WorldWideScience

Sample records for appetizers

  1. Neurofunctional areas related to food appetency in anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juán José Cervantes-Navarrete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Anorexia Nervosa the observable phenomenon is the suppression of appetite. Little is known about the biological and psychological (top-down bases that maintain this pathological state. However, Anorexia Nervosa is a biological, psychological and social model where the main behavioral characteristic is the inhibition of eating behavior; not by bottom-up but top-down regulation. Objective: To explore the areas of the brain associated with food appetency through functional magnetic resonance in women with anorexia nervosa. Methods: The subjects include 5 female with Restrictive type of Anorexia Nervosa and five controls female with similar in age and low weigh. The subjects were within the MRI scanner and while took fMRI they saw food images that would generate appetite. The subjects were in fasting state and mentally prepare by instruction “imagine you are eating the food presented in the following images”. Results: Compared differences in the activation between subjects four regions were found significant: the anterior cingulate, left front medial region and the left and right midbrain. Conclusions: The patients with Anorexia Nervosa present different activated cerebral areas to those of the controls during the visual exposition to food in hungry state and with evoke cognitions associated with eat food; those regions may be implicated in reward and self-control.

  2. Odors: appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor exposu

  3. Effect of a long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions on the preference, appetence, feed intake and growth performance of post-weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Pino, Sergio A; Solà-Oriol, David; Figueroa, Jaime; Dwyer, Dominic M; Pérez, José F

    2015-03-15

    Commercial pigs display an innate attraction for sweet taste compounds. However, the impact of long-term availability to supplementary carbohydrate solutions on their general feeding behavior has not been examined. In this work we assess the effect of 12-days exposure to 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions on the feed intake and growth performance of piglets, and on their preference and appetence for sweet or protein solutions. The innate preference of piglets was assessed by an initial choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solutions for a period of three minutes. Piglets showed higher intake and preference for 2% sucrose than for 2% animal plasma. In Experiment 1, piglets were then free-offered a 16% sucrose solution as a supplement to the diet, showing a higher intake of it than water and a reduction in feed intake and weight gain. A similar situation occurred during the last days of free-exposure to a 16% maltodextrin solution in Experiment 2. The choice test between 2% sucrose and 2% animal plasma solution was repeated after the exposure to the concentrated solutions. In both experiments, a reduction in the initial preference for 2% sucrose was observed. Similarly, piglets that had previous access to the 16% sucrose and 16% maltodextrin solutions showed a decrease in the appetence for 2% sucrose in comparison with that for 2% animal plasma, as measured by a one-pan test at the end of the experiments. It is concluded that long-term exposure to concentrated sucrose and maltodextrin solutions reduces feed intake and growth in weanling piglets, and also reverses their innate preference and appetence for dilute sweet over protein solutions.

  4. The appetizing and satiating effects of odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim

    Unhealthy eating habits such as unhealthy food choices or overeating increase the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how separate factors, such as sensory processes, influence our eating b

  5. Photoelectrochemical splitting of water to produce a power appetizer Hydrogen: A green system for future –( A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To meet the future energy demand, Hydrogen has been accepted as a fuel for future. Out of several renewable methods to produce hydrogen, solar assisted splitting of water (Photoelectrochemical splitting of water is emerging as a most desired method to produce hydrogen which is a advancement of Photovoltaic process. However, the efficiency of PEC cell is a matter of concern. Various strategies have been adopted by different researchers to increase the efficiency of the system especially using nanotechnology as a tool. In this article, attempts have been made to summarise different approaches applied to obtain effective and viable photoelectrochemical system for splitting water to obtain hydrogen an energy carrier.

  6. Application of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) in monitoring of terrestrial habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Strandberg, Beate; Bak, Jesper Leth

    2015-01-01

    I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data” that are......I the last years there have been high focus on UAVs (drones) for many civil purposes and UAVs are also increasingly used for ecological data gathering. This presentation will first make an appetizer to show the new possibilities of using UAVs. The traditional concept of separating “data...

  7. The Outsourcing Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack-Min, Joetta

    2008-01-01

    It sounds tempting, especially in tough fiscal times: Hand over all the responsibility for food service management to a private company promising to provide nutritious and appetizing meals, keep up with increasingly complex regulations, and perhaps even make a profit. Privatization, or outsourcing, has worked well for some districts for years, but…

  8. Packaging & Other Structures. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Gary

    This book explores all kinds of packaging materials including bags, boxes, etc. and how they are used to protect and display products. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of packaging and structures; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for…

  9. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Park Hyatt Beijing All You Can Eat Weekend Kitchen Party at IFW Every weekend and public holiday,enjoy an all-you-can-eat menu featuring more than 48 delectable appetizers,rice,noodles,dump-lings,stir-fry and desserts served with free-flowing

  10. What's Hot, What's Not 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of a plague of locusts, it seems as if the past five years have thrown every imaginable challenge at IT--from the incredible shrinking budget to BYOD and now the MOOC monster. For those of a superstitious bent, these were probably just appetizers to the crises that will inevitably accompany a year featuring the number 13 (cue…

  11. Appetite in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite is defined as ‘a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food’. The counterpart of appetite is satiety, which is the state of satisfaction that follows after the need for food is fulfilled. However, palatable food can be appetizing in the absence of hunger and people may eng

  12. Preparation Methods: past and Potential Methods of Food Preparation for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The logical progression of development of space food systems during the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs is outlined. The preparation methods which include no preparation to heating, cooling and freezing are reviewed. The introduction of some new and exciting technological advances is proposed, which should result in a system providing crew members with appetizing, safe, nutritious and convenient food.

  13. Carved Plums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    COMING from Dali of YunnanProvince where millions of Baiethnic people live in compactcommunities,carved plums,(or Baicarved plums),have a harvesthistory of more than one thousandyears.They are tasty,great thirst-quenchers and fine appetizers. Eryuan County plums are the

  14. Hvad er hjemkundskabslæreren?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette

    2009-01-01

        En appetizer: De praktisk-musiske fag på dagsordenen Temaet for denne artikel er hjemkundskabsfaget, -professionen og dens praktisering belyst gennem et interviewstudie fra 2008 af lærerstuderende og deres lærere. Dette studie relateres til forfatterens tidligere studie af fag og profession i...

  15. Mapping. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neujahr, James L.; Benenson, Gary

    This book focuses on the understanding and development of graphical representations of physical spaces. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of mapping; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for mapping and graphical representation development; (3)…

  16. Feast your eyes: hunger and trait reward drive predict attentional bias for food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Katy; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2010-12-01

    Appraisal theories of emotion predict that the relevance of a stimulus to a person's needs and goals influences attentional allocation. We used a modified visual probe task to examine the influence of hunger and trait reward drive on food-related attentional bias. Both hunger and trait reward drive predicted degree of attentional "disengagement" from food images at short (100 ms), but not long (500, 2,000 ms) stimulus durations. Effects of hunger were found for both bland and appetizing foods, while effects of reward drive were restricted to appetizing foods. Our findings extend previous research showing delayed "disengagement" from threat-related stimuli, suggesting that both organismic- and goal-relevance are key biasing factors in attentional competition.

  17. A New Cultivation-Evolution Technology of Accident Immune Function for a Petrochemical Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zhenhong; Zhang Xuhua; Wang Xiangyao; Wang Zhihu; Liu Yan; Zhang Xuan

    2007-01-01

    For the purpose of developing an immune function on production accidents in a petrochemical enterprise, a new cultivation-evolution approach of preventive mechanism is suggested by analyzing various factors relating to immune deficiency syndrome and by referring to immunity genetic algorithm and relevant concepts applied in medicine science. Accident-immunity system for highly hazardous petrochemical enterprise, which is made up of its productive system's Safety Organ and Safety Organization, is typically an evolution-cultivation progress for immune function, The new B immune cell is generated after several layers' screening, clone expanding, receptor editing, organizing in immune system of work accident in petrochemical enterprise. There is a B immune cell with high appetency and a manipulative function chain for accident-immunity. Taking the antigen of accidents in industry as the target function and the immune antibody as the solution, the authors carried out a computation diagram for prediction of appetency between the antigen and antibody.

  18. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hilton Beijing Wangfujing Showcasing an array of brunch favorites and international selections, complemented by a free flow of premium champagne, Beijing’s newest champagne brunch-"fizztastic"-offers a culinary discovery and hint of the forbidden at Penta Dining Haven, the fifth floor collection of restaurants and bars at Hilton Beijing Wangfujing every Sunday starting on September 13. Titillate the palate of your family and friends with the appetizing selection of brunch traditions

  19. 家常菜(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Editor's Note: Since the hot summer is here, Women of China will introduce two dishes——one for an appetizer(cold dish) and one for a main course(hot dish). Sautéed Beef Filet with Black Pepper黑椒牛柳Ingredients:Beef filet(200g),1 onion,1 green pepper, black pepper powder,chili oil,oyster sauce,cooking wine,starch,salt,sugar,chicken essence Preparations:

  20. Diabetisk perifer neuropati - hvad bør en praktiserende læge vide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Hermed en klassisk artikel, som med sin titel præcis redegør for indholdet. Relevansen er åbenbar: enkle, lavpraktiske tests, udført i almen praksis, kan hjælpe med til at finde de patienter, der er i risiko for at udvikle fodsår, hvorved amputationer i sidste instans kan undgås. Desuden en appet...

  1. Binary Disassembly Block Coverage by Symbolic Execution vs. Recursive Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    logical connectives, variables, quantifiers, functions and predicate symbols [dMB09]. Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) problems are examples of these...Nikolaj Bjorner. Satisfiability Modulo Theories: An Appetizer. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 23–36, 2009. [Eag08] Chris Eagle. The IDA Pro...problem in symbolic execution-driven test generation for programs. In 19th IEEE Asian Test Symposium, pages 59–64, 2010. [KLMK10] Jae-Jin Kim, Seok- Young

  2. RESTAURANT & BAR INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Home of the Finest Belgian Cuisine Morel's Western Restaurant, in a blend of Belgian and French cuisines, is the best choice for a European dining experience. Savor the exotic salad made of green vegetables, mushrooms and smoked salmon, or select a main course of popular Brussels black pepper steak. It will go perfectly with our light, crisp Belgian battercakes as an appetizer! Refresh yourself with our exclusive imported Belgian beers. Of course, other selections on wines and soft drinks will give you a...

  3. Buclizine- old wine in new bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Buclizine is a first generation antihistaminic with some anticholinergic potential. This drug has specific pharmacological indications in allergy, morning sickness, migraine, motion sickness and insomnia with some or doubtful success. It is an obsolete drug of decline use due to better availability of second and third generation antihistamines. Buclizine, a forgotten drug used in past is now re-introduced as an appetite stimulant. Previously one of the counterpart “cyproheptadine” was used but currently banned from most part of the world due to untoward effects. The standard textbook of pediatrics has not mentioned buclizine as an appetizer. On the other side, no article published (Pub med search in last few decades to favors this claim. This drug has no space in WHO essential medicine list probably due to doubtful safety. A scientific issue arises- Does children require appetite stimulant? Appetizers are never be a rational solution. They can be used as adjunct because of their placebo effect. Meanwhile placebo has limited role in children on behalf of other party (parents involvement. Misperception about diet, feeding practice, dysfunctional ‘parent child interaction’ etc. needed proper counselling rather than prescribing an appetite stimulant. There may be risk, that buclizine to become “OTC” appetizer in future due to current promotional spurt by pharmaceutical. However, large scale multicentric clinical trials are needed before promotion of buclizine as pediatric appetite stimulant, with careful watch of pharmacovigilance perspective. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 122-122

  4. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....

  5. Multimedie for VirtuelGalathea3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    ‘Galatheas Øje’ describing five themes in which satellite images are important: sea ice mapping and navigation; mapping algae in oceans; weather forecasting; environmental monitoring e.g. sea turtles; and combining field studies at Galapagos with Earth Observation data. A collaboration between the project...... Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 and European Space Agency ESA Eduspace was made. The educational film is an appetizer for learning more at the e-based system www.virtuelgalathea3.dk Furthermore, 50 short films were produced describing science themes and general themes from the Galathea 3 expedition. Each short...

  6. Adansonia digitata L.: A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, Patrick; Halamová, Kateřina; De Caluwé, Emmy

    2010-01-01

    Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) is a multi-purpose tree species native to Africa. Its fruit pulp has very high vitamin content (~ ten times that of orange), and can be used in seasoning, as an appetizer and to make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of crude protein, digestible carbohydrates and oil, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, Ca and Fe. They can be eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour and thus added to soups and stews. Processing eliminates a nu...

  7. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Debnath, Saroj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

  8. Iridoids and Flavonoids of Four Siberian Gentians: Chemical Profile and Gastric Stimulatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Some Gentiana species have been used by the nomadic people of Siberia as bitter teas or appetizers to eliminate digestive disorders (dyspepsia, heartburn, nausea, etc.. We studied the most frequently used gentians: Gentiana algida, G. decumbens, G. macrophylla and G. triflora. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical features and gastrostimulatnt activity of these four gentian herbs. Five iridoids, seven flavones and mangiferin were detected in gentian herbs after analysis by microcolumn-RP-HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. A componential phytochemical profile of the G. decumbens herb is presented for the first time, as well as information about distinct phytochemicals found in gentian herbs. HPLC quantification of the specific compounds of gentian herbs demonstrated the high content of iridoids (24.73–73.53 mg/g and flavonoids (12.92–78.14 mg/g. The results of biological activity evaluation of four gentian decoctions demonstrated their good ability to stimulate acid-, enzyme- and mucin-forming functions of the stomach attributed to mostly by iridoids and flavonoids. In general, it can be claimed that the gentian decoctions can be used as effective and safe appetizers and are also a good source of biologically active agents.

  9. TRAPA NATANS (WATER CHESTNUT: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatiwal Shalabh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Trapa natans (water chestnut, commonly known as singhara in India, belonging to family Trapaceae, is a free-floating plant which grows in shallow water fields, ponds or swampy land. The water chestnut is native to Europe, Asia and Africa where it is well kept in check by native insect parasites. It favours nutrient-rich water with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and an alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/l of calcium carbonate. The kernels are delicious to eat and contain carbohydrates, proteins and essential minerals and are reported to be used in many ayurvedic preparations as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic. They are also useful in lumbago, sore throat, bilious affections, bronchitis, fatigues & inflammation. The fruits are a good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein. Stem is used in eye disorders in the form of juice. The plant Trapa natans has also been evaluated for various activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial. The literature reveals the use of kernels as diuretic, aphrodisiac, nutrient, appetizer, astringent, coolant, antidiarrhoeal & tonic, fruits as good source of nutrition having 16% starch and 2% protein, plant as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-microbial and stem in form of juice in eye disorders. The present study will give comprehensive information on the chemical constituents and mainly pharmacological activities of this plant.

  10. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  11. 旅行商问题的人工免疫算法%An Artificial Immune Algorithm for Travelling Salesman Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂军; 舒宜; 童调生

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an Artificial Immune Algorithm (AIA)simulating the biological immune systems, andoffers its basic principle and approach. Comparing AIA with Genetic Algorithm (GAs)simulating the biological evolu-tion process, the paper points out that the method producing new antibodies in AIA is more versatile than the oneproducing new individuals in GAs. AIA reflects mechanism of natural selection better than GAs does, as AIA selectseffective antibodies from all antibodies by the appetency between an antibody and an antigen and by the repulsion be-tween an antibody and another, while GAs selects new individuals of next colony by the proportion of individual fit-ness. For Travel Salesman Problem (TSP), this paper brings forward how to describe antibodies artificially, how toproduce original antibodies, how to compute the appetency between an antibody and an antigen and the repulsion be-tween an antibody and another, and works out several artificial immune operators producing new antibod-ies. Simulating examples show that AIA is a very effective method for TSP.

  12. The research on the adsorption effect on metal ions by immobilized marine algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian; QIU Haiyuan; CAI Zhenzhen; CHEN Lidan; ZHENG Shenghua; HUANG Zhiwei

    2006-01-01

    The process of adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ by immobilized marine algae was investigated. It can be noted from the results that, the process for biosorption of heavy metals (copper, cadmium) by immobilized Laminaria japonica can be described by the Banerm model.According to the model, the adsorption rate constant calculated was 0.107 8 and 0.030 28 min-1 for Cu2+ and Cd2+ respectively. The experimental biosorption equilibrium data for Cu2+ and Cd2+ were in good agreement with those calculated by the Langmuir model. The maximum uptake capacity calculated was 83.3 and 112.4 mg/g for Cu2+ and Cd2+ according to the Langmuir model, respectively. The appetency of Laminaria japonica to Cu2+was better than Cd2+.

  13. Traditional Indian Herbs Punarnava and Its Medicinal Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit Bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda considers man as an integral part of Mother Nature. Therefore the laws of nature are very well applicable for him also. Ancient philosophy which ponders the “secret of life and beyond” gives prime importance for health. It has understood the need of longevity and effectiveness to attain the supreme goal. Punarnava helps maintain efficient kidney and urinary functions with its diuretic, laxative, stomachic, diaphoretic, anthelminthic anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory action. According to Ayurveda, Punarnava is bitter, cooling, astringent to bowels, useful in biliousness, blood impurities, leucorrhoea, anaemia, inflammations, heart diseases, asthma, alternatives etc. The leaves are useful in dyspepsia, tumours, spleen enlargement and abdominal pains. According to Unani system of medicine, the leaves are appetizer, alexiteric, useful in opthalmia, in joint pains. Seeds are tonic expectorant, carminative, useful in lumbago, scabies. The seeds are considered as promising blood purifier.

  14. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  15. Research advances in control methods of wearable walking assist robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia ZHANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the proportion of the elderly in China increases, the need for robotic assist walking is growing. The assisted-as-needed (AAN property of a wearable walking assist robot matches a user’s biological need and improves the flexibility, appetency and friendliness of a mechanical system. To realize AAN walking and aiming at realizing master/slave flexible assist, a new hybrid control method consisting of hip joint control based on central pattern generators and knee joint impedance structured control is proposed. The adaptation of a robot's master/slave motion mode to a user's physical function, the continuous switching method for knee joint impedance structured control and its stability, and the AAN effect of the Hybrid control theory are studied, which provides a new thought for the development of wearable walking assist robots.

  16. Obesity, externality, and susceptibility to social influence: an integrated analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C P; Olmsted, M P; Polivy, J

    1983-10-01

    A pilot study indicated that overweight subjects are more likely to order a particular dessert in a restaurant when the waitress provides an appetizing description of that dessert and encourages the diner to order it; subjects who were not overweight were much less affected by the waitress's behavior. This effect may be interpreted in terms of the greater "externality' of overweight persons (i.e., their greater reactivity to salient food cues); alternatively, it may be seen as evidence for greater compliance by deviant (overweight) individuals. The present study examined these alternatives by separating the perceptual-cues component of the waitress's behavior from the social-influence component in a replication of the pilot study. The results indicated that both the externality and compliance interpretations were tenable. The authors suggest that these two mechanisms may be seen as facets of a more general concern on the part of overweight people to secure behavioral guidance from the external environment, physical or social.

  17. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  18. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  20. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  1. Curbing craving: behavioral and brain evidence that children regulate craving when instructed to do so but have higher baseline craving than adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; Insel, Catherine; Powers, Alisa; Franz, Peter; Weber, Jochen; Mischel, Walter; Casey, B J; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2014-10-01

    Although one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, developmental changes in food craving and the ability to regulate craving remain poorly understood. We addressed this knowledge gap by examining behavioral and neural responses to images of appetizing unhealthy foods in individuals ages 6 through 23 years. On close trials (assessing unregulated craving), participants focused on a pictured food's appetitive features. On far trials (assessing effortful regulation), participants focused on a food's visual features and imagined that it was farther away. Across conditions, older age predicted less craving, less striatal recruitment, greater prefrontal activity, and stronger frontostriatal coupling. When effortfully regulating their responses to the images, all participants reported less craving and exhibited greater recruitment of lateral prefrontal cortex and less recruitment of ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Greater body mass predicted less regulation-related prefrontal activity, particularly among children. These results suggest that children experience stronger craving than adults but can also effectively regulate craving. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying regulation may differ for heavy and lean children.

  2. Roots and vicissitudes of psychic bisexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Florent

    2016-06-01

    Sigmund Freud considered the difficulty in defining masculinity and femininity from a psychic point of view as a hiatus in psychoanalytic theory. I contend that masculinity pertains to the centrifugal (to that which goes out, and ultimately to that which one loses), and femininity to the centripetal (to the appetency for taking the object into one's own internal space), whether one is considering their archaic roots or their genitalized culmination. The masculine/feminine pair draws support from the body (and, through anaclisis, from the subjective space), identified with a container that is liable already in the first psychic stages of life to empty itself of its own content and to be filled by a foreign content: the content is subjective in the masculine and object-related in the feminine. The conflicts of ambivalence related to these two movements (desire/anxieties linked to active and passive penetration) lead to the setting up of the rigid and labile poles of the personality, and they are liable to give rise to obsessional and hysterical solutions respectively. My hypotheses will be examined in the light of the two key cases of hysteria and obsessional neurosis in Freud's work: Dora (1905e) and the Rat Man (1909d).

  3. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2013-10-01

    In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications.

  4. Self-assembled monolayers and titanium dioxide: From surface patterning to potential applications

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    Yaron Paz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control the properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs attached to solid surfaces and the rare photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide provide a rationale for the study of systems comprising both. Such systems can be realized in the form of SAMs grown on TiO2 or, in a complementary manner, as TiO2 grown on SAMs. Accordingly, the current status of knowledge regarding SAMs on TiO2 is described. Photocatalytic phenomena that are of specific relevance to SAMs, such as remote degradation, and cases where SAMs were used to study photocatalytic phenomena, are discussed as well. Mastering of micro-patterning is a key issue en route to a successful assimilation of a variety of titanium dioxide based devices. Accordingly, particular attention is given to the description of a variety of methods and techniques aimed at utilizing the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide for patterning. Reports on a variety of applications are discussed. These examples, representing the areas of photovoltaics, microelectronics, microelectromechanics, photocatalysis, corrosion prevention and even biomedicine should be regarded as appetizers paving the way for further studies to be performed.

  5. Potential Transmission of Human Fascioliasis Through Traditional Local Foods, in Northern Iran

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    K Ashrafi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of infective metacercariae, attached to watercress or other various species of water and terrestrial plants, has been implicated as the main source of human contamination by fasciolid flukes. Presence of several species of aromatic wild grown plants, which are eaten fresh on the table or used for preparation of some plant-made foods (Delar, mixture of salt and ground local plants, as a paste and Zeitoon-Parvardeh , olives in walnut sauce, as an appetizer have been suggested to play a role in human contamination in the endemic zone of fascioliasis, in Gilan province, northern Iran. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of ingredients using for preparation of these local foods on viability and infectivity of liver fluke metacercariae. Metacercariae for this study were obtained by experimental infections of Lymnaea gedrosiana, collected from Bandar Anzali endemic zone. The viability and infectivity of metacercariae kept in Zeitoon-Parvardeh and Delar was checked by microscopical analyses and animal infection assays. The results indicate the possibility of human contamination following consumption of these traditional foods when prepared with fresh vegetables presenting attached metacercariae.

  6. A PHARMACOGNOSTICAL & PHYSIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA WITH AYURVEDIC REVIEW

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    Kuntal Ghosh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benincasa hispida (Thunb. of Cucurbitaceae family commonly known as Kushmanda, Winter melon, Wax gourd, is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is cultivated throughout the plains of India and on the hills up to 1200 meter altitude, as a vegetable. The Fruits of Kushmanda are considered as Diuretic (mutral, Aphrodisiac (vrishya, Appetizer (dipana; used in Acid reflux syndrome(Amlapitta, Purpura (Raktapitta, Emaciation (Kshaya, Mental disorder (Chetovikara, etc. In the present study fruit of Benincasa hispida was authenticated Pharmacognostically in the department of Pharmacognosy, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurveda University of Pharmacy, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Each and every drug has its own physical and chemical characteristics that help for separating it from other closely related drugs. Hence physicochemical studies of a particular drug by making use of various parameters help in standardizing the drug and validate it. Chromatographic techniques were adopted for the separation of active principles present in the fruit powder. Therefore, an attempt has been made to standardize Kushmanda powder, an Ayurvedic medicine based on the TLC and HPTLC fingerprint profile.

  7. Characterization of Face-Selective Patches in Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Vanessa; Dougherty, Chase C; Michael, Andrew M; Olson, Ingrid R

    2016-01-01

    Face processing involves a complex, multimodal brain network. While visual-perceptual face patches in posterior parts of the brain have been studied for over a decade, the existence and properties of face-selective regions in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a relatively new area of research. While regions of OFC are implicated in the emotional processing of faces, this is typically interpreted as a domain-general response to affective value rather than a face- or socially-specific response. However, electrophysiology studies in monkeys have identified neurons in OFC that respond more to faces than any other stimuli. Here, we characterize the prevalence and location of OFC face-selective regions in 20 healthy college students. We did this by including another biologically motivating category (appetizing foods) in a variant of the standard face localizer. Results show that face-selective patches can be identified at the individual level. Furthermore, in both a region of interest (ROI) and a whole brain analysis, medial regions of the OFC were face-selective, while lateral regions were responsive to faces and foods, indicating a domain-general response in lateral OFC. Medial OFC (mOFC) response to faces scales in relationship to a measure of social motivation that is distinct from face processing abilities associated with fusiform cortex.

  8. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

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    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  9. tty profile and potential application of oil from the seeds of Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.14461

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    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil there is a semi-arid region of the Bahia State where the transition between caatinga and cerrado prevails. The Bombacopsis retusa (Mart. & Zucc. A. Robyns belongs to Bombacaceae family, and is frequent in this region. Fruit of Bombacopsis retusa have seeds edible by native fauna and appreciated as appetizer nut in small local villages. With the purpose of verifying the potential application of the oil of this species in different industrial segments, the crude oil of Bombacopsis retusa seeds was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus with 55.5% yield. The physical and chemical analyses to determine the oleochemical indices showed acid value of 0.09 mg KOH-1 g-1, iodine value of 62.80 g I2-1 100 g-1, saponification index of 192.80 mg KOH-1 g-1, refractive index (40°C of 1.468 and a melting point of 43.90°C. To determine the fatty profile of this oil was applied the CG-DIC that revealed the predominance of palmitic (59.98%, oleic (19.25% and linoleic (8.47% acids, besides the saturated/unsaturated fatty acids ratio equal to 2.70. These results suggested that the oil of Bombacopsis retusa is a functional, sustainable and competitive raw-material to be used in agro-energy, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.   

  10. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

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    Marincola Francesco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  11. Friends don't let friends eat cookies: effects of restrictive eating norms on consumption among friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Maryhope; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Mann, Traci

    2012-10-01

    Social norms are thought to be a strong influence over eating, but this hypothesis has only been experimentally tested with groups of strangers, and correlational studies using actual friends lack important controls. We manipulate an eating norm in the laboratory and explore its influence within established friendships. In two studies we randomly assigned groups of three friends to a restrictive norm condition, in which two of the friends were secretly instructed to restrict their intake of appetizing foods, or a control condition, in which the friends were not instructed to restrict their eating. The third friend's consumption was measured while eating with the other two friends and while eating alone. In both studies, participants consumed less food when eating with friends who had been given restricting instructions compared to those who had not been given those instructions. In Study 2, participants who ate with restricting friends also continued to restrict their eating when alone. Experimentally manipulating social norms within established friendships is possible, and these norms can influence consumption in those social groups and carry over into non-social eating situations. These findings may suggest mechanisms through which eating behaviors may spread through social networks, as well as an environmental factor that may be amenable to change.

  12. Adansonia digitata L. (baobab: a review of traditional information and taxonomic description

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    Jitin Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa. Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food, clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items. The fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties. The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, carbohydrates, fibers, potassium, proteins and lipids content, which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, sodium, iron, manganese, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, calcium and iron. Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-malarial, diarrhoea, anaemia, asthma, antiviral, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information, taxonomic description, medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

  13. Adansonia digitata L.(baobab):a review of traditional information and taxonomic description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jitin; Rahul; Manish; Kumar; Jain; Shishu; Pal; Singh; Rakesh; Kant; Kama; Anuradha; Aliya; Naz; Anup; Kumar; Gupta; Sujeet; Kumar; Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Adansonia digitata L.(Malvaceae) is commonly known as baobab tree native to Africa.Baobab is a multi-purpose tree which offers protection and provides food,clothing and medicine as well as raw material for many useful items.The fruit pulp,seeds,leaves,flowers.roots,and bark of baobab are edible and they have been studied by scientists for their useful properties.The fruit pulp have very high vitamin C.calcium,phosphorus,carbohydrates,fibers,potassium,proteins and lipids content,which can be used in seasoning as an appetizer and also make juices.Seeds contain appreciable quantities of phosphorus,magnesium,zinc,sodium,iron,manganese,whereas they have high levels of lysine,thiamine,calcium and iron.Baobab has numerous biological properties including antimicrobial,anti-malarial,diarrhoea,anaemia,asthma,antiviral,anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities amongst others.Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of flavonoids.phytosterols.amino acids,fatty acids,vitamins and minerals.The review summarizes the information on various aspects of traditional information,taxonomic description,medicinal properties and importantly nutritional value.

  14. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

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    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  15. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

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    Valentina A. Andreeva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women, and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men, age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women. The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol was positively associated with BMI (men and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men, and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts.

  16. THE DISCRETE BEAUTY: AESTHETIC FOOD MBYÁ-GUARANI

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    Mártin César Tempass

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the palate, excessively felt also the preparation and consumption of foods are set in motion in. The vision is basic in this process, assisting the palate in the determination of that he is " appetizing". Thus, also we eat with the eyes, therefore beyond a good taste the food also it needs to offer a pleasant appearance. It occurs that each culture possesss specific tastes how much to the food. In the same way, each culture presents singularity in the visual presentation of its plates. This aesthetic specific, related to other domínios of the thought, reflects the social and cosmological order of the group that puts it in practical. Thus being, it is intended, through the ethnografic method, to more investigate the appreciated forms of visual presentation of foods between the Mbyá-Guarani, present aboriginal group in the south of Brazil, as well as the directions that this ethnic partiality attributes to the aesthetic one of its foods.

  17. Heightened eating drive and visual food stimuli attenuate central nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Harrold, Joanne A; Halford, Jason C G; Stancak, Andrej

    2015-03-01

    Hunger and pain are basic drives that compete for a behavioral response when experienced together. To investigate the cortical processes underlying hunger-pain interactions, we manipulated participants' hunger and presented photographs of appetizing food or inedible objects in combination with painful laser stimuli. Fourteen healthy participants completed two EEG sessions: one after an overnight fast, the other following a large breakfast. Spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation underlying the hunger-pain competition were explored with 128-channel EEG recordings and source dipole analysis of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We found that initial pain ratings were temporarily reduced when participants were hungry compared with fed. Source activity in parahippocampal gyrus was weaker when participants were hungry, and activations of operculo-insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and cerebellum were smaller in the context of appetitive food photographs than in that of inedible object photographs. Cortical processing of noxious stimuli in pain-related brain structures is reduced and pain temporarily attenuated when people are hungry or passively viewing food photographs, suggesting a possible interaction between the opposing motivational forces of the eating drive and pain.

  18. Successful treatment with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with coca cola for gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Sheng; Tung, Chun-Fang; Peng, Yen-Chun; Chow, Wei-Keung; Chang, Chi-Sen; Hu, Wei-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of gastric bezoar-induced gastric outlet obstruction that was successfully treated with a combination of endoscopic injection and irrigation with Coca Cola. A 73-year-old diabetic woman had a history of perforated peptic ulcer and had received pyloroplasty more than 20 years previously. She had been ingesting Pho Pu Zi (Cordia dichotoma Forst. f.) as an appetizer for 1 month. She presented with epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, performed at a local hospital, showed 2 gastric bezoars in the stomach, and 1 of them impacted at the pylorus. She was referred to our emergency department for removal of the gastric bezoars that were suspected to be causing gastric outlet obstruction. All attempts at endoscopic removal using a polypectomy snare, biopsy forceps and Dormia basket failed. We then injected Coca Cola directly into the bezoar mass, followed by irrigation with Coca Cola. Follow-up endoscopy was performed the next day, which revealed that the gastric bezoars had dissolved spontaneously.

  19. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

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    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  20. Cognitive reappraisal fails when attempting to reduce the appetitive value of food: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Michela; Ubel, Sonja; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2013-12-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during the exposure to food cues. Thirty-three healthy, normal-weight women viewed images of high-caloric food and non-food items after an overnight fast. The participants were instructed to either passively look at the pictures, or to change (increase, decrease) the appetitive value of the food items. The P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) were higher across all conditions for food relative to non-food pictures. In the 'increase condition' the food images were rated as more appetizing and arousing than during passive viewing which was accompanied by increased amplitudes of the P300 and LPP. In contrast, the 'watch condition' and the 'decrease condition' did not differ with regard to appetite and arousal ratings as well as ERPs. Amplitudes of late positive potentials in the 'decrease condition' were positively correlated with scores on eating disorder scales indicating bulimic tendencies. The ERP data show that the appetitive value of food cues can easily be enhanced via reappraisal but is difficult to reduce, especially in women who display non-clinical forms of purging. The reduced ERP reactivity might constitute a risk factor for bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal-prospective studies should follow up on this aspect.

  1. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

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    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  2. Evaluation of insecticide impregnated baits for control of mosquito larvae in land crab burrows on French Polynesian atolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Faaruia, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Land crab burrows are larval mosquito habitats of major significance in the Pacific region. They are constituted by a sinuous tunnel leading to a chamber in contact with the water table, where mosquito larvae proliferate. Controlling larvae in these sites is difficult, because the configuration of burrows prevents the use of standard techniques. An experiment was carried out in French Polynesia to control Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex spp. breeding in burrows of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex (Herbst). The technique was based on the crab's behavior, which involves the crab carrying food into its burrow. It was shown that appetizing baits impregnated with an insecticide were carried by crabs into the flooded chamber of their burrows. A field treatment of burrows was carried out by sowing insecticide impregnated baits on the ground. The treatment coverage was almost perfect and the easy implementation of the technique enabled large areas to be treated in a short time. The bait was developed by compacting various flours, which easily incorporate a large variety of insecticide formulations. Although the baits can be easily stocked, a reliable insecticide is still to be found. The results indicate that our technique could be a method of choice for treating crab burrows.

  3. Sex-Specific Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Patterns in a Large Sample of French Elderly Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Valentina A.; Allès, Benjamin; Feron, Gilles; Gonzalez, Rebeca; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis provides up-to-date information about dietary patterns (DP) and their sociodemographic correlates in European elderly individuals. We studied 6686 enrollees aged 65+ (55% women) in the ongoing French population-based NutriNet-Santé e-cohort. Diet was assessed via three 24 h records. The sex-specific correlates of factor analysis derived DP were identified with multivariable linear regression. Using 22 pre-defined food groups, three DP were extracted. The “healthy” DP (fruit, vegetables, grains, nuts, fish) was positively associated with education, living alone, and being a former smoker (women), and negatively associated with being overweight, current smoker (men), age 75+ years, having hypertension, and obesity (women). The “western” DP (meat, appetizers, cheese, alcohol) was positively associated with BMI (men) and being a former/current smoker; it was negatively associated with age 75+ years (women) and living alone. The “traditional” DP (bread, potatoes, milk, vegetables, butter, stock) was positively associated with age and negatively associated with being a former/current smoker, education (men), and residing in an urban/semi-urban area. The findings support the diversity of DP among the elderly, highlighting sex-specific differences. The “healthy” DP explained the largest amount of variance in intake. Future studies could replicate the models in longitudinal and international contexts. PMID:27509523

  4. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

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    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  5. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Sante Cohort Study.

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    Pauline Ducrot

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults.The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA, Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL, 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL, Green Tick (Tick, and a "no label" condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests.The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the "no label" situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001. Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels.The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products' nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where choices are usually made quickly.

  6. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

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    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  7. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

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    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  8. Oriented responses of grapevine moth larvae Lobesia botrana to volatiles from host plants and an artificial diet on a locomotion compensator.

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    Becher, Paul G; Guerin, Patrick M

    2009-04-01

    Larvae of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are a major pest of vine, Vitis vinifera. As larvae have limited energy reserves and are in danger of desiccation and predation an efficient response to plant volatiles that would guide them to food and shelter could be expected. The responses of starved 2nd or 3rd instar larvae to volatile emissions from their artificial diet and to single host plant volatiles were recorded on a locomotion compensator. Test products were added to an air stream passing over the 30cm diameter servosphere. The larvae showed non-directed walks of low rectitude in the air stream alone but changed to goal-oriented upwind displacement characterised by relatively straight tracks when the odour of the artificial diet and vapours of methyl salicylate, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were added to the air stream. This chemoanemotactic targeted displacement illustrates appetence for certain volatile cues from food by starved Lobesia larvae. Analysis of the larval behaviour indicates dose dependent responses to some of the host plant volatiles tested with a response to methyl salicylate already visible at 1ng, the lowest source dose tested. These behavioural responses show that Lobesia larvae can efficiently locate mixtures of volatile products released by food sources as well as single volatile constituents of their host plants. Such goal-oriented responses with shorter travel time and reduced energy loss are probably of importance for larval survival as it decreases the time they are exposed to biotic and abiotic hazards.

  9. Retrieval and classification of food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinella, Giovanni Maria; Allegra, Dario; Moltisanti, Marco; Stanco, Filippo; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2016-10-01

    Automatic food understanding from images is an interesting challenge with applications in different domains. In particular, food intake monitoring is becoming more and more important because of the key role that it plays in health and market economies. In this paper, we address the study of food image processing from the perspective of Computer Vision. As first contribution we present a survey of the studies in the context of food image processing from the early attempts to the current state-of-the-art methods. Since retrieval and classification engines able to work on food images are required to build automatic systems for diet monitoring (e.g., to be embedded in wearable cameras), we focus our attention on the aspect of the representation of the food images because it plays a fundamental role in the understanding engines. The food retrieval and classification is a challenging task since the food presents high variableness and an intrinsic deformability. To properly study the peculiarities of different image representations we propose the UNICT-FD1200 dataset. It was composed of 4754 food images of 1200 distinct dishes acquired during real meals. Each food plate is acquired multiple times and the overall dataset presents both geometric and photometric variabilities. The images of the dataset have been manually labeled considering 8 categories: Appetizer, Main Course, Second Course, Single Course, Side Dish, Dessert, Breakfast, Fruit. We have performed tests employing different representations of the state-of-the-art to assess the related performances on the UNICT-FD1200 dataset. Finally, we propose a new representation based on the perceptual concept of Anti-Textons which is able to encode spatial information between Textons outperforming other representations in the context of food retrieval and Classification.

  10. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health.

  11. Anti-spasmodic action of crude methanolic extract and a new compound isolated from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana

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    Ahmad Bashir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myrsine africana is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used as appetizer and carminative. Locally, it is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism and diarrhea by healers. The aims of the current study were to screen the crude methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and stem of M. africana, for antispasmodic actions on isolated tissues and further to subject the ethyl acetate (EtOAc fraction of plant to column chromatography for isolation of pure compounds. Methods The antispasmodic action of the crude methanol extract was measured on the spontaneous rabbit's jejunum preparations at concentration 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. The crude extract was also applied, in similar concentrations, on KCl (80 mM induced contractions to explain its possible mode of action. Results A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of M. africana. The structure of the compound was identified with the help of 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY. The plant crude methanol extract showed a significant antispasmodic action on rabbit jejunum and abolished the tissue contraction completely at concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Conclusion The study concludes that the methanol crude extract of aerial parts of M. africana has antispasmodic action possibly through the calcium channel blocking mechanisms. A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the plant.

  12. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN MAKANAN KHAS BALI SEBAGAI WISATA KULINER (CULINARY TOURISM DI DESA SEBATU KECAMATAN TEGALALANG GIANYAR

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    I. A. Trisna Eka Putri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebatu village has its special characteristics of traditional foods and beverages which can be developed as culinarytourism. Besides the taste and form of the foods , the cooking process from the ingredients until become theready food, and the presentation of the foods can be the interesting attraction to offer. Organizing the traditionalfood and beverages of Sebatu Village which is the part of the daily life in this village need to be developed as theinteraction tools and media among the local community and the tourist. The activities form such as; eating andenjoy the food together ( for lunch or dinner, etc , organizing the restaurant, coffee shop, or cafe in the strategiclocation surrounding the village, cooking courses for the women organization and the other programs. Theseprograms of course need the education, training exercise and also the workshop how to make good presentation,improve the quality according to international standard, and also the sanitation and hygiene. Since Sebatu Villagedevelopes to become a Tourism Village as one of the destination, the organized traditional food and beveragesbusiness can be developed as the culinary tourism so that the local community can interacte directly with thetourists in Gianyar. The type of culinary to be developed in Sebatu such as : Jukut Ares as a appetizer. Nasi Sela,Tipat Cantok, Betutu, Be Guling, Lawar Gedang, Jukut Urab as the main course. Tape Ketan and Jaje Uli,,Jaje Dadar, Jaje Timus, Kolak Biu/Sela as the dessert. All of these culinary can be adapted to the internationalgastronomy from the form, purpose and essence so that it can be presented and offered to the tourists

  14. Avaliação da qualidade de tomate seco em conserva Evaluation of quality of dried tomato

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    Gisele A. Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco em conserva é alvo de crescente aceitação no mercado brasileiro; sua utilização é comum em aperitivos e na culinária como ingrediente de molhos e pizzas. Avaliou-se, neste trabalho o efeito dos seguintes fatores na qualidade do tomate seco: variedade de tomate (Rio Grande e Débora Plus, geometria de corte (pedaços de ½ e ¼ com relação ao eixo maior do fruto, presença ou ausência de sementes e teor de umidade final (25 e 35%, mediante análises instrumentais de cor e textura e testes sensoriais afetivos. Os resultados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor mastigabilidade e dureza, porém maior suscetibilidade ao escurecimento após o processo de secagem. De forma geral, a preferência dos consumidores foi por tomates secos com 35% de umidade final, enquanto a melhor qualidade final foi obtida a partir do tratamento com a variedade Rio Grande e umidade final de 35%.Preserved dried tomato has been gaining increasing acceptance in the Brazilian market, its use being common in appetizers and also in the cooking, as an ingredient of sauces and pizzas. The effect of the following factors on the quality of dried tomato was evaluated: variety of tomato (Rio Grande and Débora Plus, geometry of pieces (½ and ¼ to the fruit major axis, presence or absence of seeds and final moisture content (25 and 35% by means of instrumental texture, and color analysis and sensorial affective tests. The results showed that the variety Rio Grande presented better physical parameters but was more susceptible to darkness. Generally, the consumers preferred dried tomatoes at 35% moisture content. The best final quality of dried tomato was obtained from the treatment performed with Rio Grande variety and 35% final moisture content.

  15. Synaesthesia and Sexuality: The influence of synaesthetic perceptions on sexual experience

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    Janina eNielsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4 %. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences.Aims. To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes.Methods. In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55. Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (german version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV. Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes.Main Outcome Measures. Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse.Results. Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale sexual appetence but coevally significant lower subscale scores for sexual satisfaction. Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales oceanic boundlessness and visionary restructuralization than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions. Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however,

  16. Scenario of Growing Crops on Silicates in Lunar Gargens

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    Kozyrovska, N.; Kovalchuk, M.; Negutska, V.; Lar, O.; Korniichuk, O.; Alpatov, A.; Rogutskiy, I.; Kordyum, V.; Foing, B.

    Self-perpetuating gardens will be a practical necessity for humans, living in permanently manned lunar bases. A lunar garden has to supplement less appetizing packaged food brought from the Earth, and the ornamental plants have to serve as valuable means for emotional relaxation of crews in a hostile lunar environment. The plants are less prone to the inevitable pests and diseases when they are in optimum condition, however, in lunar greenhouses there is a threat for plants to be hosts for pests and predators. Although the lunar rocks are microorganism free, there will be a problem with the acquired infection (pathogens brought from the Earth) in the substrate used for the plant growing. On the Moon pests can be removed by total fumigation, including seed fumigation. However, such a treatment is not required when probiotics (biocontrol bacteria) for seed inoculation are used. A consortium of bacteria, controlling plant diseases, provides the production of an acceptable harvest under growth limiting factors and a threatening infection. To model lunar conditions we have used terrestrial alumino-silicate mineral anorthosite (Malyn, Ukraine) which served us as a lunar mineral analog for a substrate composition. With the idea to provide a plant with some essential growth elements siliceous bacterium Paenibacillus sp. has been isolated from alumino-silicate mineral, and a mineral leaching has been simulated in laboratory condition. The combination of mineral anorthosite and siliceous bacteria, on one hand, and a consortium of beneficial bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases, on the other hand, are currently used in model experiments to examine the wheat and potato growth and production in cultivating chambers under controlled conditions.

  17. Neurobiological implications of eating healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Kim, Jae Won; Stefano, George B

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, the importance of food in the development of chronic diseases has been examined, as well as the medical value of eating healthy. The contribution of the eating process itself to health and well-being, however, has not been questioned until most recently. Biology has linked eating to appetitive motivational processes with their underlying neurophysiology, including CNS reward circuitries: Eating uses the pleasure-reward physiology to motivate us to eat. Endogenous opiates, such as morphine, insure our survival by helping us to make eating motivational via pleasure induction. After taking in enough food, we become satisfied, i.e., tolerant to food. Our appetite, and so is our appetence, are then low and need a certain time span to reach their former levels for then inducing food-seeking behaviors, food intake, etc. again. When tolerance passes, we once more engage in this pleasurable process related to positive behavioral motivation. Opioid receptor agonists, however, may induce energy intake even beyond an actual need. This interesting potential of opioidergic signaling may have its roots in biological mechanisms that insured the intake and storage of high energy foods, hence preparing for future famines. In our world of today, however, such neurobiological pathways may pose a threat on our health. Thus, feedback mechanisms, such as tolerance, aversion and satiety, have to be finely tuned. Therefore central autoregulation that involves, for example, limbic mu receptor signaling and other endogenous signaling compounds comes into the focus of modern science. The time where research recognizes the importance of neurobiological pathways such as endogenous opiate autoregulation or CNS reward circuitries for examining the physiology of food intake has yet begun. Many questions remain open and have to be answered through future scientific inquiry.

  18. Investigation of chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

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    F. Yousefbeyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ziziphora clinopodioides is a perennial herb and grows widely in west and northwest of Iran. The aerial parts are used as appetizer, carminative and antiseptic as well as for the treatment of medical conditions such as high blood pressure, asthma hyperhidrosis, palpitation and insomnia Methods: The aerial parts of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were extracted by ethanol (70% and fractionated by n-hexane. The n-hexane fraction was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. This fraction and the total extract were further investigated for in vitro cytotoxic activity against HT-29 (colon carcinoma, K-562 (leukemia, T-47D (breast ductal carcinoma and NIH-3T3 (Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast cells using MTT assay. Results:  Nineteen compounds were identified by GC/MS. The main constituents of the n-hexane fraction were pulegone (24.35%, menthol (14% and menthone (9.61%. The results of cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the n-hexane fraction strongly exhibited cytotoxic activity against T-47D and K-562 cells with IC50 value of 77.41±12.89 and 80±2.56 μg/mL. The total extract did not show considerable activity against any of the cell lines in comparison to the n-hexane fraction. Conclusion: The presence of compounds such as pulegone, menthol and menthone could explain the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction of Z. clinopodioides Lam on K-562, T-47D and HT-29 cell lines.

  19. RAMUAN JAMU CEKOK SEBAGAI PENYEMBUHAN KURANG NAFSU MAKAN PADA ANAK: SUATU KAJIAN ETNOMEDISIN

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    Afiani Ika Limananti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Jamu is used in an efford to treat patiens with a traditional herbal medicine, which is well known among the community. The jamu is widely used for trating light health problems, preventing illness, increasing the endurance and the health of the body, besides for cosmetic reasons. Jamu cekok is a kind of jamu used in Yogyakarta, especially for children, given by forcing the mixture into the throat if children have no appetite. The aims of the article are to know the components of jamu cekok and also to know the jamu cekok use toward improving child health. The research took 5 Javanese families as informants. Additional informants is jamu cekok traditional shop and traditional herbalist. Data were obtained by interviews and observation during February to June 2003. Analysis data was descriptive using medical anthropology approach. The essential components of jamu cekok, called empon-empon are curcuma xanthorriza Robx (temulawak, Zingiber Americans l. (lempuyang emprit, Tinospora tuberculata Beume (brotowali, Curcuma aeruginaosa Robx(temu ireng and Carica papaya L. (papaya. The main aims to drink jamu cekok is to increase the appetive of the children because parents worried about the children growth and development. The children were threatened that they will be forced to drink jamu, if they did not want to consume food. The belief and suggestion factors of jamu cekok having special characteristics cause consumers become satisfied after giving jamu cekok to their children. Beside that,traditional medicine using natural ingredients regarded more secure and the price can be reached by common society. Drinking jamu cekok indicated that there is trend back to nature, which had possessed by their anchestor.

  20. Evaluation of anti-melanogenic activity of Ziziphus jujuba fruits obtained by two different extraction methods

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    M. Salimi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Dried pulps and peels of Ziziphus jujuba fruits are commonly applied as food because of their high nutritional value. It has been widely used in traditional medicine as laxative, tonic, wound healing agent and appetizer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-melanogenic effects of Z. jujuba fruit. Methods: Fruit extracts were obtained by two different extraction methods, percolation (cold extraction and soxhlet (hot extraction using methanol 80% as the solvent. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and anti-tyrosinase capacity of the MeOH extracts from Z. jujuba fruits were evaluated in vitro. In addition, the effects of fruit extracts on the melanin content and cytotoxicity on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cells were determined after 72 hours. Results: The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the cold extract were found higher in comparison to the hot extract. Moreover, the antioxidant (SC50 =1.40 mg/mL and anti-tyrosinase activities (IC50 = 0.54 mg/mL of the cold extract were significantly stronger than the hot extract. At the dose of 500 μg/mL, the cold extract showed weaker toxicity to the melanoma cells than the hot extract. Melanin content of the cold extract was reduced to 30% at this concentration, while the hot extract had no inhibitory effect on melanin formation. Conclusion: The results showed that the percolation method was more suitable for extraction of the (poly phenolics from Z. jujuba fruits. In addition, the results of tyrosinase activity and melanin content assays suggested that the cold extract of Z. jujuba fruit can be considered as a dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  1. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna M; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik M; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; Zin, Noraziah M

    2016-01-01

    Background Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25) has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity). Aim This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results During screening procedure, SUK 25 exhibited good antimicrobial potential against several strains of MRSA. The best biological activity was shown from fraction number VII and its subfractions F2 and F3 with minimum inhibitory concentration values at 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. These two subfractions were identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl) and chloramphenicol. Conclusion On the basis of obtained results, SUK 25 isolated from Z. spectabile can be regarded as a new valuable source to produce secondary

  2. Naltrexone suppresses the late but not early licking response to a palatable sweet solution: opioid hedonic hypothesis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Pasquale G; Sclafani, Anthony

    2002-12-01

    Opioid antagonists suppress the intake of sweet solutions, but typically have little effect on the initial rate of drinking. The lack of an early drug response was investigated in the present study because it questions the general idea that opioid antagonists reduce the hedonic response to sweets. The first experiment, which measured the rat's licking response to a sucrose+saccharin (S+s) solution, revealed that naltrexone suppressed S+s intake but not initial lick rates. Experiment 2A indicated that the drug's delayed behavioral effect was not due to the 10-min injection-test interval used. Increasing the interval to 20 min did not reduce the latency of drug action. Experiment 2B tested the idea that rats require several minutes to detect that naltrexone has reduced the hedonic value of the S+s solution. The S+s solution was presented either for 30 min without interruption or for 3 min followed, after a 6-min delay, by another 27-min access. In both test conditions, naltrexone did not suppress S+s licking until 7-9 min of drinking had occurred. However, the drug blocked an "appetizer effect"; a post-delay increase in licking rate produced by the split-session test procedure. Microstructure analysis indicated that in all cases, naltrexone reduced S+s licking by reducing the number of lick clusters rather than lick cluster size. In contrast to these drug effects, Experiment 2C showed that reducing the concentration of the S+s solution decreased initial lick rates. Together, these findings suggest that opioid antagonists do not affect all aspects of flavor hedonics, but may primarily alter the intake-maintaining action of palatable flavors.

  3. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  4. Identity-Specific Reward Representations in Orbitofrontal Cortex Are Modulated by Selective Devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, James D; Kahnt, Thorsten

    2017-03-08

    Goal-directed behavior is sensitive to the current value of expected outcomes. This requires independent representations of specific rewards, which have been linked to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function. However, the mechanisms by which the human brain updates specific goals on the fly, and translates those updates into choices, have remained unknown. Here we implemented selective devaluation of appetizing food odors in combination with pattern-based neuroimaging and a decision-making task. We found that in a hungry state, participants chose to smell high-intensity versions of two value-matched food odor rewards. After eating a meal corresponding to one of the two odors, participants switched choices toward the low intensity of the sated odor but continued to choose the high intensity of the nonsated odor. This sensory-specific behavioral effect was mirrored by pattern-based changes in fMRI signal in lateral posterior OFC, where specific reward identity representations were altered after the meal for the sated food odor but retained for the nonsated counterpart. In addition, changes in functional connectivity between the OFC and general value coding in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) predicted individual differences in satiety-related choice behavior. These findings demonstrate how flexible representations of specific rewards in the OFC are updated by devaluation, and how functional connections to vmPFC reflect the current value of outcomes and guide goal-directed behavior.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical for goal-directed behavior. A recent proposal is that OFC fulfills this function by representing a variety of state and task variables ("cognitive maps"), including a conjunction of expected reward identity and value. Here we tested how identity-specific representations of food odor reward are updated by satiety. We found that fMRI pattern-based signatures of reward identity in lateral posterior OFC were modulated after

  5. Isolation and characterization of cyclo-(tryptophanyl-prolyl and chloramphenicol from Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 with antimethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaibani MM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muhanna M Alshaibani,1 Juriyati Jalil,2 Nik M Sidik,3 Ruangelie Edrada-Ebel,4 Noraziah M Zin1 1Programme of Biomedical Science, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia; 4Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Background: Zingiber spectabile, commonly known as Beehive Ginger, is used as an ethnobotanical plant in many countries as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain, and as a cure for swelling, sores and cuts. This is the first report of isolation of Streptomyces strain from the root of this plant. Strain Universiti Kebangsaan 25 (SUK 25 has a very high activity to produce secondary metabolites against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates due to acquired multidrug resistance genes and causes medication failure in some clinical cases worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence exhibited that the most closely related strain was Streptomyces omiyaensis NBRC 13449T (99.0% similarity. Aim: This study was conducted to carry out the extraction, identification, and biological evaluation of active metabolites isolated from SUK 25 against three MRSA strains, namely, MRSA ATCC 43300, MRSA ATCC 33591, and MRSA ATCC 49476. Materials and methods: The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thronton’s media. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic

  6. Book Review: Planetveien 12 (Planet Road 12: Arne Korsmo and Grete Prytz Kittelsen’s House Bokanmeldelse: Planetveien 12: Arne Korsmo og Grete Prytz Kittelsens hus. Et viktig bidrag til en betydningsfull boligs biografi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Skjerven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The book deals with one of postwar modernism masterpieces that complete work of art and housing. The author treats the house’s ideas, planning and construction, cooperation partners and the changes that have been made through time. Especially the latter is of high relevance in relation to our own time’s practicing of and discussions on recycling and transformation of our cultural heritage. It also contains biography and discussion of the architect’s other activities, as well as the author's interpretation of the house. Among the missing are a detailed treatment of the house as a meeting place and a more analytical review of the relationship with the partners, especially Grete Prytz Kittelsen. And not least issues related to the use versus preservation could have been devoting more attention. All in all, this is a rare good, interesting and important book. Rather than an exhaustive presentation, the book is an appetizer to what was created in conjunction with Planetveien 12 as a vehicle, and the central theme of transformation.Boken tar for seg et av etterkrigsmodernismens hovedverk som allkunstverk og bolig. Forfatteren behandler husets idégrunnlag, planlegning og konstruksjon, samarbeidspartnere og hvilke endringer som er blitt foretatt gjennom tiden. Spesielt det siste er av høy relevans i forbindelse med vår egen tids praktisering av og diskusjoner omkring gjenbruk og transformasjon av våre kulturminner. Den inneholder også biografi og omtale av hans øvrige virksomhet, samt forfatterens tolkning av Planetveien. Blant det som savnes er en utdypende behandling av husets betydning som internasjonal møteplass og en mer analytisk gjennomgang av forholdet til samarbeidspartnerne, spesielt Grete Prytz Kittelsen. Og ikke minst kunne problematikken knyttet til bruk versus bevaring vært viet større oppmerksomhet. Alt i alt er dette en sjeldent god, engasjerende og viktig utgivelse. Snarere enn noen uttømmende fremstilling er boken en

  7. Influence of Blog on Ideological and Political Education in Higher Vocational Colleges and Corresponding Strategies%博客对高职思想政治教育的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development and popularization of Internet,Blog,a?newly-emerging communication way in cyber times,greatly influences the way of learning,the practical activity and?the lifestyle of the students in higher vocational colleges.Due to its virtual and interactivity,Blog meets the demand for self-expression of students,overcomes the time-space limitation of the traditional education mode and improves the pertinence and appetency of education.However,the invalidation to restrict the thoughts and remarks,the virtual and the non-real time characteristics of Blog all negatively affects the ideological and political education.As a virtual expansion of the traditional ideological?and?political?education,Blog for the ideological and political education in higher vocational colleges should posses interesting representation,distinct standpoint and effective complementarily function,so that some strategies,such as performing an extensive promotion,co-constructing the Blog by teachers and students,intensively researching ideological?and?political?theories,improving Blog-related technologies and strengthening the systematic construction,should be adopted to achieve good teaching effect.%随着互联网的快速发展和普及,博客这一网络时代新兴的交流方式已对高职生的学习、实践和生活方式产生巨大影响。博客虚拟性、交互性等特点满足了学生自我表现的诉求,消除了教育的时空局限性,提高了针对性,增强了亲和力。同时,其对良莠不齐的思想与言论约束的失效度、虚拟性和非实时性也对思政教育的功效造成了消极影响。高职思政博客作为传统思政教育的虚拟延伸和拓展,在建构中必须遵循表现的趣味性、立场的鲜明性和作用的辅助性原则;应通过多方推广、师生共建、高职思政教育者钻研思政理论和提高博客技术、加强机制建设等策略,使其获得良好的教育效果。

  8. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  9. Causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity-related co-morbidities Part 1: A composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Anne-Thea

    2014-01-01

    The medical, research and general community is unable to effect significantly decreased rates of central obesity and related type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. All conditions seem to be linked by the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the underlying causes are not known. MetS markers may have been mistaken for causes, thus many treatments are destined to be suboptimal. The current paper aims to critique current paradigms, give explanations for their persistence, and to return to first principles in an attempt to determine and clarify likely causes of MetS and obesity related comorbidities. A wide literature has been mined, study concepts analysed and the basics of human evolution and new biochemistry reviewed. A plausible, multifaceted composite unifying theory is formulated. The basis of the theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals, becoming highly energy efficient in humans. The still-evolving, complex human cortico-limbic-striatal system generates strong behavioural drives for energy dense food procurement, including motivating agricultural technologies and social system development. Addiction to such foods, leading to neglect of nutritious but less appetizing 'common or garden' food, appears to have occurred. Insufficient consumption of food micronutrients prevents optimal human NRF2 function. Inefficient oxidation of excess energy forces central and non-adipose cells to store excess toxic lipid. Oxidative stress and

  10. Usage and control of solid-state lighting for plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.

    2008-07-01

    The work begins with an introductory part in which the basic aspects related to the photosynthetic radiation, the photobiology of plants and the technology of light-emitting diodes (Leads) are overviewed. It is followed by a review of related research works that have been conducted during the last two decades, and by the main design issues of Led lumin aires for plant growth. The following part of the work reports the experimental growth tests performed. The effects of the radiation emitted by spectrally tailored Led lumin aires on plant growth have been investigated. A total of four growth tests using lettuce and radish cultivars were performed. Two basic approaches were used to investigate the effects and the future possibilities of the usage of solid-state lighting (SSL) in plant growth. The first approach evaluates the growth development of lettuce plants in real greenhouse conditions using LEDs as supplementary light sources to natural daylight. In the second approach the evaluation was carried out with a total absence of natural daylight by growing lettuce and radish plants in phytotron-chamber conditions. The effects of SSL treatments on the growth development and quality of crops were compared with reference lighting systems composed of conventional and well-established light-source technologies, such as fluorescent and high-pressure sodium lamps. During the process of the investigation, the need to coherently quantify and evaluate the spectral quality of the radiation in terms of its photosynthetic appetence arose. Different metrics are still been used indiscriminately to quantify radiation used by plants to perform photosynthesis. Therefore, the existing metrics are discussed and a new proposal for coherent systematization is presented. The proposed system is referred to phyllophotometric and it is developed using the average photosynthetic spectral quantum yield response curve of plants. The results of the growth tests showed that the usage of SSL in

  11. O BELO DISCRETO: A ESTÉTICA ALIMENTAR MBYÁ-GUARANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRTIN CÉSAR TEMPASS

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Beyond the palate, excessively felt also the preparation and consumption of foods are set in motion in. The vision is basic in this process, assisting the palate in the determination of that he is " appetizing". Thus, also we eat with the eyes, therefore beyond agood taste the food also it needs to offer a pleasant appearance. It occurs that each culture possesss specific tastes how much to the food. In the same way, each culture presents singularity in the visual presentation of its plates. This aesthetic specific, related to other instances of the thought, reflects the social and cosmological order of the group that puts it in practical. Thus being, it is intended, through the ethnografic method, to more investigate the appreciated forms of visual presentation of foods between the Mbyá-Guarani, present aboriginal group in the south of Brazil, as well as the directions that this ethnic partialityattributes to the aesthetic one of its foods.RESUMO: Além do paladar, os demais sentidos também são acionados na preparação e consumo dos alimentos. A visão é fundamental neste processo, auxiliando o paladar na determinação do que é “gostoso”. Assim, também comemos com os olhos, pois além de um gosto bom a comida também precisa oferecer um visual agradável. Ocorre que cada cultura possui gostos específicos quanto à comida. Da mesma forma, cada cultura apresenta especificidades na apresentação visual de seus pratos. Esta estética singular, relacionada a outros domínios do pensamento, reflete a ordem social e cosmológica do grupo que a põe emprática. Assim sendo, pretende-se, através do método etnográfico, investigar as formas mais apreciadas de apresentação visual dos alimentos entre os Mbyá-Guarani, grupo indígena presente no sul do Brasil, bem como os sentidos que esta parcialidade étnica atribui à estética de seus alimentos.

  12. Characterization of the AmpC β-1actamase of Citrobacterfreundii CMY-39 genotype%CMY-39新基因亚型AmpC β-内酰胺酶的特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢肖霞; 徐韫健; 谭皓妍; 梁权辉; 张东梅

    2011-01-01

    increased, while the stability was appetency decreased.

  13. Morfologia dos órgãos genitais masculinos do Jurará Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae Morphology of the male genital organs of the Scorpion Mud Turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cardoso Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinosternon scorpioides é uma pequena tartaruga semi-aquática, típica de água doce, de distribuição geográfica bastante diversificada, encontrada no estado do Maranhão, onde é denominada de jurará ou muçuã. Sua carne é uma excelente fonte de proteína e a despeito da legislação vigente, é comercializado nas praias e feiras da cidade de São Luís e consumido nos restaurantes sob a forma de farofa servida em casquinha. Os órgãos genitais do macho foram estudados visando fornecer dados morfológicos da própria espécie, que poderão ser utilizados na biologia reprodutiva voltada para ações de preservação em cativeiro. Compõe-se a amostra de 10 machos adultos, obtidos mediante apreensões do IBAMA-MA (Proc. nº 020.12.002400/99-31, licença nº 002/01, os quais foram eutanaziados conforme normas do Comitê de Ética do Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. A cavidade celomática foi aberta e os órgãos fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído 10%, e posteriormente dissecados. Os testículos possuem formato ovóide e coloração amarelo-ouro. Os epidídimos convolutos estavam aderidos dorsalmente à superfície medial dos testículos, terminando em um pequeno ducto deferente. Os ductos deferentes não forma-ram nenhuma ampola distinta, abrindo-se na cloaca. O pênis sulcado, localizado no assoalho da cloaca, estendeu-se até a cauda, composto de raíz, corpo e glande. A morfologia dos órgãos reprodutivos destes animais assemelha-se aos de outras tartarugas, sugerindo uma morfologia conservada entre as tartarugas.Kinosternon scorpioides is a small semi-aquatic turtle, typical of fresh-water, with wide geographic distribution. It is found in the state of Maranhão, where is called jurará or muçuã. Its meat is an excellent protein source and despite current legislation, it is commercialized at beaches and markets in the city of São Luis, consumed in restaurants as an appetizer in its own

  14. Enrichment of Data Publications in Earth Sciences - Data Reports as a Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Kirsten; Bertelmann, Roland; Haberland, Christian; Evans, Peter L.

    2015-04-01

    dataset. These reports are readable and citable on their own, but are, of course, closely connected to the respective datasets. Therefore, they give full insight into the framework of the data before data download. This is especially relevant for large and often heterogeneous datasets, like e.g. controlled-source seismic data gathered with instruments of the 'Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam GIPP'. Here, details of the instrumentation, data organization, data format, accuracy, geographical coordinates, timing and data completeness, etc. need to be documented. STR Data are also attractive for the publication of historic datasets, e.g. 30-40 years old seismic experiments. It is also possible for one STR Data to describe several datasets, e.g. from multiple diverse instruments types, or distinct regions of interest. The publication of DOI-assigned data reports is a helpful tool to fill the gap between basic metadata and restricted 'readme' information on the one hand and preparing extended journal articles on the other hand. They open the way for informed re-use and, with their comprehensive data description, may act as 'appetizer' for the re-use of published datasets.

  15. Study on defense of unstructured and uncentralized P2P network DDoS attacks%非结构去中心化的P2P网络DDoS攻击的防御研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓东; 李刚; 杨燕

    2012-01-01

    As unstructrured and uncentralized P2P network might be the engine of DDoS attacks, this paper proposed a theory of using AIS to isolate the malicious node from the P2P network. With AIS in a node and the nature relationship between antigens and antibodies and the continue evolution of antibodies, the node could detect malicious node by calculating the appetency of request result cycle queue of the node that returned resource information and the node' detector in real time in the unstructured and uncentralized P2P network. It did the experiment on the NS2 simulation platform by modifying the GnuSim plu-gin with AIS in the node of unstructured and uncentralized P2P network, and verified the model' s feasibility. And the experiment indicates that the method can effectively reduce the degree of DDoS caused by malicious node in the unstructured and uncentralized P2P network.%针对非结构去中心化的P2P网络可能作为DDoS引擎而产生大规模的网络攻击,提出了一种基于人工免疫(AIS)的方法来对非结构去中心化的P2P网络中的恶意节点进行免疫处理.通过在非结构去中心化的P2P网络中的节点上构建人工免疫系统,利用抗体和抗原之间天然的亲和关系,以及抗体不断进化的特点,实时计算由返回查询消息的节点提供的资源信息而进行请求得到的请求结果状态序列与检测器中的对应节点的请求状态序列特征之间的亲和力,并检测出恶意节点.在NS2仿真平台上通过修改GnuSim插件,对非结构去中心化的P2P网络中节点的人工免疫系统进行模拟仿真,实验仿真验证了该方法的可行性,且能够有效地降低非结构去中心化P2P网络中恶意节点产生的DDoS攻击程度.

  16. 基于模糊数学法评价超高压处理后鱿鱼的品质%Quality evaluation of squid processed by ultra-high pressure based on fuzzy mathematic method .

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆兰; 余海霞; 杨水兵; 任西营; 董开成; 杨志坚; 胡亚芹

    2013-01-01

      为有效改善秘鲁鱿鱼肉品质,采用超高压处理鱿鱼片,对处理后的鱿鱼片色泽、组织、口感和滋味进行感官评价权重分析,并利用模糊数学综合评价法对超高压处理的样品进行综合评分,优化获得超高压处理工艺;同时,结合仪器测定样品的质构和白度,并进行极差分析,验证模糊数学法的准确性.结果表明:模糊数学法评价鱿鱼肉品质的权重集为 K=(色泽0.25,组织0.15,口感0.35,滋味0.25);应用模糊数学综合评价法优化得到的最佳超高压处理压力为300 M Pa、保压时间为10 min、协同温度为25℃;质构和白度正交试验结果表明,影响鱿鱼片感官品质因素顺序为压力>协同温度>保压时间,最佳组合为A2 C2 B1,即最佳工艺条件为压力300 MPa、保压时间10 min、协同温度25℃.模糊数学评价方法得到的结果与仪器分析方法得到的结果一致,进一步验证了模糊数学感官评定方法的可行性和准确性.在此超高压条件下,鱿鱼片弹性最好,剪切力最低,白度值较高,品质达到最优.%Summary Squid ( Dosidicus gigas) has become one of important aquatic protein resources nowadays because of its appetizing , nourishing quality , low price as well as large fishing amount . However , because of its high insoluble myostromin ( 11 .0% ) and connective tissue with longitudinal , radial and circular orientations in squid muscle , its meat was sensitive to heat processing which made the traditional squid product taste tough and hard , as a result hindering greatly the edibility of old people and infant . Until now , the methods of activating endogenous protease or adding exogenous enzymes were usually used for improving the quality of squid meat , while the enzymic method would damage its appearance and was harmful for maintaining the quality . Ultra‐high pressure technology is one kind of physical technology with high efficiency . Previous studies had found that