WorldWideScience

Sample records for appetizers

  1. Neurofunctional areas related to food appetency in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juán José Cervantes-Navarrete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Anorexia Nervosa the observable phenomenon is the suppression of appetite. Little is known about the biological and psychological (top-down bases that maintain this pathological state. However, Anorexia Nervosa is a biological, psychological and social model where the main behavioral characteristic is the inhibition of eating behavior; not by bottom-up but top-down regulation. Objective: To explore the areas of the brain associated with food appetency through functional magnetic resonance in women with anorexia nervosa. Methods: The subjects include 5 female with Restrictive type of Anorexia Nervosa and five controls female with similar in age and low weigh. The subjects were within the MRI scanner and while took fMRI they saw food images that would generate appetite. The subjects were in fasting state and mentally prepare by instruction “imagine you are eating the food presented in the following images”. Results: Compared differences in the activation between subjects four regions were found significant: the anterior cingulate, left front medial region and the left and right midbrain. Conclusions: The patients with Anorexia Nervosa present different activated cerebral areas to those of the controls during the visual exposition to food in hungry state and with evoke cognitions associated with eat food; those regions may be implicated in reward and self-control.

  2. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  3. Appetency and Destruction Analysis of Pequod' s Sink in Moby Dick%欲望与毁灭——解读《白鲸》中“披谷德号”的沉没

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵慧杰

    2012-01-01

    《白鲸》是19世纪美国著名小说家赫尔曼·梅尔维尔的主要作品之一。自问世以来深受评论界的关注,其蕴含的深刻内涵和现实意义一直以来都是人们研究的热点。本文通过对小说中捕鲸船披谷德号的悲剧成因进行分析,阐述人性在这一悲剧中扮演的角色。对这一悲剧分析,可以帮助我们在经济高速发展的当代社会正确对待自身的欲望,处理好欲望与人自身的关系。%Moby Dick is one of the masterpieces of Herman Melville. For its great realistic significance, it has gained lots of attention since it was published. This essay probes into the effect of humanity in Pequod' s destruction. Pequod' s tragic end shows that people should tread human appetency properly. Peqoud, as a whaler, bears the weight of many different kinds of human appeteney which are unavoidably to be accomplished. Meanwhile, to cater for the appetency, the ship launches out desperately and sinks to the bottom of the sea at last.

  4. The appetizing and satiating effects of odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim

    Unhealthy eating habits such as unhealthy food choices or overeating increase the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how separate factors, such as sensory processes, influence our eating b

  5. 白术茯苓汤及水煎液提取分离组分对脾气虚大鼠血管活性肠肽受体亲和力的影响%Effect of Baizhu Fuling Decoction and its separative components extracted from water solution on VIP-R appetency of rats with spleen Qi deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢磊; 贾波; 罗云波; 祝捷; 彭成; 彭腾; 张丰华; 欧晓红

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察白术茯苓汤及其水煎液提取分离组分对脾气虚大鼠血管活性肠肽(VIP)受体亲和力的影响.方法:以耗气破气加饥饱失常法复制脾气虚大鼠模型,采用放射性配基结合分析法检测各组VIP受体最大结合容量(RT)和受体亲和常数(Kd).结果:各组RT无统计学差异;与空白组比较,模型组Kd值升高(P<0.01);与模型组比较,总多糖、络合物组Kd值呈下降趋势,白术内酯Ⅲ组Kd值呈升高趋势,但皆无统计学意义;白术茯苓汤组、组分配伍组Kd值显著降低(P<0.05).结论:白术茯苓汤及组分配伍组能提高VIP受体亲和力;不同组分对Kd的效应具有一定差异性,配伍则显示可能具有协同增效作用.%Objective: To observe the effects of Baizhu Fuling decoction and its separative components extracted from water solution on VIP-R appetency of rats with Spleen Qi deficiency. Methods: To copy the models of rats with spleen Qi deficiency with the method of exhaustion, dissipating stagnant Qi and irregular diet, radioactive ligands combination analysis was used to test each groups RT and Kd of receptor affinity of VIP. Results: RT value in all groups had no significant difference. Compared with blank group, Kd value in model group was higher(P<0.01). Compared with model group, Kd value of high dosage total polysaccharide, complex compound group was on a declining curve, while its value of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae lactone I high dosage group was of rising tendency, which were no significant difference.Baizhu fuling decoction and high dosage group of component compatibility could lower Kd Value(P<0.05). Conclusion: Baizhu fuling decoction and component compatibility group could raise receptor affinity of VIP; Kd effects of different groups possessed differentiation, and compatibility probably had synergistic effect.

  6. Inducing Negative Affect Increases the Reward Value of Appetizing Foods in Dieters

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Boswell, Rebecca G.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2012-01-01

    Experiencing negative affect frequently precedes lapses in self-control for dieters, smokers, and drug addicts. Laboratory research has similarly shown that inducing negative emotional distress increases the consumption of food or drugs. One hypothesis for this finding is that emotional distress sensitizes the brain’s reward system to appetitive stimuli. Using functional neuroimaging, we demonstrate that inducing negative affect in chronic dieters increases activity in brain regions represent...

  7. Photoelectrochemical splitting of water to produce a power appetizer Hydrogen: A green system for future –( A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet the future energy demand, Hydrogen has been accepted as a fuel for future. Out of several renewable methods to produce hydrogen, solar assisted splitting of water (Photoelectrochemical splitting of water is emerging as a most desired method to produce hydrogen which is a advancement of Photovoltaic process. However, the efficiency of PEC cell is a matter of concern. Various strategies have been adopted by different researchers to increase the efficiency of the system especially using nanotechnology as a tool. In this article, attempts have been made to summarise different approaches applied to obtain effective and viable photoelectrochemical system for splitting water to obtain hydrogen an energy carrier.

  8. 主智与化欲--张东荪对理智与人欲的安置%To Promote the Intellect and to Subdue the Appetencies——Zhang Dongsun's arrangsment of the intellect and the appetency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秋丽

    2003-01-01

    根据对20世纪初中国社会现状的观察与分析,张东荪借鉴西方层创进化论、精神分析学等观点对中国传统人生哲学进行了尝试性重建,提出了"主智的"、"化欲的"人生观,以引导人们过一种理性的生活,从而解决当时理智初醒带来的社会流弊及中国社会"推""挽"失调的问题.他的主张为人们提供了处理理智与人欲关系问题的一种可能性方式.

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity of Hypnosis Effects on Gastric Myoelectrical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Enck; Jochen Hefner; Herbert, Beate M.; Nazar Mazurak; Katja Weimer; Muth, Eric R.; Stephan Zipfel; Ute Martens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. Design: Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrog...

  10. Application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) in monitoring of terrestrial habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Strandberg, Beate; Bak, Jesper Leth

    2015-01-01

    I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data” that are......I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data...

  11. Carved Plums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    COMING from Dali of YunnanProvince where millions of Baiethnic people live in compactcommunities,carved plums,(or Baicarved plums),have a harvesthistory of more than one thousandyears.They are tasty,great thirst-quenchers and fine appetizers. Eryuan County plums are the

  12. aromaticus: Its Development and Shelf Life Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant rich products are valued due to their health benefits and appetizers are required in several pathological and geographical stress situations such as prolonged exposure to altitude. The paper deals with the development of a shelf stable RTE (ready-to-eat antioxidant rich herbal appetizer convenient to the consumer. Using ginger and Karpurvalli (Coleus aromaticus as two independent variables, a central composite design with 13 experimental combinations was obtained. These combinations were processed by concentration and dehydration into the appetizer RTE munches using preprocessed ingredients and evaluated for antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and sensory characteristics. The product optimized using Design Expert Statistical Software had the proximate composition of 11.4% fat, 2.3% protein, and 75.0% carbohydrates, supplying about 82.36 Kcals per munch of 20 g. The munches packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf life of 10 months at 28 ± 5°C as well as 37°C storage. The RTE appetizer based on Coleus aromaticus was developed with excellent sensory properties and shelf stability.

  13. Packaging & Other Structures. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Gary

    This book explores all kinds of packaging materials including bags, boxes, etc. and how they are used to protect and display products. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of packaging and structures; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for…

  14. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Park Hyatt Beijing All You Can Eat Weekend Kitchen Party at IFW Every weekend and public holiday,enjoy an all-you-can-eat menu featuring more than 48 delectable appetizers,rice,noodles,dump-lings,stir-fry and desserts served with free-flowing

  15. The Outsourcing Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack-Min, Joetta

    2008-01-01

    It sounds tempting, especially in tough fiscal times: Hand over all the responsibility for food service management to a private company promising to provide nutritious and appetizing meals, keep up with increasingly complex regulations, and perhaps even make a profit. Privatization, or outsourcing, has worked well for some districts for years, but…

  16. Appetite in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite is defined as ‘a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food’. The counterpart of appetite is satiety, which is the state of satisfaction that follows after the need for food is fulfilled. However, palatable food can be appetizing in the absence of hunger and people may eng

  17. Hvad er hjemkundskabslæreren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2009-01-01

        En appetizer: De praktisk-musiske fag på dagsordenen Temaet for denne artikel er hjemkundskabsfaget, -professionen og dens praktisering belyst gennem et interviewstudie fra 2008 af lærerstuderende og deres lærere. Dette studie relateres til forfatterens tidligere studie af fag og profession i...

  18. Function and organization of dustbathing in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liere, van D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Dustbathing in laying hens ( Gallus gallus domesticus ) serves to remove excessive feather lipids which accumulate and become stale during dust deprivation. In addition and probably as a consequence of lipid removal the fluffiness of the downy feather parts is enhanced. A dustbath consists of appet

  19. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  20. Mapping. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neujahr, James L.; Benenson, Gary

    This book focuses on the understanding and development of graphical representations of physical spaces. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of mapping; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for mapping and graphical representation development; (3)…

  1. A New Cultivation-Evolution Technology of Accident Immune Function for a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhenhong; Zhang Xuhua; Wang Xiangyao; Wang Zhihu; Liu Yan; Zhang Xuan

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of developing an immune function on production accidents in a petrochemical enterprise, a new cultivation-evolution approach of preventive mechanism is suggested by analyzing various factors relating to immune deficiency syndrome and by referring to immunity genetic algorithm and relevant concepts applied in medicine science. Accident-immunity system for highly hazardous petrochemical enterprise, which is made up of its productive system's Safety Organ and Safety Organization, is typically an evolution-cultivation progress for immune function, The new B immune cell is generated after several layers' screening, clone expanding, receptor editing, organizing in immune system of work accident in petrochemical enterprise. There is a B immune cell with high appetency and a manipulative function chain for accident-immunity. Taking the antigen of accidents in industry as the target function and the immune antibody as the solution, the authors carried out a computation diagram for prediction of appetency between the antigen and antibody.

  2. Estudio del enriquecimiento de manzana con prebióticos, probióticos y componentes antioxidantes provenientes de zumo de mandarina por impregnación a vacío para el desarrollo de aperitivos altamente funcionales y con bajo contenido calórico

    OpenAIRE

    BETALLELUZ PALLARDEL, INDIRA MILAGROS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The present research is framed in the development of two proposals of appetizers as alternatives to existing commercial products, some with negative consequences for health. In a first stage, we studied the feasibility of the vacuum impregnation (IV) technique to incorporate oligofructose (Orafti P95) in apple (var. Granny Smith); and, in a second stage, developed a symbiotic juice from mandarin with oligofructose and inoculated with Lactobacillus salivarius spp salivarius for incorporat...

  3. Potential Transmission of Human Fascioliasis Through Traditional Local Foods, in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, K; MA Valero; K Forghan-Parast; M Rezaeian; SJ Shahtaheri; MR Hadiani; Bargues MD; S Mas-Coma

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of infective metacercariae, attached to watercress or other various species of water and terrestrial plants, has been implicated as the main source of human contamination by fasciolid flukes. Presence of several species of aromatic wild grown plants, which are eaten fresh on the table or used for preparation of some plant-made foods (Delar, mixture of salt and ground local plants, as a paste and Zeitoon-Parvardeh , olives in walnut sauce, as an appetizer) have been suggested to play...

  4. Food-pics : an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Jens eBlechert; Adrian eMeule; Busch, Niko A.; Kathrin eOhla

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food i...

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) a...

  6. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntal Ghosh; Baghel, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral), Aphrodisiac (vrishya), Appetizer (dipana); used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta), Purpura (Raktapitta), Emaciation (Kshaya), Mental disorder (Chetovikara), etc. In the present stud...

  7. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C.G.; Stancak, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation under...

  8. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hilton Beijing Wangfujing Showcasing an array of brunch favorites and international selections, complemented by a free flow of premium champagne, Beijing’s newest champagne brunch-"fizztastic"-offers a culinary discovery and hint of the forbidden at Penta Dining Haven, the fifth floor collection of restaurants and bars at Hilton Beijing Wangfujing every Sunday starting on September 13. Titillate the palate of your family and friends with the appetizing selection of brunch traditions

  9. 摂食障害患者における発症状況分類とその特徴についての検討

    OpenAIRE

    大村, 慶子

    1999-01-01

    The author examined groups of patients with eating disorders classified according to onset situation,and discussed the clinical features of each group. Forty-one female patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria were studied. The patients were classified into 3 types:diet, appetite loss and bulimic types. There were 25 patients in the diet type. The onset was dieting behavior. There were 10 patients in the appetite loss type. The onset was involuntary appet...

  10. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith: A Review of Its Ethnomedicinal, Chemical, and Pharmacological Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Yob, N. J.; S. Mohd. Jofrry; M. M. R. Meor Mohd. Affandi; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Zakaria, Z. A.

    2011-01-01

    Zingiber zerumbet Sm., locally known to the Malay as “Lempoyang,” is a perennial herb found in many tropical countries, including Malaysia. The rhizomes of Z. zerumbet, particularly, have been regularly used as food flavouring and appetizer in various Malays' cuisines while the rhizomes extracts have been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments (e.g., inflammatory- and pain-mediated diseases, worm infestation and diarrhea). Research carried out using different in...

  11. Influence of cyproheptadine on clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sheshadri Shekar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The cyproheptadine a drug used as appetizer has the ability to elevate testosterone levels; it has also protected the testis from clomipramine induced damage. The sexual behaviour of the rats which were under treatment with clomipramine was also restored partially in TD and 2TD whereas the rats which were under and frac12; TD clmp treatment were restored to normal. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1359-1365

  12. Fetishizing Food in Digital Age: #foodporn Around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Mejova, Yelena; Abbar, Sofiane; Haddadi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    What food is so good as to be considered pornographic? Worldwide, the popular #foodporn hashtag has been used to share appetizing pictures of peoples' favorite culinary experiences. But social scientists ask whether #foodporn promotes an unhealthy relationship with food, as pornography would contribute to an unrealistic view of sexuality. In this study, we examine nearly 10 million Instagram posts by 1.7 million users worldwide. An overwhelming (and uniform across the nations) obsession with ...

  13. RESTAURANT & BAR INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Home of the Finest Belgian Cuisine Morel's Western Restaurant, in a blend of Belgian and French cuisines, is the best choice for a European dining experience. Savor the exotic salad made of green vegetables, mushrooms and smoked salmon, or select a main course of popular Brussels black pepper steak. It will go perfectly with our light, crisp Belgian battercakes as an appetizer! Refresh yourself with our exclusive imported Belgian beers. Of course, other selections on wines and soft drinks will give you a...

  14. 家常菜(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Editor's Note: Since the hot summer is here, Women of China will introduce two dishes——one for an appetizer(cold dish) and one for a main course(hot dish). Sautéed Beef Filet with Black Pepper黑椒牛柳Ingredients:Beef filet(200g),1 onion,1 green pepper, black pepper powder,chili oil,oyster sauce,cooking wine,starch,salt,sugar,chicken essence Preparations:

  15. Turp (Raphanus sativus L.) Sebzesinin Fonksiyonel Gıda Olarak Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    AKAN, S.; VEZİROĞLU, S.; ÖZGÜN, Ö.; ELLİALTIOĞLU, Ş.

    2013-01-01

    In order to be said a food has functional attributes, it will convey to the consumer both the unique characteristics of the food and associated health benefits. Today, species-based researches are making within foods with more micro-level approaches; one of these functional foods is radish. Radish, which has important roles in diet of people, raw-eaten and consumed as appetizer vegetable in meals; has high amount of medical and nutritional content. In this study, results of researches about t...

  16. A dynamical-system picture of a simple branching-process phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops ideas from a previous paper described as `an appetizer for non-linear Wiener--Hopf theory', but is completely independent of that paper. It again considers only the simplest possible case in which the underlying motion of the branching particles is described by a two-state Markov chain. Key generating functions provide solutions of a simple two-dimensional dynamical system, and the main interest is in the way in which Probability Theory and ODE theory complement each other. ODE pictures convey rather strikingly a simple phase transition. No knowledge of either ODE theory or Wiener--Hopf theory is assumed.

  17. Cooking: Cooking practice

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako; Mitreva, Elizabeta; Metodijeski, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    In this book the topic of cooking has been main topic.First products of animal origin has been investigated,than grain and grain products.Cold appetizers have been subject of investigation in the fifth chapter,followed by chapter six in which soups and potages had been introduced.In chapter seven and eight sauces and fish dishes were described.Afterwards beef dishes and national dishes had been introduced.,also vegetarian diet had been subject of interest in the last two chapters.

  18. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not.......Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics...

  19. The umami taste in pigs: L-amino acid preferences and in vitro recognition by the receptor dimer pT1r1/pT1r3 expressed in porcine taste and non-taste tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Tedó Pérez, Maria Gemma

    2009-01-01

    The present work was divided into three main areas of study, (1) the development of a reliable "in vivo" model for double choice (DOCH) testing in piglets avoiding the isolation time and fasted state of animals to evaluate weaned pig preferences, consumption and appetence under a fed-state for Glycine and several L-amino acids at different concentrations (-in vivo trials- Chapter 1), (2) identifying and characterizing the porcine Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 gene sequences in pigs, to construct a stable...

  20. TRAPA NATANS (WATER CHESTNUT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatiwal Shalabh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  1. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  2. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 198, implementing the first step in fulfilling the central purpose of DOE's annually updated Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP). The first FYP had been developed three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect (and will, it is hoped, serve as a kind of appetizer for) the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: (1) focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment; (2) containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination; and (3) developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals. 101 refs

  3. Determination of needed feed for youth swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the structure of the feed, pigs feeding witch represents biological material of our study, is performed with grained feed which provides 15.7% PB until a body mass of 60 kg and also the 13.7% PB up to 110 kg. The necessary may be defined as the amount of nutrients needed to an animal within 24 hours. But also the reference can be made not to a single animal but to a homogenous group of animals. Besides ensuring energy level (about 3500 kcal/kg of protein (20-22% PB, amino acids, minerals and vitamins, this mixed fodder should be as appetizing (introducing powder milk is strictly necessary and as digestible.

  4. The research on the adsorption effect on metal ions by immobilized marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian; QIU Haiyuan; CAI Zhenzhen; CHEN Lidan; ZHENG Shenghua; HUANG Zhiwei

    2006-01-01

    The process of adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ by immobilized marine algae was investigated. It can be noted from the results that, the process for biosorption of heavy metals (copper, cadmium) by immobilized Laminaria japonica can be described by the Banerm model.According to the model, the adsorption rate constant calculated was 0.107 8 and 0.030 28 min-1 for Cu2+ and Cd2+ respectively. The experimental biosorption equilibrium data for Cu2+ and Cd2+ were in good agreement with those calculated by the Langmuir model. The maximum uptake capacity calculated was 83.3 and 112.4 mg/g for Cu2+ and Cd2+ according to the Langmuir model, respectively. The appetency of Laminaria japonica to Cu2+was better than Cd2+.

  5. ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF INSTALLING A LINE OF PALM HEART PATE FOR ADDING VALUE IN AN INDUSTRY OF CANNED PALM HEART

    OpenAIRE

    Farias Yamaguchi, Shana Kimi

    2016-01-01

    The Brazil is the main producer and consumer of palm heart and the most of national production is still in the domestic market. Currently the palm heart is commonly marketed mainly in the form of canned chunk, slice and diced used in dishes such as lasagne, pies, pizzas or until even as a appetizer. The objective of this work was to verify the sustainable economic feasibility of installing a line of palm heart pate processing in a company which already has a canned palm heart line. Quantitati...

  6. Obesity, externality, and susceptibility to social influence: an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C P; Olmsted, M P; Polivy, J

    1983-10-01

    A pilot study indicated that overweight subjects are more likely to order a particular dessert in a restaurant when the waitress provides an appetizing description of that dessert and encourages the diner to order it; subjects who were not overweight were much less affected by the waitress's behavior. This effect may be interpreted in terms of the greater "externality' of overweight persons (i.e., their greater reactivity to salient food cues); alternatively, it may be seen as evidence for greater compliance by deviant (overweight) individuals. The present study examined these alternatives by separating the perceptual-cues component of the waitress's behavior from the social-influence component in a replication of the pilot study. The results indicated that both the externality and compliance interpretations were tenable. The authors suggest that these two mechanisms may be seen as facets of a more general concern on the part of overweight people to secure behavioral guidance from the external environment, physical or social.

  7. Adansonia digitata L.: A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Damme, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae is a multi-purpose tree species native to Africa. Its fruit pulp has very high vitamin content (~ ten times that of orange, and can be used in seasoning, as an appetizer and to make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of crude protein, digestible carbohydrates and oil, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, Ca and Fe. They can be eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour and thus added to soups and stews. Processing eliminates a number of anti-nutritional factors present in the seed. Baobab leaves are superior in nutritional quality to fruit pulp, and contain significant levels of vitamin A. The leaves are a staple for many populations in Africa, and are eaten fresh or dried. Several plant parts have interesting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and baobab has been used extensively since ancient times in traditional medicine.

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  9. 高考英语听力十大必备场景词汇精选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    (1)餐馆场景:order 点菜 serve 上菜 change 零钱 Keep the change!不用找零钱了! Here is your change这是你的零钱 tip 小费 treat 请客(This is my treat!我请客! It’s on me.)go Dutch AA 制(Let’s go fifty.)steak牛排 cheese 奶酪 sandwich 三明治 bacon 腌肉 soup 汤 自来水(西餐中洗手用的) appetizer 开胃物 dessert 甜品。

  10. Comparison of two formulations of buprenorphine in cats administered by the oral transmucosal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolami, Elisa; Slingsby, Louisa; Love, Emma J

    2012-08-01

    This randomised, blinded, cross-over study investigated the ease of oral transmucosal administration of two formulations of buprenorphine using glucose as a control in 12 cats. The cats received three treatments: buprenorphine multi-dose, buprenorphine and the equivalent volume of glucose 5%. Ease of treatment administration, observation of swallowing, changes in pupil size, sedation, salivation, vomiting, behaviour and food intake were assessed. The data were analysed using MLwiN and multi-level modelling. Ease of administration of buprenorphine multi-dose was statistically different from glucose (P 0.05). Mydriasis was evident after the administration of both formulations of buprenorphine. Sedation, salivation, vomiting, behavioural changes or in-appetence were not observed after any treatment. Cats tolerated oral transmucosal administration of glucose better than buprenorphine multi-dose, while buprenorphine administration was tolerated as well as glucose. PMID:22403414

  11. Plant Extracts; a New Rumen Moderator in Ruminant Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Kutlu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of antibiotics in animal feeds has been banned, researches on alternative natural products that modulate ruminal fermentation have been intensified. Natural compounds such as plant extracts have been considered to be replace antibiotics as safe and sustainable alternatives.Plant extracts in the rumen form complexes with dietary proteins and thus protect them from microbial fermentation. Plant extracts, especially including saponins, have strong antiprotozoal activity. The elimination of protozoa from the rumen provides some benefits to overcome the loss of available protein. Plant extracts also have appetizing properties, which promotes greater feed intake, better performance and secretion of endogenous enzymes and digestive juices, leading to improve nutrient digestibility. Plant extracts have also potential to provide ammonia control and nitrogen binding activity; which contributes to form cleaner and healthier environment.

  12. Research advances in control methods of wearable walking assist robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia ZHANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the proportion of the elderly in China increases, the need for robotic assist walking is growing. The assisted-as-needed (AAN property of a wearable walking assist robot matches a user’s biological need and improves the flexibility, appetency and friendliness of a mechanical system. To realize AAN walking and aiming at realizing master/slave flexible assist, a new hybrid control method consisting of hip joint control based on central pattern generators and knee joint impedance structured control is proposed. The adaptation of a robot's master/slave motion mode to a user's physical function, the continuous switching method for knee joint impedance structured control and its stability, and the AAN effect of the Hybrid control theory are studied, which provides a new thought for the development of wearable walking assist robots.

  13. Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith: A Review of Its Ethnomedicinal, Chemical, and Pharmacological Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Yob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber zerumbet Sm., locally known to the Malay as “Lempoyang,” is a perennial herb found in many tropical countries, including Malaysia. The rhizomes of Z. zerumbet, particularly, have been regularly used as food flavouring and appetizer in various Malays' cuisines while the rhizomes extracts have been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments (e.g., inflammatory- and pain-mediated diseases, worm infestation and diarrhea. Research carried out using different in vitro and in vivo assays of biological evaluation support most of these claims. The active pharmacological component of Z. zerumbet rhizomes most widely studied is zerumbone. This paper presents the botany, traditional uses, chemistry, and pharmacology of this medicinal plant.

  14. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  15. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  16. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings. PMID:20219123

  17. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  18. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C; Michael, Andrew M; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex.

  19. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  20. Phototoxic effects of zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) complexed with 5-ALA in RD cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Ali, S. M. U.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Atif, M.; Willander, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this current study, we have manifested the photosensitizing effects of zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) in dark as well as under ultra violet light exposure with 240 nm of UV region, using human muscle cancer (Rhybdomyosarcoma cells, RD) as in vitro experimental model. We have fabricated ZnO-NWs on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter) and were conjugated using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) for the efficient intracellular drug delivery. When ZnO NWs were applied on tumor localizing drugs with non ionizing illumination, then excited drug liberates reactive oxygen species (ROS), effecting mitochondria and nucleus resulting in cell necrosis within few minutes. During investigations, we observed that when ZnO-NWs grown on intracellular tip was excited by using 240 nm of UV light, as a resultant 625 nm of emitted red light were used as appetizer in the presence of 5-ALA for chemical reaction, which produces singlet oxygen, responsible for cell necrosis. Morphological changes of necrosed cells were examined under microscopy. Moreover, Viability of controlled and treated RD cells with optimum dose of light (UV-Visible) has been assessed by MTT assay as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection.

  1. PEMANFAATAN HASIL PERIKANAN SEBAGAI PRODUK BERNILAI TAMBAH (VALUE-ADDED DALAM UPAYA PENGANEKARAGAMAN PANGAN [Utilization of Fishery Products with Added Value to Support Food Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Winarni Agustini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of fishery products efficiently and cooperatively is important to improve esthetical value of the products. Diversification of fishery products is possible to be implemented, both vertically and horizontally. Understanding of their processing technology is very important for fish processors in order to produce healthy products and highly accepted by consumers.In accordance to the government policy about National Food Safety Programs, one of which is to improve the production of processed food, the diversification of fishery processing should be pointed to very focus condition. The consumption of fish is still low in Indonesia ( 21.69 kg per capita per year, while the fishery resources are abundance. Therefore, efforts in increasing consumption of fish by the consumer to reach the target of the national program i.e. 26.5 kg/capita/year are needed. Production of “Value-added” by diversification method is aimed not only to improve consumption but also to create appetizing products for the consumers. Some examples of “Value Added” product that are becoming popular nowadays include: fish ball, milk fish pressed-cooked, fish nuggets, fish sausage, ekado fish, aji furai, etc. Some products had been sold by home industries but is still possible to produce in industrial scale. The raw material used can be from marine or cultured fish and also frozen surimi, that are potential to be implemented in Indonesia.

  2. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C.; Michael, Andrew M.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex. PMID:27378880

  3. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  4. Evaluation of insecticide impregnated baits for control of mosquito larvae in land crab burrows on French Polynesian atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Faaruia, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Land crab burrows are larval mosquito habitats of major significance in the Pacific region. They are constituted by a sinuous tunnel leading to a chamber in contact with the water table, where mosquito larvae proliferate. Controlling larvae in these sites is difficult, because the configuration of burrows prevents the use of standard techniques. An experiment was carried out in French Polynesia to control Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex spp. breeding in burrows of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex (Herbst). The technique was based on the crab's behavior, which involves the crab carrying food into its burrow. It was shown that appetizing baits impregnated with an insecticide were carried by crabs into the flooded chamber of their burrows. A field treatment of burrows was carried out by sowing insecticide impregnated baits on the ground. The treatment coverage was almost perfect and the easy implementation of the technique enabled large areas to be treated in a short time. The bait was developed by compacting various flours, which easily incorporate a large variety of insecticide formulations. Although the baits can be easily stocked, a reliable insecticide is still to be found. The results indicate that our technique could be a method of choice for treating crab burrows.

  5. THE DISCRETE BEAUTY: AESTHETIC FOOD MBYÁ-GUARANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the palate, excessively felt also the preparation and consumption of foods are set in motion in. The vision is basic in this process, assisting the palate in the determination of that he is " appetizing". Thus, also we eat with the eyes, therefore beyond a good taste the food also it needs to offer a pleasant appearance. It occurs that each culture possesss specific tastes how much to the food. In the same way, each culture presents singularity in the visual presentation of its plates. This aesthetic specific, related to other domínios of the thought, reflects the social and cosmological order of the group that puts it in practical. Thus being, it is intended, through the ethnografic method, to more investigate the appreciated forms of visual presentation of foods between the Mbyá-Guarani, present aboriginal group in the south of Brazil, as well as the directions that this ethnic partiality attributes to the aesthetic one of its foods.

  6. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

  7. Roots and vicissitudes of psychic bisexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Florent

    2016-06-01

    Sigmund Freud considered the difficulty in defining masculinity and femininity from a psychic point of view as a hiatus in psychoanalytic theory. I contend that masculinity pertains to the centrifugal (to that which goes out, and ultimately to that which one loses), and femininity to the centripetal (to the appetency for taking the object into one's own internal space), whether one is considering their archaic roots or their genitalized culmination. The masculine/feminine pair draws support from the body (and, through anaclisis, from the subjective space), identified with a container that is liable already in the first psychic stages of life to empty itself of its own content and to be filled by a foreign content: the content is subjective in the masculine and object-related in the feminine. The conflicts of ambivalence related to these two movements (desire/anxieties linked to active and passive penetration) lead to the setting up of the rigid and labile poles of the personality, and they are liable to give rise to obsessional and hysterical solutions respectively. My hypotheses will be examined in the light of the two key cases of hysteria and obsessional neurosis in Freud's work: Dora (1905e) and the Rat Man (1909d). PMID:27437624

  8. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  9. Preparation and characterization of liposomes containing methanol extract of aerial parts of Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Asili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Platycladus orientalis or Thuja orientalis is a native plant of Iran different parts of which are used in the treatment of various diseases such as: gout, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, cough, bronchitis, asthma, high blood pressure and hormonal disorders like hirsutism and baldness. Also, various organs of this species have been used as appetizer. The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize liposomal formulations that contain methanol extract of aerial parts of P. orientalis for hirsutism treatment. Material and Methods: Plant’s leaves were dried in room temperature, and powdered by grinding. Then, methanol extract was prepared by maceration method. Liposomes containing mathanol extract were produced by two methods of fusion and solvent evaporation. To evaluate mathanol extract and encapsulation efficiency of liposomes, quercetin was chosen as standard. The amount of quercetin in samples was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC method.Results: Mean size of liposomes prepared by solvent evaporation and fusion methods was 373 and 320 nm, respectively. According to the quercetin concentration, encapsulation efficiency of liposomes containing menthanol extract was 69.3±3.1% for solvent evaporation and 62.2±4.9% for fusion method. Conclusion: In the current study, a suitable liposomal formulation was prepared. The pharmacological activity of these carriers should be evaluated in the future study.

  10. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Allès, Benjamin; Feron, Gilles; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP) and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women) in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The "healthy" DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish) was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women), and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men), age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women). The "western" DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol) was positively associated with BMI (men) and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women) and living alone. The "traditional" DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock) was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men), and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The "healthy" DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts. PMID:27509523

  11. [Excision: basis for family stability or cruel ritual?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Female circumcision, or excision of the clitoris, is still practiced in many African countries. It does not have any religious significance, but it is a rite of passage from childhood to womanhood, and its function is to distinguish the sexes by the excision of the clitoris, which is the female counterpart of the male penis. The ritual is done in groups of girls aged 12-15 by an old woman and outside of the village; a big celebration follows the rite. Many tribes still consider the excision of the penis as a means to limit the sexual appetities of females, thereby guaranteeing fidelity to an often polygamous husband. Convalescence from the operation lasts 4-6 weeks, during which a girl is instructed about her future role as mother and wife. Consequences of female excision are infection, mainly tetanus, and hemorrhage; they both can lead to death. Other consequences are ugly deformations, mostly by occlusion of the vagina, dyspareunia and frigidity. Opposition to female excision is growing especially in urban areas, but it is still practiced by more than half of the population. Acceleration of female education together with health and sex education would certainly help speed up the eradication of such a barbarous practice. PMID:12311057

  12. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Ghosh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benincasa hispida (Thunb. of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral, Aphrodisiac (vrishya, Appetizer (dipana; used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta, Purpura (Raktapitta, Emaciation (Kshaya, Mental disorder (Chetovikara, etc. In the present study fruit of Benincasa hispida was authenticated Pharmacognostically in the department of Pharmacognosy, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurveda University of Pharmacy, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Each and every drug has its own physical and chemical characteristics that help for separating it from other closely related drugs. Hence physicochemical studies of a particular drug by making use of various parameters help in standardizing the drug and validate it. Chromatographic techniques were adopted for the separation of active principles present in the fruit powder. Therefore, an attempt has been made to standardize Kushmanda powder, an Ayurvedic medicine based on the TLC and HPTLC fingerprint profile.

  13. tty profile and potential application of oil from the seeds of Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.14461

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    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil there is a semi-arid region of the Bahia State where the transition between caatinga and cerrado prevails. The Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns belongs to Bombacaceae family, and is frequent in this region. Fruit of Bombacopsis retusa have seeds edible by native fauna and appreciated as appetizer nut in small local villages. With the purpose of verifying the potential application of the oil of this species in different industrial segments, the crude oil of Bombacopsis retusa seeds was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus with 55.5% yield. The physical and chemical analyses to determine the oleochemical indices showed acid value of 0.09 mg KOH-1 g-1, iodine value of 62.80 g I2-1 100 g-1, saponification index of 192.80 mg KOH-1 g-1, refractive index (40°C of 1.468 and a melting point of 43.90°C. To determine the fatty profile of this oil was applied the CG-DIC that revealed the predominance of palmitic (59.98%, oleic (19.25% and linoleic (8.47% acids, besides the saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio equal to 2.70. These results suggested that the oil of Bombacopsis retusa is a functional, sustainable and competitive raw-material to be used in agro-energy, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.   

  14. An artificial intelligence system for computer-assisted menu planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petot, G J; Marling, C; Sterling, L

    1998-09-01

    Planning nutritious and appetizing menus is a complex task that researchers have tried to computerize since the early 1960s. We have attempted to facilitate computer-assisted menu planning by modeling the reasoning an expert dietitian uses to plan menus. Two independent expert systems were built, each designed to plan a daily menu meeting the nutrition needs and personal preferences of an individual client. One system modeled rule-based, or logical, reasoning, whereas the other modeled case-based, or experiential, reasoning. The 2 systems were evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses identified. A hybrid system was built, combining the best of both systems. The hybrid system represents an important step forward because it plans daily menus in accordance with a person's needs and preferences; the Reference Daily Intakes; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans; and accepted aesthetic standards for color, texture, temperature, taste, and variety. Additional work to expand the system's scope and to enhance the user interface will be needed to make it a practical tool. Our system framework could be applied to special-purpose menu planning for patients in medical settings or adapted for institutional use. We conclude that an artificial intelligence approach has practical use for computer-assisted menu planning. PMID:9739801

  15. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  16. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain.

  17. Adansonia digitata L. (baobab: a review of traditional information and taxonomic description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitin Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa. Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food, clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items. The fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties. The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrates, fibers, potassium, proteins and lipids content, which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, iron, manganese, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, calcium and iron. Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-malarial, diarrhoea, anaemia, asthma, antiviral, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information, taxonomic description, medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

  18. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

  19. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  20. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Andreeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women, and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men, age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women. The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol was positively associated with BMI (men and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men, and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts.

  1. Curbing craving: behavioral and brain evidence that children regulate craving when instructed to do so but have higher baseline craving than adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Insel, Catherine; Powers, Alisa; Franz, Peter; Weber, Jochen; Mischel, Walter; Casey, B J; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-10-01

    Although one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, developmental changes in food craving and the ability to regulate craving remain poorly understood. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining behavioral and neural responses to images of appetizing unhealthy foods in individuals ages 6 through 23 years. On close trials (assessing unregulated craving), participants focused on a pictured food's appetitive features. On far trials (assessing effortful regulation), participants focused on a food's visual features and imagined that it was farther away. Across conditions, older age predicted less craving, less striatal recruitment, greater prefrontal activity, and stronger frontostriatal coupling. When effortfully regulating their responses to the images, all participants reported less craving and exhibited greater recruitment of lateral prefrontal cortex and less recruitment of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Greater body mass predicted less regulation-related prefrontal activity, particularly among children. These results suggest that children experience stronger craving than adults but can also effectively regulate craving. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying regulation may differ for heavy and lean children.

  2. Studying the impact of plating on ratings of the food served in a naturalistic dining context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Charles; Velasco, Carlos; Fraemohs, Paul; Spence, Charles

    2015-07-01

    An experiment conducted in a naturalistic dining context is reported, in which the impact of different styles of plating on diners' experience of the food was assessed. A hundred and sixty three diners were separated into two groups during a luncheon event held in a large dining room. Each group of diners was served the same menu, with a variation in the visual presentation of the ingredients on the plate. The results revealed that the diners were willing to pay significantly more for the appetizer (a salad), when arranged in an artistically-inspired manner (M = £5.94 vs. £4.10). The main course was liked more, and considered more artistic, when the various elements were presented in the centre of the plate, rather than placed off to one side. The participants also reported being willing to pay significantly more for the centred than for the offset plating (M = £15.35 vs. £11.65). These results are consistent with the claim that people "eat first with their eyes", and that a diner's experience of the very same ingredients can be significantly enhanced (or diminished) simply by changing the visual layout of the food elements of the dish. Results such as these suggest that theories regarding the perception of food can potentially be confirmed (or disconfirmed) outside of the confines of the laboratory (i.e., in naturalistic dining settings). PMID:25728885

  3. Self-assembled monolayers and titanium dioxide: From surface patterning to potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaron Paz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control the properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs attached to solid surfaces and the rare photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide provide a rationale for the study of systems comprising both. Such systems can be realized in the form of SAMs grown on TiO2 or, in a complementary manner, as TiO2 grown on SAMs. Accordingly, the current status of knowledge regarding SAMs on TiO2 is described. Photocatalytic phenomena that are of specific relevance to SAMs, such as remote degradation, and cases where SAMs were used to study photocatalytic phenomena, are discussed as well. Mastering of micro-patterning is a key issue en route to a successful assimilation of a variety of titanium dioxide based devices. Accordingly, particular attention is given to the description of a variety of methods and techniques aimed at utilizing the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide for patterning. Reports on a variety of applications are discussed. These examples, representing the areas of photovoltaics, microelectronics, microelectromechanics, photocatalysis, corrosion prevention and even biomedicine should be regarded as appetizers paving the way for further studies to be performed.

  4. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Model Predicting the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900 in Homemade Eggplant Salad at Various Temperatures, pHs, and Oregano Essential Oil Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Nychas, George-John E.

    2000-01-01

    Homemade eggplant salad, a traditional Greek appetizer, was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900 supplemented with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (0.0, 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1% [vol/wt]) and stored at different temperatures (0, 5, 10, and 15°C). The product's pH was adjusted to 4.0, 4.5, or 5.0 with lemon juice. For each combination of the environmental factors, the bacterial counts were modeled, using the Baranyi model, as a function of time to estimate the kinetic parameters of the pathogen. A reduction of more than 1 log unit in E. coli O157:H7 counts was observed in all cases, and the death rate depended on the pH, the storage temperature, and the essential oil concentration. Separate quadratic models were developed with natural logarithms of the shoulder period and death rate as estimated by the growth model, as a function of temperature, pH, and oregano essential oil concentrations. These were further used to predict the population of E. coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900 from other inoculated eggplant salads at random conditions of temperature, pH, and oregano oil concentration. The predicted values were compared with viable-count measurements for validation. PMID:10742255

  6. Using High Spatial Resolution to Improve BOLD fMRI Detection at 3T.

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    Juliana Iranpour

    Full Text Available For different functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD contrast, the acquisition of T2*-weighted scans at a high spatial resolution may be advantageous in terms of time-course signal-to-noise ratio and of BOLD sensitivity when the regions are prone to susceptibility artifacts. In this study, we explore this solution by examining how spatial resolution influences activations elicited when appetizing food pictures are viewed. Twenty subjects were imaged at 3 T with two different voxel volumes, 3.4 μl and 27 μl. Despite the diminution of brain coverage, we found that high-resolution acquisition led to a better detection of activations. Though known to suffer to different degrees from susceptibility artifacts, the activations detected by high spatial resolution were notably consistent with those reported in published activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, corresponding to taste-responsive regions. Furthermore, these regions were found activated bilaterally, in contrast with previous findings. Both the reduction of partial volume effect, which improves BOLD contrast, and the mitigation of susceptibility artifact, which boosts the signal to noise ratio in certain regions, explained the better detection noted with high resolution. The present study provides further evidences that high spatial resolution is a valuable solution for human BOLD fMRI, especially for studying food-related stimuli.

  7. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Allès, Benjamin; Feron, Gilles; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP) and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women) in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish) was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women), and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men), age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women). The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol) was positively associated with BMI (men) and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women) and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock) was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men), and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts. PMID:27509523

  8. Adansonia digitata L.(baobab):a review of traditional information and taxonomic description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jitin; Rahul; Manish; Kumar; Jain; Shishu; Pal; Singh; Rakesh; Kant; Kama; Anuradha; Aliya; Naz; Anup; Kumar; Gupta; Sujeet; Kumar; Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Adansonia digitata L.(Malvaceae) is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa.Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food,clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items.The fruit pulp,seeds,leaves,flowers.roots,and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties.The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C.calcium,phosphorus,carbohydrates,fibers,potassium,proteins and lipids content,which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices.Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus,magnesium,zinc,sodium,iron,manganese,whereas they have high levels of lysine,thiamine,calcium and iron.Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial,anti-malarial,diarrhoea,anaemia,asthma,antiviral,anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others.Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids.phytosterols.amino acids,fatty acids,vitamins and minerals.The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information,taxonomic description,medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

  9. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Sante Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  10. Survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in eggplant dip during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Jaradat, Ziad; Shaker, Reyad R; Alomari, Dalia Z; Al-Dabbas, Maher M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Eggplant dip is an internationally popular appetizer, prepared in some instances under uncertain hygienic conditions with inconsistent refrigeration. This study examined the effects of citric acid on the survival of pathogenic microorganisms (Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus) and naturally present organisms (lactic acid bacteria, LAB, aerobic bacteria, APC and yeast and mold, YM) in eggplant dip during storage. Eggplant dip with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8% citric acid was inoculated with S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus and stored at 4, 10 and 21 °C for ≤15 d. Throughout the study, the survival of the inoculated microorganisms was monitored, and LAB, APC, YM numbers and pH were determined. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of citric acid on inoculated S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 survived >7d with little reduction in viability. Reduction of S. aureus viability increased with citric acid concentration and reached>3.0 log10 CFU/g by 15 d at 4 °C. Citric acid had no effect (p>0.05) on the background YM during storage at 4, 10 and 21 °C or LAB stored at 4 and 10 °C, while at 21 °C, 0.6 and 0.8% citric acid significantly reduced LAB. Citric acid had no effect (p>0.05) on the APC in samples stored at 4 °C but it had significant effects on samples stored at 10 and 21 °C. Work reported showed that the use of citric acid at 0.4-0.8% can inhibit the growth of S. aureus in eggplant dip, but adequate refrigeration is essential to minimize risk from this and other pathogens in this product. PMID:25590259

  11. THE EFFECT OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS WHEN USED AS DISEASE MODIFYING ANTIREUMATIC DRUGS (DMARD’S IN AMAVATA (RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

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    Panthulu Raghupathi Goud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD’S are therapeutic agents which rapidly reduce the intensity of inflammation and facilitate induction of remission. The sages of Ayurveda invented many remedies to combat this disease. Here an effort is made to evaluate once again the efficacy of some of the remedies. Ama and Vata are the two chief pathognomonic factors in causing Amavata. Ama has the qualities of heaviness (guru, unctuousness (Snigdha, immobility (Sthira, bulkiness (Sthula, and sliminess or stickiness (Pichhila. Vata has the properties of lightness (Laghu, dryness (Ruksha, movement (Chala, subtleness (Sukshma, and clearness (Vishada. Ama is the undigested food which results due to Mandagni (sluggish digestive fire which is caused due to various reasons. All types of metabolic fires (Agnis become sluggish in this disease. The stagnant Ama is called Ama visha. Ama is the substance which is the resultant of improper digestion of the food due to hypo-functioning of the gastric juices (Jatharagni. The drugs having the qualities of Tiktam (astringent, Deepana (appetizer and Katu (pungent modify the disease due to their qualities. The purgation property (Virechana guna modifies the process of disease. Castor oil (Eranda Tailam cures Vata diseases. It has been observed that after administration of Castor oil, the fluid from the inflamed joints and tissues has been drained away. Castor oil relieves pain, reduces inflammation and swelling, increases lymphatic circulation, reduces flatulence, stimulates the liver and the gall bladder, and reduces toxins. A scientific study on the effect of castor oil on humans found castor oil to be an antitoxin, and as having an impact on the lymphatic system enhancing the immune functioning of the body. Panchakola churnam is anti-inflammatory; it is an anti-oxidant, an immunomodulator, and a rejuvenator too. Hingu Triguna Tailam is digestive, carminative, analgesic and anti-rheumatic.

  12. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

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    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  13. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  14. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  15. Investigation of chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

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    F. Yousefbeyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ziziphora clinopodioides is a perennial herb and grows widely in west and northwest of Iran. The aerial parts are used as appetizer, carminative and antiseptic as well as for the treatment of medical conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma hyperhidrosis, palpitation and insomnia Methods: The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were extracted by ethanol (70% and fractionated by n-hexane. The n-hexane fraction was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. This fraction and the total extract were further investigated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against HT-29 (colon carcinoma, K-562 (leukemia, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cells using MTT assay. Results:  Nineteen compounds were identified by GC/MS. The main constituents of the n-hexane fraction were pulegone (24.35%, menthol (14% and menthone (9.61%. The results of cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the n-hexane fraction strongly exhibited cytotoxic activity against T-47D and K-562 cells with IC50 value of 77.41±12.89 and 80±2.56 μg/mL. The total extract did not show considerable activity against any of the cell lines in comparison to the n-hexane fraction. Conclusion: The presence of compounds such as pulegone, menthol and menthone could explain the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction of Z. clinopodioides Lam on K-562, T-47D and HT-29 cell lines.

  16. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  17. Avaliação da qualidade de tomate seco em conserva Evaluation of quality of dried tomato

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    Gisele A. Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco em conserva é alvo de crescente aceitação no mercado brasileiro; sua utilização é comum em aperitivos e na culinária como ingrediente de molhos e pizzas. Avaliou-se, neste trabalho o efeito dos seguintes fatores na qualidade do tomate seco: variedade de tomate (Rio Grande e Débora Plus, geometria de corte (pedaços de ½ e ¼ com relação ao eixo maior do fruto, presença ou ausência de sementes e teor de umidade final (25 e 35%, mediante análises instrumentais de cor e textura e testes sensoriais afetivos. Os resultados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor mastigabilidade e dureza, porém maior suscetibilidade ao escurecimento após o processo de secagem. De forma geral, a preferência dos consumidores foi por tomates secos com 35% de umidade final, enquanto a melhor qualidade final foi obtida a partir do tratamento com a variedade Rio Grande e umidade final de 35%.Preserved dried tomato has been gaining increasing acceptance in the Brazilian market, its use being common in appetizers and also in the cooking, as an ingredient of sauces and pizzas. The effect of the following factors on the quality of dried tomato was evaluated: variety of tomato (Rio Grande and Débora Plus, geometry of pieces (½ and ¼ to the fruit major axis, presence or absence of seeds and final moisture content (25 and 35% by means of instrumental texture, and color analysis and sensorial affective tests. The results showed that the variety Rio Grande presented better physical parameters but was more susceptible to darkness. Generally, the consumers preferred dried tomatoes at 35% moisture content. The best final quality of dried tomato was obtained from the treatment performed with Rio Grande variety and 35% final moisture content.

  18. PENGEMBANGAN MAKANAN KHAS BALI SEBAGAI WISATA KULINER (CULINARY TOURISM DI DESA SEBATU KECAMATAN TEGALALANG GIANYAR

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    I. A. Trisna Eka Putri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebatu village has its special characteristics of traditional foods and beverages which can be developed as culinarytourism. Besides the taste and form of the foods , the cooking process from the ingredients until become theready food, and the presentation of the foods can be the interesting attraction to offer. Organizing the traditionalfood and beverages of Sebatu Village which is the part of the daily life in this village need to be developed as theinteraction tools and media among the local community and the tourist. The activities form such as; eating andenjoy the food together ( for lunch or dinner, etc , organizing the restaurant, coffee shop, or cafe in the strategiclocation surrounding the village, cooking courses for the women organization and the other programs. Theseprograms of course need the education, training exercise and also the workshop how to make good presentation,improve the quality according to international standard, and also the sanitation and hygiene. Since Sebatu Villagedevelopes to become a Tourism Village as one of the destination, the organized traditional food and beveragesbusiness can be developed as the culinary tourism so that the local community can interacte directly with thetourists in Gianyar. The type of culinary to be developed in Sebatu such as : Jukut Ares as a appetizer. Nasi Sela,Tipat Cantok, Betutu, Be Guling, Lawar Gedang, Jukut Urab as the main course. Tape Ketan and Jaje Uli,,Jaje Dadar, Jaje Timus, Kolak Biu/Sela as the dessert. All of these culinary can be adapted to the internationalgastronomy from the form, purpose and essence so that it can be presented and offered to the tourists

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation FST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies. PMID:26550601

  20. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  1. Retrieval and classification of food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Allegra, Dario; Moltisanti, Marco; Stanco, Filippo; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2016-10-01

    Automatic food understanding from images is an interesting challenge with applications in different domains. In particular, food intake monitoring is becoming more and more important because of the key role that it plays in health and market economies. In this paper, we address the study of food image processing from the perspective of Computer Vision. As first contribution we present a survey of the studies in the context of food image processing from the early attempts to the current state-of-the-art methods. Since retrieval and classification engines able to work on food images are required to build automatic systems for diet monitoring (e.g., to be embedded in wearable cameras), we focus our attention on the aspect of the representation of the food images because it plays a fundamental role in the understanding engines. The food retrieval and classification is a challenging task since the food presents high variableness and an intrinsic deformability. To properly study the peculiarities of different image representations we propose the UNICT-FD1200 dataset. It was composed of 4754 food images of 1200 distinct dishes acquired during real meals. Each food plate is acquired multiple times and the overall dataset presents both geometric and photometric variabilities. The images of the dataset have been manually labeled considering 8 categories: Appetizer, Main Course, Second Course, Single Course, Side Dish, Dessert, Breakfast, Fruit. We have performed tests employing different representations of the state-of-the-art to assess the related performances on the UNICT-FD1200 dataset. Finally, we propose a new representation based on the perceptual concept of Anti-Textons which is able to encode spatial information between Textons outperforming other representations in the context of food retrieval and Classification. PMID:27498058

  2. Neurobiological implications of eating healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Kim, Jae Won; Stefano, George B

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, the importance of food in the development of chronic diseases has been examined, as well as the medical value of eating healthy. The contribution of the eating process itself to health and well-being, however, has not been questioned until most recently. Biology has linked eating to appetitive motivational processes with their underlying neurophysiology, including CNS reward circuitries: Eating uses the pleasure-reward physiology to motivate us to eat. Endogenous opiates, such as morphine, insure our survival by helping us to make eating motivational via pleasure induction. After taking in enough food, we become satisfied, i.e., tolerant to food. Our appetite, and so is our appetence, are then low and need a certain time span to reach their former levels for then inducing food-seeking behaviors, food intake, etc. again. When tolerance passes, we once more engage in this pleasurable process related to positive behavioral motivation. Opioid receptor agonists, however, may induce energy intake even beyond an actual need. This interesting potential of opioidergic signaling may have its roots in biological mechanisms that insured the intake and storage of high energy foods, hence preparing for future famines. In our world of today, however, such neurobiological pathways may pose a threat on our health. Thus, feedback mechanisms, such as tolerance, aversion and satiety, have to be finely tuned. Therefore central autoregulation that involves, for example, limbic mu receptor signaling and other endogenous signaling compounds comes into the focus of modern science. The time where research recognizes the importance of neurobiological pathways such as endogenous opiate autoregulation or CNS reward circuitries for examining the physiology of food intake has yet begun. Many questions remain open and have to be answered through future scientific inquiry.

  3. Piperidine alkaloids from Piper retrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-07-22

    The fruits of Piper retrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300mg/kg/day for 8weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Consistent with the in vitro results, PRPA activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in liver and skeletal muscle. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:21741367

  4. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages. PMID:21929332

  5. RAMUAN JAMU CEKOK SEBAGAI PENYEMBUHAN KURANG NAFSU MAKAN PADA ANAK: SUATU KAJIAN ETNOMEDISIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiani Ika Limananti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Jamu is used in an efford to treat patiens with a traditional herbal medicine, which is well known among the community. The jamu is widely used for trating light health problems, preventing illness, increasing the endurance and the health of the body, besides for cosmetic reasons. Jamu cekok is a kind of jamu used in Yogyakarta, especially for children, given by forcing the mixture into the throat if children have no appetite. The aims of the article are to know the components of jamu cekok and also to know the jamu cekok use toward improving child health. The research took 5 Javanese families as informants. Additional informants is jamu cekok traditional shop and traditional herbalist. Data were obtained by interviews and observation during February to June 2003. Analysis data was descriptive using medical anthropology approach. The essential components of jamu cekok, called empon-empon are curcuma xanthorriza Robx (temulawak, Zingiber Americans l. (lempuyang emprit, Tinospora tuberculata Beume (brotowali, Curcuma aeruginaosa Robx(temu ireng and Carica papaya L. (papaya. The main aims to drink jamu cekok is to increase the appetive of the children because parents worried about the children growth and development. The children were threatened that they will be forced to drink jamu, if they did not want to consume food. The belief and suggestion factors of jamu cekok having special characteristics cause consumers become satisfied after giving jamu cekok to their children. Beside that,traditional medicine using natural ingredients regarded more secure and the price can be reached by common society. Drinking jamu cekok indicated that there is trend back to nature, which had possessed by their anchestor.

  6. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna M; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik M; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Zin, Noraziah M

    2016-01-01

    Background Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity). Aim This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol. Conclusion On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary

  7. Naltrexone suppresses the late but not early licking response to a palatable sweet solution: opioid hedonic hypothesis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Pasquale G; Sclafani, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Opioid antagonists suppress the intake of sweet solutions, but typically have little effect on the initial rate of drinking. The lack of an early drug response was investigated in the present study because it questions the general idea that opioid antagonists reduce the hedonic response to sweets. The first experiment, which measured the rat's licking response to a sucrose+saccharin (S+s) solution, revealed that naltrexone suppressed S+s intake but not initial lick rates. Experiment 2A indicated that the drug's delayed behavioral effect was not due to the 10-min injection-test interval used. Increasing the interval to 20 min did not reduce the latency of drug action. Experiment 2B tested the idea that rats require several minutes to detect that naltrexone has reduced the hedonic value of the S+s solution. The S+s solution was presented either for 30 min without interruption or for 3 min followed, after a 6-min delay, by another 27-min access. In both test conditions, naltrexone did not suppress S+s licking until 7-9 min of drinking had occurred. However, the drug blocked an "appetizer effect"; a post-delay increase in licking rate produced by the split-session test procedure. Microstructure analysis indicated that in all cases, naltrexone reduced S+s licking by reducing the number of lick clusters rather than lick cluster size. In contrast to these drug effects, Experiment 2C showed that reducing the concentration of the S+s solution decreased initial lick rates. Together, these findings suggest that opioid antagonists do not affect all aspects of flavor hedonics, but may primarily alter the intake-maintaining action of palatable flavors.

  8. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  9. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  10. Book Review: Planetveien 12 (Planet Road 12: Arne Korsmo and Grete Prytz Kittelsen’s House Bokanmeldelse: Planetveien 12: Arne Korsmo og Grete Prytz Kittelsens hus. Et viktig bidrag til en betydningsfull boligs biografi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Skjerven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The book deals with one of postwar modernism masterpieces that complete work of art and housing. The author treats the house’s ideas, planning and construction, cooperation partners and the changes that have been made through time. Especially the latter is of high relevance in relation to our own time’s practicing of and discussions on recycling and transformation of our cultural heritage. It also contains biography and discussion of the architect’s other activities, as well as the author's interpretation of the house. Among the missing are a detailed treatment of the house as a meeting place and a more analytical review of the relationship with the partners, especially Grete Prytz Kittelsen. And not least issues related to the use versus preservation could have been devoting more attention. All in all, this is a rare good, interesting and important book. Rather than an exhaustive presentation, the book is an appetizer to what was created in conjunction with Planetveien 12 as a vehicle, and the central theme of transformation.Boken tar for seg et av etterkrigsmodernismens hovedverk som allkunstverk og bolig. Forfatteren behandler husets idégrunnlag, planlegning og konstruksjon, samarbeidspartnere og hvilke endringer som er blitt foretatt gjennom tiden. Spesielt det siste er av høy relevans i forbindelse med vår egen tids praktisering av og diskusjoner omkring gjenbruk og transformasjon av våre kulturminner. Den inneholder også biografi og omtale av hans øvrige virksomhet, samt forfatterens tolkning av Planetveien. Blant det som savnes er en utdypende behandling av husets betydning som internasjonal møteplass og en mer analytisk gjennomgang av forholdet til samarbeidspartnerne, spesielt Grete Prytz Kittelsen. Og ikke minst kunne problematikken knyttet til bruk versus bevaring vært viet større oppmerksomhet. Alt i alt er dette en sjeldent god, engasjerende og viktig utgivelse. Snarere enn noen uttømmende fremstilling er boken en

  11. Causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity-related co-morbidities Part 1: A composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    The medical, research and general community is unable to effect significantly decreased rates of central obesity and related type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. All conditions seem to be linked by the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the underlying causes are not known. MetS markers may have been mistaken for causes, thus many treatments are destined to be suboptimal. The current paper aims to critique current paradigms, give explanations for their persistence, and to return to first principles in an attempt to determine and clarify likely causes of MetS and obesity related comorbidities. A wide literature has been mined, study concepts analysed and the basics of human evolution and new biochemistry reviewed. A plausible, multifaceted composite unifying theory is formulated. The basis of the theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals, becoming highly energy efficient in humans. The still-evolving, complex human cortico-limbic-striatal system generates strong behavioural drives for energy dense food procurement, including motivating agricultural technologies and social system development. Addiction to such foods, leading to neglect of nutritious but less appetizing 'common or garden' food, appears to have occurred. Insufficient consumption of food micronutrients prevents optimal human NRF2 function. Inefficient oxidation of excess energy forces central and non-adipose cells to store excess toxic lipid. Oxidative stress and

  12. Usage and control of solid-state lighting for plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.

    2008-07-01

    The work begins with an introductory part in which the basic aspects related to the photosynthetic radiation, the photobiology of plants and the technology of light-emitting diodes (Leads) are overviewed. It is followed by a review of related research works that have been conducted during the last two decades, and by the main design issues of Led lumin aires for plant growth. The following part of the work reports the experimental growth tests performed. The effects of the radiation emitted by spectrally tailored Led lumin aires on plant growth have been investigated. A total of four growth tests using lettuce and radish cultivars were performed. Two basic approaches were used to investigate the effects and the future possibilities of the usage of solid-state lighting (SSL) in plant growth. The first approach evaluates the growth development of lettuce plants in real greenhouse conditions using LEDs as supplementary light sources to natural daylight. In the second approach the evaluation was carried out with a total absence of natural daylight by growing lettuce and radish plants in phytotron-chamber conditions. The effects of SSL treatments on the growth development and quality of crops were compared with reference lighting systems composed of conventional and well-established light-source technologies, such as fluorescent and high-pressure sodium lamps. During the process of the investigation, the need to coherently quantify and evaluate the spectral quality of the radiation in terms of its photosynthetic appetence arose. Different metrics are still been used indiscriminately to quantify radiation used by plants to perform photosynthesis. Therefore, the existing metrics are discussed and a new proposal for coherent systematization is presented. The proposed system is referred to phyllophotometric and it is developed using the average photosynthetic spectral quantum yield response curve of plants. The results of the growth tests showed that the usage of SSL in

  13. Influence of Blog on Ideological and Political Education in Higher Vocational Colleges and Corresponding Strategies%博客对高职思想政治教育的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development and popularization of Internet,Blog,a?newly-emerging communication way in cyber times,greatly influences the way of learning,the practical activity and?the lifestyle of the students in higher vocational colleges.Due to its virtual and interactivity,Blog meets the demand for self-expression of students,overcomes the time-space limitation of the traditional education mode and improves the pertinence and appetency of education.However,the invalidation to restrict the thoughts and remarks,the virtual and the non-real time characteristics of Blog all negatively affects the ideological and political education.As a virtual expansion of the traditional ideological?and?political?education,Blog for the ideological and political education in higher vocational colleges should posses interesting representation,distinct standpoint and effective complementarily function,so that some strategies,such as performing an extensive promotion,co-constructing the Blog by teachers and students,intensively researching ideological?and?political?theories,improving Blog-related technologies and strengthening the systematic construction,should be adopted to achieve good teaching effect.%随着互联网的快速发展和普及,博客这一网络时代新兴的交流方式已对高职生的学习、实践和生活方式产生巨大影响。博客虚拟性、交互性等特点满足了学生自我表现的诉求,消除了教育的时空局限性,提高了针对性,增强了亲和力。同时,其对良莠不齐的思想与言论约束的失效度、虚拟性和非实时性也对思政教育的功效造成了消极影响。高职思政博客作为传统思政教育的虚拟延伸和拓展,在建构中必须遵循表现的趣味性、立场的鲜明性和作用的辅助性原则;应通过多方推广、师生共建、高职思政教育者钻研思政理论和提高博客技术、加强机制建设等策略,使其获得良好的教育效果。

  14. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  15. Sodium content in processed foods in Argentina: compliance with the national law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscornia, María Victoria; Ponce, Miguel; Castronuovo, Luciana; Dunford, Elizabeth; Schoj, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the body of evidence that documents the unfavorable effects of excessive sodium consumption on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, public health efforts to decrease sodium consumption have been limited to a few countries. Argentina is the first country in Latin America to regulate sodium content of processed foods by means of a national law. The objective of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to provide a baseline comparison against the reduction targets set by the national law before its entry into force. Methods Data were collected in February 2014 in a leading supermarket chain located in Buenos Aires. Nutrient data from package labels were analysed for 1,320 products within 14 food groups during the study period. To compare sodium concentration levels with the established maximum levels we matched the collected food groups with the food groups included in the law resulting in a total of 292 products. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 20 software. Results Food groups with the highest median sodium content were sauces and spreads (866.7 mg/100 g), meat and meat products (750 mg/100 g) and snack foods (644 mg/100 g). Categories with the highest sodium content were appetizers (1,415 mg/100 g), sausages (1,050 mg/100 g) and ready-made meals (940.7 mg/100 g). We also found large variability within products from the same food categories. Products included in the national law correspond to 22.1% (n=292) of the surveyed foods. From the 18 food groups, 15 showed median sodium values below the established targets. Products exceeding the established maximum levels correspond to 15.1% (n=44) of the products included in the analysis. Conclusions This study is the first analysis of food labels to determine sodium concentrations of processed foods in Argentina and to provide a baseline against the national law standards. Upon the completion of this analysis, maximum levels have been achieved by most of the food groups included in

  16. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaibani MM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhanna M Alshaibani,1 Juriyati Jalil,2 Nik M Sidik,3 Ruangelie Edrada-Ebel,4 Noraziah M Zin1 1Programme of Biomedical Science, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia; 4Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25 has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity. Aim: This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods: The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic

  17. Characterization of the AmpC β-1actamase of Citrobacterfreundii CMY-39 genotype%CMY-39新基因亚型AmpC β-内酰胺酶的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢肖霞; 徐韫健; 谭皓妍; 梁权辉; 张东梅

    2011-01-01

    increased, while the stability was appetency decreased.

  18. Enrichment of Data Publications in Earth Sciences - Data Reports as a Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Haberland, Christian; Evans, Peter L.

    2015-04-01

    dataset. These reports are readable and citable on their own, but are, of course, closely connected to the respective datasets. Therefore, they give full insight into the framework of the data before data download. This is especially relevant for large and often heterogeneous datasets, like e.g. controlled-source seismic data gathered with instruments of the 'Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam GIPP'. Here, details of the instrumentation, data organization, data format, accuracy, geographical coordinates, timing and data completeness, etc. need to be documented. STR Data are also attractive for the publication of historic datasets, e.g. 30-40 years old seismic experiments. It is also possible for one STR Data to describe several datasets, e.g. from multiple diverse instruments types, or distinct regions of interest. The publication of DOI-assigned data reports is a helpful tool to fill the gap between basic metadata and restricted 'readme' information on the one hand and preparing extended journal articles on the other hand. They open the way for informed re-use and, with their comprehensive data description, may act as 'appetizer' for the re-use of published datasets.

  19. Morfologia dos órgãos genitais masculinos do Jurará Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae Morphology of the male genital organs of the Scorpion Mud Turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cardoso Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinosternon scorpioides é uma pequena tartaruga semi-aquática, típica de água doce, de distribuição geográfica bastante diversificada, encontrada no estado do Maranhão, onde é denominada de jurará ou muçuã. Sua carne é uma excelente fonte de proteína e a despeito da legislação vigente, é comercializado nas praias e feiras da cidade de São Luís e consumido nos restaurantes sob a forma de farofa servida em casquinha. Os órgãos genitais do macho foram estudados visando fornecer dados morfológicos da própria espécie, que poderão ser utilizados na biologia reprodutiva voltada para ações de preservação em cativeiro. Compõe-se a amostra de 10 machos adultos, obtidos mediante apreensões do IBAMA-MA (Proc. nº 020.12.002400/99-31, licença nº 002/01, os quais foram eutanaziados conforme normas do Comitê de Ética do Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. A cavidade celomática foi aberta e os órgãos fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído 10%, e posteriormente dissecados. Os testículos possuem formato ovóide e coloração amarelo-ouro. Os epidídimos convolutos estavam aderidos dorsalmente à superfície medial dos testículos, terminando em um pequeno ducto deferente. Os ductos deferentes não forma-ram nenhuma ampola distinta, abrindo-se na cloaca. O pênis sulcado, localizado no assoalho da cloaca, estendeu-se até a cauda, composto de raíz, corpo e glande. A morfologia dos órgãos reprodutivos destes animais assemelha-se aos de outras tartarugas, sugerindo uma morfologia conservada entre as tartarugas.Kinosternon scorpioides is a small semi-aquatic turtle, typical of fresh-water, with wide geographic distribution. It is found in the state of Maranhão, where is called jurará or muçuã. Its meat is an excellent protein source and despite current legislation, it is commercialized at beaches and markets in the city of São Luis, consumed in restaurants as an appetizer in its own

  20. Fluorimetric Determination of Acetylcysteine Based on Calcein-Copper(Ⅱ)System%基于钙黄绿素-铜(Ⅱ)荧光体系测定乙酰半胱氨酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓红; 景蓓蓓; 张胜海; 答敏; 张萍; 朱依娜

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Fluorimetric Determination of Acetylcysteine in Calcein-Copper ( Ⅱ ) System. Methods: In pH=8.0 of KH2PO4-Na2HPO4·12H2O buffer solution, determinating the fluorescence intensity of acetylcysteine solutions with 492nm as excitation wavelength and 520nm as emission wavelength. Rusults: In pH=8.0 of KH2PO4-Na2HPO4·12H2O buffer solution, copper ( Ⅱ ) can coordinate with calcein, and cause the fluorescence intensity of calcein solution decreased. Because the appetency between copper ( Ⅱ )and acetylcysteine was very strong, it can seize copper ions from calcein-copper ( Ⅱ ) complex and make calcein free, thus make the fluores- cence recovered, and the recovery degree of its fluorescence was linear related to the concentration of acetylcysteine added to the solution. Conclusions: Hereby we establish a new method of measuring acetylcysteine in the range of 6.0 10-6~1.4 10-5 mol/L. The detection limit was 4.0× 10-6 mol/L. The relative standard deviation was 0.91% for the 11 replicate determinations of 1.0× 10-5 mol/L acetylcysteine solution. This method was applied to the determination of acetylcysteine in pharmaceutical preparations.%目的:基于钙黄绿素.铜(Ⅱ)荧光体系测定乙酰半胱氨酸.方法:在pH=8.0的Na2HPO4·12H2O-KH2PO4缓冲液中,以492nm为激发波长,520姗为发射波长测定乙酰半胱氨酸溶液的荧光强度.结果:在pH=8.0的Na2HPO4·12H2O-KH2PO4缓冲液中,二价铜离子与钙黄绿素配位引起荧光猝灭.由于乙酰半胱氨酸中巯基上的硫离子与Cu2+的亲和力很强,可从钙黄绿素-铜(Ⅱ)的络合物中夺取铜离子而使钙黄绿素游离出来,从而使体系的荧光得以恢复,并且荧光恢复的程度与加入乙酰半胱氨酸的量在一定范围内成线性.结论:建立了一种测定乙酰半胱氨酸的荧光分析新方法,该方法的线性范围为6.010-6~1.4 10-5mol/L,检出限为4.010-6moi/L.

  1. 钼酸铵溶液化学沉淀法和离子交换法除钒研究%Removal of Vanadium from Ammonium Molybdate Solution by Chemical Precipitation and Ion Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张报清; 雷霆; 方树铭; 王学文; 沈波涛; 姬成岗

    2012-01-01

    对采用化学沉淀法、运用A,B两种强碱性阴离子树脂交换法,从钼酸铵溶液中分离除钒的工艺条件进行了研究.研究结果表明:控制溶液pH值在8~9时,钒主要以VO3-状态存在,沉钒效率高,偏钒酸铵沉淀纯度也高,达98.5%以上.A树脂能够深度分离钼酸铵溶液中的钒,最佳工艺条件是:控制料液pH值在7.28左右和降低Cl-浓度.Cl-与A树脂有较强的亲和力,其浓度的增加会显著降低A树脂对钒的吸附容量.在溶液pH值为7.28,几乎不含Cl-的条件下,A树脂饱和吸钒容量达到了21.73 g·L-1,此工艺可控制钼酸铵溶液中钒浓度在0.02 g·L-1以下.A树脂最高解析回收率达到98.68%,确保了钼钒深度分离后钒的回收利用效果.B树脂能够有效回收A树脂解析液中的钒和钼,其吸钒容量达到26.22 g·L-,吸钼容量达到了71.06g·L-1.B树脂为A树脂的优化树脂,其饱和吸附容量大于A树脂的饱和吸附容量.%The process conditions of vanadium removal from ammonium molybdate solution by chemical precipitation and ion exchange using A and B two kinds of alkaline anion resins were studied. It was found that controlling the pH value between 8 and 9, vanadium existed mainly as VO3- , the efficiency of NH4VO3's precipitating was significant, and purity of NH4VO3 was high as above 98. 5%. Resin A could separate vanadium from ammonium molybdate greatly, the best technological conditions were pH value of about 7.28 and reducing the concentration of Cl-. Cl- had strong appetency with resin A, and the increase of Cl- concentration notably reduced adsorption capacity of resin A. Resin A's adsorption capacity of vanadium reached 21.73 g·L-1 under the conditions of 7.27 pH value and without Cl-. This technology could control the concentration of vanadium under 0.02 g·L-1 in ammonium molybdate solution. The highest stripping recovery rate of resin A was 98.68% , this ensured the good recovery result after the separation of

  2. 基于模糊数学法评价超高压处理后鱿鱼的品质%Quality evaluation of squid processed by ultra-high pressure based on fuzzy mathematic method .

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆兰; 余海霞; 杨水兵; 任西营; 董开成; 杨志坚; 胡亚芹

    2013-01-01

      为有效改善秘鲁鱿鱼肉品质,采用超高压处理鱿鱼片,对处理后的鱿鱼片色泽、组织、口感和滋味进行感官评价权重分析,并利用模糊数学综合评价法对超高压处理的样品进行综合评分,优化获得超高压处理工艺;同时,结合仪器测定样品的质构和白度,并进行极差分析,验证模糊数学法的准确性.结果表明:模糊数学法评价鱿鱼肉品质的权重集为 K=(色泽0.25,组织0.15,口感0.35,滋味0.25);应用模糊数学综合评价法优化得到的最佳超高压处理压力为300 M Pa、保压时间为10 min、协同温度为25℃;质构和白度正交试验结果表明,影响鱿鱼片感官品质因素顺序为压力>协同温度>保压时间,最佳组合为A2 C2 B1,即最佳工艺条件为压力300 MPa、保压时间10 min、协同温度25℃.模糊数学评价方法得到的结果与仪器分析方法得到的结果一致,进一步验证了模糊数学感官评定方法的可行性和准确性.在此超高压条件下,鱿鱼片弹性最好,剪切力最低,白度值较高,品质达到最优.%Summary Squid ( Dosidicus gigas) has become one of important aquatic protein resources nowadays because of its appetizing , nourishing quality , low price as well as large fishing amount . However , because of its high insoluble myostromin ( 11 .0% ) and connective tissue with longitudinal , radial and circular orientations in squid muscle , its meat was sensitive to heat processing which made the traditional squid product taste tough and hard , as a result hindering greatly the edibility of old people and infant . Until now , the methods of activating endogenous protease or adding exogenous enzymes were usually used for improving the quality of squid meat , while the enzymic method would damage its appearance and was harmful for maintaining the quality . Ultra‐high pressure technology is one kind of physical technology with high efficiency . Previous studies had found that