WorldWideScience

Sample records for appetizers

  1. Neurofunctional areas related to food appetency in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juán José Cervantes-Navarrete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Anorexia Nervosa the observable phenomenon is the suppression of appetite. Little is known about the biological and psychological (top-down bases that maintain this pathological state. However, Anorexia Nervosa is a biological, psychological and social model where the main behavioral characteristic is the inhibition of eating behavior; not by bottom-up but top-down regulation. Objective: To explore the areas of the brain associated with food appetency through functional magnetic resonance in women with anorexia nervosa. Methods: The subjects include 5 female with Restrictive type of Anorexia Nervosa and five controls female with similar in age and low weigh. The subjects were within the MRI scanner and while took fMRI they saw food images that would generate appetite. The subjects were in fasting state and mentally prepare by instruction “imagine you are eating the food presented in the following images”. Results: Compared differences in the activation between subjects four regions were found significant: the anterior cingulate, left front medial region and the left and right midbrain. Conclusions: The patients with Anorexia Nervosa present different activated cerebral areas to those of the controls during the visual exposition to food in hungry state and with evoke cognitions associated with eat food; those regions may be implicated in reward and self-control.

  2. Appetency and Destruction Analysis of Pequod' s Sink in Moby Dick%欲望与毁灭——解读《白鲸》中“披谷德号”的沉没

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵慧杰

    2012-01-01

    《白鲸》是19世纪美国著名小说家赫尔曼·梅尔维尔的主要作品之一。自问世以来深受评论界的关注,其蕴含的深刻内涵和现实意义一直以来都是人们研究的热点。本文通过对小说中捕鲸船披谷德号的悲剧成因进行分析,阐述人性在这一悲剧中扮演的角色。对这一悲剧分析,可以帮助我们在经济高速发展的当代社会正确对待自身的欲望,处理好欲望与人自身的关系。%Moby Dick is one of the masterpieces of Herman Melville. For its great realistic significance, it has gained lots of attention since it was published. This essay probes into the effect of humanity in Pequod' s destruction. Pequod' s tragic end shows that people should tread human appetency properly. Peqoud, as a whaler, bears the weight of many different kinds of human appeteney which are unavoidably to be accomplished. Meanwhile, to cater for the appetency, the ship launches out desperately and sinks to the bottom of the sea at last.

  3. 白术茯苓汤及水煎液提取分离组分对脾气虚大鼠血管活性肠肽受体亲和力的影响%Effect of Baizhu Fuling Decoction and its separative components extracted from water solution on VIP-R appetency of rats with spleen Qi deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢磊; 贾波; 罗云波; 祝捷; 彭成; 彭腾; 张丰华; 欧晓红

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察白术茯苓汤及其水煎液提取分离组分对脾气虚大鼠血管活性肠肽(VIP)受体亲和力的影响.方法:以耗气破气加饥饱失常法复制脾气虚大鼠模型,采用放射性配基结合分析法检测各组VIP受体最大结合容量(RT)和受体亲和常数(Kd).结果:各组RT无统计学差异;与空白组比较,模型组Kd值升高(P<0.01);与模型组比较,总多糖、络合物组Kd值呈下降趋势,白术内酯Ⅲ组Kd值呈升高趋势,但皆无统计学意义;白术茯苓汤组、组分配伍组Kd值显著降低(P<0.05).结论:白术茯苓汤及组分配伍组能提高VIP受体亲和力;不同组分对Kd的效应具有一定差异性,配伍则显示可能具有协同增效作用.%Objective: To observe the effects of Baizhu Fuling decoction and its separative components extracted from water solution on VIP-R appetency of rats with Spleen Qi deficiency. Methods: To copy the models of rats with spleen Qi deficiency with the method of exhaustion, dissipating stagnant Qi and irregular diet, radioactive ligands combination analysis was used to test each groups RT and Kd of receptor affinity of VIP. Results: RT value in all groups had no significant difference. Compared with blank group, Kd value in model group was higher(P<0.01). Compared with model group, Kd value of high dosage total polysaccharide, complex compound group was on a declining curve, while its value of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae lactone I high dosage group was of rising tendency, which were no significant difference.Baizhu fuling decoction and high dosage group of component compatibility could lower Kd Value(P<0.05). Conclusion: Baizhu fuling decoction and component compatibility group could raise receptor affinity of VIP; Kd effects of different groups possessed differentiation, and compatibility probably had synergistic effect.

  4. Inducing Negative Affect Increases the Reward Value of Appetizing Foods in Dieters

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Boswell, Rebecca G.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2012-01-01

    Experiencing negative affect frequently precedes lapses in self-control for dieters, smokers, and drug addicts. Laboratory research has similarly shown that inducing negative emotional distress increases the consumption of food or drugs. One hypothesis for this finding is that emotional distress sensitizes the brain’s reward system to appetitive stimuli. Using functional neuroimaging, we demonstrate that inducing negative affect in chronic dieters increases activity in brain regions represent...

  5. Good appearance of food gives an appetizing impression and increases cerebral blood flow of frontal pole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Amitani, Haruka; Adachi, Ryo; Morimoto, Toshiki; Kido, Megumi; Taruno, Yuka; Ogata, Keizaburo; Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of food appearance on appetite and on left-frontal pole blood flow in healthy young subjects. The iEat, a new form of foods with good appearance and greater softness was hypothesized to have the better effects to the subjects than blender-processed foods. The effect on appetite and left-frontal pole blood flow using hemoencephalography was assessed while participants were viewing the slideshows of two kinds of foods respectively. The slideshows were used to control the showing time and other variables. The pictures of iEat foods stimulated both of them more than the blender-processed ones. The measurement of cerebral blood flow could be a useful method to monitor the cognitive and emotional aspects of feeding behavior that are important for humans. Like iEat, the foods that look as good as ordinary food yet are softer can be used for people with poor appetite and eating difficulties to ordinary food. PMID:26653329

  6. Molecular functional characterization of appetence maturation and its nutrient-dependent control in the African malaria mosquito “Anopheles gambiae”

    OpenAIRE

    Arsic, Dany; Guerin, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Le moustique Anopheles gambiae (anophèle) est le principal vecteur du paludisme (malaria) en Afrique sub-saharienne. Les repas sanguins fréquents pris par les femelles adultes sur des êtres humains multiplient les occasions de transmission des parasites sanguins du genre Plasmodium responsables du paludisme. Une meilleure compréhension de la régulation des comportements de recherche d’hôte entrepris par les moustiques femelles, ainsi que de leurs comportements alimentaires et de leur reproduc...

  7. 主智与化欲--张东荪对理智与人欲的安置%To Promote the Intellect and to Subdue the Appetencies——Zhang Dongsun's arrangsment of the intellect and the appetency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秋丽

    2003-01-01

    根据对20世纪初中国社会现状的观察与分析,张东荪借鉴西方层创进化论、精神分析学等观点对中国传统人生哲学进行了尝试性重建,提出了"主智的"、"化欲的"人生观,以引导人们过一种理性的生活,从而解决当时理智初醒带来的社会流弊及中国社会"推""挽"失调的问题.他的主张为人们提供了处理理智与人欲关系问题的一种可能性方式.

  8. Sensitivity and Specificity of Hypnosis Effects on Gastric Myoelectrical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Enck; Jochen Hefner; Herbert, Beate M.; Nazar Mazurak; Katja Weimer; Muth, Eric R.; Stephan Zipfel; Ute Martens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal) functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. Design: Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrog...

  9. Application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) in monitoring of terrestrial habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Strandberg, Beate; Bak, Jesper Leth

    2015-01-01

    I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data” that are......I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data...

  10. What's Hot, What's Not 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of a plague of locusts, it seems as if the past five years have thrown every imaginable challenge at IT--from the incredible shrinking budget to BYOD and now the MOOC monster. For those of a superstitious bent, these were probably just appetizers to the crises that will inevitably accompany a year featuring the number 13 (cue…

  11. Hvad er hjemkundskabslæreren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2009-01-01

        En appetizer: De praktisk-musiske fag på dagsordenen Temaet for denne artikel er hjemkundskabsfaget, -professionen og dens praktisering belyst gennem et interviewstudie fra 2008 af lærerstuderende og deres lærere. Dette studie relateres til forfatterens tidligere studie af fag og profession i...

  12. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Park Hyatt Beijing All You Can Eat Weekend Kitchen Party at IFW Every weekend and public holiday,enjoy an all-you-can-eat menu featuring more than 48 delectable appetizers,rice,noodles,dump-lings,stir-fry and desserts served with free-flowing

  13. A New Cultivation-Evolution Technology of Accident Immune Function for a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhenhong; Zhang Xuhua; Wang Xiangyao; Wang Zhihu; Liu Yan; Zhang Xuan

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of developing an immune function on production accidents in a petrochemical enterprise, a new cultivation-evolution approach of preventive mechanism is suggested by analyzing various factors relating to immune deficiency syndrome and by referring to immunity genetic algorithm and relevant concepts applied in medicine science. Accident-immunity system for highly hazardous petrochemical enterprise, which is made up of its productive system's Safety Organ and Safety Organization, is typically an evolution-cultivation progress for immune function, The new B immune cell is generated after several layers' screening, clone expanding, receptor editing, organizing in immune system of work accident in petrochemical enterprise. There is a B immune cell with high appetency and a manipulative function chain for accident-immunity. Taking the antigen of accidents in industry as the target function and the immune antibody as the solution, the authors carried out a computation diagram for prediction of appetency between the antigen and antibody.

  14. RESTAURANT & BAR INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Home of the Finest Belgian Cuisine Morel's Western Restaurant, in a blend of Belgian and French cuisines, is the best choice for a European dining experience. Savor the exotic salad made of green vegetables, mushrooms and smoked salmon, or select a main course of popular Brussels black pepper steak. It will go perfectly with our light, crisp Belgian battercakes as an appetizer! Refresh yourself with our exclusive imported Belgian beers. Of course, other selections on wines and soft drinks will give you a...

  15. Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith: A Review of Its Ethnomedicinal, Chemical, and Pharmacological Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Salleh, M. Z.; Teh, L. K.; M. M. R. Meor. Mohd. Affandi; S. Mohd. Jofrry; Yob, N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Zingiber zerumbet Sm., locally known to the Malay as “Lempoyang,” is a perennial herb found in many tropical countries, including Malaysia. The rhizomes of Z. zerumbet, particularly, have been regularly used as food flavouring and appetizer in various Malays' cuisines while the rhizomes extracts have been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments (e.g., inflammatory- and pain-mediated diseases, worm infestation and diarrhea). Research carried out using different in...

  16. Potential Transmission of Human Fascioliasis Through Traditional Local Foods, in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafi, K; MA Valero; K Forghan-Parast; M Rezaeian; SJ Shahtaheri; MR Hadiani; Bargues MD; S Mas-Coma

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of infective metacercariae, attached to watercress or other various species of water and terrestrial plants, has been implicated as the main source of human contamination by fasciolid flukes. Presence of several species of aromatic wild grown plants, which are eaten fresh on the table or used for preparation of some plant-made foods (Delar, mixture of salt and ground local plants, as a paste and Zeitoon-Parvardeh , olives in walnut sauce, as an appetizer) have been suggested to play...

  17. Estudio del enriquecimiento de manzana con prebióticos, probióticos y componentes antioxidantes provenientes de zumo de mandarina por impregnación a vacío para el desarrollo de aperitivos altamente funcionales y con bajo contenido calórico

    OpenAIRE

    BETALLELUZ PALLARDEL, INDIRA MILAGROS

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The present research is framed in the development of two proposals of appetizers as alternatives to existing commercial products, some with negative consequences for health. In a first stage, we studied the feasibility of the vacuum impregnation (IV) technique to incorporate oligofructose (Orafti P95) in apple (var. Granny Smith); and, in a second stage, developed a symbiotic juice from mandarin with oligofructose and inoculated with Lactobacillus salivarius spp salivarius for incorporat...

  18. 摂食障害患者における発症状況分類とその特徴についての検討

    OpenAIRE

    大村, 慶子

    1999-01-01

    The author examined groups of patients with eating disorders classified according to onset situation,and discussed the clinical features of each group. Forty-one female patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa diagnosed by ICD-10 criteria were studied. The patients were classified into 3 types:diet, appetite loss and bulimic types. There were 25 patients in the diet type. The onset was dieting behavior. There were 10 patients in the appetite loss type. The onset was involuntary appet...

  19. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntal Ghosh; Baghel, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral), Aphrodisiac (vrishya), Appetizer (dipana); used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta), Purpura (Raktapitta), Emaciation (Kshaya), Mental disorder (Chetovikara), etc. In the present stud...

  20. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    OpenAIRE

    JensBlechert; AdrianMeule; KathrinOhla

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food i...

  1. 家常菜(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Editor's Note: Since the hot summer is here, Women of China will introduce two dishes——one for an appetizer(cold dish) and one for a main course(hot dish). Sautéed Beef Filet with Black Pepper黑椒牛柳Ingredients:Beef filet(200g),1 onion,1 green pepper, black pepper powder,chili oil,oyster sauce,cooking wine,starch,salt,sugar,chicken essence Preparations:

  2. Human Exposure Assessment of Engineered Inorganic Nanoparticles in Food

    OpenAIRE

    Fabricius, Lars

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly important part of food technology is nanotechnology. Inorganic nanoparticles are added directly or indirectly to food in order to create new tastes, appetizing looks or to preserve it longer. Exposure to these nanoparticles is fairly unknown, and there is a need to evaluate the dose that humans are exposed to. In this master thesis, two inorganic substances have been chosen. The first one is silver nanoparticles, commonly known as an antimicrobial agent and added to plastic fo...

  3. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B.; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C.G.; Stancak, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation under...

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) a...

  5. Detection by PCR of Multiple Subgroups of Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV) in Broilers in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmelik Ibrahim Khalafalla; Maaz Majzoub Abdel-Latif

    2005-01-01

    An investigation on avian leukosis virus infection in broiler parent farm in Khartoum state, Sudan was conducted. Clinical signs, morbidity rate, mortality rate were recorded. Necropsy was performed, histopathological sections from infected livers were made, and virus isolation trials in chick embryo fibroblast and chorioallantoic membrane were performed. PCR tests were performed on DNA extracted from infected livers and spleen. Affected birds showed in-appetence, abnormal feathering, palenes...

  6. Influence of cyproheptadine on clomipramine induced sexual dysfunction in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sheshadri Shekar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The cyproheptadine a drug used as appetizer has the ability to elevate testosterone levels; it has also protected the testis from clomipramine induced damage. The sexual behaviour of the rats which were under treatment with clomipramine was also restored partially in TD and 2TD whereas the rats which were under and frac12; TD clmp treatment were restored to normal. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1359-1365

  7. Fetishizing Food in Digital Age: #foodporn Around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Mejova, Yelena; Abbar, Sofiane; Haddadi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    What food is so good as to be considered pornographic? Worldwide, the popular #foodporn hashtag has been used to share appetizing pictures of peoples' favorite culinary experiences. But social scientists ask whether #foodporn promotes an unhealthy relationship with food, as pornography would contribute to an unrealistic view of sexuality. In this study, we examine nearly 10 million Instagram posts by 1.7 million users worldwide. An overwhelming (and uniform across the nations) obsession with ...

  8. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F; Hartmann, Bolette; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    mmol/l on all days. The meal stimulus for the MSF consisted of an appetizing breakfast. Participants (9/10) also had a 6 mmol/l glucose clamp without MSF. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels rose from 6.3 ± 1.1 to 19.9 ± 6.8 pmol/l (means ± SE) in response to MSF and atropine lowered basal PP levels and...

  9. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hilton Beijing Wangfujing Showcasing an array of brunch favorites and international selections, complemented by a free flow of premium champagne, Beijing’s newest champagne brunch-"fizztastic"-offers a culinary discovery and hint of the forbidden at Penta Dining Haven, the fifth floor collection of restaurants and bars at Hilton Beijing Wangfujing every Sunday starting on September 13. Titillate the palate of your family and friends with the appetizing selection of brunch traditions

  10. Buclizine- old wine in new bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Buclizine is a first generation antihistaminic with some anticholinergic potential. This drug has specific pharmacological indications in allergy, morning sickness, migraine, motion sickness and insomnia with some or doubtful success. It is an obsolete drug of decline use due to better availability of second and third generation antihistamines. Buclizine, a forgotten drug used in past is now re-introduced as an appetite stimulant. Previously one of the counterpart “cyproheptadine” was used but currently banned from most part of the world due to untoward effects. The standard textbook of pediatrics has not mentioned buclizine as an appetizer. On the other side, no article published (Pub med search in last few decades to favors this claim. This drug has no space in WHO essential medicine list probably due to doubtful safety. A scientific issue arises- Does children require appetite stimulant? Appetizers are never be a rational solution. They can be used as adjunct because of their placebo effect. Meanwhile placebo has limited role in children on behalf of other party (parents involvement. Misperception about diet, feeding practice, dysfunctional ‘parent child interaction’ etc. needed proper counselling rather than prescribing an appetite stimulant. There may be risk, that buclizine to become “OTC” appetizer in future due to current promotional spurt by pharmaceutical. However, large scale multicentric clinical trials are needed before promotion of buclizine as pediatric appetite stimulant, with careful watch of pharmacovigilance perspective. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 122-122

  11. Turp (Raphanus sativus L.) Sebzesinin Fonksiyonel Gıda Olarak Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    AKAN, S.; VEZİROĞLU, S.; ÖZGÜN, Ö.; ELLİALTIOĞLU, Ş.

    2013-01-01

    In order to be said a food has functional attributes, it will convey to the consumer both the unique characteristics of the food and associated health benefits. Today, species-based researches are making within foods with more micro-level approaches; one of these functional foods is radish. Radish, which has important roles in diet of people, raw-eaten and consumed as appetizer vegetable in meals; has high amount of medical and nutritional content. In this study, results of researches about t...

  12. Cooking: Cooking practice

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako; Mitreva, Elizabeta; Metodijeski, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    In this book the topic of cooking has been main topic.First products of animal origin has been investigated,than grain and grain products.Cold appetizers have been subject of investigation in the fifth chapter,followed by chapter six in which soups and potages had been introduced.In chapter seven and eight sauces and fish dishes were described.Afterwards beef dishes and national dishes had been introduced.,also vegetarian diet had been subject of interest in the last two chapters.

  13. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....

  14. The umami taste in pigs: L-amino acid preferences and in vitro recognition by the receptor dimer pT1r1/pT1r3 expressed in porcine taste and non-taste tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Tedó Pérez, Maria Gemma

    2009-01-01

    The present work was divided into three main areas of study, (1) the development of a reliable "in vivo" model for double choice (DOCH) testing in piglets avoiding the isolation time and fasted state of animals to evaluate weaned pig preferences, consumption and appetence under a fed-state for Glycine and several L-amino acids at different concentrations (-in vivo trials- Chapter 1), (2) identifying and characterizing the porcine Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 gene sequences in pigs, to construct a stable...

  15. A dynamical-system picture of a simple branching-process phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops ideas from a previous paper described as `an appetizer for non-linear Wiener--Hopf theory', but is completely independent of that paper. It again considers only the simplest possible case in which the underlying motion of the branching particles is described by a two-state Markov chain. Key generating functions provide solutions of a simple two-dimensional dynamical system, and the main interest is in the way in which Probability Theory and ODE theory complement each other. ODE pictures convey rather strikingly a simple phase transition. No knowledge of either ODE theory or Wiener--Hopf theory is assumed.

  16. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 198, implementing the first step in fulfilling the central purpose of DOE's annually updated Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP). The first FYP had been developed three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect (and will, it is hoped, serve as a kind of appetizer for) the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: (1) focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment; (2) containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination; and (3) developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals. 101 refs

  17. The research on the adsorption effect on metal ions by immobilized marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian; QIU Haiyuan; CAI Zhenzhen; CHEN Lidan; ZHENG Shenghua; HUANG Zhiwei

    2006-01-01

    The process of adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ by immobilized marine algae was investigated. It can be noted from the results that, the process for biosorption of heavy metals (copper, cadmium) by immobilized Laminaria japonica can be described by the Banerm model.According to the model, the adsorption rate constant calculated was 0.107 8 and 0.030 28 min-1 for Cu2+ and Cd2+ respectively. The experimental biosorption equilibrium data for Cu2+ and Cd2+ were in good agreement with those calculated by the Langmuir model. The maximum uptake capacity calculated was 83.3 and 112.4 mg/g for Cu2+ and Cd2+ according to the Langmuir model, respectively. The appetency of Laminaria japonica to Cu2+was better than Cd2+.

  18. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

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    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  20. Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith: A Review of Its Ethnomedicinal, Chemical, and Pharmacological Uses

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    N. J. Yob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zingiber zerumbet Sm., locally known to the Malay as “Lempoyang,” is a perennial herb found in many tropical countries, including Malaysia. The rhizomes of Z. zerumbet, particularly, have been regularly used as food flavouring and appetizer in various Malays' cuisines while the rhizomes extracts have been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments (e.g., inflammatory- and pain-mediated diseases, worm infestation and diarrhea. Research carried out using different in vitro and in vivo assays of biological evaluation support most of these claims. The active pharmacological component of Z. zerumbet rhizomes most widely studied is zerumbone. This paper presents the botany, traditional uses, chemistry, and pharmacology of this medicinal plant.

  1. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  2. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  3. [The onset of drug abuse in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chvíla, L; Vengrínová, J

    1989-08-01

    The paper deals with drug abuse in minors who are on the records of the regional surgery for toxicomania in Ostrava-Poruba. The authors give an account of examinations of 27 children aged 7.5 to 14 years. They emphasize the social and psychological aspects leading in these children to drug abuse. They present the basic four types of children who incline to failure in this respect: markedly extrovert subjects with good intellect, markedly submissive children, more introvert subjects with inferior intellect, neglected children with poor intellect and behavioural disorders and children with a high appetence for the drug. In the conclusion the authors emphasize possibilities of prevention within the discipline of psychiatry. PMID:2805126

  4. Plant Extracts; a New Rumen Moderator in Ruminant Diets

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    H. R. Kutlu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of antibiotics in animal feeds has been banned, researches on alternative natural products that modulate ruminal fermentation have been intensified. Natural compounds such as plant extracts have been considered to be replace antibiotics as safe and sustainable alternatives.Plant extracts in the rumen form complexes with dietary proteins and thus protect them from microbial fermentation. Plant extracts, especially including saponins, have strong antiprotozoal activity. The elimination of protozoa from the rumen provides some benefits to overcome the loss of available protein. Plant extracts also have appetizing properties, which promotes greater feed intake, better performance and secretion of endogenous enzymes and digestive juices, leading to improve nutrient digestibility. Plant extracts have also potential to provide ammonia control and nitrogen binding activity; which contributes to form cleaner and healthier environment.

  5. Determination of needed feed for youth swine

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    Diana Marin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the structure of the feed, pigs feeding witch represents biological material of our study, is performed with grained feed which provides 15.7% PB until a body mass of 60 kg and also the 13.7% PB up to 110 kg. The necessary may be defined as the amount of nutrients needed to an animal within 24 hours. But also the reference can be made not to a single animal but to a homogenous group of animals. Besides ensuring energy level (about 3500 kcal/kg of protein (20-22% PB, amino acids, minerals and vitamins, this mixed fodder should be as appetizing (introducing powder milk is strictly necessary and as digestible.

  6. Adansonia digitata L.: A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology

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    Van Damme, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae is a multi-purpose tree species native to Africa. Its fruit pulp has very high vitamin content (~ ten times that of orange, and can be used in seasoning, as an appetizer and to make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of crude protein, digestible carbohydrates and oil, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, Ca and Fe. They can be eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour and thus added to soups and stews. Processing eliminates a number of anti-nutritional factors present in the seed. Baobab leaves are superior in nutritional quality to fruit pulp, and contain significant levels of vitamin A. The leaves are a staple for many populations in Africa, and are eaten fresh or dried. Several plant parts have interesting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and baobab has been used extensively since ancient times in traditional medicine.

  7. Comparison of two formulations of buprenorphine in cats administered by the oral transmucosal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolami, Elisa; Slingsby, Louisa; Love, Emma J

    2012-08-01

    This randomised, blinded, cross-over study investigated the ease of oral transmucosal administration of two formulations of buprenorphine using glucose as a control in 12 cats. The cats received three treatments: buprenorphine multi-dose, buprenorphine and the equivalent volume of glucose 5%. Ease of treatment administration, observation of swallowing, changes in pupil size, sedation, salivation, vomiting, behaviour and food intake were assessed. The data were analysed using MLwiN and multi-level modelling. Ease of administration of buprenorphine multi-dose was statistically different from glucose (P 0.05). Mydriasis was evident after the administration of both formulations of buprenorphine. Sedation, salivation, vomiting, behavioural changes or in-appetence were not observed after any treatment. Cats tolerated oral transmucosal administration of glucose better than buprenorphine multi-dose, while buprenorphine administration was tolerated as well as glucose. PMID:22403414

  8. 高考英语听力十大必备场景词汇精选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    (1)餐馆场景:order 点菜 serve 上菜 change 零钱 Keep the change!不用找零钱了! Here is your change这是你的零钱 tip 小费 treat 请客(This is my treat!我请客! It’s on me.)go Dutch AA 制(Let’s go fifty.)steak牛排 cheese 奶酪 sandwich 三明治 bacon 腌肉 soup 汤 自来水(西餐中洗手用的) appetizer 开胃物 dessert 甜品。

  9. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings. PMID:20219123

  10. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  11. PEMANFAATAN HASIL PERIKANAN SEBAGAI PRODUK BERNILAI TAMBAH (VALUE-ADDED DALAM UPAYA PENGANEKARAGAMAN PANGAN [Utilization of Fishery Products with Added Value to Support Food Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Winarni Agustini

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of fishery products efficiently and cooperatively is important to improve esthetical value of the products. Diversification of fishery products is possible to be implemented, both vertically and horizontally. Understanding of their processing technology is very important for fish processors in order to produce healthy products and highly accepted by consumers.In accordance to the government policy about National Food Safety Programs, one of which is to improve the production of processed food, the diversification of fishery processing should be pointed to very focus condition. The consumption of fish is still low in Indonesia ( 21.69 kg per capita per year, while the fishery resources are abundance. Therefore, efforts in increasing consumption of fish by the consumer to reach the target of the national program i.e. 26.5 kg/capita/year are needed. Production of “Value-added” by diversification method is aimed not only to improve consumption but also to create appetizing products for the consumers. Some examples of “Value Added” product that are becoming popular nowadays include: fish ball, milk fish pressed-cooked, fish nuggets, fish sausage, ekado fish, aji furai, etc. Some products had been sold by home industries but is still possible to produce in industrial scale. The raw material used can be from marine or cultured fish and also frozen surimi, that are potential to be implemented in Indonesia.

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Model Predicting the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900 in Homemade Eggplant Salad at Various Temperatures, pHs, and Oregano Essential Oil Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Nychas, George-John E.

    2000-01-01

    Homemade eggplant salad, a traditional Greek appetizer, was inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900 supplemented with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (0.0, 0.7, 1.4, and 2.1% [vol/wt]) and stored at different temperatures (0, 5, 10, and 15°C). The product's pH was adjusted to 4.0, 4.5, or 5.0 with lemon juice. For each combination of the environmental factors, the bacterial counts were modeled, using the Baranyi model, as a function of time to estimate the kinetic parameters of the pathogen. A reduction of more than 1 log unit in E. coli O157:H7 counts was observed in all cases, and the death rate depended on the pH, the storage temperature, and the essential oil concentration. Separate quadratic models were developed with natural logarithms of the shoulder period and death rate as estimated by the growth model, as a function of temperature, pH, and oregano essential oil concentrations. These were further used to predict the population of E. coli O157:H7 NCTC 12900 from other inoculated eggplant salads at random conditions of temperature, pH, and oregano oil concentration. The predicted values were compared with viable-count measurements for validation. PMID:10742255

  13. tty profile and potential application of oil from the seeds of Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.14461

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil there is a semi-arid region of the Bahia State where the transition between caatinga and cerrado prevails. The Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns belongs to Bombacaceae family, and is frequent in this region. Fruit of Bombacopsis retusa have seeds edible by native fauna and appreciated as appetizer nut in small local villages. With the purpose of verifying the potential application of the oil of this species in different industrial segments, the crude oil of Bombacopsis retusa seeds was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus with 55.5% yield. The physical and chemical analyses to determine the oleochemical indices showed acid value of 0.09 mg KOH-1 g-1, iodine value of 62.80 g I2-1 100 g-1, saponification index of 192.80 mg KOH-1 g-1, refractive index (40°C of 1.468 and a melting point of 43.90°C. To determine the fatty profile of this oil was applied the CG-DIC that revealed the predominance of palmitic (59.98%, oleic (19.25% and linoleic (8.47% acids, besides the saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio equal to 2.70. These results suggested that the oil of Bombacopsis retusa is a functional, sustainable and competitive raw-material to be used in agro-energy, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.   

  14. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  15. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

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    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  16. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C.; Michael, Andrew M.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex. PMID:27378880

  17. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  18. Using High Spatial Resolution to Improve BOLD fMRI Detection at 3T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iranpour

    Full Text Available For different functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD contrast, the acquisition of T2*-weighted scans at a high spatial resolution may be advantageous in terms of time-course signal-to-noise ratio and of BOLD sensitivity when the regions are prone to susceptibility artifacts. In this study, we explore this solution by examining how spatial resolution influences activations elicited when appetizing food pictures are viewed. Twenty subjects were imaged at 3 T with two different voxel volumes, 3.4 μl and 27 μl. Despite the diminution of brain coverage, we found that high-resolution acquisition led to a better detection of activations. Though known to suffer to different degrees from susceptibility artifacts, the activations detected by high spatial resolution were notably consistent with those reported in published activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, corresponding to taste-responsive regions. Furthermore, these regions were found activated bilaterally, in contrast with previous findings. Both the reduction of partial volume effect, which improves BOLD contrast, and the mitigation of susceptibility artifact, which boosts the signal to noise ratio in certain regions, explained the better detection noted with high resolution. The present study provides further evidences that high spatial resolution is a valuable solution for human BOLD fMRI, especially for studying food-related stimuli.

  19. An artificial intelligence system for computer-assisted menu planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petot, G J; Marling, C; Sterling, L

    1998-09-01

    Planning nutritious and appetizing menus is a complex task that researchers have tried to computerize since the early 1960s. We have attempted to facilitate computer-assisted menu planning by modeling the reasoning an expert dietitian uses to plan menus. Two independent expert systems were built, each designed to plan a daily menu meeting the nutrition needs and personal preferences of an individual client. One system modeled rule-based, or logical, reasoning, whereas the other modeled case-based, or experiential, reasoning. The 2 systems were evaluated and their strengths and weaknesses identified. A hybrid system was built, combining the best of both systems. The hybrid system represents an important step forward because it plans daily menus in accordance with a person's needs and preferences; the Reference Daily Intakes; the Dietary Guidelines for Americans; and accepted aesthetic standards for color, texture, temperature, taste, and variety. Additional work to expand the system's scope and to enhance the user interface will be needed to make it a practical tool. Our system framework could be applied to special-purpose menu planning for patients in medical settings or adapted for institutional use. We conclude that an artificial intelligence approach has practical use for computer-assisted menu planning. PMID:9739801

  20. Studying the impact of plating on ratings of the food served in a naturalistic dining context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Charles; Velasco, Carlos; Fraemohs, Paul; Spence, Charles

    2015-07-01

    An experiment conducted in a naturalistic dining context is reported, in which the impact of different styles of plating on diners' experience of the food was assessed. A hundred and sixty three diners were separated into two groups during a luncheon event held in a large dining room. Each group of diners was served the same menu, with a variation in the visual presentation of the ingredients on the plate. The results revealed that the diners were willing to pay significantly more for the appetizer (a salad), when arranged in an artistically-inspired manner (M = £5.94 vs. £4.10). The main course was liked more, and considered more artistic, when the various elements were presented in the centre of the plate, rather than placed off to one side. The participants also reported being willing to pay significantly more for the centred than for the offset plating (M = £15.35 vs. £11.65). These results are consistent with the claim that people "eat first with their eyes", and that a diner's experience of the very same ingredients can be significantly enhanced (or diminished) simply by changing the visual layout of the food elements of the dish. Results such as these suggest that theories regarding the perception of food can potentially be confirmed (or disconfirmed) outside of the confines of the laboratory (i.e., in naturalistic dining settings). PMID:25728885

  1. THE DISCRETE BEAUTY: AESTHETIC FOOD MBYÁ-GUARANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the palate, excessively felt also the preparation and consumption of foods are set in motion in. The vision is basic in this process, assisting the palate in the determination of that he is " appetizing". Thus, also we eat with the eyes, therefore beyond a good taste the food also it needs to offer a pleasant appearance. It occurs that each culture possesss specific tastes how much to the food. In the same way, each culture presents singularity in the visual presentation of its plates. This aesthetic specific, related to other domínios of the thought, reflects the social and cosmological order of the group that puts it in practical. Thus being, it is intended, through the ethnografic method, to more investigate the appreciated forms of visual presentation of foods between the Mbyá-Guarani, present aboriginal group in the south of Brazil, as well as the directions that this ethnic partiality attributes to the aesthetic one of its foods.

  2. Phototoxic effects of zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) complexed with 5-ALA in RD cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Ali, S. M. U.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Atif, M.; Willander, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this current study, we have manifested the photosensitizing effects of zinc oxide nanowires (ZnO NWs) in dark as well as under ultra violet light exposure with 240 nm of UV region, using human muscle cancer (Rhybdomyosarcoma cells, RD) as in vitro experimental model. We have fabricated ZnO-NWs on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter) and were conjugated using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) for the efficient intracellular drug delivery. When ZnO NWs were applied on tumor localizing drugs with non ionizing illumination, then excited drug liberates reactive oxygen species (ROS), effecting mitochondria and nucleus resulting in cell necrosis within few minutes. During investigations, we observed that when ZnO-NWs grown on intracellular tip was excited by using 240 nm of UV light, as a resultant 625 nm of emitted red light were used as appetizer in the presence of 5-ALA for chemical reaction, which produces singlet oxygen, responsible for cell necrosis. Morphological changes of necrosed cells were examined under microscopy. Moreover, Viability of controlled and treated RD cells with optimum dose of light (UV-Visible) has been assessed by MTT assay as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection.

  3. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Allès, Benjamin; Feron, Gilles; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP) and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women) in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The "healthy" DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish) was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women), and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men), age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women). The "western" DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol) was positively associated with BMI (men) and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women) and living alone. The "traditional" DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock) was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men), and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The "healthy" DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts. PMID:27509523

  4. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain. PMID:25475348

  5. Effects of psychoactive drugs on operant responding and non-operant activity of rats with hippocampal system damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, R N; Holloway, F A

    1986-04-01

    The effects of various psychoactive drugs (methylphenidate, 0.2-8.0 mg/kg; pentobarbital, 0.5-10.0 mg/kg; caffeine, 3.2-32.0 mg/kg; imipramine, 1.0-20.0 mg/kg; d-amphetamine, 0.1-1.0 mg/kg) on the operant and non-operant behavior rates of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with various lesion types localized in the septal-hippocampal area were tested in an appetative operant paradigm utilizing both a response contingent (VI50 sec) and a response non-contingent (VT50 sec) schedule. In general, both pentobarbital and imipramine reduced the rate of both behavioral measures in a dose-dependent manner while the psychomotor stimulants tended to decrease operant rates and increase non-operant rates to varying degrees in all groups. There were differential drug effects among the various lesion types which would indicate specific drug responsivity patterns. These results are discussed in terms of their usefulness in understanding the therapeutic effects of these drugs in treating possible hippocampal dysfunction. PMID:3719379

  6. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

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    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  7. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

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    Kuntal Ghosh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benincasa hispida (Thunb. of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral, Aphrodisiac (vrishya, Appetizer (dipana; used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta, Purpura (Raktapitta, Emaciation (Kshaya, Mental disorder (Chetovikara, etc. In the present study fruit of Benincasa hispida was authenticated Pharmacognostically in the department of Pharmacognosy, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurveda University of Pharmacy, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Each and every drug has its own physical and chemical characteristics that help for separating it from other closely related drugs. Hence physicochemical studies of a particular drug by making use of various parameters help in standardizing the drug and validate it. Chromatographic techniques were adopted for the separation of active principles present in the fruit powder. Therefore, an attempt has been made to standardize Kushmanda powder, an Ayurvedic medicine based on the TLC and HPTLC fingerprint profile.

  8. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

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    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  9. Roots and vicissitudes of psychic bisexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Florent

    2016-06-01

    Sigmund Freud considered the difficulty in defining masculinity and femininity from a psychic point of view as a hiatus in psychoanalytic theory. I contend that masculinity pertains to the centrifugal (to that which goes out, and ultimately to that which one loses), and femininity to the centripetal (to the appetency for taking the object into one's own internal space), whether one is considering their archaic roots or their genitalized culmination. The masculine/feminine pair draws support from the body (and, through anaclisis, from the subjective space), identified with a container that is liable already in the first psychic stages of life to empty itself of its own content and to be filled by a foreign content: the content is subjective in the masculine and object-related in the feminine. The conflicts of ambivalence related to these two movements (desire/anxieties linked to active and passive penetration) lead to the setting up of the rigid and labile poles of the personality, and they are liable to give rise to obsessional and hysterical solutions respectively. My hypotheses will be examined in the light of the two key cases of hysteria and obsessional neurosis in Freud's work: Dora (1905e) and the Rat Man (1909d). PMID:27437624

  10. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  11. Adansonia digitata L.(baobab):a review of traditional information and taxonomic description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jitin; Rahul; Manish; Kumar; Jain; Shishu; Pal; Singh; Rakesh; Kant; Kama; Anuradha; Aliya; Naz; Anup; Kumar; Gupta; Sujeet; Kumar; Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Adansonia digitata L.(Malvaceae) is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa.Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food,clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items.The fruit pulp,seeds,leaves,flowers.roots,and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties.The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C.calcium,phosphorus,carbohydrates,fibers,potassium,proteins and lipids content,which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices.Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus,magnesium,zinc,sodium,iron,manganese,whereas they have high levels of lysine,thiamine,calcium and iron.Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial,anti-malarial,diarrhoea,anaemia,asthma,antiviral,anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others.Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids.phytosterols.amino acids,fatty acids,vitamins and minerals.The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information,taxonomic description,medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

  12. Utilization of protein-rich products from wheat-carbohydrate separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gras, P.W.; Simmonds, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    A key element in any proposal for obtaining liquid fuel from agricultural crops is the effective utilization of all by-products. Other papers in this symposium have suggested ways in which cereal straw and other crop and process wastes may be processed into useful fuel products. However, possibly the biggest challenge facing the cereal industry, if fuel from grain crops becomes a reality, is the effective use of the large amount of by-product protein which is potentially available from the process. This is even more of a challenge when the nutritional value of the combined cereal and microbial protein by-products is considered. In combination, protein from these two sources displays a desirable balance in its amino acid composition, and it should therefore be possible to upgrade it to furnish a valuable source of protein for human nutrition. Technology for spinning and texturizing vegetable proteins has been widely applied, particularly to soy proteins, while wheat gluten is already a component of many textured products on sale today. In addition, gluten derivatives having various functional properties have been developed in recent years. But what is required is the capacity to treat perhaps one million tonnes per year of combined wheat/microbial protein, and to upgrade it into an appetizing, nutritious and highly saleable food form. This could prove to be a major challenge to the industry if any serious attempt is made to obtain liquid fuels from agricultural sources such as cereal grains.

  13. Evaluation of anti-melanogenic activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruits obtained by two different extraction methods

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    M. Salimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dried pulps and peels of Ziziphus jujuba fruits are commonly applied as food because of their high nutritional value. It has been widely used in traditional medicine as laxative, tonic, wound healing agent and appetizer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-melanogenic effects of Z. jujuba fruit. Methods: Fruit extracts were obtained by two different extraction methods, percolation (cold extraction and soxhlet (hot extraction using methanol 80% as the solvent. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and anti-tyrosinase capacity of the MeOH extracts from Z. jujuba fruits were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the effects of fruit extracts on the melanin content and cytotoxicity on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cells were determined after 72 hours. Results: The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the cold extract were found higher in comparison to the hot extract. Moreover, the antioxidant (SC50 =1.40 mg/mL and anti-tyrosinase activities (IC50 = 0.54 mg/mL of the cold extract were significantly stronger than the hot extract. At the dose of 500 μg/mL, the cold extract showed weaker toxicity to the melanoma cells than the hot extract. Melanin content of the cold extract was reduced to 30% at this concentration, while the hot extract had no inhibitory effect on melanin formation. Conclusion: The results showed that the percolation method was more suitable for extraction of the (poly phenolics from Z. jujuba fruits. In addition, the results of tyrosinase activity and melanin content assays suggested that the cold extract of Z. jujuba fruit can be considered as a dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  14. THE EFFECT OF AYURVEDIC DRUGS WHEN USED AS DISEASE MODIFYING ANTIREUMATIC DRUGS (DMARD’S IN AMAVATA (RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

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    Panthulu Raghupathi Goud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD’S are therapeutic agents which rapidly reduce the intensity of inflammation and facilitate induction of remission. The sages of Ayurveda invented many remedies to combat this disease. Here an effort is made to evaluate once again the efficacy of some of the remedies. Ama and Vata are the two chief pathognomonic factors in causing Amavata. Ama has the qualities of heaviness (guru, unctuousness (Snigdha, immobility (Sthira, bulkiness (Sthula, and sliminess or stickiness (Pichhila. Vata has the properties of lightness (Laghu, dryness (Ruksha, movement (Chala, subtleness (Sukshma, and clearness (Vishada. Ama is the undigested food which results due to Mandagni (sluggish digestive fire which is caused due to various reasons. All types of metabolic fires (Agnis become sluggish in this disease. The stagnant Ama is called Ama visha. Ama is the substance which is the resultant of improper digestion of the food due to hypo-functioning of the gastric juices (Jatharagni. The drugs having the qualities of Tiktam (astringent, Deepana (appetizer and Katu (pungent modify the disease due to their qualities. The purgation property (Virechana guna modifies the process of disease. Castor oil (Eranda Tailam cures Vata diseases. It has been observed that after administration of Castor oil, the fluid from the inflamed joints and tissues has been drained away. Castor oil relieves pain, reduces inflammation and swelling, increases lymphatic circulation, reduces flatulence, stimulates the liver and the gall bladder, and reduces toxins. A scientific study on the effect of castor oil on humans found castor oil to be an antitoxin, and as having an impact on the lymphatic system enhancing the immune functioning of the body. Panchakola churnam is anti-inflammatory; it is an anti-oxidant, an immunomodulator, and a rejuvenator too. Hingu Triguna Tailam is digestive, carminative, analgesic and anti-rheumatic.

  15. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  16. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  17. RAMUAN JAMU CEKOK SEBAGAI PENYEMBUHAN KURANG NAFSU MAKAN PADA ANAK: SUATU KAJIAN ETNOMEDISIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiani Ika Limananti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Jamu is used in an efford to treat patiens with a traditional herbal medicine, which is well known among the community. The jamu is widely used for trating light health problems, preventing illness, increasing the endurance and the health of the body, besides for cosmetic reasons. Jamu cekok is a kind of jamu used in Yogyakarta, especially for children, given by forcing the mixture into the throat if children have no appetite. The aims of the article are to know the components of jamu cekok and also to know the jamu cekok use toward improving child health. The research took 5 Javanese families as informants. Additional informants is jamu cekok traditional shop and traditional herbalist. Data were obtained by interviews and observation during February to June 2003. Analysis data was descriptive using medical anthropology approach. The essential components of jamu cekok, called empon-empon are curcuma xanthorriza Robx (temulawak, Zingiber Americans l. (lempuyang emprit, Tinospora tuberculata Beume (brotowali, Curcuma aeruginaosa Robx(temu ireng and Carica papaya L. (papaya. The main aims to drink jamu cekok is to increase the appetive of the children because parents worried about the children growth and development. The children were threatened that they will be forced to drink jamu, if they did not want to consume food. The belief and suggestion factors of jamu cekok having special characteristics cause consumers become satisfied after giving jamu cekok to their children. Beside that,traditional medicine using natural ingredients regarded more secure and the price can be reached by common society. Drinking jamu cekok indicated that there is trend back to nature, which had possessed by their anchestor.

  18. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Sante Cohort Study.

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    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  19. A comprehensive analysis of sodium levels in the Canadian packaged food supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Au, Jennifer T.C.; Schermel, Alyssa; L’Abbe, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-wide sodium reduction strategies aim to reduce the cardiovascular burden of excess dietary sodium. Lowering sodium in packaged foods, which contribute the most sodium to the diet, is an important intervention to lower population intakes. Purpose To determine sodium levels in Canadian packaged foods and evaluate the proportion of foods meeting sodium benchmark targets set by Health Canada. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 7234 packaged foods available in Canada in 2010–11. Sodium values were obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Results Overall, 51.4% of foods met one of the sodium benchmark levels: 11.5% met Phase 1, 11.1% met Phase 2, and 28.7% met 2016 goal (Phase 3) benchmarks. Food groups with the greatest proportion meeting goal benchmarks were dairy (52.0%) and breakfast cereals (42.2%). Overall 48.6% of foods did not meet any benchmark level and 25% of all products exceeded maximum levels. Meats (61.2%) and canned vegetables/legumes and legumes (29.6%) had the most products exceeding maximum levels. There was large variability in the range of sodium within and between food categories. Food categories highest in sodium (mg/serving) were dry, condensed and ready-to-serve soups (834 ± 256, 754 ± 163, and 636 ± 173, respectively), oriental noodles (783 ± 433), broth (642 ± 239), and frozen appetizers/sides (642 ± 292). Conclusion These data provide a critical baseline assessment for monitoring sodium levels in Canadian foods. While some segments of the market are making progress towards sodium reduction, all sectors need encouragement to continue to reduce the amount of sodium added during food processing. PMID:24842740

  20. PENGEMBANGAN MAKANAN KHAS BALI SEBAGAI WISATA KULINER (CULINARY TOURISM DI DESA SEBATU KECAMATAN TEGALALANG GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Trisna Eka Putri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebatu village has its special characteristics of traditional foods and beverages which can be developed as culinarytourism. Besides the taste and form of the foods , the cooking process from the ingredients until become theready food, and the presentation of the foods can be the interesting attraction to offer. Organizing the traditionalfood and beverages of Sebatu Village which is the part of the daily life in this village need to be developed as theinteraction tools and media among the local community and the tourist. The activities form such as; eating andenjoy the food together ( for lunch or dinner, etc , organizing the restaurant, coffee shop, or cafe in the strategiclocation surrounding the village, cooking courses for the women organization and the other programs. Theseprograms of course need the education, training exercise and also the workshop how to make good presentation,improve the quality according to international standard, and also the sanitation and hygiene. Since Sebatu Villagedevelopes to become a Tourism Village as one of the destination, the organized traditional food and beveragesbusiness can be developed as the culinary tourism so that the local community can interacte directly with thetourists in Gianyar. The type of culinary to be developed in Sebatu such as : Jukut Ares as a appetizer. Nasi Sela,Tipat Cantok, Betutu, Be Guling, Lawar Gedang, Jukut Urab as the main course. Tape Ketan and Jaje Uli,,Jaje Dadar, Jaje Timus, Kolak Biu/Sela as the dessert. All of these culinary can be adapted to the internationalgastronomy from the form, purpose and essence so that it can be presented and offered to the tourists

  1. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna M; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik M; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Zin, Noraziah M

    2016-01-01

    Background Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity). Aim This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol. Conclusion On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary

  2. Piperidine alkaloids from Piper retrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-07-22

    The fruits of Piper retrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300mg/kg/day for 8weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver by decreasing hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Consistent with the in vitro results, PRPA activated AMPK signaling and altered the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in liver and skeletal muscle. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:21741367

  3. Survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in eggplant dip during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Jaradat, Ziad; Shaker, Reyad R; Alomari, Dalia Z; Al-Dabbas, Maher M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Natour, Mohammad Q; Holley, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Eggplant dip is an internationally popular appetizer, prepared in some instances under uncertain hygienic conditions with inconsistent refrigeration. This study examined the effects of citric acid on the survival of pathogenic microorganisms (Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus) and naturally present organisms (lactic acid bacteria, LAB, aerobic bacteria, APC and yeast and mold, YM) in eggplant dip during storage. Eggplant dip with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8% citric acid was inoculated with S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus and stored at 4, 10 and 21 °C for ≤15 d. Throughout the study, the survival of the inoculated microorganisms was monitored, and LAB, APC, YM numbers and pH were determined. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of citric acid on inoculated S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 survived >7d with little reduction in viability. Reduction of S. aureus viability increased with citric acid concentration and reached>3.0 log10 CFU/g by 15 d at 4 °C. Citric acid had no effect (p>0.05) on the background YM during storage at 4, 10 and 21 °C or LAB stored at 4 and 10 °C, while at 21 °C, 0.6 and 0.8% citric acid significantly reduced LAB. Citric acid had no effect (p>0.05) on the APC in samples stored at 4 °C but it had significant effects on samples stored at 10 and 21 °C. Work reported showed that the use of citric acid at 0.4-0.8% can inhibit the growth of S. aureus in eggplant dip, but adequate refrigeration is essential to minimize risk from this and other pathogens in this product. PMID:25590259

  4. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages. PMID:21929332

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure in Physalis peruviana and related taxa based on InDels and SNPs derived from COSII and IRG markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A.; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Delgadillo-Durán, Paola; Mayorga, Franklin; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    The genus Physalis is common in the Americas and includes several economically important species, among them Physalis peruviana that produces appetizing edible fruits. We studied the genetic diversity and population structure of P. peruviana and characterized 47 accessions of this species along with 13 accessions of related taxa consisting of 222 individuals from the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) germplasm collection, using Conserved Orthologous Sequences (COSII) and Immunity Related Genes (IRGs). In addition, 642 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) markers were identified and used for the genetic diversity analysis. A total of 121 alleles were detected in 24 InDels loci ranging from 2 to 9 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.04 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles in the SNP markers was two. The observed heterozygosity for P. peruviana with InDel and SNP markers was higher (0.48 and 0.59) than the expected heterozygosity (0.30 and 0.41). Interestingly, the observed heterozygosity in related taxa (0.4 and 0.12) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.59 and 0.25). The coefficient of population differentiation FST was 0.143 (InDels) and 0.038 (SNPs), showing a relatively low level of genetic differentiation among P. peruviana and related taxa. Higher levels of genetic variation were instead observed within populations based on the AMOVA analysis. Population structure analysis supported the presence of two main groups and PCA analysis based on SNP markers revealed two distinct clusters in the P. peruviana accessions corresponding to their state of cultivation. In this study, we identified molecular markers useful to detect genetic variation in Physalis germplasm for assisting conservation and crossbreeding strategies. PMID:26550601

  6. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  7. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  8. Investigation of chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yousefbeyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ziziphora clinopodioides is a perennial herb and grows widely in west and northwest of Iran. The aerial parts are used as appetizer, carminative and antiseptic as well as for the treatment of medical conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma hyperhidrosis, palpitation and insomnia Methods: The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were extracted by ethanol (70% and fractionated by n-hexane. The n-hexane fraction was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. This fraction and the total extract were further investigated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against HT-29 (colon carcinoma, K-562 (leukemia, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cells using MTT assay. Results:  Nineteen compounds were identified by GC/MS. The main constituents of the n-hexane fraction were pulegone (24.35%, menthol (14% and menthone (9.61%. The results of cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the n-hexane fraction strongly exhibited cytotoxic activity against T-47D and K-562 cells with IC50 value of 77.41±12.89 and 80±2.56 μg/mL. The total extract did not show considerable activity against any of the cell lines in comparison to the n-hexane fraction. Conclusion: The presence of compounds such as pulegone, menthol and menthone could explain the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction of Z. clinopodioides Lam on K-562, T-47D and HT-29 cell lines.

  9. Avaliação da qualidade de tomate seco em conserva Evaluation of quality of dried tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele A. Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco em conserva é alvo de crescente aceitação no mercado brasileiro; sua utilização é comum em aperitivos e na culinária como ingrediente de molhos e pizzas. Avaliou-se, neste trabalho o efeito dos seguintes fatores na qualidade do tomate seco: variedade de tomate (Rio Grande e Débora Plus, geometria de corte (pedaços de ½ e ¼ com relação ao eixo maior do fruto, presença ou ausência de sementes e teor de umidade final (25 e 35%, mediante análises instrumentais de cor e textura e testes sensoriais afetivos. Os resultados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor mastigabilidade e dureza, porém maior suscetibilidade ao escurecimento após o processo de secagem. De forma geral, a preferência dos consumidores foi por tomates secos com 35% de umidade final, enquanto a melhor qualidade final foi obtida a partir do tratamento com a variedade Rio Grande e umidade final de 35%.Preserved dried tomato has been gaining increasing acceptance in the Brazilian market, its use being common in appetizers and also in the cooking, as an ingredient of sauces and pizzas. The effect of the following factors on the quality of dried tomato was evaluated: variety of tomato (Rio Grande and Débora Plus, geometry of pieces (½ and ¼ to the fruit major axis, presence or absence of seeds and final moisture content (25 and 35% by means of instrumental texture, and color analysis and sensorial affective tests. The results showed that the variety Rio Grande presented better physical parameters but was more susceptible to darkness. Generally, the consumers preferred dried tomatoes at 35% moisture content. The best final quality of dried tomato was obtained from the treatment performed with Rio Grande variety and 35% final moisture content.

  10. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  11. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  12. 钼酸铵溶液化学沉淀法和离子交换法除钒研究%Removal of Vanadium from Ammonium Molybdate Solution by Chemical Precipitation and Ion Exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张报清; 雷霆; 方树铭; 王学文; 沈波涛; 姬成岗

    2012-01-01

    对采用化学沉淀法、运用A,B两种强碱性阴离子树脂交换法,从钼酸铵溶液中分离除钒的工艺条件进行了研究.研究结果表明:控制溶液pH值在8~9时,钒主要以VO3-状态存在,沉钒效率高,偏钒酸铵沉淀纯度也高,达98.5%以上.A树脂能够深度分离钼酸铵溶液中的钒,最佳工艺条件是:控制料液pH值在7.28左右和降低Cl-浓度.Cl-与A树脂有较强的亲和力,其浓度的增加会显著降低A树脂对钒的吸附容量.在溶液pH值为7.28,几乎不含Cl-的条件下,A树脂饱和吸钒容量达到了21.73 g·L-1,此工艺可控制钼酸铵溶液中钒浓度在0.02 g·L-1以下.A树脂最高解析回收率达到98.68%,确保了钼钒深度分离后钒的回收利用效果.B树脂能够有效回收A树脂解析液中的钒和钼,其吸钒容量达到26.22 g·L-,吸钼容量达到了71.06g·L-1.B树脂为A树脂的优化树脂,其饱和吸附容量大于A树脂的饱和吸附容量.%The process conditions of vanadium removal from ammonium molybdate solution by chemical precipitation and ion exchange using A and B two kinds of alkaline anion resins were studied. It was found that controlling the pH value between 8 and 9, vanadium existed mainly as VO3- , the efficiency of NH4VO3's precipitating was significant, and purity of NH4VO3 was high as above 98. 5%. Resin A could separate vanadium from ammonium molybdate greatly, the best technological conditions were pH value of about 7.28 and reducing the concentration of Cl-. Cl- had strong appetency with resin A, and the increase of Cl- concentration notably reduced adsorption capacity of resin A. Resin A's adsorption capacity of vanadium reached 21.73 g·L-1 under the conditions of 7.27 pH value and without Cl-. This technology could control the concentration of vanadium under 0.02 g·L-1 in ammonium molybdate solution. The highest stripping recovery rate of resin A was 98.68% , this ensured the good recovery result after the separation of

  13. Enrichment of Data Publications in Earth Sciences - Data Reports as a Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Haberland, Christian; Evans, Peter L.

    2015-04-01

    dataset. These reports are readable and citable on their own, but are, of course, closely connected to the respective datasets. Therefore, they give full insight into the framework of the data before data download. This is especially relevant for large and often heterogeneous datasets, like e.g. controlled-source seismic data gathered with instruments of the 'Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam GIPP'. Here, details of the instrumentation, data organization, data format, accuracy, geographical coordinates, timing and data completeness, etc. need to be documented. STR Data are also attractive for the publication of historic datasets, e.g. 30-40 years old seismic experiments. It is also possible for one STR Data to describe several datasets, e.g. from multiple diverse instruments types, or distinct regions of interest. The publication of DOI-assigned data reports is a helpful tool to fill the gap between basic metadata and restricted 'readme' information on the one hand and preparing extended journal articles on the other hand. They open the way for informed re-use and, with their comprehensive data description, may act as 'appetizer' for the re-use of published datasets.

  14. Morfologia dos órgãos genitais masculinos do Jurará Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae Morphology of the male genital organs of the Scorpion Mud Turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cardoso Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinosternon scorpioides é uma pequena tartaruga semi-aquática, típica de água doce, de distribuição geográfica bastante diversificada, encontrada no estado do Maranhão, onde é denominada de jurará ou muçuã. Sua carne é uma excelente fonte de proteína e a despeito da legislação vigente, é comercializado nas praias e feiras da cidade de São Luís e consumido nos restaurantes sob a forma de farofa servida em casquinha. Os órgãos genitais do macho foram estudados visando fornecer dados morfológicos da própria espécie, que poderão ser utilizados na biologia reprodutiva voltada para ações de preservação em cativeiro. Compõe-se a amostra de 10 machos adultos, obtidos mediante apreensões do IBAMA-MA (Proc. nº 020.12.002400/99-31, licença nº 002/01, os quais foram eutanaziados conforme normas do Comitê de Ética do Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. A cavidade celomática foi aberta e os órgãos fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído 10%, e posteriormente dissecados. Os testículos possuem formato ovóide e coloração amarelo-ouro. Os epidídimos convolutos estavam aderidos dorsalmente à superfície medial dos testículos, terminando em um pequeno ducto deferente. Os ductos deferentes não forma-ram nenhuma ampola distinta, abrindo-se na cloaca. O pênis sulcado, localizado no assoalho da cloaca, estendeu-se até a cauda, composto de raíz, corpo e glande. A morfologia dos órgãos reprodutivos destes animais assemelha-se aos de outras tartarugas, sugerindo uma morfologia conservada entre as tartarugas.Kinosternon scorpioides is a small semi-aquatic turtle, typical of fresh-water, with wide geographic distribution. It is found in the state of Maranhão, where is called jurará or muçuã. Its meat is an excellent protein source and despite current legislation, it is commercialized at beaches and markets in the city of São Luis, consumed in restaurants as an appetizer in its own

  15. 基于模糊数学法评价超高压处理后鱿鱼的品质%Quality evaluation of squid processed by ultra-high pressure based on fuzzy mathematic method .

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆兰; 余海霞; 杨水兵; 任西营; 董开成; 杨志坚; 胡亚芹

    2013-01-01

      为有效改善秘鲁鱿鱼肉品质,采用超高压处理鱿鱼片,对处理后的鱿鱼片色泽、组织、口感和滋味进行感官评价权重分析,并利用模糊数学综合评价法对超高压处理的样品进行综合评分,优化获得超高压处理工艺;同时,结合仪器测定样品的质构和白度,并进行极差分析,验证模糊数学法的准确性.结果表明:模糊数学法评价鱿鱼肉品质的权重集为 K=(色泽0.25,组织0.15,口感0.35,滋味0.25);应用模糊数学综合评价法优化得到的最佳超高压处理压力为300 M Pa、保压时间为10 min、协同温度为25℃;质构和白度正交试验结果表明,影响鱿鱼片感官品质因素顺序为压力>协同温度>保压时间,最佳组合为A2 C2 B1,即最佳工艺条件为压力300 MPa、保压时间10 min、协同温度25℃.模糊数学评价方法得到的结果与仪器分析方法得到的结果一致,进一步验证了模糊数学感官评定方法的可行性和准确性.在此超高压条件下,鱿鱼片弹性最好,剪切力最低,白度值较高,品质达到最优.%Summary Squid ( Dosidicus gigas) has become one of important aquatic protein resources nowadays because of its appetizing , nourishing quality , low price as well as large fishing amount . However , because of its high insoluble myostromin ( 11 .0% ) and connective tissue with longitudinal , radial and circular orientations in squid muscle , its meat was sensitive to heat processing which made the traditional squid product taste tough and hard , as a result hindering greatly the edibility of old people and infant . Until now , the methods of activating endogenous protease or adding exogenous enzymes were usually used for improving the quality of squid meat , while the enzymic method would damage its appearance and was harmful for maintaining the quality . Ultra‐high pressure technology is one kind of physical technology with high efficiency . Previous studies had found that