG, AAC and ATC; 31 were developed from EST sequences. Markers

  2. Effect of sucrose on adventitious root regeneration in apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calamar, A.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We have examined the effect of sucrose on adventitious root formation in apple microcuttings and in 1-mm stem slices cut from apple microcuttings. The sucrose concentration influenced the number of adventitious roots, but at a broad range of sucrose concentrations (1¿9%) the effect was small. In add

  3. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  4. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulan

  5. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  6. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  7. The Effect of Apple Feeding on Markers of Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise;

    2011-01-01

    but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended...

  8. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  9. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  10. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  11. Biology and Epidemiology of Apple Scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Jurjević

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several types of fungi that are pathogenic to apples. The most important in Croatia is Venturia inaequalis (Cooke Winter which causes the disease apple scab. Losses caused by V. Inaequalis is greater than all other damage together, including other fungi and pests. These losses include: (1 shrinking leaf surface, (2 weakening trees growth, (3 decrease in yield, (4 decrease in fruit quality and (5 increase cost of protection Infected leaf edges have poor assimilation due to an increase in transpiration by damaged cuticles. Loss of water from transpiration is more prevalent during the summer in arid conditions. Leaves that contain over 50% surface infection gradually begin to yellow and fall off during vegetation. For all these reasons, nutritive value is weakened, which influences crop yield and tree growth. Damage to the fruit itself is most significant, sometimes causing them to fall off and loss in yield can be between 56% - 74%. (Cvjetković et al. 1989, Jones and Aldwincle 1991.

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis.

  13. Reply Comments on Phys. Rev. D89, 097101 (2014) "Reevaluation of the parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon"

    CERN Document Server

    Aschenauer, E C; Joosten, S; Rith, K; Schnell, G; Van Hulse, C

    2015-01-01

    In the "Comments on Phys. Rev. D89, 097101 (2014)", the Author presents a number of studies to conjecture that the analysis by the HERMES Collaboration presented in Phys. Rev. D89, 097101 (2014) likely suffers from effects that invalidate the leading-order analysis used in that publication. In our opinion, the Author has drawn erroneous conclusions. We present below a discussion of his arguments and the results from a repetition of that analysis using a range of parton distribution sets. The spread in those results precludes credible conclusions and demonstrates the sensitivity of the analysis to poorly known input data (unfavored FFs, strange-quark distributions, and mixed singlet and nonsinglet quantities).

  14. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under... of M. domestica apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to...

  15. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  16. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  17. First report of truncatella angustata causing postharvest rot on ‘topaz’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Boekhoudt, L.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, about 30% of the organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) production consists of apple scab resistant cultivars, such as Topaz and Santana. However, organic ‘Topaz’ apples show a high incidence of fungal rot after storage. Hot-water treatment (HWT) of freshly harvested apple fru

  18. Use of cyclodextrin-based polymer for patulin analysis in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...

  19. An explorative study of the effect of apple and apple products on the human plasma metabolome investigated by LC–MS profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rago, Daniela; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide and it has been associated with several health effects, especially on plasma cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease both in human and animal studies. By using an untargeted metabolomics approach we wanted to investigate whether...... supplementation of whole apple or processed apple products affect the human plasma metabolome. Therefore, 24 healthy volunteers were recruited for a comprehensive 5 × 4 weeks dietary crossover study and receiving supplement of whole apples (550 g/day), clear and cloudy apple juices (500 ml/day), dried apple...

  20. Comments on ``Lightning return stroke. A numerical calculation of the optical radiation'' [Phys. Fluids 29, 2736 (1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. D.

    1987-08-01

    It is noted that the energy computed by Paxton et al. [Phys. Fluids 29, 2736 (1986)] for the dissipation in unit length of a typical lightning channel is much less than a widely quoted experimental value, and also less than an earlier computed value. A further comment on the work of Paxton et al. that a large fraction of energy is ``radiated away,'' is also made.

  1. Discussion of “Geomechanical modeling of the nucleation process of Australia's 1989 M5.6 Newcastle earthquake” by C.D. Klose [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 256 (2007) 547 553

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, C. D.; Glen, R. A.; Diessel, C. F. K.

    2008-05-01

    On the basis of a numerical simulation, Klose [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 256: 547-553 (2007)] proposed that the MW = 5.2-5.6 earthquake that nucleated beneath Newcastle (New South Wales, Australia) at 10.30 AM December 28, 1989 (AEST), was the result of 200yr of coal mining in the region. We argue here that Klose's [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 256: 547-553 (2007)] ultimate conclusion is not supported by his own model or by available geological and seismic data. In particular, the 1989 Newcastle earthquake was not anomalous with respect to regional seismic activity.

  2. Retraction: On the origin of power-law distributions in systems with constrained phase space [Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802 ( DOI:10.5488/CMP.16.43802 has been retracted by the decision of the Editorial Board. There is a significant overlap with an article: Phys. Rev. E, 2006, vol. 74, 036120 ( DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036120. Appologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Granny Smith apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatović Slađana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Granny Smith apple pomace was subjected to evaluation as valuable source of antioxidant and anticancer phytochemicals on the basis of its content in phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The total cotent of phenolics, flavonoids and flavan-3-ols in apple pomace determined spectrophotometrically, was 7.02 mg/g, 0.51 mg/g and 8.80 mg/g. Major phenolics (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids and dihydrochalcons in apple pomace were identified and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of apple pomace on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals, was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 9.51 mg/ml and 29.17 mg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative activities of apple pomace on cervix epitheloid carcinoma (HeLa, colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7 cell lines were determined according to the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The IC50 HeLa , IC50 HT-29 and IC50 MCF7 values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 26.40 mg/ml, 22.47 mg/ml and 21.26 mg/ml, respectively. The significant correlations between antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities were established (p<0.05.

  4. Mapping of the apple scab-resistance gene Vb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdin, N; Tartarini, S; Broggini, G A L; Gennari, F; Sansavini, S; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

    2006-10-01

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the major production constraint in temperate zones with humid springs. Normally, its control relies on frequent and regular fungicide applications. Because this control strategy has come under increasing criticism, major efforts are being directed toward the breeding of scab-resistant apple cultivars. Modern apple breeding programs include the use of molecular markers, making it possible to combine several different scab-resistance genes in 1 apple cultivar (pyramiding) and to speed up the breeding process. The apple scab-resistance gene Vb is derived from the Siberian crab apple 'Hansen's baccata #2', and is 1 of the 6 "historical" major apple scab-resistance genes (Vf, Va, Vr, Vbj, Vm, and Vb). Molecular markers have been published for all these genes, except Vr. In testcross experiments conducted in the 1960s, it was reported that Vb segregated independently from 3 other major resistance genes, including Vf. Recently, however, Vb and Vf have both been mapped on linkage group 1, a result that contrasts with the findings from former testcross experiments. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify the precise position of Vb in a cross of 'Golden Delicious' (vbvb) and 'Hansen's baccata #2' (Vbvb). A genome scanning approach, a fast method already used to map apple scab-resistance genes Vr2 and Vm, was used, and the Vb locus was identified on linkage group 12, between the SSR markers Hi02d05 and Hi07f01. This finding confirms the independent segregation of Vb from Vf. With the identification of SSR markers linked to Vb, another major apple scab-resistance gene has become available; breeders can use it to develop durable resistant cultivars with several different resistance genes.

  5. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos.

  6. Comments on R·Frost’s After Apple-Picking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Robert Frost once said that a poet“speaks in parables and in hints and inindirections,”for“poetry provides the one permissible way of saying one thingand meaning another.”In After Apple-Picking,one of his best-known poems,Frost again speaks indirectly,in parrables and hints;he is not just talkingabout apple-picking when he says“But I am done with apple-picking now.”What he actually hints is that the“I”(herein indicates the farmer)has justbeen through with his struggle against nature and life.

  7. Warning: safety risk with some Apple AC Wall Plug Adapters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN IT department

    2016-01-01

    Dear Mac and iOS Users, Apple has determined that some of its two prong Apple AC wall plug adapters may break and create a risk of electrical shock.   CERN users can now exchange their affected Apple wall plug adapters at the Service Desk. To find out if your adapter is affected and for any further information concerning the procedure to follow to exchange it, please check the following URL: https://cern.service-now.com/service-portal/view-outage.do?n=OTG0028639.

  8. The pathogenicity of different Botrytis cinerea Pers. isolates to apples and their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bryk

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 80 isolates of Botrytis cinerea Pers. from different hosts to apple fruit was examined. Host specificity among isolates was not found. All of the isolates, independent of their derivation, caused apple fruit rot. Isolates from apple fruits showed moderate and strong pathogenicity to apple fruits. Only 1 of the 22 examined isolates showed weak pathogenicity. Tolerance to benomyl was compared among isolates obtained from apple fruits and from other hosts. It was found that ...

  9. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    restriction diet during the control period, and in the four other periods it was supplied with four different apple based supplements. Between the diets there was a 2-week wash-out period still on the restriction diet. The four apple based supplements were: 1) whole apples, 2) clear apple juice (pectin...... supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans....

  10. The Influence of Different Apple Based Supplements on the Intestinal Microbiota of Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    restriction diet during the control period, and in the four other periods it was supplied with four different apple based supplements. Between the diets there was a 2-week wash-out period still on the restriction diet. The four apple based supplements were: 1) whole apples, 2) clear apple juice (pectin...... supplements did not show any effect on the microbiota by DGGE. Conclusion: Consumption of whole apples or pomace is able to modify the intestinal microbiota of humans....

  11. Demand Estimation for US Apple Juice Imports: A Restricted Source Differentiated AIDS Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Dawit Kelemework; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg

    2011-01-01

    Although this paper focuses on apple juice, a restricted version of source differentiated Almost Ideal Demand System (RSDAIDS) was used to examine U.S. import demand for fresh apple, apple juice and other processed apple. Apple imports were differentiated by type and source of origin and the RSDAIDS model was estimated after imposing the general demand restrictions of adding-up, homogeneity and slutsky symmetry. Seasonality and trend variables were also included on the model. The estimation r...

  12. Patulin accumulation in apples during storage by Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum strains

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Elisa Welke; Michele Hoeltz; Horacio Alberto Dottori; Isa Beatriz Noll

    2011-01-01

    A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of stora...

  13. Strategic irrigation against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark there are several organic orchards, that do not spray at all, and they seek non-spraying methods to prevent apple scab. In this pilot trial, irrigation with water at strategic moments was tested to prevent scab-infection. In April-June 2011 in five organic orchards we irrigated...... the orchard floor, to force the ascospores to be released. We irrigated with at least 0.2 mm of water in dry periods, at least 12 hours before rain forecast. The idea was to empty the stock of ascospores during dry spells, so they would dry out without infecting the leaves. To find the best strategic times...... for irrigation, we used the local weather forecast and the scab-warning programme Rimpro based on data from climate stations located in the orchards. In this first year of trial we experienced difficulties in spreading the water evenly. A water wagon turned out to work better than sprinklers. We found...

  14. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  15. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  16. III-Nitride Based Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    c • N =5x1011 cm𔃼 LU -, FT ac v A A A - -3.5 \\/\\/\\ : VB -4.0 V \\ N- N N • - I 1 • Length (nm) 50...GaAs/AlGaAs based npn structures," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 70, pp. 2876- 2878, May 1997. 102. J. M. Shah , Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert...Ning, Phys. Rev. B 74, 155308 (2006). 105. Z.-M. Liao, K.-J. Liu, J.-M. Zhang, J. Xu, and D.-P. Yu, Phys. Lett. A 367, 207 (2007). 106. J. M. Shah , Y

  17. Conditioning Electron Beams in the Ion-Focused Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-17

    M. Fawley, D. Prosnitz and A. G. Cole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 685 (1985). 13. D. S. Prono , IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, 3144 (1985). 14. G. J...Caporaso, F. Rainer, V. E. Martin, D. S. Prono , and A. G. Cole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1591 (1986). 15. R. L. Carlson, S. W. Downey and D. C. Moir, J. Appl...Lampe, W. M. Sharp, R. F. Hubbard, E. P. Lee, and R. J. Briggs, Phys. Fluids 27, 2921 (1984). 58. D. S. Prono , G. J. Caporaso, A. G. Cole, R. J. Briggs

  18. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation.

  19. Storability evaluation of Golab apple with acoustic and penetration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Bayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple fruit (Mauls domestica Borkh, Rosaceae after citrus fruits, grape and banana, is the fourth important fruit in the world and is considered the most important fruit of temperate regions. In terms of trade volume, Iran is fourth producer and 17th exporter in the world. Among Iranian cultivars of apple fruit, known as “Golab apple”. Golab apple is one of the fragrant and tasty varieties and meanwhile is very sensitive and also its period of the postharvest shelf life is very short. In a study, the firmness of pear fruit during 4 weeks of storage was monitored using non-destructive impulse response (I-R and destructive Magness-Taylor (M-T puncture tests. The results of this study showed that the dominant frequency, stiffness coefficient and elasticity coefficient as a function of time could be expressed as a decreasing linear function (Gómez et al., 2005. Tiplica et al., (2010, showed that acoustic measurement can be a useful tool to discriminate different apple batches with a low error rate. Starting from the spectrum of the signal recorded by a microphone after the impact of a small hammer on the fruit, 18 key features were identified and used for the classification of apples belonging to 10 different varieties. The study aimed to evaluate apple firmness measured using both the penetrometer and acoustic methods. The methodologies were applied to Royal Gaya and Golden Smoothee apples harvested from 12 different orchards in Catalonia (Spain, on six different dates, and over three seasons. The results obtained showed a noticeable correlation between Magness Taylor firmness and acoustic measurements in Royal Gala, but no correlation was found for Golden Smoothee. In this study, also, acoustic measurements seemed to be a good tool for evaluating changes in tissue firmness during long-term storage (Molina-Delgado et al., 2009. In another study, it was presented a novel approach based on the simultaneous profiling of the

  20. Can an Apple a Day Keep COPD Away?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163759.html Can an Apple a Day Keep COPD Away? See which fruits, veggies may be linked ... vegetables and peppers appear to offer protection against COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), said researchers led by ...

  1. Is there room for improving the nutraceutical composition of apple?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Masuero, Domenico; Costa, Fabrizio; Magnago, Pierluigi; Malnoy, Mickael; Costa, Guglielmo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we assessed the main bioactive compounds of a broad apple germplasm collection, composed by 247 accessions of wild (97) and domesticated (150) species. Among the stilbenes, trans- and cis-piceid were found to be ubiquitary components of both wild and cultivated apples. Apple was suggested to be the second dietary source of resveratrols. Results confirmed that the selection pressure of breeding and domestication did not uniformly affect all the phytochemicals contained in apples. For instance, organic acids (malic and ascorbic acid) and some phenolics (stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) were significantly influenced by selection, while some relevant flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols) and triterpenoids (ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acids) were not. This comprehensive screening will assist in the selection of Malus accessions with specific nutraceutical traits suitable to establish innovative breeding strategies or to patent new functional foods and beverages.

  2. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Communications Systems Group / IT

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: SMB or HTTP for file services LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  3. AppleTalk Routing: Phase-Out 30 September 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    IT/Communications Systems Group

    2005-01-01

    AppleTalk is a legacy MacOS protocol for discovering network file, print and other services. IP (Internet Protocol) has become a global standard for networking, replacing non-IP networks, like DECnet, IPX, AppleTalk and others. Following this evolution, support for AppleTalk on the CERN network infrastructure ceases on 30 September 2005. The replacement solutions are: * SMB or HTTP for file services * LPR for print services. We invite all users who haven't done so already to switch to the replacement solutions. Instructions on how to do so are on the Web at: http://cern.ch/it/gencomputing/mac-support/AppleTalk.htm IT/Communications Systems Group

  4. Clarification Effects of Chitosan on Apple Fruit Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-fei; LI He-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-ping; HUANG Xiao-chun

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is a good flocculant. The paper deals with the clarification of apple juice by means of chitosan. The results showed that the transmittance was over 97% and soluble solid content was stable basically, under the technological condition of chitosan of 0.5 - 1.2 g L-1 , temperature of 45 - 55℃ and pH 4.5. After the orthogonal trial, the optimum technological conditions of apple juice clarification by using chitosan were 0.3 g L-1 chitosan, 45℃C and pH 4.5. The research of the apple juice clarification with chitosan made a basis of the application of chitosan and provided the theoretical basis for the clarification of apple juice with chitosan.

  5. Production of Citric Acid from Apple Pomace Enzymolyzed by Cellulase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋纪蓉; 黄洁; 徐抗震; 赵巧云

    2003-01-01

    Cellulase can evidently increase the content of glucose and has a significant effect on the production of citric acid from apple pomace by Aspergillus niger. Based on experiments, a cellulolytic enzyme named cellulase A6 was found able to produce about 170 g glucose from 1 kg dried apple pomace after 12 h reaction, with cellulase concentration of 20 U/g in the medium at 50℃, natural pH without pretreatment of alkali. Using the treated apple pomace as a liquid state substrate, Aspergillus niger-C selected out was able to produce about 256 g citric acid from 1 kg dried apple pomace at 35℃ in 3 d or 30℃ in 5 d with flask rotation speed of 210 r/min, and the conversion of citric acid could reach 80% based on the amount of sugar consumed.

  6. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open....... Therefore, oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple should not be considered as a main criterion for selecting patients for birch pollen immunotherapy at present....

  7. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Palermo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.

  8. Apple tree production in Italy: rootstocks, cultivars, fertilization, and irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the main apple producers in Europe, primarily intended for fresh consumption, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Fruit yield and quality depends on the cultivar, rootstock, and management practices, such as the fertilization and irrigation adopted in the orchard. This review aims at reporting the main apple cultivars and rootstocks, the management of fertilization and irrigation, as well as their adaptation to apple tree orchards in Italy. The programs for genetic improvement carried out in this country involved the selection of apple tree cultivars and rootstocks which enable a high fruit yield and quality, in order to meet the requirements from the consumer market. In the fertilization and irrigation management, nutrients and water are supplied in amounts next to the actual need of the plants, providing an adequate nutrition, a satisfactory yield, and high quality fruits, besides preventing, whenever possible, nutrients and water losses in the environment.

  9. How to Plant Apple Trees to Reduce Replant Disease in Apple Orchard: A Study on the Phenolic Acid of the Replanted Apple Orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chengmiao; Xiang, Li; Wang, Gongshuai; Wang, Yanfang; Shen, Xiang; Chen, Xuesen; Mao, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers. Major types of phenolic acid in three replanted apple orchards were phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde. The concentration of phenolic acid was highest in the soil of the previous tree holes and it was increased from the spring to autumn. Moreover, phenolic acid was primarily distributed in 30–60 cm soil layer in the autumn, while it was most abundant in 0–30 cm soil layer in the spring. Our results suggest that phlorizin, benzoic acid and vanillic aldehyde may be the key phenolic acid that brought about ARD in the replanted apple orchard. PMID:27907081

  10. Evaluation of Apple Brand in the Czech republic

    OpenAIRE

    Susová, Romana

    2016-01-01

    The thesis covers different approaches Apple is using to attract consumers. The paper is divided in two parts. The theoretical part includes specific attributes that all together create the final brand image and it also describes the process of building of the relationship between the brand and its customers. In this part special attention is paid to marketing mix and advertisement. At the beginning of the second, practical, part there is an analysis of different elements of Apple bran...

  11. Customers´ loyalty to the brand Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Petlach, Radim

    2013-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor thesis is "Customers' loyalty to the brand Apple". The objective is to find out, whether and to what extent, Apple customers are loyal and satisfied with their products. Furhermore differences in perceiving the brand among customers and non-customers are investigated. In the theoretical part key terms associated with "loyalty" are explained. Attention is also focused on the cutomer. The practical part deals with market research in the form of a questionnaire, its inte...

  12. Nutritional Diagnosis for Apple by DRIS, CND and DOP

    OpenAIRE

    Min Xu; Jianing Zhang; Faqi Wu; Xudong Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study derived and compared norms for apple, using the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS), Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND) and deviation form optimum percentage (DOP) diagnose methods in the Weibei Loess Plateau, Shaanxi Province, China. A total of 68 leaf samples were collected from apple trees grown in Huangshan soils. The nutritional status was diagnosed by the DRIS, CND and DOP methods. The CND norms expressed as row-centered log ratios (mean±standard deviati...

  13. EL FUTURO DE APPLE: SWIFT VERSUS OBJECTIVE-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian González García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace unos meses Apple presentó un nuevo lenguaje de programación para sus plataformas: Swift. Con Swift, Apple pretende atraer a los programadores de los lenguajes de programación basados en la sintaxis de C++ y darles una mayor abstracción, que con Objective-C, para que sea más fácil programar para las plataformas de Apple. Por estas razones, se hace necesario contrastar lo pretendido por Apple y realizar un estudio del lenguaje de programación a fin de contrastar su objetivo. Para ello, se hicieron dos evaluaciones, una cualitativa y otra cuantitativa, con el propósito de verificar en qué medida Swift es un avance respecto a Objective-C.DThe Future of Apple: Swift Versus Objective-CABSTRACTFew months ago, Apple presented a new programming language: Swift. With Swift, Apple pretends to attract the programmers of the programming languages based on C++ syntax and gives them a higher abstraction than with Objective-C for being easier to programme to Apple’s platforms. For these reasons, it is necessary to contrast what is intended by Apple and do a study of the programming language to ascertain their goal. For this purpose, we did two evaluations, firstly a qualitative evaluation and after, a quantitative evaluation to verify in how much Swift is an advance with respect to Objective-C.Keywords: computer languages, computer programming, functional programming, object oriented programming, programming, software.

  14. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  15. Fast Estimation of Dietary Fiber Content in Apple

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF...

  16. The impact of pesticides on apple mite communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory, field and semi-field experiments have been carried out on the predatory mites Kampimodromus aberrans, Amblyseius andersoni, Typhlodromus pyri and Phytoseius finitimus in order to optimize biological control strategies against phytophagous mites in apple orchards. The first experiment concerned the augmentative releases of K. aberrans in organic and conventional apple orchards. The most frequent insecticides used in organic orchards were pyrethrins and spinosad, whereas neonicotino...

  17. Analysis and evaluation of a fruit bin for apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Yadama, Vikram; Cofer, William F; Englund, Karl R

    2014-12-01

    A fruit bin is an essential part of apple harvesting, storage, and transport. The lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls by apples in the bin are not well understood, thus making it harder to predict the behavior of the vertical walls of the bin. In this study, a bin was loaded with apples and deflections of the base and a vertical wall were experimentally measured and then modeled using finite element methods to understand typical static load distribution. One of the factors determining the accuracy of an analytical model is accurate representation of load distribution on the structure. A mathematical model was used to validate the lateral pressure distribution applied by the apples on the vertical walls and the bottom plate of the bin. The effect of unit weight of an apple and the angle of repose of apples on load distribution in the bin has been analyzed. Angle of repose is found to be a significant parameter for the lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls. A nonlinear lateral pressure distribution was observed along the depth from top to bottom of the bin. The resulting finite element model allows for comparison of deformation behavior of fruit bins constructed with a variety of materials, such as plywood, wood plastic composites, or a thermoplastic polymer. Although this study dealt with bins for apples, the sensitivity analyses for a range of unit weights and angles of repose for apples makes the analysis results versatile for use with other kinds of fruits and vegetables that fall within the reported range of unit weight and angle of repose.

  18. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  19. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  20. Comment on “On the quantum theory of molecules” [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A544 (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, Brian T., E-mail: bsutclif@ulb.ac.be [Service de Chimie quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Woolley, R. Guy [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-21

    In our previous paper [B. T. Sutcliffe and R. G. Woolley, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A544 (2012)] we argued that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation could not be based on an exact transformation of the molecular Schrödinger equation. In this Comment we suggest that the fundamental reason for the approximate nature of the Born-Oppenheimer model is the lack of a complete set of functions for the electronic space, and the need to describe the continuous spectrum using spectral projection.

  1. Comment on "Propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma" [Phys. Plasmas 20, 122106 (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2016-04-01

    In a recent article [Niknam et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122106 (2013)], Niknam et al. investigated the propagation of TM surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma in the Faraday configuration (in this case, the magnetic field is parallel to the both of the plasma surface and direction of propagation). Here, we present a fresh look at the problem and show that TM surface waves cannot propagate on surface of the present system. We find in the Faraday configuration the surface waves acquire both TM and TE components due to the cyclotron motion of electrons. Therefore, the main result of the work by Niknam et al. is incorrect.

  2. Comment on "Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma" [Phys. Plasmas 21, 072114 (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2016-07-01

    In a recent article [C. Li et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 072114 (2014)], Li et al. studied the propagation of surface waves on a magnetized quantum plasma half-space in the Voigt configuration (in this case, the magnetic field is parallel to the surface but is perpendicular to the direction of propagation). Here, we present a fresh look at the problem and obtain a new form of dispersion relation of surface waves of the system. We find that our new dispersion relation does not agree with the result obtained by Li et al.

  3. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  4. Development of hypo-allergenic apples: silencing of the major allergen Mal d 1 gene in "Elstar" apple and the effect of grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pedersen, Bjarne H.

    2009-01-01

    of Mal d 1 mRNA were produced by RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Ten genetically modified (GM) apple lines were selected. In vitro plantlets were first transferred to a greenhouse, then grafted onto wild-type M.9 rootstock to promote the development of fruit-producing trees. Levels of Mal d 7 gene......Many people who are allergic to birch pollen are also allergic to apple fruit, due to cross-allergenicity. Since apples are the most extensively consumed fruit in Europe, it is highly relevant to develop a hypo-allergenic apple. Apples with significantly reduced levels of the allergen, Mal d 1, may...

  5. The pathogenicity of different Botrytis cinerea Pers. isolates to apples and their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of 80 isolates of Botrytis cinerea Pers. from different hosts to apple fruit was examined. Host specificity among isolates was not found. All of the isolates, independent of their derivation, caused apple fruit rot. Isolates from apple fruits showed moderate and strong pathogenicity to apple fruits. Only 1 of the 22 examined isolates showed weak pathogenicity. Tolerance to benomyl was compared among isolates obtained from apple fruits and from other hosts. It was found that 35% of isolates from apples showed resistance to benomyl. There was no correlation between the pathogenicity of isolates and their resistance to benomyl.

  6. In Search of High J States in the HF(v, J) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    published only for the exchange and stimulation of ideas. bcotrt W Levinson, 2nd Lt, USAF Jos Hess -, Gc-15, Director, West Coast Project Officer Office...Yardley, IEEE J. Quan. Elec. QE-6, 113 (1970). 4. N. Skribanovitz, 1. P. Herman , Ro M. Osgood, Jr., M. S. Feld, and A. Javan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20

  7. Dielectric and Room Temperature Tunable Properties of Mg-Doped Ba(0.96)Ca(0.04)Ti(0.84)Zr(0.16)O(3) Thin Films on Pt/MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-03

    film on MgO. In addition, JCPDS based analysis show peaks corresponding to Pt30 4 and (100) MgO. Figure 3 shows the XRD pattern of the Mg-doped BCTZ...Appl. Phys. Lett., 78, 3517 (2001). 9. Powder Diffraction File (International Center for Diffraction Data, Swarthmore, PA, 1995) JCPDS card 36-19. 10

  8. Folding catastrophes due to viscosity in multiferroic domains: implications for room-temperature multiferroic switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Unusual domains with curved walls and failure to satisfy the Landau-Lifshitz-Kittel Law are modeled as folding catastrophes (saddle-node bifurcations). This description of ballistic motion in a viscous medium is based upon early work by Dawber et al 2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 436. It suggests that ferroelectric films can exhibit folds or vortex patterns but not both.

  9. Terahertz Quantum Cascade Structures Using Step Wells And Longitudinal Optical-Phonon Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Z. R. Wasilewski , G. C. Aers, H. C. Liu, and J. C. Cao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041112 (2007). 40. W. Freeman and G. Karunasiri, Proc. Ninth Int. Conf...John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, 2006). 54. Communication with M. Troccoli. 55. H. C. Liu, M. Wächter, D. Ban, Z. R. Wasilewski , M. Buchanan

  10. Femtosecond Amplifiers and Microlasers in the Deep Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    G. Eden, “Coupling electron-hole and electron- ion plasmas: Realization of an npn plasma bipolar junction phototransistor” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol...G. Eden, “Modulating the secondary electron emission coefficient at the base-collector interface of the plasma bipolar junction transistor ,” Appl...30, 2013). 20. P. A. Tchertchian, C. J. Wagner, and J. G. Eden, “Hybrid Plasma-Semiconductor Transistors ,” US Patent No. 8.525,276 (September 3

  11. Comment on ``Numerical calculation of the temperature distribution and evolution of the field-ion emitter under pulsed and continuous-wave laser irradiation'' [J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1334 (1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, G. Steven

    1987-08-01

    A recent paper having to do with numerical calculations of the temperature distribution in field emitters is criticized for an error in the governing heat-conduction equation used to formulate the finite difference algorithm. The correct form of the equation is derived retaining a possibly significant nonlinear term in the final formula.

  12. [Hyperspectral estimation models of chlorophyll content in apple leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun

    2012-05-01

    The present study chose the apple orchard of Shandong Agricultural University as the study area to explore the method of apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation by hyperspectral analysis technology. Through analyzing the characteristics of apple leaves' hyperspectral curve, transforming the original spectral into first derivative, red edge position and leaf chlorophyll index (LCI) respectively, and making the correlation analysis and regression analysis of these variables with the chlorophyll content to establish the estimation models and test to select the high fitting precision models. Results showed that the fitting precision of the estimation model with variable of LCI and the estimation model with variable of the first derivative in the band of 521 and 523 nm was the highest. The coefficients of determination R2 were 0.845 and 0.839, the root mean square errors RMSE were 2.961 and 2.719, and the relative errors RE% were 4.71% and 4.70%, respectively. Therefore LCI and the first derivative are the important index for apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation. The models have positive significance to guide the production of apple cultivation.

  13. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  14. Soil application of Beauveria bassiana GHA against apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Świergiel, Weronika; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Porcel, Mario;

    2016-01-01

    Low impact alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) are scarce encumbering pest management in organic apple orchards. We investigated the soil persistence and field efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo...

  15. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable ...

  16. Fast Estimation of Dietary Fiber Content in Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc

    2016-02-17

    Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF measured according to AOAC method 985.29. Although residual protein content in AIRs did not affect DF measurement, subtraction of starch content above 3% dry weight in AIRs was needed to agree with AOAC measured DF. A fast colorimetric screening of starch in AIR was developed to detect samples needing correction. The proposed method may prove useful for the rapid determination of DF in collections of other fleshy fruit besides apple.

  17. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection.

  18. The Hollow Cathode Phase of Pseudospark Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    THE HOLLOW CATHODE PHASE OF PSEUDOSPARK OPERATION L. Pitchford and J. P. Boeuf University Paul Sabatier, France V. Puech University De Paris-Sud...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University Paul Sabatier, France 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME...Appl. Phys. 53, 1699 (1988). [9] A. Anders, S. Anders, and M. Gundersen, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. [10] J. P. Boeuf and L. Pitchford , IEEE

  19. Laser Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Taylor et al., 1978) and EELS (Thiel et al., 1979; Baro and Ibach, 1979), which provide information about the geometry of the adsorption sites and...Che-a. Phys. 72, 3686. Baranauskas, V., Mainmana, C. I. Z., Klinger, R. E., and Greene, J. E. (1980) Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 930. Baro , A. M. and Ibach...Pennsylvania State University Dr. Martin Fleischmann Chemistry Department Department of Chemistry University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 Southampton

  20. Design and Implementation of 3D Dressing System Based on Physics Engine PhysX%基于物理引擎PhysX的3D试衣系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐康熙; 郝泳涛

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the 3D fitting function and solve the problem of large algorithm time complexity of virtual try modeling, based on virtual reality technology, this paper tend to model clothing fabric by sprint-mass model. Then, based on Newton's second law, we analysis the spring-mass model-based forces of clothing fabric modeling. Combined with GPU-based physics engine PhysX, build the 3D fitting room, simulate the sports interactive situation of fabrics and mannequin. Finally add mannequin adjustment, the election of clothing, dressing and other functions. Built under Windows platform, designed and devel-oped by using VisualStudio2008, combined with the comprehensive application of virtual reality technology, we establish the 3D fitting system, including functions such as clothing select, dressing, body parameter adjustment .%为了实现3D试衣功能及解决虚拟试衣建模算法时间复杂度比较大的问题,该文结合虚拟现实等技术,首先用弹簧-质点模型对服装布料进行建模,然后以牛顿第二定律为理论基础分析以质点-弹簧模型建模的服装布料的受力情况,结合以GPU为基础的物理引擎PhysX,建立3D试衣间,仿真服装布料与人体模型的运动交互状况。最后加入人体模型调整、选衣、试衣等功能。该系统在Windows平台下,利用VisualStudio2008设计开发,结合虚拟现实等技术的综合应用,建立了一套包括选衣、试衣、人体参数调整等功能的3D试衣系统。

  1. Ethylene Emission of Apples Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Oleksandr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of post-harvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on ethylene emission in early-winter apple (cv. ‘Calville’, winter (‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Jonagold’, and late-winter cultivars (‘Granny Smith’, ‘Idared’ and ‘Reinette Simirenko’ w as investigated. The fruits were picked at a commercial harvest time and half of them were treated with 1-MCP (‘SmartFresh™’ 0.068 gm-3 for 24 h at 5 °C. Then both groups of apples were placed in a common storage at the temperature of 2 °C. The intensity of fruit ethylene emission (rate of ethylene production was measured and 1 -MCP inhibition index was calculated. During storage, activity of ethylene emission by control apples of ‘Calville’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ showed typical climacteric pattern, while the intensity of ethylene emission of apples of other cultivars only increased gradually. The change of ethylene activity of early-winter apple cv. ‘Calville’ and winter cv. ‘Jonagold’, both treated with 1-MCP after harvest, had exponential character, especially actively increasing after 3 months of storage. At the same time ethylene emission of 1 -MCP treated fruits of other cultivars changed steadily to a low level and was effectively suppressed during the whole 6-month period of storage in normal atmosphere. The value of inhibition index of fruits treated by 1-MCP confirmed the consistent restoration of the ability to ethylene synthesis and thus to post-harvest ripening of some apples cultivars.

  2. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  3. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  4. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-10-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  5. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV, Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV, and Apricot latent virus (ApLV were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  6. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  8. Consumer eating quality acceptance of new apple varieties in different European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonany, J.; Buehler, A.; Carbo, J.; Codarin, C.; Donati, F.; Echeverria, G.; Egger, S.; Guerra, W.; Hilaire, C.; Hoeller, I.; Iglesias, I.; Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; Kruczynska, D.; Martinelli, A.; PItiot, C.; Sansavini, S.; Stehr, R.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    During January and February 2007 a European consumer test of eight new apple varieties and three standard ones was carried out in different European countries. The most common apple varieties were compared to new ones, focusing on consumer acceptance and the potential for increasing apple consumptio

  9. Teaching Bad Apples: A Fun Way to Tackle Difficult Teaching Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Nathaniel; Betrus, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    "Teaching Bad Apples" is a game developed in 2014 for current and future teachers. It plays much like "Apples to Apples" or "Cards Against Humanity," with each player in turn reading a situation card, followed by the other players choosing their response cards. Each situation, however dramatic or bizarre, is…

  10. 76 FR 16440 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley, San Bernardino...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley... expected application from the Town of Apple Valley, CA, for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the... Dale Evans Parkway, Apple Valley, CA 92307. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  11. Tulemas on Apple'i järjekordne müügihitt / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Suure tõuke Apple'i aktsiahinnale on andnud iPhone'i turuletulek 2007. aasta sügisel, nüüd on müügile tulemas kolmanda põlvkonna mobiiltelefon iPhone. Vt. samas: Apple'i majandusnäitajad; Pürib digikodu valitsejaks. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia hind

  12. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high…

  13. Return bloom in 'Stayman' apple with NAA and/or ethephon: 2007 through 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following a season in which apple trees produce a full crop, many cultivars fail to produce enough bloom the next year for an adequate crop. Obtaining good return bloom is a problem for many apple growers. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are recommended to enhance return bloom in apple. This study...

  14. Apple suutis jälle turgu üllatada / Lauri Matsulevitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    iPodi pleierite ja Mac-arvutite kasvav müük aitas Apple'i kasumit aastaga viiekordistada 61 miljonilt 320 miljoni dollarini. Diagramm: Tulemused vedasid Apple'i tõusule. Vt. samas: Eesti investorid mängisid Apple'i tõusu peale

  15. Choosing between an Apple and a Chocolate Bar: the Impact of Health and Taste Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Walker, Alexander D.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

  16. Apple Seeks To Regain Its Stature in World of Academic Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1998-01-01

    Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…

  17. First report of Penicillium carneum causing blue mold on stored apples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold decay occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Apples harvested in 2010 were stored in controlled atmosphere at a commercial Pennsylvania apple packing and storage facility, and were examined for occurrence of decay in May 2011. ...

  18. Occurrence and phenotypes of pyrimethanil resistance in penicillium expansum from apple in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold of apple. Pyrimethanil is a recently registered postharvest fungicide for control of postharvest diseases in apple. To monitor pyrimethanil resistance, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit in 2010 and 2011 from fiv...

  19. Apple Watch动了谁的奶酪?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    你以为Apple Watch推出革命的只是智能穿戴设备?苹果为什么把Apple Watch分为3个系列推出?当看到镶嵌着玫瑰金的EDITION系列登场时,显然一切都已明朗。也许在各大数码厂商在连夜研讨下一步智能穿戴设备的战略布局时,瑞士制表厂也开始头疼了。

  20. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction.

  1. Instant Apple iBooks how-to

    CERN Document Server

    Chawdhary, Zeeshan

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. Written in a step-by-step tutorial style, this book shows you in simple steps how to get the most from your iBooks experience.This book is for literary geeks who want to explore the Apple iBooks universe. From buying books from the Apple iBookstore to organizing books and PDFs, this book goes forward by explaining how to write an interactive book with iBooks Author.

  2. Catch a falling apple: Isaac Newton and myths of genius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, P

    1999-01-01

    Newton has become a legendary figure belonging to the distant past rather than a historical person who lived at a specific time. Historians and scientists have constantly reinterpreted many anecdotal tales describing Newton's achievements and behaviour, but the most famous concerns the falling apple in his country garden. Newton's apple conjures up multiple allegorical resonances, and examining its historical accuracy is less important than uncovering the mythical truths embedded within this symbol. Because interest groups fashion different collective versions of the past, analysing mythical tales can reveal fundamental yet conflicting attitudes towards science and its practices.

  3. Captan residue reduction in apples as a result of rinsing and peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Fouguet, André; Bélanger, André; Smith, Mark

    2008-08-15

    Apples, treated with captan for disease control in a commercial orchard in Quebec, Canada, were collected and sorted into post-harvest preparation types (no preparation; rinse; rinse and peel). Captan residues were greatest (25.5-5100ng/g) in apples with no post-harvest preparation and lowest (0.146-136ng/g) in apples that had been rinsed and peeled prior to extraction and analysis. Residues were significantly lower (p=0.003) in apples that had been rinsed prior to extraction than in apples with no post-harvest preparation. Similarly, apples subjected to rinsing and peeling had significantly lower captan residues than had apples that had been rinsed alone (pcaptan residues in rinsed apples were approximately 50% lower than those in apples that received no post-harvest preparation, the reduction associated with peeling of apples was much greater (98%). Estimated mean captan intakes resulting from consumption of raw apples were established and single day intakes, based on apples with no preparation, ranged from 2.58μg/kg in females >70 years to 9.48μg/kg for individuals aged three years (at this age no distinction is made between males and females). Mean intakes estimated using rinsed and peeled apples were approximately two orders of magnitude lower than intakes estimated using apples with no post-harvest preparation, demonstrating the effect of post-harvest preparation on captan intakes. Mean captan intake estimates from all post-harvest preparation types were well below the World Health Organization acceptable daily intake of 100μg/kg/day, based on raw apple consumption.

  4. Modeling of Flowing Plasmas and Pulse Power Schemes for O2(1Delta) Production for Chemical Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-19

    Redistribution subject to AlP license or copyright, see http:l/jap.aip.org/jap/copyright.jsp 113306-11 Babaeva, Arakoni, and Kushner J. Appi . Phys. 99...Babaeva, and M. J. Kushner, J. Appl. ’W. E. McDermott, N R. Pchelkin, D. J. Benard. and R. R. Bousek, AppI . Phys. 98. 073304 (2t005). Phys. Lett. 32. 469...8217A. Elior, B. D. Barm,tsheniko, E. Lebiush, and S. Rosenwaks. AppI . Phys. Gas Flost and Chemical Las,ers and lligh Power Laser Conference tyro- B

  5. Simultaneous detection of four viruses affecting apple and pear by molecular hybridization using a polyprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Vinícius Martins Fajardo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The viruses Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV are common in apples and pears and main targets of detection in propagation materials. This study aimed at demonstrating the usefulness of the hybridization method with a non-radioactive probe for simultaneous detection of these four viruses. The sensitivity of this method was sufficiently high enabling the detection of ASGV, ACLSV, ASPV and ApMV in total RNA extracted from infected samples. The probe specificity was confirmed by reaction with homologous viral cDNA, individually cloned for each virus.

  6. Allergenic properties of apples – molecular basis, factors determining level of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Trzcińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2% of the northern and central European population is allergic to apples. This explains why there is a lot of interest in allergenic properties of apples. This study presents four major identified allergens. Three of them – Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 – are pathogenesis-related proteins. The fourth – Mal d 4 – is categorized as a profilin. This paper describes the influence of different factors such as apple variety, cultivation method and long term storage on the allergen content and synthesis of allergens in apples. The article describes attempts at growing hypoallergenic apples, safe for consumers with mild allergy.

  7. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of pesticides and patulin in apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2009-01-01

    -6% of the original amount of tolylfluanid remained in the apples. No patulin was found in the apples stored for 28 days at room temperature and no growth of Penicillium expansum was observed on these apples. However, when the apples were inoculated with a spore suspension of P. expansum, high concentrations...

  8. President Li Xiaolin Meets with Apple Vice-President Jackson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yingshan

    2016-01-01

    On April 26,2016,CPAFFC President Li Xiaolin met with VicePresident Lisa Jackson of Apple Inc.She briefed Jackson on the CPAFFC’s history and major projects,including the China-US Governors Forum.Li also stressed that both China and the United States should enhance cooperation based on mutual trust.She hoped

  9. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  10. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  11. Characterization and degradation of pectin derived from Budimka apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS V. NIKOLIC

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of apple pectin and its oligogalacturonic fractions derived from the autochthones apple variety Budimka, characteristic for central Serbia, is described in this paper. After extraction, the apple pectin was subjected to controlled enzymatic hydrolysis by polygalacturonase (PG and pectin lyase (PL from Aspergillus niger and then fractionated by ion-exchange column chromatography on Dowex 1X-8 (200–400 mesh. Saturated oligogalacturonic acids, obtained by controlled hydrolysis with PG, were efficiently separated by elution with a gradient of Na acetate buffer (pH 6.0, while unsaturated oligogalacturonic acids, obtained by controlled hydrolysis with PL, were separated on the same resin, using a gradient of Na formate buffer (pH 4.7 as the eluent. The yields of the fractions with the particular degree of polymerization (DP were also determined. The total content of neutral saccharides in the original Budimka apple pectin was detected by HPLC analysis of the 4-nitrobenzoyl derivatives of the sugar, and amounted to 5.31 %. Among the neutral saccharides, contents of galactose, glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose and mannose were detected.

  12. Genetical metabolomics in apples (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was finding genes that control the production of potentially health beneficial metabolites in apple fruits. The approach was genetic mapping of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds in an F1 progeny, leading to the detection of genetic loci that controlled these met

  13. UTILIZATION OF IMPROPER APPLES FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOR BIOETANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Martello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a national preference, a big percentage of apple is discarded daily by many factors, such as rot and some aspects not acceptable for market. As this fruit presents a significant concentration of sugar, it can be utilized in the production of fermented products, like vinegar and especially ethanol. In Brazil, much attention has been given to the production of bioethanol as renewable energy, not only relieving dependence on oil as working to mitigate the effects of global warming, by the way, this project is based on an initial assessment of bioethanol production from improper apples for human consumption that are discarded in the market of Xanxerê – SC. The percentages of bioetanol produced by the apples discarded presented equivalent values to them found inside the literature, between 4.2 and 9.2%. Based on these results, the improper apples for consumption are great raw materials for the production of biofuel – bioethanol, since evaluated his level of rottenness previously on the process.

  14. Ripe Fuji Apple Detection Model Analysis in Natural Tree Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjian He

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we develop a novel approach for the automatic recognition of red Fuji apples within a tree canopy using three distinguishable color models in order to achieve automated harvesting. How to select the recognition model is important for the certain intelligent harvester employed to perform in real orchards. The L*a*b color model, HSI (Hue, Saturation and Intensity color model and LCD color difference model, which are insensitive to light conditions, are analyzed and applied to detect the fruit under the different lighting conditions because the fruit has the highest red color among the objects in the image. The fuzzy 2-partition entropy, which could discriminate the object and the background in grayscale images and is obtained from the histogram, is applied to the segment the Fuji apples under complex backgrounds. A series of mathematical morphological operations are used to eliminate segmental fragments after segmentation. Finally, the proposed approach is validated on apple images taken in natural tree canopies. A contribution reported in this work, is the voting scheme added to the natural tree canopy which recognizes apples under different light influences.

  15. Seasonality of nutrients in leaves and fruits of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtigall Gilmar Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient accumulation curves of apple trees are good indicators of plant nutrient demand for each developmental stage. They are also a useful tool to evaluate orchard nutritional status and to estimate the amount of soil nutrient removal. This research aimed at evaluating the seasonality of nutrients in commercial apple orchards during the agricultural years of 1999, 2000, and 2001. Therefore, apple tree leaves and fruits of three cultivars 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious' and 'Fuji' were weekly collected and evaluated for fresh and dry matter, fruit diameter and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrient (B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Leaf and fruit sampling started one or two weeks after full bloom, depending on the cultivar, and ended at fruit harvest or four weeks later (in the case of leaf sampling. In general, leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Cu, and B decreased; Ca increased; and Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn did vary significantly along the plant vegetative cycle. In fruits, the initial nutrient concentrations decreased quickly, undergoing slow and continuous decreases and then remaining almost constant until the end of fruit maturation, indicating nutrient dilution, once the total nutrient accumulation increased gradually with fruit growth. Potassium was the nutrient present in highest quantities in apple tree fruits and thus, the most removed from the soil.

  16. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  17. Storage test on apple juice after ultrasound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Montemurro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice.

  18. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  19. Contributions of EU-project REPCO to apple scab control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Heijne, B.; Hockenhull, J.; Lindhard Pedersen, H.; Trapman, M.; Eiben, U.; Tamm, L.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of REPCO is to contribute to the replacement of copper fungicides in organic agriculture by new measures for control of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) in grapevine and scab (Venturia inaequalis) in apple. Both major European organic crops strongly depend on copper fungicides. Permi

  20. Geographical classification of apple based on hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiming; Huang, Wenqian; Chen, Liping; Zhao, Chunjiang; Peng, Yankun

    2013-05-01

    Attribute of apple according to geographical origin is often recognized and appreciated by the consumers. It is usually an important factor to determine the price of a commercial product. Hyperspectral imaging technology and supervised pattern recognition was attempted to discriminate apple according to geographical origins in this work. Hyperspectral images of 207 Fuji apple samples were collected by hyperspectral camera (400-1000nm). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on hyperspectral imaging data to determine main efficient wavelength images, and then characteristic variables were extracted by texture analysis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) from dominant waveband image. All characteristic variables were obtained by fusing the data of images in efficient spectra. Support vector machine (SVM) was used to construct the classification model, and showed excellent performance in classification results. The total classification rate had the high classify accuracy of 92.75% in the training set and 89.86% in the prediction sets, respectively. The overall results demonstrated that the hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with SVM classifier can be efficiently utilized to discriminate Fuji apple according to geographical origins.

  1. Phylogeny of kangaroo apples (Solanum subg. Archaesolanum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Symon, David E

    2011-11-01

    Kangaroo apples, subgenus Archaesolanum, are a unique and still poorly known group within the genus Solanum. Here we aimed to reveal phylogeny, historical biogeography and age of diversification of Archaesolanum. We sampled all recognized species of the group and sequenced three chloroplast regions, the trnT-trnL spacer, trnL intron and trnL-trnF spacer to calibrate a molecular clock to estimate the age of the group. Distributional data were combined with the results of phylogenetic analysis to track the historical processes responsible for the current range of the group. Our analysis supported the monophyly of the kangaroo apples and the biogeographical disjunction between the two subclades within the group. Based on the divergence time estimates the most recent common ancestor of kangaroo apples is from the late Miocene age (~9 MYA). Based on the age estimate the common ancestors of the kangaroo apples are presumed to have arrived in Australia by long-distance dispersal. The two distinct lineages within the group have separated during the aridification of the continent and further speciated in the brief resurgence of rainforests during the Pliocene.

  2. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, A.I.; Ree, van R.; Leeuwen, van A.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Puehringer, H.; Laimer, M.; Martinelli, A.; Zaccharini, M.; Vazquez-Cortes, S.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Clare Mills, E.N.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars. Methods

  3. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  4. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  5. Induction of embryoid development from apple pollen grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kubicki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globular 32 and 64 celled embryoids were obtained from uninucleate apple microspores (cultivar Jonathan after 5 weeks of culture on a modified Murashige and Skoog (1962 medium. A similar induction of microspore development was not observed in younger or older stages of anther development. In such anthers only callus was formed from diploid tissues.

  6. New biotechnological tools to accelerate scab-resistance trait transfer to apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cusin

    Full Text Available Abstract Apple is a fruit crop cultivated worldwide. Apple orchards are exposed to a diverse set of environmental and biological factors that affect the productivity and sustainability of the culture. Many of the efforts and costs for apple production rely on reducing the incidence of fungal diseases, and one of the main diseases is apple scab caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. The economic impact of scab on apple productivity has guided many breeding programs to search for cultivars resistant to apple scab. Introgression from wild relatives has been successful to some extent, and genetic engineering for resistant cultivars has even been employed. This review presents the techniques used to the present time to obtain pathogen-resistant apple cultivars and introduces new biotechnological approaches based on plant plasmids that show promising results for delivering genetic traits with a short-term perspective.

  7. Phenolic Composition and Sensory Properties of Ciders Produced from Latvian Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina-Dolge Rita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds are very important components of cider – they are responsible for the colour and the bitterness and astringency balance of cider. The polyphenolic profile of apples and apple drinks is influenced by several factors: apple variety, climate, maturity, and technological processes applied. This research paper concerns the influence of apple variety on the phenolic compounds and sensory properties of cider. Fermentation of 12 varieties of apple juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast ‘71B-1122’ (Lalvin, Canada was performed in a laboratory of the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The total phenol content (TPC was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic compounds were analysed using HPLC. Sensory properties (clarity, the apple, fruit and yeast aroma, the apple and yeast taste, sourness, astringency, and bitterness were evaluated by trained panelists using a line scale. Special attention was paid to the use of dessert apples for the production of cider. The most important sensory properties of cider are the aroma and taste of apples and fruit. All cider samples showed the intensity of apple aroma ranging from 5.3 to 7.6 points, and higher results were obtained for cider from the bvariety ‘Auksis’ apples. The TPC in cider samples varied from 792.68 to 3399.78 mg L-1: Among crab apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Hyslop’ and ’Riku’ varieties, whereas among dessert apples, the highest TPC was detected in ciders made from the ‘Antonovka’ variety. Among the twelve phenols identified in cider samples, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were the dominating ones. Variation in the sensory properties of ciders was dependent on the physicochemical composition of the apples used.

  8. Ultra High Speed Single Electron Memory Devices based on Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth , and A. K. Geim, “Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97...2008). 17. M. Huang, H. Yan, C. Chen, D. Song, T. F. Heinz , and J. Hone, “Phonon softening and crystallographic orientation of strained graphene...graphene on SiO2” , Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, 41907, (2007). 23. Z. Chen, S. Berciaud, C. Nuckolls, T.F. Heinz , L.E. Brus, “Energy Transfer from Individual

  9. Electronic Properties of High-Tc Superconductors. The Normal and the Superconducting State of High-Tc Materials. Proceedings of the International Winter School held in Kirchberg, Tyrol on March 7 - 14, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-14

    499 (1991). 7. S. Hontsu, J. Ishii , T. Kawal, and S. Kawai. Appl. Phys. Lett., 59, 2886 (1991). 54 YBa 2Cu 3O!/PrBa 2Cu 30 7 Superlattices...M.Wataniabe, i1. Sawa . Jpn..J.Appi.Phyvs. 27. L1859 (1988). [21 F. Izutini, E.Takavaina- Muromachi. A. Fujiniori. T. Nainvarna. II. Asario. I. Akiriitsu...O’Reilly, C. V. Stager and T. Timusk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60,969 (1988). 8. S. Tajima, S. Uchida, H. Ishii , H. Takagi, S. Tanaka, U. Kawabe, H. Hasegawa, T

  10. Modulation Effects in Multi-Section Semiconductor Lasers (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    semiconductor lasers based on quantum well gain lever,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 59, 2216–2218 (1991). [33] C. P. Seltzer , L. D. Westbrook, and H. J. Wickes...Improved signal-to-noise ratio in gain-levered InGaAsP/InP MQW lasers,” Electron. Lett., 29, 230–231 (1993). [34] L. D. Westbrook and C. P. Seltzer ...Electron. Lett., 30, 37–39 (1994). [37] C. P. Seltzer , L. D. Westbrook, and H. J. Wickes, “The “gain-lever” effect in InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well

  11. Apple replant disease and the –omics: interaction of apple rootstock metabolome and the soil microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) negatively impacts tree health and reduces crop yield in new orchard plantings. Use of tolerant rootstock cultivars can diminish the growth limiting effects of ARD; however specific rootstock attributes enabling ARD tolerance are not understood. Systems biology tools were...

  12. Tailoring Chirp in Spin-Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongsu; Boeris, Guilhem; Vyborny, Karel; Zutic, Igor

    2012-02-01

    The interplay of spin injection in lasers and their nonlinear response leads to novel spintronic devices [1]. Such spin-lasers can enable desirable properties including threshold reduction, bandwidth enhancement, and low chirp [1-3]. These lasers can also be viewed as spin-amplifiers, since high circular polarization in the output can be achieved even with nearly spin-unpolarized injection [2,3]. In the present work, we study chirp in spin-lasers and suggest new modulation schemes to improve their performance. Supported by NSF-ECCS, U.S. ONR, AFOSR-DCT, and NSF-NEB 2020. [4pt] [1] M. Holub et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 146603 (2007); J. Rudolph et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241117 (2005). [0pt] [2] J. Lee, W. Falls, R. Oszwadowski, and I. Zuti'c, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041116 (2010).[0pt] [3] C. Gøthgen, R. Oszwadowski, A. Petrou, and I. Zuti'c, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 042513 (2008).[0pt] [4] G. Boeris, J. Lee, K. V'yborn'y, and I. Zuti'c, preprint (2011).

  13. Would You Like that iPhone Locked or Unlocked?: Reconciling Apple's Anticircumvention Measures with the DMCA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Corbett

    2008-01-01

    When Apple's iPhone first hit the stores it was an epochal media event.2 Apple, long a leader in high-end computers and personal electronics, was poised to make its entry into ahighly-competitive market with a new mobile phone that promised groundbreaking technological capabilities in a sleek, ergonomic package. Apple's CEO, Steve Jobs, extolled the iPhone's virtues to an eager press, and, shortly thereafter, Apple's stock jumped dramatically.3 Apple's loyal devotees lined up in anticipation ...

  14. Spin-Transfer-Torques at a Ferromagnet/Antiferromagnet Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Maxim

    2009-03-01

    Spintronics in ferromagnetic systems is built on a complementary set of phenomena in which the magnetic configuration of the system influences its transport properties and vice versa. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) [1] and spin- transfer-torque (STT) [2] phenomena are typical examples of such interconnections. Recently, MacDonald and co-workers [3] predicted that corresponding effects ought to occur in systems where ferromagnetic (F) components are replaced by antiferromagnets (AFM). I will present our experimental search for these new AFM effects which may potentially lead to a new all-antiferromagnetic spintronics where antiferromagnets are used in place of ferromagnets. In particular I will focus on our experiments with exchange-biased spin valves [4] where extreme current densities were found to affect the exchange bias at F/AFM interface [5-7]. As exchange bias is known to be associated with interfacial AFM magnetic moments, our observation can be taken as the first evidence of STT effect in AFM materials. [4pt] [1] M. N. Baibich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2472 (1988); G. Binasch et al., Phys. Rev. B 39, 4828 (1989). [0pt] [2] J. C. Slonczewski, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159, L1 (1996); L. Berger, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 4880 (1997); M. Tsoi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4281 (1998). [0pt] [3] A. S. N'uñez et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 214426 (2006); [0pt] [4] Z. Wei et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 116603 (2007). [0pt] [5] S. Urazhdin and N. Anthony, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 046602 (2007). [0pt] [6] X-L.Tang et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 122504 (2007). [0pt] [7] N. V. Dai et al., Phys. Rev. B77, 132406 (2008).

  15. Response to "Comment on ‘Electric Multipole Moments for Some First-Row Diatomic Hydride Molecules' [Commun. Theor. Phys. 38 (2002) 256]"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Orbay; Telhat Ozdogan

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Guseinov is irrelevant and also unjust. In contrast to his comment, we show that theobtained electric multipole moment values for some first-row diatomic molecules are original and better than his values(I.I. Guseinov, E. Akin, and A.M. Rzaeva, J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 453 (1998) 163) with respect to Hartree-Fockvalues. Moreover, it must be noted that all the formulas are cited in our paper (M. Orbay and T. Ozdogan, Commun.Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 35 (2001) 585) and corrigendum (M. Orbay and T. Ozdogan, Commun. Theor. Phys.(Beijing, China) 37 (2002) 768).

  16. Synthesis of Multifunctional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    substrate. Solid and dash-and-dotted curves represent the real and imaginary parts , respectively. (b) Fitted dielectric function (6=6i+i62) of the PbTiO 3...Sunggi Baik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 202901 (2005). 5. T. Morita and Y. Cho, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 43, 6535 (2004). 6. H. D. Chen, K. R. Udayakumar, C...189, (1998) 37 R. E. Newnham and G. R. Ruschau, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74, 463 (1991) 38 A. Essahlaoui, A. Roemer, A. Boudrioua, E. Millon , J.C. Loulergue

  17. Calculation of Vertical and Horizontal Mobilities in InAs/GaSb Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    Antoszewski, and L. Faraone , J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009). 2Q. K. Yang, F. Fuchs, J. Schmitz, and W. Pletschen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4757 (2002). 3R...12G. A. Umana-Membreno, H. Kala, J. Antoszewski, J. M. Dell, L. Faraone , B. Klein, G. Gautam, M. N. Kutty, E. Plis, and S. Krishna, Proc. SPIE 8012...Chandrasekhar Rao, J. Antoszewski, L. Faraone , J. B. Rodriguez, E. Plis, and S. Krishna, ibid. 92, 012121 (2008); C. Cervera, J. B. Rodrigue, J. P. Perez

  18. Dielectric and Structural Properties of SrTiO_3 Thin Films Grown by Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric and Structural Properties of SrTiO_3 Thin Films Grown by Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy[1]Hao J H,Gao J,Wang Z,et al.Interface structure and phase of epitaxial SrTi O3(110)thin fil ms grown directly on silicon[J].Appl Phys Lett,2005,87:131908. [2]Hao J H,Gao J,Wang HK.SrTi O3(110)thin fil ms grown directly on different oriented silicon substrates[J].Appl Phys A,2005,81:1233. [3]Aki mov I A,Sirenko A A,Clark A M,et al.Electric-field-induced soft-mode hardening in SrTi O3fil ms[J].Phys Rev Lett...

  19. On the theory of MHD modes driven by strong ExB velocity shear in tokamaks. Addendum. 2000 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Sharapov, S.E.; Timofeev, A.V. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3EA (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The theory of MHD modes driven by strong ExB velocity shear in tokamaks given by Mikhailovskii and Sharapov (2000 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 57) is revised. It is suggested that, in the approximations taken by these authors, there are no MHD eigenmodes if the cross-field velocity shear is larger then the Alfven frequency shear. (author)

  20. Comment on ``Barut-Girardello and Klauder-Perelomov coherent states for the Kravchuk functions'' [J. Math. Phys. 48, 112106 (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, H.; Dehghani, A.

    2008-04-01

    We call attention to the misconstructions in a paper recently published in this journal [A. Chenaghlou and O. Faizy, J. Math. Phys. 48, 112106 (2007)]. It is shown that the constructed Barut-Girardello coherent states are problematic from the view points of the definition and the measure. The claimed coherencies for the Kravchuk functions cannot actually exist.

  1. Comment on "Rethinking first-principles electron transport theories with projection operators: The problems caused by partitioning the basis set" [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114104 (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Reuter and Harrison [J. Chem. Phys.139, 114104 (2013)] question the widely used mean-field electron transport theories, which employ nonorthogonal localized basis sets. They claim these can violate an “implicit decoupling assumption,” leading to wrong results for the current...

  2. Some comments on the paper: Controllability of fractional neutral stochastic functional differential systems, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 65 (2014), no. 5, 941-959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierri, Michelle; O'Regan, Donal

    2016-04-01

    The abstract results and applications presented in "Controllability of fractional neutral stochastic functional differential systems, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 65 (2014), no. 5, 941-959, are not correct. Moreover, the class of differential control problems studied in [1] is not H-controllable.

  3. Comments on the paper: Synthesis growth and characterization of copper mercury thiocyanate crystal [Indian J Pure & App Phys 49 (2011) 340-343

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2015-01-01

    The unit cell parameters, infrared and UV-Vis spectral data reported in the paper by Vijayabhaskaran et al (Indian J Pure & App Phys 49 (2011) 340-343) cannot belong to the colourless crystalline compound formulated as copper mercury thiocyanate CuHg(SCN)4 as claimed by the authors.

  4. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages.

  5. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF WEED VEGETATION IN DIFFERENT APPLE GROWING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera TASSEVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the period 2001-2003 in an orchard of the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, created in the spring of 1996 on leached cinnamonic forest soil. The weed populations under four different farming technologies of growing of apple cultivar Florina were investigated. It was established, that the apple growing technologies influence the weed association composition. The highest weed diversity was found in the organic technology - 16 weed species were found. In the application of resource economical and integrated technologies, the development of 13-14 weed species was established. The smallest weed diversity was observed in the conventional technology - eight species, which was due to the twofold herbicide application.

  6. Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fuhao [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai 200438, People’s Republic of (China); Chang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201204, People’s Republic of (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Sasaki, Shigemi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Qiao, Shan, E-mail: qiaoshan@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, People’s Republic of (China)

    2015-06-09

    The design and performance of the Apple-Knot undulator which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization and low on-axis heat load are presented. Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY DURING STORAGE OF APPLES SUBJECTED TO IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Argenta Fante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the number of studies about fruit conservation as well as the benefits of consumption of foods rich in antioxidant compounds was increased. This study aimed to quantify antioxidant compounds and their activity and to evaluate the physical and chemical changes during the post-harvest storage of Eva's apple cultivars that were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. The antioxidant activity was measured by the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the β-carotene/linolenic acid methods. Levels of total phenolics, ascorbic acid, color, and soluble solids were evaluated. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation dose, there was an increase in % SRL during post-harvest storage of Eva's apples. Low irradiation doses were able to preserve the phenolic compounds, maintain the ascorbic acid levels and avoid an increase in the soluble solids content.

  8. Flavonoid and hydroxycinnamate profiles of english apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Serena C; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2007-10-17

    Seventeen phenolic compounds in 23 English apple ciders were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS (2). The total phenolic content of the ciders varied greatly ranging from 44 to 1559 mg/L. Four groups of compounds were identified, flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and dihydrochalcones. Hydroxycinnamates were the predominant group of phenolics in the majority of the ciders. Procyanidins were analyzed by HPLC after thiolysis, and total procyanidin content ranged from 8 to 722 mg/L and an average degree of polymerization of 2.5-3.5. This investigation of a wide range of ciders has shown a substantial variation in the profile and quantity of the phenolics. The analysis of single variety ciders highlighted the importance of using an apple cultivar with a high phenolic content to produce a phenolic-rich cider. Adaptations to the cider-making process could be used to increase the phenolic content with potential health benefits.

  9. It was easy, when apples and blackberries were only fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in company names are omnipresent. This is not accidental, companies deliberately chose ambiguous brand names, as part of their marketing and branding strategy. This procedure leads to new challenges, when it comes to finding information about the company on the Web. This paper is concerned with the task of classifying Twitter messages, whether they are related to a given company: for example, we classify a set of twitter messages containing a keyword apple, whether a message is re...

  10. Histological effects of calcium chloride in stored apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature apples, Malus domestica Borkh., cv. 'Golden Delicious' were immersed for 2 min in 0, 0.14, 0.27, or 0.41 mol L-1 (0, 2%, 4%, or 6%, respectively) aqueous solutions (w/v) of CaCl2 at 0 or 68.95 Kpa, and stored at 0°C. Histological samples of peel/cortex were taken at harvest and at four month...

  11. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  12. TV≠电视机——APPLE TV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    苹果越来越不像是一家电脑公司了:层出不穷的iPod们俨然已经成了MP3的代名词,iTunes网上音乐商店生意兴隆,不久前推出的iPhone在手机市场上掀起了轩然大波,而今,苹果又带来了Apple TV。

  13. Antioxidant and antitranspirant protection of apple foliage against ozone injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfving, D.C.; Gilbert, M.D.; Edgerton, L.J.; Wilde, M.H.; Lisk, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Visible injury to apple foliage from exposure to ozone includes brown stippling on lower leaf surfaces and a light yellow mosaic on upper surfaces. Histologically, chlorophyll is destroyed and palisade and spongy mesophyll cells collapse following disintegration of their protoplasm. Foliar spray applications of the antioxidant, diphenylamine (DPA) or the antitranspirant, Wilt Pruf offer protection against this visible and histological injury. Superior protection results from application of both agents in combination.

  14. Vegetative Propagation of Five Local Cultivars of Malay Apple (Syzygium malaccense spp. in Ternate Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Ryadin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cuttings of five cultivars of local malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L. was studied in Ternate Island, Indonesia. Hardwood cuttings of malay apple were planted in two combinations of media and hormone treatments. During 5 months experiment, can be found that hardwood cutting of malay apple with top soil+ sand and NAA 1000 ppm had the best performance in producing shoots and roots for cuttings of malay apple in a short period. Although, each of these cultivars has different performance to rooting and shooting, but its can be propagated by cuttings. Therefore, the result of this research is expected to contribute for conservation of malay apple as a source of germplasm for further research and commercialization of malay apple as new potential fruit in the international market demand.

  15. The study on the infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this studv was to determine the possibility to infection of apples after harvest by conidia and/or mycelium of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Conidia were unable to infect uninjured apple skin regardless of inoculum density and presence of nutrients. The infection of apples by conidia occurred after the surface wax had been removed by washing of apples with chloroform. Injuries of skin appeared to be a favourable entry point for conidia and mycelium of B.cinerea. Only the mycelium of B.cinerea developed on the apple but not that grown on the artificial medium (PDA was able to directly penetration uninjured apple skin. It was observed that sometimes rotted spots develo ped arround the lenticels.

  16. Ursolic acid from apple pomace and traditional plants: A valuable triterpenoid with functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnin, Simone Tasca; Gnoatto, Simone Baggio

    2017-04-01

    Apple juice production generates a large amount of residue comprising mainly peels, seeds, and pulp, known as apple pomace. In the global context, Brazil ranks 11th in apple production and thousands of tons of apple pomace are produced every year. This by-product is little explored, since it is a rich and heterogeneous mixture, containing interesting phytochemical groups. Among them, ursolic acid (UA) has attracted attention because of its therapeutic potential. UA is a pentacyclic triterpene found too in several traditional plants, and has shown several functional properties such as antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor. Therefore, this review attempts to shed some light on the economical viability of apple and apple pomace as sources of bioactive compounds, highlighting the UA extraction, and its main functional properties published in the last 5years (2010-2015).

  17. Natural enemies of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Lessando M; Cockfield, Stephen D; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2012-12-01

    Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has become a pest of increasing importance in Washington apple orchards in the past decade. The increase in aphid outbreaks appears to be associated with changes in pesticide programs and disruption of biological control. We sampled woolly apple aphid colonies in central Washington apple orchards for natural enemies of this pest from 2006 to 2008. The most common predators encountered were Syrphidae (Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken, Eupeodes fumipennis Thomson, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann); Chrysopidae (Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister); and Coccinellidae (Coccinella transversoguttata Brown and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville). The specialist syrphid Heringia calcarata Loew was recorded for the first time occurring in Washington apple orchards. The only parasitoid found in aerial colonies of woolly apple aphid was Aphelinus mali Haldeman; root colonies, however, were not parasitized. Identification of important natural enemies provides a better basis for conservation biological control of this pest.

  18. Anti-inflammatory procyanidins and triterpenes in 109 apple varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Walker, Edward G; Rassam, Maysoon; Sullivan, Michael; Evers, Danièle; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A

    2012-10-24

    We evaluated the potential of apple to reduce inflammation. Phenolic compounds and triterpenes were analyzed in 109 apple cultivars. Total phenolics ranged from 29 to 7882 μg g(-1) of fresh weight (FW) in the flesh and from 733 to 4868 μg g(-1) FW in the skin, with flavanols including epicatechin and procyanidins as major components. Ursolic (44.7 to 3522 μg g(-1) FW) and oleanolic (47.2 to 838 μg g(-1) FW) acids dominated the skin triterpene profile. Five chemically contrasting cultivars were fractionated and their immune-modulating activity measured using two cell-based assays targeting key points in the inflammation process. Cultivars exhibiting high contents of procyanidins were the most potent at inhibiting NF-κB while triterpene-rich fractions reduced the promoter activity of the gene of TNFα. This study provides new insights into how apple genetic diversity could be used to alleviate inflammation.

  19. Chemopreventive effect of apple and berry fruits against colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko; Octorina Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti; Narayanan, Aqilah Leela T; Balaji, Arunpandian; Subramanian, Aruna Priyadarshini; Yusof, Mustafa

    2014-12-07

    Colon cancer arises due to the conversion of precancerous polyps (benign) found in the inner lining of the colon. Prevention is better than cure, and this is very true with respect to colon cancer. Various epidemiologic studies have linked colorectal cancer with food intake. Apple and berry juices are widely consumed among various ethnicities because of their nutritious values. In this review article, chemopreventive effects of these fruit juices against colon cancer are discussed. Studies dealing with bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of apple and berry juices are emphasized in this article. A thorough literature survey indicated that various phenolic phytochemicals present in these fruit juices have the innate potential to inhibit colon cancer cell lines. This review proposes the need for more preclinical evidence for the effects of fruit juices against different colon cancer cells, and also strives to facilitate clinical studies using these juices in humans in large trials. The conclusion of the review is that these apple and berry juices will be possible candidates in the campaign against colon cancer.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLORA IN APPLE ROOT RHIZOSPERE WHEN FERTILIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzin A. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental safety of agricultural products and agro-technical measures is very urgent now. Various agrochemicals are widely used in agricultural production: plant protection preparations, fertilizers, stimulants and plant growth regulators, etc. One possible solution of this problem may be a partial replacement of mineral fertilizers by bacterial ones. The aim of our research was to determine the effect of different fertilizers and methods of their application on the quantity of microorganisms in the apple root rhizosphere soil. The research was carried out according to conventional methods. In our experiment, we determined the number of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of the roots of apple trees, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the leaves; hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium in soil and crop yield. The highest yield was obtained by fertigation in our research. Application bacterial fertilizer to the soil ensured yield increase at the level of mineral fertilizer application. Application of fertilizers in general, in the studied application rates provided optimum level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in the leaves and soil. By use of fertigation and bacterial fertilizers were high and relatively stable numbers of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of the apple trees. The number of microorganisms in the rhizosphere had a positive correlation with yield and the content of nutrients in soil and in leaves

  1. Comparative morphological analysis of apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nal., a new pest in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European popul...

  2. Cold Environment Assessment Tool (CEAT) User’s Guide for Apple Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Tool (CEAT) User’s Guide for Apple Mobile Devices by David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cold Environment Assessment Tool (CEAT) User’s Guide for Apple Mobile Devices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...CEAT) application (from here on also referred to as the “app”) for iOS (Apple mobile operating system) mobile devices (smart phones and tablets

  3. Physiological and phenotypic variations between columnar and standard apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela

    Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost...... the variations between columnar and standard apple trees. This knowledge provides a better insight on the production abilities of the columnar apple trees which may be useful for future crop improvement strategies....

  4. Occupational illnesses related to physical strains in apple harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Callea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Special strains are an occupational hazard often due to physical loads and inadequately designed work equipment. objective. The aim of this pilot study was to determine occupational illnesses related to physical strains through an experimental design that assesses the associated working postures and oxygen uptake in apple harvesting.Three methods were applied to define the physical stress provoked by apple farming tasks. material and methods. The experiments considered 5 labourers – 3 women and 2 men. The physical fatigue was assessed through oxygen consumption and heartbeat frequency according to UNI EN ISO 8996 standards. Measurements were conducted using a portable metabolimeter(COSMED. Working postures were determined according to Ovako Working Posture Analysis System(OWAS. An interview was conducted to record the labourers’ subjective estimate of the stress. results. The interview results demonstrated neck and dorsal pains and fatigue causes for each operator. The V̇O[sub]2[/sub] was equal to 82.33±27.40 lO[sub]2[/sub]/h for women and 67.00±27.60 lO[sub]2[/sub]/h for men, meaning that it was tiring for some men but for all women. The heart rates were of 115±6.00bpm for women and 113±5.65bpm for men. The V̇CO[sub]2[/sub] was of 63.81±21.45 lCO[sub]2[/sub]/h for women and 45.10±25.53 lCO[sub]2[/sub]/h for men, while energetic equivalent and body surface area were similar for both genders, about 5.60W×h/l O[sub]2[/sub] and 1,80m [sup]2[/sup] on average. Women’s metabolic rate had a very high value – over 290W×m [sup]-2[/sup] , although for the men it was between 200–260W×m[sup] -2[/sup] . According to OWAS, low apple picking was ranked in class 2, high apple picking in class 1, and apple transportation belonged to class 3. conclusion. Related to VO[sub]2[/sub] and VCO[sub]2[/sub] consumption and the identified negative body postures, it is necessary to improve working conditions.

  5. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  6. Fate of Foodborne Pathogens During Osmotic Dehydration and Subsequent Storage of Apples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Thilahavathy

    2003-01-01

    The fate of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. during osmotic dehydration of apples was determined at different processing temperatures, times and calcium chloride (CaCl2) concentrations. Apple slices were inoculated to achieve an 8 log CFU/ apple slice concentration of a five strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp. and were soaked in sucrose solutions (60% w/w). In the first study, apple slices were subjected to osmotic dehydration at three different temperatures: 20°C, 45°C ...

  7. The study on the infection of apple fruits by Botrytis cinerea Pers. after harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Bryk

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this studv was to determine the possibility to infection of apples after harvest by conidia and/or mycelium of Botrytis cinerea Pers. Conidia were unable to infect uninjured apple skin regardless of inoculum density and presence of nutrients. The infection of apples by conidia occurred after the surface wax had been removed by washing of apples with chloroform. Injuries of skin appeared to be a favourable entry point for conidia and mycelium of B.cinerea. Only the mycelium of B.cin...

  8. Learn AppleScript The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on MAC OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, Hanaan

    2009-01-01

    AppleScript is an English-like, easy-to-understand scripting language built into every Mac. AppleScript can automate hundreds of AppleScriptable applications, performing tasks both large and small, complex and simple. Learn AppleScript: The Comprehensive Guide to Scripting and Automation on Mac OS X, Third Edition has been completely updated for Mac OS X Snow Leopard. It's all here, with an emphasis on practical information that will help you solve any automation problem-from the most mundane repetitive tasks to highly integrated workflows of complex systems. * Friendly enough for beginners, d

  9. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisley, Rebecca K; Saunders, Manu E; Luck, Gary W

    2016-01-01

    Birds active in apple orchards in south-eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests) or negatively (e.g., crop damage) to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south-eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella) larvae (a major pest in apple crops). We found that: (1) excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2) bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples); and (3) when trading off the potential benefits (biological control) with costs (bird damage to apples), birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  10. Cost-benefit trade-offs of bird activity in apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Peisley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds active in apple orchards in south–eastern Australia can contribute positively (e.g., control crop pests or negatively (e.g., crop damage to crop yields. Our study is the first to identify net outcomes of these activities, using six apple orchards, varying in management intensity, in south–eastern Australia as a study system. We also conducted a predation experiment using real and artificial codling moth (Cydia pomonella larvae (a major pest in apple crops. We found that: (1 excluding birds from branches of apple trees resulted in an average of 12.8% more apples damaged by insects; (2 bird damage to apples was low (1.9% of apples; and (3 when trading off the potential benefits (biological control with costs (bird damage to apples, birds provided an overall net benefit to orchard growers. We found that predation of real codling moth larvae was higher than for plasticine larvae, suggesting that plasticine prey models are not useful for inferring actual predation levels. Our study shows how complex ecological interactions between birds and invertebrates affect crop yield in apples, and provides practical strategies for improving the sustainability of orchard systems.

  11. Triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for apple's anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangjiu; Liu, Rui Hai

    2007-05-30

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of apple peels was used to determine the chemical identity of bioactive constituents. Thirteen triterpenoids were isolated, and their chemical structures were identified. Antiproliferative activities of the triterpenoids against human HepG2 liver cancer cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and Caco-2 colon cancer cells were evaluated. Most of the triterpenoids showed high potential anticancer activities against the three human cancer cell lines. Among the compounds isolated, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid showed higher antiproliferative activity toward HepG2 cancer cells. Ursolic acid, 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cancer cells. All triterpenoids tested showed antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cancer cells, especially 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, maslinic acid, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-{[(2E)-3-phenyl-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid, and 3beta-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, which displayed much higher antiproliferative activities. These results showed the triterpenoids isolated from apple peels have potent antiproliferative activity and may be partially responsible for the anticancer activities of whole apples.

  12. Genetic Diversity in Apple Fruit Moth Indicate Different Clusters in the Two Most Important Apple Growing Regions of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhameed Elameen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The apple fruit moth (Argyresthia conjugella (A. conjugella in Norway was first identified as a pest in apple production in 1899. We here report the first genetic analysis of A. conjugella using molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis was applied to 95 individuals from six different locations in the two most important apple-growing regions of Norway. Five AFLP primer combinations gave 410 clear polymorphic bands that distinguished all the individuals. Further genetic analysis using the Dice coefficient, Principal Coordinate analysis (PCO and Bayesian analyses suggested clustering of the individuals into two main groups showing substantial genetic distance. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed greater variation among populations (77.94% than within populations (22.06% and significant and high FST values were determined between the two major regions (Distance = 230 km, FST = 0.780. AFLP analysis revealed low to moderate genetic diversity in our population sample from Norway (Average: 0.31 expected heterozygosity. The positive significant correlation between the geographic and the molecular data (r2 = 0.6700 indicate that genetic differences between the two major regions may be due to geographical barriers such as high mountain plateaus (Hardangervidda in addition to isolation by distance (IBD.

  13. PR genes of apple: identification and expression in response to elicitors and inoculation with Erwinia amylovora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jihyun F

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, much work has been done to dissect the molecular basis of the defence signalling pathway in plants known as Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR. Most of the work has been carried out in model species such as Arabidopsis, with little attention paid to woody plants. However within the range of species examined, components of the pathway seem to be highly conserved. In this study, we attempted to identify downstream components of the SAR pathway in apple to serve as markers for its activation. Results We identified three pathogenesis related (PR genes from apple, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8, which are induced in response to inoculation with the apple pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, but they are not induced in young apple shoots by treatment with known elicitors of SAR in herbaceous plants. We also identified three PR-1-like genes from apple, PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c, based solely on sequence similarity to known PR-1 genes of model (intensively researched herbaceous plants. The PR-1-like genes were not induced in response to inoculation with E. amylovora or by treatment with elicitors; however, each showed a distinct pattern of expression. Conclusion Four PR genes from apple were partially characterized. PR-1a, PR-2, PR-5 and PR-8 from apple are not markers for SAR in young apple shoots. Two additional PR-1-like genes were identified through in-silico analysis of apple ESTs deposited in GenBank. PR-1a, PR-1b and PR-1c are not involved in defence response or SAR in young apple shoots; this conclusion differs from that reported previously for young apple seedlings.

  14. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Basannagari

    Full Text Available Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m. At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills, reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  15. Climate change and apple farming in Indian Himalayas: a study of local perceptions and responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basannagari, Basavaraj; Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.

  16. Response to Comment on "On Higher-Order Corrections to Gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson Equations in the Long Wavelength Limit [Phys. Plasmas 16, 044506 (2009)]"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Lee, and R. A. Kolesnikov

    2009-11-20

    We show in this Response that the nonlinear Poisson's equation in our original paper derived from the drift kinetic approach can be verified by using the nonlinear gyrokinetic Poisson's equation of Dubin et al. [Phys. Fluids 26, 3524 (1983)]. This nonlinear contribution in φ2 is indeed of the order of k4⊥ in the long wavelength limit and remains finite for zero ion temperature, in contrast to the nonlinear term by Parra and Catto [Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 065014 (2008)], which is of the order of k2⊥ and diverges for Ti → 0. For comparison, the leading term for the gyrokinetic Poisson's equation in this limit is of the order of k2⊥φ,

  17. Erratum: ``Whittaker pairs for the Virasoro algebra and the Gaiotto-Bonelli-Maruyoshi-Tanzini states'' [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033504 (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felińska, Ewa; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Kosztołowicz, Michał

    2012-12-01

    A flow in the formulation and proof of Lemma 2.7 of E. Felińska, Z. Jaskólski, and M. M. Kosztołowicz, J. Math. Phys. 53, 033504 (2012) is fixed in Sec. I of this Erratum. This has no consequences for the rest of the paper. An essential error was made in Theorems 3.5, 3.6, and Corollary 3.7 of Sec. III of E. Felińska, Z. Jaskólski, and M. M. Kosztołowicz, J. Math. Phys. 53, 033504 (2012). As it was pointed out by V. Mazorchuk and K. Zhao ["Simple Virasoro modules which are locally finite over positive part," e-print arXiv:1205.5937v2 [math.RT

  18. Comment on "A study of phantom scalar field cosmology using Lie and Noether symmetries" [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 25 (2016) 1650051

    CERN Document Server

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We show that the recent results of \\ [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 25 (2016) 1650051] on the application of Lie/Noether symmetries in scalar field cosmology are well-known in the literature while the problem could have been solved easily under a coordinate transformation. That follows from the property, that the admitted group of invariant transformations of dynamical system is independent on the coordinate system.

  19. DARPA-NRL Laser Program Annual Technical Report to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-11

    Dickson, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 1949 (1968). 6. M. Allan and S. F. Wong, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1687 (1981). 7. R. W. Waynant and J. G. Eden, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36...Sceatcdmpm or the experimental apparatus The gas cell 0 .2 ad as to 1.4 contaed Ne/Xe./14C gs mixtures typical of those used in e-beam HOc POES &UNI ITa... Allan and Wong in the enhancement of dis- sociative attachment cross section. The large vibrational spacing of HCI molecule also makes it possible for

  20. Proceedings of 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting Held in Laugarvatn, Iceland on 12-15 June 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-10

    Kesamanly, F. P. and Samorukov, B. E., Soy . Phys.Semicond. 15, 352 (1981). through the above excitation routes, can make transitions to 4. Kasatkin, V...EL6 (0.34eV) EL2 (0.80eV) 8ceedings. 8. Lagowski, J., Kaminska, M. Parsey, Jr. J. M., Gatos , H. C. and Lich- tensteiger, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 41...in the highly Soy . Phys. Semicond. 17, 686 (1983). 9. Schaffer, W., Negley, G., Irvine, K. and Palmour, J., to be published indoped emitters on the

  1. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples.

  2. An improved contour symmetry axes extraction algorithm and its application in the location of picking points of apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Song, H.; Yu, X.; Zhang, W.; Qu, W.; Xu, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The key problem for picking robots is to locate the picking points of fruit. A method based on the moment of inertia and symmetry of apples is proposed in this paper to locate the picking points of apples. Image pre-processing procedures, which are crucial to improving the accuracy of the location, were carried out to remove noise and smooth the edges of apples. The moment of inertia method has the disadvantage of high computational complexity, which should be solved, so convex hull was used to improve this problem. To verify the validity of this algorithm, a test was conducted using four types of apple images containing 107 apple targets. These images were single and unblocked apple images, single and blocked apple images, images containing adjacent apples, and apples in panoramas. The root mean square error values of these four types of apple images were 6.3, 15.0, 21.6 and 18.4, respectively, and the average location errors were 4.9°, 10.2°, 16.3° and 13.8°, respectively. Furthermore, the improved algorithm was effective in terms of average runtime, with 3.7 ms and 9.2 ms for single and unblocked and single and blocked apple images, respectively. For the other two types of apple images, the runtime was determined by the number of apples and blocked apples contained in the images. The results showed that the improved algorithm could extract symmetry axes and locate the picking points of apples more efficiently. In conclusion, the improved algorithm is feasible for extracting symmetry axes and locating the picking points of apples. (Author)

  3. First report of Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot and Elsinoe pyri on apple in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazowska, Sylwia Emilia; Schiller, Michaela; Lund, Ole Søgaard

    2013-01-01

    An apple disease, known as “Topaz spot” in northern Europe (Trapman and Jansonius, 2008) has since year 2000 become widespread in Danish organic apple orchards (Malus domestica). Characteristic symptoms are small spots (black on fruits, brown on leaves) having a silvery-grey cen- tre. The associa...

  4. 75 FR 60817 - Non-Frozen Concentrated Apple Juice From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... antidumping duty order on imports of non-frozen concentrated apple juice from China (65 FR 35606). Following... continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of non- frozen concentrated apple juice from China (70 FR...), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR...

  5. Implementation of molecular marker technologies in the apple rootstock breeding program in Geneva - challenges and successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program was initiated in the early 1970’s with the overarching goal of developing disease resistant, productive and precocious apple rootstocks. Near the turn of the century the program was joined with USDA ARS resources and in addition to focusing on releasing ...

  6. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  7. Epiphytic bacteria and yeasts on apple blossoms and their potential as antagonists of Erwinia amylovora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple blossoms were sampled for indigenous epiphytic populations of culturable microorganisms during different stages of bloom at two orchards in or near Wenatchee, WA, and one in Corvallis, OR. Frequencies and population sizes of bacteria on stigmas of apple were lower at Wenatchee than Corvallis, ...

  8. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  9. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-07-24

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  10. Carbon sequestration by fruit trees--Chinese apple orchards as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Yu, Changjiang; Chiarawipa, Rawee; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Wu, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Apple production systems are an important component in the Chinese agricultural sector with 1.99 million ha plantation. The orchards in China could play an important role in the carbon (C) cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and contribute to C sequestration. The carbon sequestration capability in apple orchards was analyzed through identifying a set of potential assessment factors and their weighting factors determined by a field model study and literature. The dynamics of the net C sink in apple orchards in China was estimated based on the apple orchard inventory data from 1990s and the capability analysis. The field study showed that the trees reached the peak of C sequestration capability when they were 18 years old, and then the capability began to decline with age. Carbon emission derived from management practices would not be compensated through C storage in apple trees before reaching the mature stage. The net C sink in apple orchards in China ranged from 14 to 32 Tg C, and C storage in biomass from 230 to 475 Tg C between 1990 and 2010. The estimated net C sequestration in Chinese apple orchards from 1990 to 2010 was equal to 4.5% of the total net C sink in the terrestrial ecosystems in China. Therefore, apple production systems can be potentially considered as C sinks excluding the energy associated with fruit production in addition to provide fruits.

  11. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  12. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  13. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  14. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  15. Effect of apple pectin on gut microbiota - qPCR in applied microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Wilcks, Andrea; Poulsen, Morten

    This study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial commu...

  16. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV) was first identified in tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), a noxious weed, in Florida in 2002. This report provides the first full genome sequence of TSAMV. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional spec...

  17. Economic impact of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) on Florida cattle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A written survey administered to 3,500 Florida cattle producers in 2006 documented tropical soda apple, as the most common pasture weed across the state of Florida. Over 80% of the survey respondents reported tropical soda apple on their ranches, and over 65% declared the plant to be a major proble...

  18. Efficacy of supercritical carbon dioxide for nonthermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) system with a gas-liquid porous metal contactor for eliminating Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider. Pasteurized, preservative-free apple cider was inoculated with E. coli K12 and processed using the SCCO2 system at CO2 conc...

  19. Linking small scale farmers in China with the international markets; A case of apple export chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.Y.; Qiu, H.Q.; Huang, Z.R.

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the Chinese apple export chains are highly coordinated through ongoing long term loyal network relationships and vertical integration. Various chain governance mechanisms were formed and link small-scale apple farmers in China with export markets. These institutional inn

  20. QTL analysis of the genetic architecture determining resistance to fire blight in an apple progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calenge, F.; Drouet, D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Brisset, M.N.; Paulin, J.P.; Durel, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica). In order to analyse the genetic determinism of resistance to fire blight in apple, a quantitative trait analysis (QTL) approach was used. A F1 progeny of 164 individ

  1. Development of a protocol that allows safe consumption of the hypoallergenic apple cultivar Santana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, van der M.P.; Schenk, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivar Santana was shown to have a low allergenicity in a previously reported clinical trial. A protocol was developed to validate these results outside a clinical setting and to market the Santana as a hypoallergenic apple for large-scale consumption. This protocol wa

  2. Towards identification of the gene responsible for the columnar phenotype of 'McIntosh 'Wijcik" apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, P.J.; Schouten, H.J.; Velasco, R.; Salvi, S.; Komjanc, M.; Si-Ammour, A.; Baldi, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Wijcik' mutant of the apple cultivar 'McIntosh' shows columnar-type growth, characterized by altered branching and a thick stem. Instead of normal branches, spur-like branches are produced on 'Wijcik' trees, leading to apples produced close to the stem. Columnar-type growth is a desirable tr

  3. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  4. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,

    2005-01-01

    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of th

  5. Importance of fruit variability in the assessment of apple quality by sensory evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavay, Cécile; Symoneaux, Ronan; Maître, Isabelle;

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of produce quality is a major aspect of applied postharvest biology. Horticultural researchers working on organoleptic quality of fruit need objective methods for the evaluation of sensory properties. The development of sensory methodologies specifically for apples highlighted...... procedures are suggested for obtaining reliable sensory results in the assessment of apple quality....

  6. Prediction of post-harvest firmness of apples using biological switch model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Sanders, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a model that predicts the softening of apple during ripening in the postharvest phase. Apple ripening starts with an autocatalytic production of ethylene, which triggers a multitude of biochemical processes like the degradation of cell wall material. This triggering of the r

  7. Effects of Fermentation Temperature on Key Aroma Compounds and Sensory Properties of Apple Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bangzhu; Li, Fuling; Cui, Lu; Guo, Yaodong

    2015-12-01

    Fermentation temperature strongly affects yeast metabolism during apple wine making and thus aromatic and quality profiles. In this study, the temperature effect during apple wine making on both the key aroma compounds and sensory properties of apple wine were investigated. The concentration of nine key aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopentylacetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, isobutylalcohol, isopentylalcohol, 3-methylthio-1-propanol, and benzeneethanol) in apple wine significantly increased with the increase of fermentation temperature from 17 to 20 °C, and then eight out of the nine key aroma compounds with an exception of ethyl 4-hydroxybutanoate, decreased when the temperature goes up 20 to 26 °C. Sensory analysis showed that the apple wine fermented at 20 °C had the highest acceptance for consumers. Fermentation at the temperature of 20 °C was therefore considered to be the most suitable condition using the selected yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP05) for apple wine making. Changes in the fermentation temperature can considerably affect the production of key aroma compounds and sensory profiles of apple wine. These results could help apple wine producers make better quality production for consumers at the optimal fermentation temperature.

  8. Excellent long-term outcome for survivors of apple peel atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, S; Brevoord, JCD; Goldhoorn, GA; Festen, C; Hazebroek, FWJ; van Heurn, LWE; de Langen, ZJ; van der Zee, DC; Aronson, DC

    2002-01-01

    Background: Apple peel atresia is the rarest type of small bowel atresia. Because of its rare occurrence and high mortality rate, little is known about the long-term outcome of these children. Methods: The patient charts, operative reports, and office notes of 15 children with apple peel atresia fro

  9. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  10. Control of postharvest storage rots of apples and pears in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Köhl, J.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Pham, K.T.K.; Schaik, van A.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Postharvest diseases are a major problem in long storage of apples and pears in
    The Netherlands. Despite intensive preharvest spraying programs significant losses occur. Over 150 heavily affected many apples (mainly ‘Elstar’) and pears (mainly ‘Conference’) from packinghouses in different region

  11. Can phyllosphere yeast explain the effect of scab fungicides on russeting of Elstar Apples?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Houbraken, J.; Vromans, T.; Hoekstra, E.S.; Boekhout, T.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, the effects of scab fungicides on yeast composition and russeting of Elstar apples were assessed. Yeast composition of fungicide-treated and untreated young apple fruit with or without russet symptoms was investigated and enzyme activity of the yeasts was studied. Cryptococcus albi

  12. Cloning and characterization of three apple MADS box genes isolated from vegetative tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der C.G.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of finding genes involved in the floral transition of woody species four MADS box genes containing cDNAs from apple (Malus domestica) have been isolated. Three genes were isolated from vegetative tissue of apple, but were homologues of known genes that specify floral organ identity. MdM

  13. Transcriptional regulation of auxin metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis activation during apple (Malus × domestica) fruit maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at13 harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale 14 transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crossta...

  14. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus (Acari: Anystidae, in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  15. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow: Philosophy and Structure [and] What's Happening Where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple Computer, Inc., Cupertino, CA.

    Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) is a long-term research project sponsored by Apple Computer, Inc., to explore how learning and teaching change when teachers and students have access to interactive computer technologies. ACOT adheres to a philosophy that instruction should be learner controlled; i.e., students take responsibility for their own…

  16. Patulin accumulation in apples during storage by Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Elisa Welke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. Apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. Since Penicillium expansum and P. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in Brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage in loss of quality. The toxin was quantified using thin layer chromatography and charge-coupled device camera (TLC-CCD. The rate and quantities that P. expansum and P. griseofulvum can grow and produce patulin are highly dependent on the fungal strain and time. Lesion diameter resulted to be independent of the strain considered. The maximum period of time which apples were kept at cold storage (4 ºC without patulin accumulation was 27 days. When these apples were kept at 25 ºC during 3 days, both factors lesion diameter and patulin production increased significantly. These results confirm that time in which apples are taken out from cold storage room before juice production is critical in order to prevent patulin accumulation.

  17. First report of Penicillium expansum isolates resistant to pyrimethanil from stored apple fruit in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apples in the United States are stored in low temperature controlled atmosphere for 9–12 months and are susceptible to decay by blue mold. Penicillium spp. cause significant economic losses worldwide and produce mycotoxins that contaminate processed apple products. Blue mold is managed by a combinat...

  18. Wound responses of wild apples suggest multiple resistance mechanism against blue mold decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold caused primarily by Penicillium expansum and to a lesser extent other Penicillium spp. is the most destructive disease of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apple germplasms, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central...

  19. Segmentation of foreground apple targets by fusing visual attention mechanism and growth rules of seed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, W.; Shang, W.; Shao, Y.; Wang, D.; Yu, X.; Song, H.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of apple targets is one of the most important problems to be solved in the vision system of apple picking robots. This work aimed to solve the difficulties that background targets often bring to foreground targets segmentation, by fusing the visual attention mechanism and the growth rule of seed points. Background targets could be eliminated by extracting the ROI (region of interest) of apple targets; the ROI was roughly segmented on the HSV color space, and then each of the pixels was used as a seed growing point. The growth rule of the seed points was adopted to obtain the whole area of apple targets from seed growing points. The proposed method was tested with 20 images captured in a natural scene, including 54 foreground apple targets and approximately 84 background apple targets. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can remove background targets and focus on foreground targets, while the k-means algorithm and the chromatic aberration algorithm cannot. Additionally, its average segmentation error rate was 13.23%, which is 2.71% higher than that of the k-means algorithm and 2.95% lower than that of the chromatic aberration algorithm. In conclusion, the proposed method contributes to the vision system of apple-picking robots to locate foreground apple targets quickly and accurately under a natural scene. (Author)

  20. Apple Watch:重新发明手表?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚旭

    2015-01-01

    苹果公司智能手表Apple Watch计划于公元2015年4月24日起正式发售。网友:我们对于手表的理解,要么是计时、要么是首饰,缺忽略了一点,任何一个革命性的东西都是对原有的功能一个颠覆性的扩展。手表发展到现在,甚至计时性都在弱化而首饰性反而被强化,

  1. Apple Watch成功还是失败?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈君洋

    2015-01-01

    去年9月,苹果公司推出了苹果手表(Apple Watch),掀起了科技界的话题热潮。一年过去了,新发布会上作为打头阵的苹果手表也好,最期待的iPhone6S也好,除了颜色款式的增加,其他基本没什么变化。这一年来,苹果手表是成功还是失败了呢?

  2. Management and Performance of APPLE Battery in High Temperature Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, M. S.; Subrahmanyam, A.; Agrawal, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    India's first experimental communication satellite, APPLE, carried a 12 AH Ni-Cd battery for supplying power during eclipse. Failure to deploy one of the two solar panels resulted in the battery operating in a high temperature environment, around 40 C. This also resulted in the battery being used in diurnal cycles rather than just half yearly eclipse seasons. The management and performance of the battery during its life of two years are described. An attempt to identify the probable degradation mechanisms is also made.

  3. Determinants of Sustainable Relationships in the Albanian Apple Production Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blendi Gërdoçi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the behaviour of Albanian apple growers and their relations with buyers based on a structured survey. We develop a model of relational governance that highlights the importance of sustainable (lasting relationships and draws upon different theoretical frameworks such as transaction cost economics and social network theory and focuses on determinants of relational exchange. The findings support the social network argument that the presence of verbal agreements between business partners strongly and positively affects exchange relationships. Asset specificity and competition among buyers also affects such relationships. The results and their implications at the management and policy-making level are discussed in detail

  4. Windthrow resistance of apple trees grafted in an orchard

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Akio; Araki, Hajime; Hori, Hirotaka; Inagawa, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Pull-down tests were conducted for apple trees grafted in an orchard and for support posts in order to discuss the failure mode in windthrow damage, the effect of rootstock types on the uprooting strength, and the reinforcing effect of support posts on young trees. The test samples were 10 mature trees (20–23 years old) of 3 varieties grafted on two types of rootstocks, 3 young trees (7 years old) grafted on dwarf rootstocks, and 9 support posts of larch logs and steel pipes. The failure mode...

  5. RAČUNALNIŠTVO V OBLAKU PODJETJA APPLE INC. - ICLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Pečenko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    V tem diplomskem seminarju je obravnavana tema računalništvo v oblaku in sicer na primeru storitve iCloud podjetja Apple Inc., ki je namenjena vsem uporabnikom Applovih produktov(računalnikov in mobilnih naprav). V prvem delu smo podrobneje predstavili teorijo računalništva v oblaku, ki predstavlja novo tehnologijo, s katero je uporabnikom (podjetjem in posameznikom) omogočeno shranjevanje podatkov v splet in dostopanje do njih kadarkoli in kjerkoli s katerokoli napravo enostavno s pomo...

  6. Father of Apple%苹果教父

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓

    2011-01-01

    史蒂芬·保罗·乔布斯(1955年12月24日-2011年10月5日)是美国著名电脑企业家、发明家。他是苹果公司的创办人之一,并曾任苹果公司的董事会主席、首席执行官。%Steven Paul Jobs (February 24, 1955-October 5, 2011) wasan American computer entrepreneur and inventor. He was co-founder, t chairman, and chief executive officer of Apple Inc.

  7. Vegetative propagation and its possible role as a genetic bottleneck in the shaping of the apple fruit crinkle viroid populations in apple and hop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Teruo; Isono, Sayaka; Matsuki, Keigo; Kawaguchi-Ito, Yoko; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Kondo, Ken-ichi; Iijima, Akira; Bar-Joseph, Moshe

    2008-12-01

    Apple fruit crinkle viroid (AFCVd) infects apples and hops. To analyze the genetic diversity of AFCVd, nine apple and six hop isolates were collected from several locations in Japan. In total, 76 independent cDNA clones were used for sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Two major population clusters were identified. The first consisted of all four hop isolates from Akita and some from Yamagata. The second cluster consisted of some Yamagata hop and all apple isolates. On the basis of the polymorphism found in the nucleotide insertion between positions 142/143 of the AFCVd genome and the history of hop cultivation in the region, it appears likely that one of the AFCVd populations that pre-existed in the Yamagata hops served as a "founder" for the Akita hop cluster. In this scenario, a genetic bottleneck caused by vegetative propagation played an important role in the shaping of viroid populations in a cultivated crop.

  8. 78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  9. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    The impact of product information and repeated exposure of local apple juice on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations was studied. Findings showed that consumers had high expectations towards the studied local apples juices. Consequently, the liking for the local apple juic...

  10. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  11. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere. Lesio

  12. First report of fusarium avenaceum causing wet core rot of ‘elstar’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Fred; Lans, van der Arie; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. ‘Elstar’, the main cultivar, occupies 40% of the apple production area. Symptoms of apple wet core rot were observed on Elstar in January to March 2013 after 4 to 6 months’ storage in different packing houses at controlled atm

  13. 78 FR 33437 - United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Apple, Inc., et al.; Public Comments and Response on Proposed Final... Macmillan in United States v. Apple, Inc., et al., Civil Action No. 12-CV-2826 (DLC), which was filed in the... for the Southern District of New York UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff, v. APPLE, INC., et...

  14. Identification of wild apple germplasm (Malus spp.) with resistance to the postharvest decay pathogens Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum acutatum cause blue mold and bitter rot of apples during storage which results in significant economic losses. Resistance to these pathogens in commercial apple cultivars has not been documented in the literature. An apple germplasm collection, from the center...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  16. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to ...

  17. Numerical Study of Light Transport in Apple Models Based on Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Lamine Askoura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the quantification of light transport in apple models using Monte Carlo simulations. To this end, apple was modeled as a two-layer spherical model including skin and flesh bulk tissues. The optical properties of both tissue types used to generate Monte Carlo data were collected from the literature, and selected to cover a range of values related to three apple varieties. Two different imaging-tissue setups were simulated in order to show the role of the skin on steady-state backscattering images, spatially-resolved reflectance profiles, and assessment of flesh optical properties using an inverse nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm. Simulation results suggest that apple skin cannot be ignored when a Visible/Near-Infrared (Vis/NIR steady-state imaging setup is used for investigating quality attributes of apples. They also help to improve optical inspection techniques in the horticultural products.

  18. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories.

  19. Pectin modifications and the role of pectin-degrading enzymes during postharvest softening of Jonagold apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwanpua, Sunny George; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Verlinden, Bert E; Christiaens, Stefanie; Shpigelman, Avi; Vicent, Victor; Kermani, Zahra Jamsazzadeh; Nicolai, Bart M; Hendrickx, Marc; Geeraerd, Annemie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding softening in Jonagold apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruits, by investigating pectin modifications and the evolution of pectin-modifying enzymes during postharvest storage and ripening. Jonagold apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at different temperatures and controlled atmosphere conditions for 6 months, followed by exposure to ambient shelf life conditions (20 °C under air) for 2 weeks. The composition of the pectic material was analysed. Furthermore, the firmness and the ethylene production of the apples were assessed. Generally, the main changes in pectin composition associated with the loss of firmness during ripening in Jonagold apples were a loss of side chains neutral sugars, increased water solubility and decreased molar mass. Also, the activities of four important enzymes possibly involved in apple softening, β-galactosidase, α-arabinofuranosidase, polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase, were measured. Pectin-related enzyme activities highly correlated with ethylene production, but not always with pectin modifications.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the synonymous codon usage patterns in apple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; SUN Mei-hong; JIANG Ze-sheng; SHU Huai-rui; ZHANG Shi-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica) has been proposed as an important woody plant and the major cultivated fruit trees in temperate regions. Apple whole genome sequencing has been completed, which provided an excelent opportunity for genome-wide analysis of the synonymous codon usage patterns. In this study, a multivariate bioinformatics analysis was performed to reveal the characteristics of synonymous codon usage and the main factors affecting codon bias in apple. The neutrality, correspondence, and correlation analyses were performed by CodonW and SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solu-tions) programs, indicating that the apple genome codon usage patterns were affected by mutational pressure and selective constraint. Meanwhile, coding sequence length and the hydrophobicity of proteins could also inlfuence the codon usage patterns. In short, codon usage pattern analysis and determination of optimal codons has laid an important theoretical basis for genetic engineering, gene prediction and molecular evolution studies in apple.

  1. FEATURES OF APPLE POMACE PROCESSING IN THE PRODUCTION OF FEED FOR HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. YEGOROV

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the overall situation of horse breeding in Ukraine and dynamics of the problem of reducing herd of horses. Also considered distribution of population of horses on farms of different ownership structure and the production of feed for farm animals, including horses.Have been analyzed apple production in Ukraine, which shows the trend growth. Processing apples is to obtain basic products and obtaining by-products.The possibility of using apple pomace as a component of animal feed. In the laboratory investigation of physical properties, chemical composition and microbiological parameters of fresh apple pomace. Apple pomace rich in nitrogen free extract and essential amino acids, vitamins and mineral elements. Apple pomace is not stable in storage and perishable, so the dynamics of microflora and shelf life of fresh apple pomace.The choice of barley for the production of feed additives. Presented phased scheme of the feed additive by extruding a mixture of crushed barley and crushed apple pomace. Based on experimental studies proved the ratio components extruded feed additive (EFA. To determine the optimum ratio of the components of feed additive the influence of introduction of apple pomace on the efficiency of extrusion on quality and energy-power parameters such as the coefficient of expansion of the extrudate and specific power consumption. The influence of extrusion to change the physical properties EFA. In addition, investigated changing the chemical composition EFA In samples of feed additive was determined degree of swelling that characterizes the efficiency of nutrient absorption animals.Investigated influence of extrusion the change quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora in grain barley and fresh apple pomace feed additive before and after extrusion. Also investigated the dynamics of the microflora EQW within 6 months of storage in uncontrolled conditions.

  2. The temperature profile of an apple supply chain: A case study of the Ceres district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Du Toit Valentine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a logistical gap in the first section of the apple supply chain that affects the temperature profiles of apples further downstream in the supply chain.Objectives: This article’s main objective is to confirm whether the logistics processes, in terms of the temperature profile of apples for the first 48 hours post-harvest, have an influence on the yield and/or quality of the fruit.Method: Observations were made and informal interviews were conducted on three different farms to ascertain their perspective of the first section of the supply chain. Temperature trials were conducted to analyse the temperature profile of two apple varieties, namely Golden Delicious and Granny Smith on three different farms. These trials were conducted by placing an iButton® device on the inside and outside of an apple to measure the temperature readings every minute for the first 48 hours after picking.Results: The research identified that it is not only at what time the apples are being harvested, but also at what time the apples are placed under cooling conditions to remove the field heat to obtain the recommended temperature profile within 48 hours. In addition, it was determined that effective and efficient picking at the right time (especially between 07:00 and 09:00 and the transportation of the apples directly, or as soon as possible after the apples came out of the orchard to the centralised cold storage facility, are key in ensuring the quality of the fruit and the temperature profile necessary for export.Conclusion: This article identifies the need to improve operational procedures along the cold chain. From this research, it is clear that there are problem areas that affect the temperature profile of apples

  3. Cyclic voltammetry of apple fruits: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Blockmon, Avery L; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I

    2016-12-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory that exhibits a pinched hysteretic relationship in cyclic voltammetry. Recently, we have found memristors in the electrical circuitry of plants and seeds. There are no publications in literature about the possible existence of memristors and electrical differentiators in fruits. Here we found that the electrostimulation of Golden Delicious or Arkansas Black apple fruits by bipolar periodic waves induces hysteresis loops with pinched points in cyclic voltammograms at low frequencies between 0.1MHz and 1MHz. At high frequencies of 1kHz, the pinched hysteresis loop transforms to a non-pinched hysteresis loop instead of a single line I=V/R for ideal memristors because the amplitude of electrical current depends on capacitance of a fruit's tissue and electrodes, frequency and direction of scanning. Electrostimulation of electrical circuits in apple fruits by periodic voltage waves also induces electrotonic potential propagation due to cell-to-cell electrical coupling with electrical differentiators. A differentiator is an electrical circuit in which the output of the circuit is approximately directly proportional to the rate of change of the input. The information gained from electrostimulation can be used to elucidate and to observe electrochemical and electrophysiological properties of electrical circuits in fruits.

  4. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  5. Effect of rootstock diameter on apple saplings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAHID AVDIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper presents the results of a field trial with managed nursery trees including two apple cultivars Golden Reinders and Gala Galaxy on the rootstocks M9 and MM 106. In April 2011, the saplings (bench grafted in March 2011 were planted in the distance 100 cm x 35 cm in randomized block design in threecombinations of rootstock diameters (5-7 mm, 7-9 mm, 9-11 mm with threereplications (in total 60 saplings for each apple cultivar-rootstock and combinations in Mirovica, Kosovo. The following parameters were examined: growth, rootstock diameter, scion diameter, and stocks growth dynamic. The experimental design was a ANOVAs one-way analysing two different factors cultivars, rootstocks types and treatments (three combinations of rootstocks diameter. Significant differences were found in scion thickness and sapling growth among the three different combinations of rootstock diameter, dimensions and cultivars. Insignificant were differences were found within factors as cultivar, rootstock and their combinations Key words: Amino acids, Moringa oleifera, poultry manure.

  6. Apple Music. La fin de l’histoire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Gasparini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Will streaming have a “feedback effect” on musical creation, comparable to the one enforced by the precedent distribution modes of musical contents? In other words, could it be compared to the one generated by the invention of 45rpm vinyl record (pop-rock music in the sixties or 33rpm LP linked to the “concept albums” from the seventies, or even CD and DVD? I will use the description of “Apple Music”, the new Apple streaming site, to demonstrate that the innovations brought along with this site (such as “connect”, a function that gives an opportunity to link the artists to their public clearly evince that this new mode of distribution has achieved its own end and will exert, if my predictions are true, an important effect on musical creation in the upcoming years. Since those optimistic conclusions far from being shared by all musicians, I will have to discuss their points of view in this article as well.

  7. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  8. Bitter pit in apples: pre- and postharvest factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jemrić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter pit is a physiological disorder that significantly reduces the quality of apples. Although it has been detected since the beginning of the last century, still there is little known about the mechanism of its occurrence. According to numerous studies, bitter pit is formed as a result of calcium deficiency in the fruit. Some authors cite the high concentration of gibberellins, later in the production season, most probably caused by excessive activity of the roots, as the chief causative factor. Beside Ca, there are several factors that can also contribute to its development, like imbalance among some mineral elements (N, P, K and Mg, cultivar, rootstock, the ratio of vegetative and generative growth, post-harvest treatments and the storage methods. There are some prediction models available that can estimate the risk of bitter pit in apples, but even those are not always reliable. The aim of this review was to encompass the pre and postharvest factors which cause bitter pit and point out the directions for solving this problem.

  9. Determination of cardinal temperatures for sugar apple ( Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rafael Alves Rodrigues

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sugar apple is highly dependent on the pollination and fruit tree pollen performance is crucial for successful fertilization and fruit set. The objective of this study was to determine the cardinal temperatures for in vitro pollen grains germination and evaluate the effect of temperature on pollen tube growth of sugar apple. The experimental design was in a completely randomized with eight treatments (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 ºC, four replicates and each plot was constituted by two slides per parcel. The cardinal temperatures were determined by evaluating in vitro germination of pollen grains and pollen tube growth in standard culture medium. It also assessed the pollen tube growth and the percentage of germination in vitro depending on the type of pollen grain arrangement (monad, dyad, triad and tetrad. In vitro germination of pollen grains and pollen tube growth varied significantly with temperature. The maximum germination recorded (48.13% and the maximum lengths of pollen tubes (536.45 μm were obtained when pollen grains were cultivated at 25 ºC. The estimated cardinal temperatures were 9.7, 26.9 and 44.2 ºC. Among the pollen grain arrangements, tetrads pollen grains were observed in higher proportions, however, monads pollen grains presented higher germination percentage.

  10. Localization of the Ethylene-synthesizing System in Apple Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, A K; Lieberman, M

    1977-11-01

    Apple (Malus sp.) slices gradually lost the ability to synthesize ethylene when incubated with a mixture of enzymes that digest cell walls. The released protoplasts did not produce ethylene. The release of protoplasts was faster from climacteric fruit slices than from preclimacteric tissue. In protoplast suspension culture, as new cell wall was deposited (as judged by the intensity of fluorescence of regenerating protoplasts stained with Calcofluor White and the incorporation of labeled myo-inositol into their ethanol-insoluble residue), ethylene synthesis was gradually regained. Restored ethylene synthesis reached a maximum after 80 hours in protoplasts from preclimacteric fruit and in 120 hours in those from climacteric tissue. Addition of methionine (1 mm) to the culture medium was essential for appreciable synthesis of ethylene; and this synthesis was inhibited by the aminoethoxy analogue of rhizobitoxine and by propyl gallate, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis in higher plants. We suggest that the ethylene-synthesizing enzyme system is highly structured in the apple cell and is localized in a cell wall-cell membrane complex.

  11. Characterization of apple 18 and 31 kd allergens by microsequencing and evaluation of their content during storage and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, L S; Moos, M; Lin, Y

    1995-12-01

    Patients with tree pollinosis frequently report allergic reactions after ingestion of apples. The severity of apple allergy has been related to the variety of apples and their degree of maturity. To generate a serum pool that is representative of various IgE-binding patterns of apple-allergic sera, serum samples from 34 patients allergic to tree pollens were screened. Only 24 serum samples reacted to the apple extract. Pooled serum was used to identify allergens in apples. An efficient and consistent extraction method for apple fruits was used to compare the immunoreactivities of extracts of different varieties (McIntosh, Red Delicious, Granny Smith, and Golden Delicious) of freshly picked and store-purchased apples. We found that Golden Delicious apples had the greatest amount of the 18 kd allergen, which has been reported to be a potent IgE-binding apple allergen. Store-purchased apples contained higher concentrations of the 18 kd allergen than freshly picked apples. In our study only 37.5% of sera reacted to the 18 kd protein, whereas 75% of the sera reacted to a 31 kd allergen. Other immunoreactive bands in apple extracts included proteins of 50, 38, 16, 14, and 13 kd. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the two major allergens, 18 kd and 31 kd, were determined. These sequences shared approximately 50% identity with disease resistance proteins of various plants or Bet v 1 in birch tree pollens. The appearance of various allergens was also investigated in mature apples during storage. The amount of 18 kd allergen increased significantly when apples were stored at 4 degrees C. However, under controlled atmospheric conditions in which oxygen- and carbon dioxide-induced ripening were regulated, the amount of 18 kd allergen remained unaffected. Because ripening and maturation were not associated with increases in 18 kd allergen content, the observed changes might be induced by factors related to disease resistance.

  12. Verifying apple cider plant sanitation and hazard analysis critical control point programs: choice of indicator bacteria and testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, M M; Ingham, S C; Ingham, B H

    1999-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the survival of coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci in refrigerated apple cider; (ii) to develop simple and inexpensive presumptive methods for detection of these bacteria; (iii) to perform a field survey to determine the prevalence of these bacteria on apples and in apple cider; and (iv) based on our results, to recommend the most useful of these three indicator groups for use in verifying apple cider processing plant sanitation and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) programs. Eight of 10 coliform strains (5 E. coli, 1 Enterobacter aerogenes, and 2 Klebsiella spp.) inoculated into preservative-free apple cider (pH 3.4, 13.3(o) Brix) survived well at 4 degrees C for 6 days (methods were developed that detected the presence of approximately 10 cells of coliforms or enterococci. In three field studies, samples of unwashed apples (drops and picked), washed apples, and freshly pressed cider were presumptively analyzed for total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci using qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Drop apples were more likely than picked apples to be contaminated with E. coli (26.7% vs. 0%) and enterococci (20% vs. 0%). Washing had little effect on coliform populations and in one field study was associated with increased numbers. Total coliform populations in cider ranged from 738 most probable number/ml, depending on the enumeration method used and the sample origin. E. coli was not recovered from washed apples or cider, but enterococci were present on 13% of washed apple samples. The qualitative coliform method successfully detected these bacteria on apples and in cider. Based on its exclusively fecal origin, good survival in apple cider, and association with drop apples, we conclude that E. coli is the most useful organism for verifying apple cider sanitation and HACCP programs.

  13. Ecohydrological interactions between soil and trees in Alpine apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Daniele; Scandellari, Francesca; Zanotelli, Damiano; Michael, Engel; Tagliavini, Massimo; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Tracer-based investigations of water exchanges between soil and trees in natural forested catchments are receiving relevant attention in modern ecohydrology. However, the interactions between tree water use and the hydrological cycle in agricultural environments are still poorly understood. In this work, we use stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O) and electric conductivity as tracers to improve our understanding of the functional interrelations between water generating surface runoff and recharging groundwater, and water taken up by apple trees (Malus domestica, cv. 'Pinova') in an Alpine valley in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. From April to October 2015 we monitored two orchards approximately of the same size (roughly 400 m2) and soil texture (silt loam) located in a flat area at different distance from the Adige/Etsch River (50 m vs. 450 m). We have addressed the following questions: i) at which soil depth do apple trees take up water? ii) do apple trees take up water from shallow groundwater? iii) are there differences in the isotopic composition of the water fluxes between the two sites? Samples for isotopic analysis were taken approximately fortnightly from the river, two groundwater wells close to each field, mobile soil water (from suction cups at 25 cm and 50 cm), open area precipitation, throughfall, irrigation and sap (through a portable pressure bomb). Tightly-bound soil water was also cryogenically extracted from samples taken every 10 cm from 60 cm-long soil cores taken at three locations for each field on one occasion in mid-summer. Ancillary measurements were electrical conductivity of all water sources except for sap. In addition to meteorological and discharge data, soil moisture was continuously measured at 10 cm and 50 cm in three locations, and sap flow on three trees, for each field. Preliminary results show that two water pools with distinct isotopic signature exist: i) river water, groundwater and irrigation water show values relatively

  14. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  15. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  16. Consumption of both low and high (-)-epicatechin apple puree attenuates platelet reactivity and increases plasma concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasper, A.; Hollands, W.; Casgrain, A.; Saha, S.; Teucher, B.; Dainty, J.R.; Venema, D.P.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that consumption of flavanol-containing apple puree would modulate platelet activity and increase nitric oxide metabolite status, and that high flavanol apple puree would exert a greater effect than low flavanol apple puree. 25 subjects consumed 230 g of apple puree containing 25 and

  17. Comment on “Frequency-domain stimulated and spontaneous light emission signals at molecular junctions” [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, Michael [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Ratner, Mark A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Nitzan, Abraham [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-04-07

    We discuss the derivation of the optical response in molecular junctions presented by U. Harbola et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)], which questions some terms in the theory of Raman scattering in molecular junctions developed in our earlier publications. We show that the terms considered in our theory represent the correct contribution to calculated Raman scattering and are in fact identical to those considered by Harbola et al. We also indicate drawbacks of the presented approach in treating the quantum transport part of the problem.

  18. Comment on “The two dimensional motion of a particle in an inverse square potential: Classical and quantum aspects” [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolbi@nucleares.unam.mx; Chryssomalakos, Chryssomalis, E-mail: chryss@nucleares.unam.mx; Salgado, Marcelo, E-mail: marcelo@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    We comment on a fatal flaw in the analysis contained in the work of Martínez-y-Romero et al., [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)], which concerns the motion of a point particle in an inverse square potential, and show that most conclusions reached there are wrong. In particular, the manifestly senseless claim that, in the attractive potential case, no bounded orbits exist for negative energies, is traced to a sign error. Several more mistakes, both in the classical and the quantum cases, are pointed out.

  19. Comment on “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L. [Università di Milano-INFN, Via Celoria, 16 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    We point out that in the equation for the electron distribution evolution during Thomson/Compton or undulator radiation used in the paper: “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” by G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)], the weight function should be the distribution of the number of emitted photons and not the photon energy distribution. Nevertheless, the considerations expressed in this comment do not alter the conclusions drawn in the paper in object.

  20. Comment on ``Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser'' [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.

    2013-12-01

    We point out that in the equation for the electron distribution evolution during Thomson/Compton or undulator radiation used in the paper: "Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser" by G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)], the weight function should be the distribution of the number of emitted photons and not the photon energy distribution. Nevertheless, the considerations expressed in this comment do not alter the conclusions drawn in the paper in object.

  1. Comment on “Two-dimensional positive column structure in a discharge tube with radius discontinuity” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 113503 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidova, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Division of NLP Technology, INTEPH Technology LLC, Dayton, Ohio 45066 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [Division of NLP Technology, INTEPH Technology LLC, Dayton, Ohio 45066 (United States); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Optics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Saifutdinov, A. I.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Zobnin et al. have published a paper [Phys. Plasmas, 21, 113503 (2014)] on a topic of discharge physics in the presence of a sharp change in cylindrical discharge geometry. In the comment it is pointed out that for untrapped electrons a full kinetic equation, which includes dependences on spatial coordinates and energies, has to be used for the electron velocity distribution function determination. It is also unclear what probe theories Zobnin et al. have used in their paper for the calculation of electron current to the discharge tube wall.

  2. Response to "Comment on 'Rethinking first-principles electron transport theories with projection operators: the problems caused by partitioning the basis set'" [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 177103 (2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Harrison, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    The thesis of Brandbyge's comment [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 177103 (2014)] is that our operator decoupling condition is immaterial to transport theories, and it appeals to discussions of nonorthogonal basis sets in transport calculations in its arguments. We maintain that the operator condition is to be preferred over the usual matrix conditions and subsequently detail problems in the existing approaches. From this operator perspective, we conclude that nonorthogonal projectors cannot be used and that the projectors must be selected to satisfy the operator decoupling condition. Because these conclusions pertain to operators, the choice of basis set is not germane.

  3. Comment on "Communication: Simple and accurate uniform electron gas correlation energy for the full range of densities" [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 021101 (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Karasiev, Valentin V

    2016-01-01

    A simple expression for the uniform electron gas (UEG) correlation energy, recently presented in Ref. [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 021101 (2016)], deviates from the reference quantum Monte-Carlo (QMC) data at large r_s. We propose to define one of the parameters from a requirement to match the large-rs QMC data. Functional with the new parameter provides much better agreement with the QMC data at large r_s without deterioration of the functional quality at small and intermediate r_s.

  4. Near-infrared multispectral scattering for assessing internal quality of apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu

    2004-03-01

    Firmness and sweetness are key quality attributes that determine the acceptability of apple fruit to the consumer. The objective of this research was to investigate a multispectral imaging system for simultaneous acquisition of multispectral scattering images from apple fruit to predict firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A circular broadband light beam was used to generate light backscattering at the surface of apple fruit and scattering images were acquired, using a common aperture multispectral imaging system, from Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apple fruit for wavelengths at 680, 880, 905, and 940 nm. Scattering images were radially averaged to produce one-dimensional spectral scattering profiles, which were then input into a backpropagation neural network for predicting apple fruit firmness and SSC. It was found that the neural network performed best when 10 neurons and 20 epochs were used. With inputing three ratios of spectral profiles involving all four wavelengths, the neural network gave firmness predictions with the correlation (r) of 0.76 and the standard error for validation (SEV) of 6.2 N for Red Delicious apples and r=0.73 and SEV=8.9 N for Golden Delicious apples. Relatively good SSC predictions were obtained for both varieties with SEV=0.9° Brix.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted extraction, HPLC analysis, and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from unripe apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tianli; Shao, Dongyan; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Zhouli; Qiang, Chunyan

    2012-08-01

    The polyphenols were extracted from the unripe apple assisted by a highly efficient and simple method of the ultrasound. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of processing parameters, including ultrasound power, extraction time, temperature, and ethanol concentration on total polyphenols yield and polyphenols composition was analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity of the polyphenols was evaluated as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl scavenging activity and inhibition activity of lipid peroxidation. The results showed that 10-100 times higher total polyphenols yield was obtained from the unripe apple than those from the reported apple pomace. The optimum extraction conditions were ultrasonic power of 519.39 W, extraction time of 30 min, extraction temperature 50°C, ethanol concentration of 50% gave the total polyphenols yield of 13.26 ± 0.56 mg GAE/g. HPLC analysis indicated that (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2, chlorogenic acid, and procyanidin B1 were the predominant polyphenols in unripe apple, which contributed to the higher antioxidant activity to 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl of unripe apple polyphenols than other apple polyphenols. The extracted polyphenols had higher ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation than butylated hydroxy toluene, which demonstrated that the unripe apple polyphenols have the potential to be used as a substitute of some synthetic antioxidants.

  6. Polyphenolic Compound and the Degree of Browning in Processing Apple Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ye; YAO Yu-xin; ZHAI Heng; DU Yuan-peng; CHEN Feng; WEI Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    Polyphenolic compound in processing apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) varieties and the relationship between polyphenol content and enzymatic browning were studied to provide reference for raw material selection and processing method optimization. The content of polyphenol compound in 10 processing apple varieties (4 cider and 6 juice varieties) were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and HPLC. The degree of browning and the activities of polyphenol oxidase were also studied. The content and proportion of the polyphenol varied depending on the variety. Bitter varieties globally showed a higher polyphenol concentration than sweet or acid varieties. Proanthocyanidins, chlorogenic acid,(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin were high-concentrated polyphenols in apple fruits. Phloridzin, the unique polyphenol of apple, was abundant in the bitter variety Frequin rouge fruit. Total polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, (+)-catechin, and phloridzin had higher correlations with browning. The correlation was low between chlorogenic acid and browning. The polyphenolic profiles were correlated with the apple types. Cider apples contained more polyphenol than juice apple varieties. The content of flavan-3-ol has a close relationship with fruit browning.

  7. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Biao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  8. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. PMID:27918417

  9. Identification of Fusarium species isolated from stored apple fruit in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Zdravka; Ivić, Dario; Kos, Tomislav; Miličević, Tihomir

    2012-12-01

    Several species of the genus Fusarium can cause apple fruit to rot while stored. Since Fusarium taxonomy is very complex and has constantly been revised and updated over the last years, the aim of this study was to identify Fusarium species from rotten apples, based on combined morphological characteristics and molecular data. We identified 32 Fusarium isolates from rotten apple fruit of cultivars Golden Delicious, Jonagold, Idared, and Pink Lady, stored in Ultra Low Oxygen (ULO) conditions. Fusarium rot was detected in 9.4 % to 33.2 % of naturally infected apples, depending on the cultivar. The symptoms were similar in all four cultivars: a soft circular brown necrosis of different extent, with or without visible sporulation. Fusarium species were identified by the morphology of cultures grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA). Twenty one isolates were identified as Fusarium avenaceum and confirmed as such with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pair FA-ITSF and FA-ITSR. F. pseudograminearum,F. semitectum, F. crookwellense, and F. compactum were identified by morphological characteristics. F.avenaceum can produce several mycotoxins and its dominance in Fusarium rot points to the risk of mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and other products for human consumption. Pathogenicity tests showed typical symptoms of Fusarium rot in most of the inoculated wounded apple fruits. In this respect Fusarium avenaceum, as the dominant cause of Fusarium rot in stored apple fruits is a typical wound parasite.

  10. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple.

  11. Effects of apple cider vinegars produced with different techniques on blood lipids in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Nilgun H; Kumbul Doguc, Duygu; Savas, Cagri M; Seydim, Atif C; Kok Tas, Tugba; Ciris, Metin I; Guzel-Seydim, Zeynep B

    2011-06-22

    Red delicious apples were used to produce natural apple cider with and without inclusion of maceration. Traditional surface and industrial submersion methods were then applied to make vinegar from apple ciders. Apple cider vinegar samples produced with inclusion of maceration in the surface method had the highest total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, ORAC, and TEAC levels. Cholesterol and apple vinegar samples were administered using oral gavage to all groups of rats except the control group. Apple cider vinegars, regardless of the production method, decreased triglyceride and VLDL levels in all groups when compared to animals on high-cholesterol diets without vinegar supplementation. Apple cider vinegars increased total cholesterol and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased liver function tests when compared to animals on a high-cholesterol diet without vinegar supplementation. A high-cholesterol diet resulted in hepatic steatosis. VSBM and VSB groups significantly decreased steatosis.

  12. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  13. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cornille

    Full Text Available The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica, on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  14. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  15. 浅析Apple Watch取证技术与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨; 王朝

    2016-01-01

    随着移动互联网技术的日益发展,移动智能终端已经能够代替计算机处理很多日常应用,而目前智能手表中最炙手可热的就是Apple Watch。本文首先对Apple Watch作了简要介绍,然后较详细的阐述了Apple Watch取证以及取证过程中应注意的问题。

  16. Apple Watch产业链看健康大数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Apple Watch已经送往美国医药管理局FDA医疗认证,代表设备未来可能介入医疗环节,替代部分检测仪器,配合医院提供医疗级别的检测服务,协助人们进行日常生活健康的管理。大数据支撑健康服务产业Apple Watch及其背后的庞大商业服务前景想象空间很大。Apple Watch+iPhone/iPad

  17. Owning the consumer: getting to the core of the Apple Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a business model framework to analyze the main limitations of Apple Inc. post-2003, a significant turning point in the company’s history. As such we move beyond an exclusive focus on what makes Apple unique or different by evaluating the mundane and out-dated elements of its business model. To do this we examine the end-to-end supply chain, from source to store, in order to put forward a more holistic evaluation of the Apple business model. Drawing on the existing business mod...

  18. Owning the consumer - getting to the core of the Apple business model

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a business model framework to analyze the main limitations of Apple Inc. post-2003, a significant turning point in the company's history. As such, we move beyond an exclusive focus on what makes Apple unique or different by evaluating the mundane and out-dated elements of its business model. To do so, we examine the end-to-end supply chain, from source to store, to present a more holistic evaluation of the Apple business model. Drawing on the existing literature, we argue that...

  19. Control of enzymatic browning in apple slices by using ascorbic acid under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shimi, N M

    1993-01-01

    Control of phenol oxidase activity in apple slices by the use of ascorbic acid at different pH values, temperature and time of incubation was investigated. The enzyme was almost inactivated at 1% and 1.5% ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid solution (1%) caused a remarkable inhibition with the increasing acidity up to pH = 1. Heating treatments for apple slices dipped in 1% ascorbic acid caused a reduction of enzymatic browning, optimum temperature for inactivation of the enzyme was between 60-70 degrees C for 15 minutes. Increasing the time of dipping apple slices in 1% ascorbic acid solutions and at different pH values reduce phenolase activity.

  20. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...... versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples...

  1. Effect of strategic irrigation on infection of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Strategic irrigation is a method to prevent Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis). It is performed by irrigating the orchard floor in dry periods during spring, 24 hours before rain forecast. Irrigating the old leaves on the orchard floor will elicit the release of ascospores, but due to the dry trees....... Apple scab on fruit and leaves was reduced by strategic irrigation in ‘Elshof’ at the University field in both years. In the organic orchard the strategic irrigation reduced the infection of leaves by apple scab and Elsinoe leaf and fruit spot in some cultivars and some years. Studies of the ejection...

  2. Nutritional Composition of Different Varieties of Apple Purees Sweetened with Green and White Stevia Powder

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of apple purees of four different apple varieties: ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Idared’, ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Cripps Pink’, in the fresh state (FP) and after thermal treatment by process of pasteurization with added green (PG) or white stevia powder (PW) derived from the leaves of the stevia plant. Also, to determine whether there is a significant influence of sweetening with stevia on the change of analyzed nutritional parameters of appl...

  3. Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar tablets and subsequent evaluation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura L; Woodruff, Logan H; Foote, Jerald C; Barreto-Alcoba, Morela

    2005-07-01

    Apple cider vinegar products are advertised in the popular press and over the Internet for treatment of a variety of conditions. After an adverse event was reported to the authors, eight apple cider vinegar tablet products were tested for pH, component acid content, and microbial growth. Considerable variability was found between the brands in tablet size, pH, component acid content, and label claims. Doubt remains as to whether apple cider vinegar was in fact an ingredient in the evaluated products. The inconsistency and inaccuracy in labeling, recommended dosages, and unsubstantiated health claims make it easy to question the quality of the products.

  4. Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum Metabolites Produced during Wet Apple Core Rot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined...... in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5...

  5. Leading Apple with Steve Jobs management lessons from a controversial genius

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A former Senior VP of Apple shares how Steve Jobs motivated people to do the best work of their lives Jay Elliot was hired personally by Steve Jobs, just in time to accompany him on the last of his historic visits to Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center, the visits that changed the course of computing. As Senior VP of Apple, Jay served as Steve's right-hand man and trouble-shooter, overseeing all corporate operations and business planning, as well as software development and HR. In Leading Apple with Steve Jobs, Jay details how Steve managed and motivated his people-and what every manager can lea

  6. Impact analysis of different chemical pre-treatments on colour of apple discs during drying process

    OpenAIRE

    D. Magdić; Lukinac, Jasmina; Jokić, Stela; Čačić-Kenjerić, F.; Bilić, M.; Velić, D.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare colour changes of chemically pre-treated dried apple discs. Changes were observed by chromameter in L*a*b* colour model by using Minolta chromameter CR-400 and by image analysis system in RGB colour model. Apple discs variety "Gold Rush" were pre-treated and dried in laboratory tray drier at drying temperature 70 °C and at airflow velocity of 1.5 ms-1. Different chemical pre-treatments were applied on apple discs (dipping in 0.5% ascorbic acid sol...

  7. Ubiquitous distribution and different subcellular localization of sorbitol dehydrogenase in fruit and leaf of apple

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (NAD-SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), a key enzyme in sorbitol metabolism, plays an important role in regulating sink strength and determining the quality of apple fruit. Understanding the tissue and subcellular localization of NAD-SDH is helpful for understanding sorbitol metabolism in the apple. In this study, two NAD-SDH cDNA sequences were isolated from apple fruits (Malus domestica Borkh cv. Starkrimson) and named MdSDH5 and MdSDH6. Immunohistochemical analysis re...

  8. Response to "Comment on 'A model for phosphate glass topology considering the modifying ion sub-network"' [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 107103 (2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Christian; Mauro, John C; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-03-14

    In our recent paper [C. Hermansen, J. C. Mauro, and Y.-Z. Yue, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 154501 (2014)], we applied temperature-dependent constraint theory to model the glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid fragility index (m) of alkali phosphate glasses. Sidebottom commented on this paper concerning the m values obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) [D. L. Sidebottom, J. Chem. Phys. 142, ⬛ (2015)]. We have considered Sidebottom's comments carefully and conclude that the m values of phosphate liquids obtained by DSC are reliable, except for the NaPO3 and possibly P2O5 compositions. Based on his dynamic light scattering measurements, Sidebottom has found that P2O5 is a strong liquid with m ≈ 20. However, based on the heat capacity jump at Tg and the stretching exponent of the relaxation function, P2O5 should be classified as an intermediate fragile liquid with m ≈ 40. We also argue that m cannot be universally related to the average connectivity of the network and point out several inconsistencies with this view.

  9. Choice probability for apple juice based on novel processing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Menichelli, E.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2011-01-01

    and pulsed electric field (PEF) juice are compared with their probability of choice for pasteurized juice and freshly produced apple juice, and consumer choices are tried explained by values and consequences generated from a MEC study. The study support, at least partly, that means-end chain structures’ have......, within the core of academic consumer research, MEC has been almost ignored. One plausible explanation for this lack of interest may be that studies linking MEC data to choice have been few. In this study, we are to investigate how values and consequences generated from a previous MEC study structure can...... be linked to likelihood of choice. Hypotheses about European consumers’ likelihood of choice for novel processed juice are stated and tested in a rating based conjoint study in Norway, Denmark, Hungary and Slovakia. In the study, consumers probability of choice for high pressure processed (HPP) juice...

  10. APPLE - An aeroelastic analysis system for turbomachines and propfans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, Oral

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews aeroelastic analysis methods for propulsion elements (advanced propellers, compressors and turbines) being developed and used at NASA Lewis Research Center. These aeroelastic models include both structural and aerodynamic components. The structural models include the typical section model, the beam model with and without disk flexibility, and the finite element blade model with plate bending elements. The aerodynamic models are based on the solution of equations ranging from the two-dimensional linear potential equation for a cascade to the three-dimensional Euler equations for multi-blade configurations. Typical results are presented for each aeroelastic model. Suggestions for further research are indicated. All the available aeroelastic models and analysis methods are being incorporated into a unified computer program named APPLE (Aeroelasticity Program for Propulsion at LEwis).

  11. The occurrence of postharvest diseases on apples resistant to scab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bryk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of storage diseases on fruit of seven scab resistant apple cultivars (Freedom, Rajka, Topaz, Rubinola, Enterprise, Goldstar, GoldRush grafted on M.9 was investigated in 2001-2005. The trees were planted in 1995. It was found that after storage (4 and 6 months at 2°C, 85-90% RH the most severe appeared to be bull's eye rot (Pezicula spp.. The most sensitive cultivars to this disease were: Topaz, Freedom, Goldstar, the least sensitive were Rubinola, Enterprise, Rajka. Other postharvest diseases like gray mold (Botrytis cinerea, blue mold (Penicillium expansum and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena were not common. 'Rajka' and 'Goldstar' were susceptible to bitter pit, and 'Freedom' to superficial scald.

  12. Apple hypanthium firmness: New insights from comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2012-06-26

    Fruit firmness constitutes an important textural property and is one of the key parameters for estimating ripening and shelf life, which has a major impact on commercialization. In order to decipher the mechanisms related to firmness of apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to compare the total proteome of high and low firmness phenotypes from apple hypanthia of a \\'Golden Delicious\\' × \\'Dietrich\\' population. A total of 36 differentially regulated protein spots were positively identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and then validated against the Malus expressed sequence tags (EST) database. The findings of this study indicated a lower expression of ethylene biosynthesis related proteins in the high firmness phenotype, which could be linked to the slowing down of the ripening and softening processes. The reduced accumulation of proteins involved in ethylene biosynthesis juxtaposed to the upregulation of a transposase and a GTP-binding protein in the high firmness phenotype. The results also showed higher expression of cytoskeleton proteins in the high firmness phenotype compared to the low firmness phenotype, which play a role in maintaining cell structure and possibly fruit integrity. Finally, a number of proteins involved in detoxification and defense were expressed in fruit hypanthium. This proteomic study provides a contribution towards a better understanding of regulatory networks involved in fruit hypanthium firmness and/or softening, which could be instrumental in the development of improved fruit quality. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Nutritional Diagnosis for Apple by DRIS, CND and DOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study derived and compared norms for apple, using the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS, Compositional Nutrient Diagnosis (CND and deviation form optimum percentage (DOP diagnose methods in the Weibei Loess Plateau, Shaanxi Province, China. A total of 68 leaf samples were collected from apple trees grown in Huangshan soils. The nutritional status was diagnosed by the DRIS, CND and DOP methods. The CND norms expressed as row-centered log ratios (mean±standard deviation for d = 5 nutrients for the high-yield subpopulation (producing more than 46.67 t/ha were: VN*= 0.998±0.066, VP* = -1.499±0.124, VK* = -0.189±0.283, Vca* = 0.217±0.213, VMg* = -1.035±0.267, VR5 * = 1.508±0.144. The optimum ranges for leaf nutrient concentrations were: N = 27.23±1.79 g/kg, P = 2.26±0.32 g/kg, K = 8.63±2.50 g/kg, Ca = 12.73±2.66 g/kg, Mg = 3.71±1.12 g/kg, R5 = 45.44±3.95 g/kg. The regression relating CND to DRIS and DOP indices were significant linear. There was a multinomial regression equation between CND r2 and DRIS NBI, also between CND r2 and ∑DOP. This study showed that the differences in CND, DRIS and DOP approaches did not lead to large differences in identified deficiencies. So, CND may in practice still be the preferred approach since multivariate methods could be further explored to assess nutrient status in plants, but people can choose any approach they want use since they had the similar evaluation result.

  14. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards.

  15. Determination of Total Triterpenoids of Different Apple Varieties in Apple Peel and Apple Flesh%不同品种苹果果皮和果肉中总三萜含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志华; 宋晓凯; 赵艳敏; 刘岱琳

    2014-01-01

    To establish a method for the determination of total triterpenoids from apple peel and apple flesh by folin-ciocalteu colorimetry. With ursolic acid as reference substance, total triterpenoids of apple peel and apple flesh from different apple varieties was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry method. The linear equation was y=0.007x-0.035(R2=0.999 3), and the calibration curve was linear in the range of 21μg-136μg. The average recovery was 100.32 %. The content of total triterpenoids in apple peel and apple flesh of different cultivars were in the range of 13.2 mg/g-23.9 mg/g and 8.0 mg/g-15.0 mg/g respectively. The method is simple and reliable, also had the advantages of stableness and repeatability,and can be used to detect the content of apple total triterpenoids.%建立测定苹果中总三萜含量的方法。以熊果酸为标准品,用紫外-可见分光光度法测定不同品种苹果果皮和果肉中总三萜的含量。熊果酸的质量在21μg~136μg范围内与吸光度呈良好的线性关系,线性回归方程为y=0.007x-0.035(R2=0.9993),平均回收率为100.32%。不同品种苹果果皮的总三萜的含量范围为13.2 mg/g~23.9 mg/g,苹果果肉的总三萜的含量范围为8.0 mg/g~15.0 mg/g。该方法简单、可靠、稳定性好、重复性高,可用于苹果中功能营养成分总三萜含量的检测。

  16. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  17. Fabrication of a Mechanically Robust Carbon Nanofiber Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    seal. 8 Both mold inlet and outlet connections were created using Swagelok brand 1/4th inch fittings. The fittings were arranged to enable the...piece of stainless steel shim (Trinity Brand Industries, Inc., Part No. 6316–4) that ran the length of the main chamber inlets and is shown in Figure...2006. [10] W. Hung et al., “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microstructures from multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl . Phys. Lett., vol. 91, p

  18. Compressive Response of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Films Gleaned from in Situ Flat-Punch Indentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-14

    individual multiwalled carbon nano - tubes using nanoindentation. Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103109 (2005). 8. S. Pathak, Z.G. Cambaz, S.R. Kalidindi, J.G...between the tubes (van der Waals ) is thought to balance the bending strain energy of their arrangement, resulting in a stable low energy configuration...bundles: An in situ study. ACS Nano 6(3), 2189–2197 (2012). 10. M. Kumar and Y. Ando: Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes: A review on growth

  19. Unclassified Publications of Lincoln Laboratory. Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-15

    J.N. Walpole (1982), DTIC AD-A121779 structure Laser Fabrication 5319 Microsecond Carrier Lifetimes B-Y. Tsaur Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 83 in Si Films...57071 Laser Fabrication of Micro- D.J. Ehrlich In Laser Diagnostics and structures: Effect of Geometrical J.Y. Tsao Photochemical Processing Scaling...SCANNING JA-5383 JA-5315 LASER FABRICATION LASER SOURCES MS-57071 JA-5355, JA-5410 LASER IMAGING LASER SPECTROSCOPY JA-5379 JA-5324, MS-5653 92 Subject

  20. Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire

    OpenAIRE

    Vo-Van, Chi; Kimouche, Amina; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Fruchart, Olivier; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Bendiab, Nedjma; Coraux, Johann

    2011-01-01

    To appear in Appl. Phys. Lett.; International audience; Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir films a few nanometers thick which were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire wafers. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown by diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Their structural quality is as high as that of graphene produced on Ir bulk single crystals, \\textit{i....