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Sample records for appetitive behavior

  1. Sex steroids regulation of appetitive behavior.

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    Bautista, C J; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; Zambrano, E

    2012-10-01

    Appetite is the desire to satisfy the need to consume food, felt as hunger. It is regulated by the balance of food intake and energy expenditure via signals between the brain, the digestive tract and the adipose tissue. Males and females vary in terms of eating behavior as well as the way the body fat is stored. Energy balance and body fat distribution are part of the sexual dimorphism in many mammalian species including human beings. These sex dissimilarities could be related to the different sex steroid hormone profile in each sex. Gonadal steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Human epidemiological and experimental animal studies have shown that estradiol has a key role in the control of food intake and energy balance. Estradiol has long been known to inhibit feeding in animals. There are important changes in food intake patterns during the estrous cycle, with a reduction of food intake around the time of ovulation, when estradiol presents its highest levels. Men have less total fat and more central fat distribution which carries a much greater risk for metabolic disorders while women have more total fat and more gluteal/femoral subcutaneous fat distribution. Men and postmenopausal women accumulate more fat in the intraabdominal depot. This review is focused on the mechanism by which sex steroids affect feeding behavior and fat distribution.

  2. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors.

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    Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin

    2014-08-01

    Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning.

  3. Prenatal imprinting of postnatal specific appetites and feeding behavior.

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    Nicolaïdis, Stylianos

    2008-10-01

    Epigenetic influences on the fetus's genotype have been shown to occur during intrauterine life. Experimentally imposed extracellular dehydration in pregnant rats (a model for human hyponatremia caused by gravidic vomiting) brings about a dramatic enhancement of salt appetite not only in the dam, but also in offspring when they reach adulthood. This phenomenon has been verified in human newborn infants and adults whose mothers experienced nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy enhances its palatability for the offspring. Ingestion of olfactory test substances like anise or carrot by the mother during pregnancy gives rise to a preference for the same testants in the offspring. Under- or overnutrition in the pregnant mother appears to play a role in reprogramming the postnatal regulation of both feeding and fat reserves in offspring. Both maternal under- and overnutrition during pregnancy predispose the offspring to later development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A careful examination of the systems concerned with the regulation of food intake, and the neurosubstances involved in such regulation, reveals some of the mechanisms by which maternal nutritional status can affect the offspring and their food-related behaviors.

  4. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat.

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    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  5. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-09-10

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight.

  6. Experiential effects of appetitive and nonappetitive odors on feeding behavior in the blowfly, Phormia regina: a putative role for tyramine in appetite regulation.

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    Nisimura, Tomoyosi; Seto, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kyoko; Miyama, Mayumi; Nagao, Takashi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2005-08-17

    In humans, appetite is affected by food experiences and food flavors. In the blowfly Phormia regina, we found that feeding threshold to sugar increased in the presence of the odor of D-limonene and decreased in the presence of the odor of dithiothreitol (DTT). Using these odors as representative nonappetitive and appetitive flavors, we demonstrated the role played by tyramine (TA) in appetite regulation by experiences of food flavors. When fed with sucrose flavored with D-limonene for 5 d after emergence, flies showed subsequent decreased appetite to plain sucrose, whereas when they were fed with sucrose flavored by DTT they showed increased appetite. However, mushroom body (MB)-ablated flies did not show these patterns. This suggests that MB, one of the primary memory centers of the insect brain, is necessary for the flies to apply previous experiences of food flavors to appetitive learning behaviors. In addition, flies' previously acquired decreased or increased appetites showed parallel changes with both octopamine (OA) and tyramine levels in the brain. However, injection experiments with OA, TA, or their agonist and antagonist indicated that TA more directly mediates feeding threshold determination, which was affected by acquired memories of food flavors.

  7. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

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    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues.

  8. Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement.

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    Fields, Howard L; Hjelmstad, Gregory O; Margolis, Elyssa B; Nicola, Saleem M

    2007-01-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuron firing precedes behaviors elicited by reward-predictive sensory cues and scales with the magnitude and unpredictability of received rewards. These patterns are consistent with roles in the performance of learned appetitive behaviors and in positive reinforcement, respectively. The VTA includes subpopulations of neurons with different afferent connections, neurotransmitter content, and projection targets. Because the VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta are the sole sources of striatal and limbic forebrain dopamine, measurements of dopamine release and manipulations of dopamine function have provided critical evidence supporting a VTA contribution to these functions. However, the VTA also sends GABAergic and glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, VTA-mediated but dopamine-independent positive reinforcement has been demonstrated. Consequently, identifying the neurotransmitter content and projection target of VTA neurons recorded in vivo will be critical for determining their contribution to learned appetitive behaviors.

  9. Behavioral cross-sensitization between morphine-induced locomotion and sodium depletion-induced salt appetite.

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    Na, Elisa S; Morris, Michael J; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2009-10-01

    In general terms, sensitization refers to the capacity of a repetitive stimulus of fixed strength to produce a progressive increase in the magnitude of a response with each stimulation. In the addiction literature cross-sensitization is the capacity of an agent with abuse potential to sensitize a behavioral response induced by another stimulus. In the present experiments we examined the effects of morphine pretreatment on furosemide-induced saline intake and conversely sodium appetite induction on morphine-induced locomotion. In an initial experiment rats were pretreated with morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle for 5 days. The rats were then sodium or sham depleted and 24 h later given a sodium appetite test. Sodium depleted rats pretreated with morphine increased saline intake compared to depleted rats initially pretreated with vehicle. In a second experiment rats that were previously depleted and repleted of sodium as compared to sham depleted animals showed enhanced locomotor activity in an open field test when challenged with morphine (1 mg/kg, s.c.). These studies demonstrate that the behavioral responses induced by sodium deficiency and morphine treatment cross-sensitize with one another and suggest that common neural substrates underlie the sensitization of behaviors associated with states induced by morphine and sodium appetite.

  10. Synergistic and regulatory effects of orbitofrontal cortex on amygdala-dependent appetitive behavior.

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    Roberts, A C; Reekie, Y; Braesicke, K

    2007-12-01

    This paper will review two avenues of our research in marmosets that have focused on the role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in amygdala-dependent appetitive behavior. The first demonstrates the important contribution of both the OFC and the amygdala to conditioned reinforcement (CRF). The second reveals the regulatory effects of the OFC on amygdala-dependent autonomic and behavioral arousal in appetitive conditioning. The process of CRF is one way in which an environmental cue can guide emotional behavior. As a consequence of its previous relationship with reward, a cue can take on affective value and reinforce behavior. Lesion studies in marmosets are described that show that CRF is dependent upon both the amygdala and OFC. The synergistic interactions between these structures that have been shown to underlie other aspects of reward processing are then considered with respect to CRF. The results are contrasted with those that show the importance of the OFC in suppressing positive affective responses elicited by the amygdala in response to a conditioned stimulus (CS). Specifically, it will be shown that the OFC is involved in the rapid suppression of conditioned autonomic arousal upon CS withdrawal and in the co-ordination of conditioned autonomic and behavioral responses when adapting to changing reward contingencies. It will be argued that, overall, the OFC plays a critical role in the context-dependent regulation of positive affective responding governed by external cues, in keeping with a role in executive control.

  11. Caralluma fimbriata supplementation improves the appetite behavior of children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L Griggs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS results from a deletion of the paternal genes in the region of chromosome 15q11-q13. PWS develops hyperphagia, which when left unmanaged, leads to an excessive ingestion of food. To date there is inadequate pharmacological treatment or supplementation for modification of the PWS hyperphagia and/or the associated behaviors. Therefore, the best practice is familial supervision and restriction of diet and environment. Aim: We aimed to determine if the natural supplement of Caralluma fimbriata extract (CFE could attenuate hyperphagia or the associated appetite behaviors in children and adolescents with PWS over the 4-week pilot trial period. Materials and Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized crossover trial over a 10-week period to investigate the effects of CFE on hunger control, in a cohort of children and adolescents with confirmed PWS (n =15, mean age 9.27 ± 3.16 years, body weight 43.98 ± 23.99 kg. Participants from Australia and New Zealand ingested CFE or a placebo of maltodextrin/cabbage leaf over a 4-week period, with a 2-week washout before the crossover to the other treatment. Weekly comparisons in appetite behavior, severity, and drive were recorded by parents, as scaled time-point measures on a hyperphagia questionnaire validated for PWS. Results: CFE administration was found to induce a significant accumulative easing of hyperphagia (P = 0.05, with decreases evident in one-third of the participants. Furthermore due to CFE supplementation, a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 was recorded in the category of behavior and a decrease in hyperphagia (n = 8, P = 0.009 was observed at the highest dose 1,000 mg/day (recommended adult dose. There were no reported adverse effects at any dose. Conclusion: We demonstrate that an extract of the Indian cactus succulent Caralluma fimbriata eases hyperphagic appetite behavior within a cohort of children and adolescents (n = 15 with

  12. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

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    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  13. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

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    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  14. Parent Feeding Behavior and Child Appetite: Associations Depend on Feeding Style

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    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers’ appetitive traits. Method Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3–5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Results Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p <.001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Discussion Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent–child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. PMID:24976396

  15. Synergistic relationship between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the satiating effect of cholecystokinin.

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    Smith, Gerard P

    2013-12-01

    Synergism between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the research program of Smith and Gibbs on the satiating effect of cholecystokinin during the past 40 years is described. The Seminar was synergistic with the research program in five ways. First, the steady parade of speakers gave us a window on the varied and interesting work going on in the field. Second, the Seminar was the kind of audience for presentations of the work-in-progress on CCK that scientists hope for and rarely find. Criticism by members of the Seminar was relentless and constructive, and ideas for further experiments or new ways to tackle problematic data poured forth. Third, members of the Seminar did experiments that facilitated the experimental success of the research program. Fourth, members of the Seminar tutored us on topics that we wanted to import into the research program on CCK. Fifth, and probably most important, members of the Seminar gave us the encouragement, good humor, and friendship so necessary for coping with the struggles of the scientific life.

  16. Methylphenidate administration to juvenile rats alters brain areas involved in cognition, motivated behaviors, appetite, and stress.

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    Gray, Jason D; Punsoni, Michael; Tabori, Nora E; Melton, Jay T; Fanslow, Victoria; Ward, Mary J; Zupan, Bojana; Menzer, David; Rice, Jackson; Drake, Carrie T; Romeo, Russell D; Brake, Wayne G; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Milner, Teresa A

    2007-07-04

    Thousands of children receive methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the long-term neurochemical consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. To mimic clinical Ritalin treatment in children, male rats were injected with MPH (5 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily from postnatal day 7 (PND7)-PND35. At the end of administration (PND35) or in adulthood (PND135), brain sections from littermate pairs were immunocytochemically labeled for neurotransmitters and cytological markers in 16 regions implicated in MPH effects and/or ADHD etiology. At PND35, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats given MPH showed 55% greater immunoreactivity (-ir) for the catecholamine marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 60% more Nissl-stained cells, and 40% less norepinephrine transporter (NET)-ir density. In hippocampal dentate gyrus, MPH-receiving rats showed a 51% decrease in NET-ir density and a 61% expanded distribution of the new-cell marker PSA-NCAM (polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule). In medial striatum, TH-ir decreased by 21%, and in hypothalamus neuropeptide Y-ir increased by 10% in MPH-exposed rats. At PND135, MPH-exposed rats exhibited decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze and a trend for decreased TH-ir in the mPFC. Neither PND35 nor PND135 rats showed major structural differences with MPH exposure. These findings suggest that developmental exposure to high therapeutic doses of MPH has short-term effects on select neurotransmitters in brain regions involved in motivated behaviors, cognition, appetite, and stress. Although the observed neuroanatomical changes largely resolve with time, chronic modulation of young brains with MPH may exert effects on brain neurochemistry that modify some behaviors even in adulthood.

  17. Appetitive behavioral traits and stimulus intensity influence maintenance of conditioned fear

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    Megan eOlshavsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in appetitive learning have long been reported, and generally divide into two classes of responses: cue- vs. reward-directed. The influence of cue- vs. reward-directed phenotypes on aversive cue processing, is less well understood. In the current study, we first categorized rats based on their predominant cue-directed orienting responses during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. Then, we investigated the effect of phenotype on the latency to exit a familiar dark environment and enter an unfamiliar illuminated open field. Next, we examined whether the two phenotypes responded differently to a reconsolidation updating manipulation (retrieval+extinction after fear conditioning. We report that the rats with a cue-directed (orienting phenotype differentially respond to the open field, and also to fear conditioning, depending on US-intensity. In addition, our findings suggest that, regardless of appetitive phenotype or shock intensity, extinction within the reconsolidation window prevents spontaneous recovery of fear.

  18. Comparison of consumption behavior and appetite sensations among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery

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    Yeh, Chun; Huang, Hsien-Hao; Chen, Shu-Chun; Chen, Tung-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Background The promising postsurgical weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) from bariatric surgery can be attributed to modified eating physiology after surgical procedures. We sought to investigate the changes in the parameters of consumption behaviors and appetite sensations induced by a mixed meal tolerance test, and to correlate these alterations with age, body mass index, C-peptide levels, and duration of T2D 1 year after bariatric surgery. Methods A total of 16 obese patients with T2D who underwent mini-gastric bypass (GB) and 16 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were enrolled in this study and evaluated using a mixed meal tolerance test one year after surgery. A visual analogue scale was used for scoring appetite sensation at different time points. The area under the curve (AUC) and the incremental or decremental AUC (ΔAUC) were compared between the two groups. Results One year after surgery, a decreasing trend in the consumption time was observed in the GB group compared to the SG group, while the duration of T2D before surgery was negatively correlated with the post-operative consumed time in those after GB. Patients who underwent GB had significantly higher fasting scores for fullness and desire to eat, higher AUC0′–180′ of scores for desire to eat, as well as more effective post-meal suppression of hunger and desire to eat compared with those undergoing SG one year after surgery. Post-operative C-peptide levels were negatively correlated with ΔAUC0′–180′ for hunger and ΔAUC0′–180′ for desire to eat in the GB group, while negatively correlated with ΔAUC0′–180′ for fullness in the SG group. Discussion Patients with T2D after either GB or SG exhibit distinct nutrient-induced consumption behaviors and appetite sensations post-operatively, which may account for the differential effects on weight loss and glycemic control after different surgery. PMID:28344903

  19. Comparison of consumption behavior and appetite sensations among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery

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    Chun Yeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The promising postsurgical weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D from bariatric surgery can be attributed to modified eating physiology after surgical procedures. We sought to investigate the changes in the parameters of consumption behaviors and appetite sensations induced by a mixed meal tolerance test, and to correlate these alterations with age, body mass index, C-peptide levels, and duration of T2D 1 year after bariatric surgery. Methods A total of 16 obese patients with T2D who underwent mini-gastric bypass (GB and 16 patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG were enrolled in this study and evaluated using a mixed meal tolerance test one year after surgery. A visual analogue scale was used for scoring appetite sensation at different time points. The area under the curve (AUC and the incremental or decremental AUC (ΔAUC were compared between the two groups. Results One year after surgery, a decreasing trend in the consumption time was observed in the GB group compared to the SG group, while the duration of T2D before surgery was negatively correlated with the post-operative consumed time in those after GB. Patients who underwent GB had significantly higher fasting scores for fullness and desire to eat, higher AUC0′–180′ of scores for desire to eat, as well as more effective post-meal suppression of hunger and desire to eat compared with those undergoing SG one year after surgery. Post-operative C-peptide levels were negatively correlated with ΔAUC0′–180′ for hunger and ΔAUC0′–180′ for desire to eat in the GB group, while negatively correlated with ΔAUC0′–180′ for fullness in the SG group. Discussion Patients with T2D after either GB or SG exhibit distinct nutrient-induced consumption behaviors and appetite sensations post-operatively, which may account for the differential effects on weight loss and glycemic control after different surgery.

  20. Feeding behavior and gene expression of appetite-related neuropeptides in mice lacking for neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor subclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Higuchi; Takeshi Nild; Tomohiro Shiiya

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent neurotransmitter for feeding. Besides NPY, orexigenic neuropeptides such as agouti-related protein (AgRP), and anorexi-genic neuropeptides such as a-melatonin stimulating hormone (MSH) and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) are also involved in central feeding regulation. During fasting, NPY and AgRP gene expres-sions are up-regulated and POMC and CART gene ex-pressions are down-regulated in hypothalamus. Based on the network of peptidergic neurons, the former are involved in positive feeding regulation, and the latter are involved in negative feeding, which exert these feeding-regulated peptides especially in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). To clarify the compensatory mecha-nism of knock-out of NPY system on feeding, change in gene expressions of appetite-related neuropeptides and the feeding behavior was studied in NPY Y5-KO mice. Food intake was increased in Y5-KO mice. Fast-ing increased the amounts of food and water intake in the KO mice more profoundly. These data indicated the compensatory phenomenon of feeding behavior in YS-KO mice. RT-PCR and [SH suggested that the compensation of feeding is due to change in gene ex-pressions of AgRP, CART and POMC in hypothalamus. Thus, these findings indicated that the compensatory mechanism involves change in POMC/CART gene ex-pression in arcuate nucleus (ARC). The POMC/CART gene expression is important for central compensatory regulation in feeding behavior.

  1. Reinforcement in an in Vitro Analog of Appetitive Classical Conditioning of Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia": Blockade by a Dopamine Antagonist

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    Reyes, Fredy D.; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2005-01-01

    In a recently developed in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding in "Aplysia," the unconditioned stimulus (US) was electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve (En). This nerve is rich in dopamine (DA)-containing processes, which suggests that DA mediates reinforcement during appetitive conditioning. To test this…

  2. On histamine and appetites

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    Fernando eTorrealba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.

  3. Reinforcement in an in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding behavior in Aplysia: blockade by a dopamine antagonist.

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    Reyes, Fredy D; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2005-01-01

    In a recently developed in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding in Aplysia, the unconditioned stimulus (US) was electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve (En). This nerve is rich in dopamine (DA)-containing processes, which suggests that DA mediates reinforcement during appetitive conditioning. To test this possibility, methylergonovine was used to antagonize DA receptors. Methylergonovine (1 nM) blocked the pairing-specific increase in fictive feeding that is usually induced by in vitro classical conditioning. The present results and previous observation that methylergonovine also blocks the effects of contingent reinforcement in an in vitro analog of appetitive operant conditioning suggest that DA mediates reinforcement for appetitive associative conditioning of feeding in Aplysia.

  4. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

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    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals.

  5. The effect of contingency upon the appetitive conditioning of free-operant behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Lynn J.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of maintaining independence between response rates and reinforcement probabilities when determining the effect of varying the response-reinforcement contingency upon free-operant behavior was solved by programming local reinforcement probabilities for response and no response on a second-by-second basis. Fifty-seven rats were trained to lever-press on schedules of water reinforcement involving different values of contingency. All rats were first trained on a high positive continge...

  6. Clinical Approach to Children with Low Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ünal

    2011-01-01

    Appetite is a conscious desire for food and it is regulated mainly by the gastrointestinal system, pancreas and adrenal glands. Poor appetite is a common problem in childhood. For assessment, history of development, nutrition and family are important. Poor appetite may also be a symptom of feeding disorders. Even though the etiology of feeding disorders may be classified as organic or functional, it indeed reflects the complex interaction of biological, behavioral and social factors. Personal...

  7. Clinical Approach to Children with Low Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ünal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is a conscious desire for food and it is regulated mainly by the gastrointestinal system, pancreas and adrenal glands. Poor appetite is a common problem in childhood. For assessment, history of development, nutrition and family are important. Poor appetite may also be a symptom of feeding disorders. Even though the etiology of feeding disorders may be classified as organic or functional, it indeed reflects the complex interaction of biological, behavioral and social factors. Personal, familial, economic and sociocultural factors may affect appetite. In this review, approaches to a child with low appetite who presents a difficult problem for his/her family and doctor are discussed in the light of recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 79-84

  8. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary.

  9. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.

  10. Appetite in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite is defined as ‘a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food’. The counterpart of appetite is satiety, which is the state of satisfaction that follows after the need for food is fulfilled. However, palatable food can be appetizing in the absence of hunger and people may eng

  11. A Time of Change: Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Adolescent Sensitivity to Appetitive and Aversive Environmental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H.; Jones, Rebecca M.; Casey, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period that entails substantial changes in affective and incentive-seeking behavior relative to both childhood and adulthood, including a heightened propensity to engage in risky behaviors and experience persistent negative and labile mood states. This review discusses the emotional and incentive-driven behavioral…

  12. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista L. Barberini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  13. [Drug control of appetite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoundou, V; Golay, A

    2011-01-12

    The control of the appetite by drugs (sensation of hunger, satiation and satiety) is crucial in the management of obesity. Numerous drugs in this domain were forbidden these last years because of serious side effects. New researches allow the development of new substances presenting fewer side effects either by better specificity on receptors (locarserin), or by new mechanism of action (GLP-1, leptin, anti Ghrelin). The appetite is settled by a complex neurohormonal mechanism. To act on some systems at the same time, the development of products "polypill" combining naltroxone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate or amylin-leptine give encouraging results. However the dominant mechanism of the appetite dysregulation needs to be better understood.

  14. Are Increased Weight and Appetite Useful Indicators of Depression in Children and Adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, David A.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Martin, Nina C.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; March, John S.; Findling, Robert L.; Compas, Bruce E.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Rohde, Paul; Weissman, Myrna; Marilyn J. Essex; Hyde, Janet S.; Curry, John F.; Forehand, Rex; Marcia J. Slattery

    2012-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes strongly promote weight gain and increased appetite while also inhibiting weight loss and decreased appetite. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM–IV) treats both weight-gain/increased-appetite and weight-loss/decreased-appetite as symptoms of major depression during these developmental periods, despite the fact that one complements typical development and the other opposes it. To disentangle the...

  15. Appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M; McNally, Gavan P

    2012-06-01

    The existence of value coding and salience coding neurons in the mammalian brain, including in habenula and ventral tegmental area, has sparked considerable interest in the interactions that occur between Pavlovian appetitive and aversive conditioning. Here we studied these appetitive-aversive interactions at the behavioral level by assessing the learning that occurs when a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus (conditional stimulus, CS) serves as a CS for shock in Pavlovian fear conditioning. A Pavlovian appetitive CS was retarded in the rate at which it could be transformed into a fear CS (counterconditioning), but the presence of the appetitive CS augmented fear learning to a concurrently presented neutral CS (superconditioning). Retardation of fear learning was not alleviated by manipulations designed to restore the associability of the appetitive CS before fear conditioning but was alleviated by manipulations designed to increase the aversive quality of the shock unconditioned stimulus (US). These findings are consistent with opponent interactions between the appetitive and aversive motivational systems and provide a behavioral approach for assessing the neural correlates of these appetitive-aversive interactions.

  16. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eAndreatta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning

  17. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... studies have investigated this effect. Supplementation with different probiotic strains have been shown to have an effect on blood lipid profiles in both animals and humans and the mechanisms behind have been studied in vitro and in rodents. The aim of the present thesis was to examine in an ex vivo...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...

  18. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Juliana; Marks Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger a...

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Yu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has been rapidly increasing worldwide over the last several decades and has become a major health problem in developed countries. The brain, especially the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the control of food intake by sensing metabolic signals from peripheral organs and modulating feeding behaviors. To accomplish these important roles, the hypothalamus communicates with other brain areas such as the brainstem and reward-related limbic pathways. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and pancreatic β-cell-derived insulin inform adiposity to the hypothalamus. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and oxyntomodulin transfer satiety signals to the brain and ghrelin relays hunger signals. The endocannabinoid system and nutrients are also involved in the physiological regulation of food intake. In this article, we briefly review physiological mechanisms of appetite regulation.

  20. Developmental programing of thirst and sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecawi, Andre S; Macchione, Ana F; Nuñez, Paula; Perillan, Carmen; Reis, Luis C; Vivas, Laura; Arguelles, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Thirst and sodium appetite are the sensations responsible for the motivated behaviors of water and salt intake, respectively, and both are essential responses for the maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis in animals. These sensations and their related behaviors develop very early in the postnatal period in animals. Many studies have demonstrated several pre- and postnatal stimuli that are responsible for the developmental programing of thirst and sodium appetite and, consequently, the pattern of water and salt intake in adulthood in need-free or need-induced conditions. The literature systematically reports the involvement of dietary changes, hydromineral and cardiovascular challenges, renin-angiotensin system and steroid hormone disturbances, and lifestyle in these developmental factors. Therefore, this review will address how pre- and postnatal challenges can program lifelong thirst and sodium appetite in animals and humans, as well as which neuroendocrine substrates are involved. In addition, the possible epigenetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the developmental programing of drinking behavior, the clinical implications of hydromineral disturbances during pre- and postnatal periods, and the developmental origins of adult hydromineral behavior will be discussed.

  1. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-08-01

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.

  2. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced

  3. Neuropharmacology of Human Appetite Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C. G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of appetite relies on the integration of numerous episodic (meal) and tonic (energy storage) generated signals in energy regulatory centres within the central nervous system (CNS). These centers provide the pharmacological potential to modify human appetite (hunger and satiety) to increase or decrease caloric intake, or to normalize…

  4. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...

  5. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Austin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  6. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Juliana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  7. The Histaminergic Tuberomamillary Nucleus Is Involved in Appetite for Sex, Water and Amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Marco; Riveros, María E; Quispe, Maricel; Sánchez, Cristián; Perdomo, Guayec; Torrealba, Fernando; Valdés, José L

    2016-01-01

    The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.

  8. Khat use and appetite: An overview and comparison of amphetamine, khat and cathinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine M.; Li, Bingshuo; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance To understand the role of khat (Catha edulis) use on the aberrations in appetite and weight which are common comorbidities for khat and other amphetamine users. Materials and methods We provide a comprehensive overview and conceptual summary of the historical cultural use of khat as a natural stimulant and describe the similarities and differences between cathinone (the main psychoactive constituent of khat) and amphetamine highlighting the limited literature on the neurophysiology of appetite and subsequent weight effects of khat. Results Animal and some human studies indicate that khat produces appetite suppression, although little is known about mechanisms of this effect. Both direct and indirect effects of khat stem from multiple factors including behavioral, chemical and neurophysiological effects on appetite and metabolism. Classic and newly identified appetite hormones have not been explored sufficiently in the study of appetite and khat use. Unique methodological challenges and opportunities are encountered when examining effects of khat and cathinone including khat-specific medical comorbidities, unique route of administration, differential patterns of behavioral effects relative to amphetamines and the nascent state of our understanding of the neurobiology of this drug. Conclusion A considerable amount of work remains in the study of the appetite effects of khat chewing and outline a program of research that could inform our understanding of this natural amphetamine’s appetite effects and help prepare health care workers for the unique health effects of this drug. PMID:25435289

  9. Relationship between appetite levels and anxiety symptoms in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elihud Salazar

    2012-06-01

    Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.

  10. Are increased weight and appetite useful indicators of depression in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Martin, Nina C; Youngstrom, Eric A; March, John S; Findling, Robert L; Compas, Bruce E; Goodyer, Ian M; Rohde, Paul; Weissman, Myrna; Essex, Marilyn J; Hyde, Janet S; Curry, John F; Forehand, Rex; Slattery, Marcia J; Felton, Julia W; Maxwell, Melissa A

    2012-11-01

    During childhood and adolescence, physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes strongly promote weight gain and increased appetite while also inhibiting weight loss and decreased appetite. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) treats both weight-gain/increased-appetite and weight-loss/decreased-appetite as symptoms of major depression during these developmental periods, despite the fact that one complements typical development and the other opposes it. To disentangle the developmental versus pathological correlates of weight and appetite disturbance in younger age groups, the current study examined symptoms of depression in an aggregated sample of 2307 children and adolescents, 47.25% of whom met criteria for major depressive disorder. A multigroup, multidimensional item response theory model generated three key results. First, weight loss and decreased appetite loaded strongly onto a general depression dimension; in contrast, weight gain and increased appetite did not. Instead, weight gain and increased appetite loaded onto a separate dimension that did not correlate strongly with general depression. Second, inclusion or exclusion of weight gain and increased appetite affected neither the nature of the general depression dimension nor the fidelity of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Third, the general depression dimension and the weight-gain/increased-appetite dimension showed different patterns across age and gender. In child and adolescent populations, these results call into question the utility of weight gain and increased appetite as indicators of depression. This has serious implications for the diagnostic criteria of depression in children and adolescents. These findings inform a revision of the DSM, with implications for the diagnosis of depression in this age group and for research on depression.

  11. Appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Rohwedder, Astrid; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Thum, Andreas S

    2013-02-18

    In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative learning in a simple larval brain. Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary organization of the nervous system comprising only about 10,000 neurons (albeit with some concessions: cognitive limitations, few behavioral options, and richness of experience questionable). Drosophila larvae can form associations between odors and appetitive gustatory reinforcement like sugar. In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement. Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). In the following both groups are tested for their preference between the two odors. Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning--presented as a performance index (PI). The conclusion regarding the associative

  12. Control of Appetitive and Aversive Taste-Reactivity Responses by an Auditory Conditioned Stimulus in a Devaluation Task: A FOS and Behavioral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Erin C.; Agarwal, Isha; Lee, Hongjoo J.; Holland, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    Through associative learning, cues for biologically significant reinforcers such as food may gain access to mental representations of those reinforcers. Here, we used devaluation procedures, behavioral assessment of hedonic taste-reactivity responses, and measurement of immediate-early gene (IEG) expression to show that a cue for food engages…

  13. The Histaminergic Tuberomamillary Nucleus Is Involved in Appetite for Sex, Water and Amphetamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Contreras

    Full Text Available The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.

  14. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....

  15. The Effect of Wholegrain on Appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine

    . In the long run, regular wholegrain intake may also reduce body weight due to reoccurring short- and long-term effects on appetite. Aim: This PhD thesis investigates the effects of selected wholegrain products on appetite after a second meal, as well as the effects of sustained wholegrain intake on overall...... appetite sensation with special attention to the role of colonic fermentation. Further, the impact of regular wholegrain intake on body weight is investigated. Methods: In a second meal study we studied the effects of two coarse wholegrain rye evening meals on subjective appetite after a standardized...... breakfast and on ad libitum energy intake at lunch at the subsequent day compared to white wheat bread. In a human intervention study we investigated the effects of 8-week ad libitum consumption of a mixed wholegrain diet on appetite after a standardized, non-wholegrain breakfast, on ad libitum energy...

  16. Appetitive behaviours of children attending obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, H; Cooke, L; Wardle, J

    2011-10-01

    Associations between appetite and adiposity have not been examined in clinical samples of obese children. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to compare appetite in community (n=406) and clinical (n=66) samples. Clear graded patterns were seen for food responsiveness and emotional overeating; levels increased with increasing BMI SDS and the clinical sample scored highest. The reverse was seen for satiety responsiveness/slowness in eating. Differences were not solely explained by weight differences, suggesting that the clinical sample had more pronounced 'obesogenic' appetitive traits. This could make adherence to dietary guidance difficult.

  17. Appetite regulation in Schizothorax prenanti by three CART genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dengyue; Wei, Rongbin; Wang, Tao; Wu, Yuanbing; Lin, Fangjun; Chen, Hu; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Zhou, Chaowei; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has received much attention as mediators of appetite regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of CART in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not been well understood. In this study, three distinct CARTs were cloned from the Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Real-time quantitative PCR were applied to characterize the tissue distribution and appetite regulatory effects of CARTs in S. prenanti. The S. prenanti CART-1, CART-2 and CART-3 full-length cDNA sequences were 597 bp, 694 bp and 749 bp in length, encoding the peptides of 125, 120 and 104 amino acid residues, respectively. All the S. prenanti CARTs consisted of three exons and two introns. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the high mRNA levels of S. prenanti CART-1 were observed in the telencephalon and eye, followed by the hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and mesencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-2 mRNA was mainly found in the mesencephalon, hypothalamus, telencephalon and myelencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-3 mRNA was widely distributed among the tissues, with the high levels in the hypothalamus and foregut. In the periprandial experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were highly elevated after a meal, suggesting that CARTs are postprandial satiety signals. In the fasting experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions decreased after fasting and increased after refeeding, suggesting that CARTs might be involved in regulation of appetite in the S. prenanti.

  18. Altered motivation masks appetitive learning potential of obese mice

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    Mazen R. Harb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that i the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; ii higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and iii mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate. Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in

  19. Modeling appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental interactions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eoin C; Stephens, David N; Crombag, Hans S

    2010-10-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian associative learning, a stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) that has been associated with the delivery of a reinforcing event (unconditioned stimulus, US; e.g., food) can subsequently elicit or modulate goal-directed instrumental behaviors. For example, a Pavlovian CS can serve to reinforce (novel) instrumental behavior (conditioned reinforcement or CRf), or it can energize and potentiate ongoing instrumental responses when presented non-contingently (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer or PIT). Notably, these different effects of a Pavlovian CS on instrumental behavior are mediated by dissociable psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. Given the critical role that Pavlovian-instrumental interactions play in regulating motivated behavior and maladaptive manifestations of motivation such as eating disorders and addictions, understanding the underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms will be important. This unit describes behavioral protocols that produce robust and reliable PIT and CRf in mice and that open the door for future studies using transgenic approaches into the molecular mechanisms underlying associative learning and motivation.

  20. Impact of appetitive and aversive outcomes on brain responses: Linking the animal and human literatures

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    Gregory B Bissonette

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is motivated by the possibility of obtaining reward and/or avoiding punishment. Though many have investigated behavior associated with appetitive or aversive outcomes, few have examined behaviors that rely on both. Fewer still have addressed questions related to how anticipated appetitive and aversive outcomes interact to alter neural signals related to expected value, motivation, and salience. Here we review recent rodent, monkey, and human research that address these issues. Further development of this area will be fundamental to understanding the etiology behind human psychiatric diseases and cultivating more effective treatments.

  1. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-wight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The

  2. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  3. Glutamate and GABA in appetite regulation

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    Teresa Cardoso Delgado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms.Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the

  4. [Dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years with mild malnutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada, Mariana Martínez; Gutiérrez, María Luisa Alvarez

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition is conditioned by a series of factors, among them the dietary factors, which include appetite, eating behaviors and habits. In order to assess these factors, the following objective was pursued: describe the dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years of age with mild malnutrition. A correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of all children under two years of age (n = 168) diagnosed with primary (mild) malnutrition, who attended consultation at the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano, CANIA, during the period 2000-2008. The results showed intake of energy and macronutrients was lower than the individual requirement; iron intake children showed rebellious behavior and caregivers were permissive. Protein adequacy, vegetable and whole milk consumption frequency, preparation type, identification of refusals and preferences, place and duration of meals, and child-caregiver interaction at mealtimes were significantly associated with appetite; if we consider this last one as a guide and we try to modify inadequate eating behaviors and habits, we will generate an impact over the child appetite that could improve the food consumption and prevent malnutrition.

  5. Developmental programming of appetite/satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is often attributed to a Western lifestyle, a high-fat diet and decreased activity. While these factors certainly contribute to adult obesity, compelling data from our laboratory and others indicate that this explanation is oversimplified. Recent studies strongly argue that maternal/fetal under- or overnutrition predisposes the offspring to become hyperphagic and increases the risk of later obesity. Both infants small for gestational age (SGA) or infants born to obese mothers who consume a high-fat diet are at a markedly increased risk of adult obesity. Specific alterations in the fetal metabolic/energy environment directly influence the development of appetite regulatory pathways. Specifically, SGA infants demonstrate (1) impaired satiety and anorexigenic cell signaling, (2) enhanced cellular orexigenic responses, (3) programmed dysfunction of neuroprogenitor cell proliferation/differentiation, and (4) increased expression of appetite (NPY) versus satiety (POMC) neurons. In both hypothalamic tissue and ex vivo culture, SGA newborns exhibit increased levels of the nutrient sensor SIRT1, signifying reduced energy, whereas maternal high-fat-exposed newborns exhibit reduced levels of pAMPK, signifying energy excess. Via downstream regulation of bHLH neuroproliferation (Hes1) and neurodifferentiation factors (Mash1, Ngn3), neurogenesis is biased toward orexigenic and away from anorexigenic neurons, resulting in excess appetite, reduced satiety and development of obesity. Despite the developmental programming of appetite neurogenesis, the potential for neuronal remodeling raises the opportunity for novel interventions.

  6. How does not responding to appetitive stimuli cause devaluation: Evaluative conditioning or response inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Veling, Harm; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Holland, Rob W

    2016-12-01

    In a series of 6 experiments (5 preregistered), we examined how not responding to appetitive stimuli causes devaluation. To examine this question, a go/no-go task was employed in which appetitive stimuli were consistently associated with cues to respond (go stimuli), or with cues to not respond (either no-go cues or the absence of cues; no-go stimuli). Change in evaluations of no-go stimuli was compared to change in evaluations of both go stimuli and of stimuli not presented in the task (untrained stimuli). Experiments 1 to 3 show that not responding to appetitive stimuli in a go/no-go task causes devaluation of these stimuli regardless of the presence of an explicit no-go cue. Experiments 4a and 4b show that the devaluation effect of appetitive stimuli is contingent on the percentage of no-go trials; devaluation appears when no-go trials are rare, but disappears when no-go trials are frequent. Experiment 5 shows that simply observing the go/no-go task does not lead to devaluation. Experiment 6 shows that not responding to neutral stimuli does not cause devaluation. Together, these results suggest that devaluation of appetitive stimuli by not responding to them is the result of response inhibition. By employing both go stimuli and untrained stimuli as baselines, alternative explanations are ruled out, and apparent inconsistencies in the literature are resolved. These experiments provide new theoretical insight into the relation between not responding and evaluation, and can be applied to design motor response training procedures aimed at changing people's behavior toward appetitive stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Effects of chemosignals from sad tears and postprandial plasma on appetite and food intake in humans.

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    Tae Jung Oh

    Full Text Available Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019. These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.

  8. The combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers and the nature of their interaction during auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W

    2010-03-31

    Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance.

  9. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera

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    Elodie Urlacher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response (PER conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate (IPA, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  10. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Francés, Bernard; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular, and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones) affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP) which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24 h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  11. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shimada

    Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  12. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    in the prevalence of obesity is unknown but it is most probably due to two lifestyle factors: an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and increased availability of palatable foods with high energy density. Even small changes in energy intake, leading to a positive energy balance can lead to weight gain over time......Summary Worldwide, the number of overweight and obese individuals has more than doubled since 1980: there were more than 1.4 billion overweight adults in 2008. Of these, more than 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were classified as obese. The cause for the worldwide increase...... on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher...

  13. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and the regulation of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2012-07-01

    Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extrasynaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators: altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central control of Food Intake'.

  14. Stimulants for the control of hedonic appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Sally Poulton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilisation of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.

  15. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

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    James Kenneth Moran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated ‘appetitive’ aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N=50 presented with an imaginative listening task involving a murderer describing a kill. We manipulated motivational context in a between-subjects design to evoke appetitive or reactive aggression, against a neutral control, measuring activity with Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results show differences in left frontal regions in delta (2-5 Hz and alpha band (8-12 Hz for aggressive conditions and right parietal delta activity differentiating appetitive and reactive aggression. These results validate the distinction of reward-driven appetitive aggression from reactive aggression in ordinary populations at the level of functional neural brain circuitry.

  16. Learning and the persistence of appetite: extinction and the motivation to eat and overeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2011-04-18

    The modern world is saturated with highly palatable and highly available food, providing many opportunities to associate food with environmental cues and actions (through Pavlovian and operant or instrumental learning, respectively). Basic learning processes can often increase the tendency to approach and consume food, whereas extinction, in which Pavlovian and operant behaviors decline when the reinforcer is withheld, weakens but does not erase those tendencies. Contemporary research suggests that extinction involves an inhibitory form of new learning that appears fragile because it is highly dependent on the context for expression. These ideas are supported by the phenomena of renewal, spontaneous recovery, resurgence, reinstatement, and rapid reacquisition in appetitive learning, which together may help explain why overeating may be difficult to suppress permanently, and why appetitive behavior may seem so persistent.

  17. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.

  18. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

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    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  19. Relation of addiction genes to hypothalamic gene changes subserving genesis and gratification of a classic instinct, sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Wolfgang B; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J; Hilton, Donald L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Denton, Derek A

    2011-07-26

    Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 and neural plasticity regulator activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) were up-regulated in lateral hypothalamic orexinergic neurons by sodium deficiency. Administration of dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 receptor (raclopride) antagonists reduced gratification of sodium appetite triggered by sodium deficiency. SCH23390 was specific, having no effect on osmotic-induced water drinking, whereas raclopride also reduced water intake. D1 receptor KO mice had normal sodium appetite, indicating compensatory regulation. Appetite was insensitive to SCH23390, confirming the absence of off-target effects. Bilateral microinjection of SCH23390 (100 nM in 200 nL) into rats' lateral hypothalamus greatly reduced sodium appetite. Gene set enrichment analysis in hypothalami of mice with sodium appetite showed significant enrichment of gene sets previously linked to addiction (opiates and cocaine). This finding of concerted gene regulation was attenuated on gratification with perplexingly rapid kinetics of only 10 min, anteceding significant absorption of salt from the gut. Salt appetite and hedonic liking of salt taste have evolved over >100 million y (e.g., being present in Metatheria). Drugs causing pleasure and addiction are comparatively recent and likely reflect usurping of evolutionary ancient systems with high survival value by the gratification of contemporary hedonic indulgences. Our findings outline a molecular logic for instinctive behavior encoded by the brain with

  20. Aging & appetite : Social and physiological approaches in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.F.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by anorexia of aging, described as a decline in appetite, a lower dietary intake and followed by unexplained weight loss. The present thesis described research on anorexia of aging. Focus was given to social and physiological determinants of appetite and the relationship w

  1. Appetitive Motivation and Negative Emotion Reactivity among Remitted Depressed Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted…

  2. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required.

  3. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  4. The role of infant appetite in extended formula feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch

  5. Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Both; E. Laan; M. Spiering; T. Nilsson; S. Oomens; W. Everaerd

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. AIM: The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of sex

  6. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...

  7. Appetite and cancer-associated anorexia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mellar P; Dreicer, Robert; Walsh, Declan; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan B

    2004-04-15

    Appetite is governed by peripheral hormones and central neurotransmitters that act on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and nucleus tactus solitarius of the brainstem. Cancer anorexia appears to be the result of an imbalance between neuropeptide-Y and pro-opiomelanocortin signals favoring pro-opiomelanocortin. Many of the appetite stimulants redress this imbalance. Most of our understanding of appetite neurophysiology and tumor-associated anorexia is derived from animals and has not been verified in humans. There have been few clinical trials and very little translational research on anorexia despite its prevalence in cancer.

  8. Combat high or traumatic stress: violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression but not with symptoms of traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eKöbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Former members of armed groups in eastern DRCongo had typically witnessed, experienced and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high. What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (paramilitary groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc. had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars.

  9. Effect of movie violence on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a random population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, L; Zeeni, N; Bassil, M

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about media violence and its effect on appetite and eating behavior. The present study aims at investigating the immediate acute effect of violence in movies on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a real-life setting. A total of 447 subjects (F = 202; M = 239) completed a validated visual analog scale to record their subjective feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat immediately at their way out of any of the three types of movies (horror, romance/comedy and drama/action). There was a significant difference between the three movie categories for the tensed feeling (P = 0.003), anxiety (P = 0.021), the sleepy feeling (P = 0.000) and a preference to eat something sweet (P = 0.019). Horror/violence movie types affected the subject by making him feel more stressed and anxious; however, romance made him feel sleepier and less tensed. Movie types did not seem to affect hunger or appetite directly, but rather triggered some food preferences.

  10. Ghrelin-derived peptides: a link between appetite/reward, GH axis and psychiatric disorders ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eLabarthe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress, …. but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe 1 the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, 2 how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH

  11. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis.

  12. Weight Loss Leads to Strong Increase in Appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Friday, October 14, 2016 Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite Study with ... changes in caloric expenditure that typically accompany weight loss — and weight loss plateau. Findings from the analyses suggest that ...

  13. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  14. Food intake and appetite control in a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmolin, Camila; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-10-01

    The biological actions of growth hormone (GH) are pleiotropic, including growth promotion, energy mobilization, gonadal development, appetite, and social behavior. The regulatory network for GH is complex and includes many central and peripheral endocrine factors as well as that from the environment. It is known that GH transgenesis results in increased growth, food intake, and consequent metabolic rates in fishes. However, the manner in which GH transgenesis alters the energetic metabolism in fishes has not been well explored. In order to elucidate these consequences, we examined the effect of GH overexpression on appetite control mechanisms in a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. To this, we analyzed feeding behavior and the expression of the main appetite-related genes in two different feeding periods (fed and fasting) in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T) zebrafish as well as glycaemic parameters of them. Our initial results have shown that NT males and females present the same feeding behavior and expression of main appetite-controlling genes; therefore, the data of both sexes were properly grouped. Following grouped data analyses, we compared the same parameters in NT and T animals. Feeding behavior results have shown that T animals eat significantly more and faster than NT siblings. Gene expression results pointed out that gastrointestinal (GT) cholecystokinin has a substantial contribution to the communication between peripheral and central control of food intake. Brain genes expression analyses revealed that T animals have a down-regulation of two strong and opposite peptides related to food intake: the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (npy). The down-regulation of pomc in T when compared with NT is an expected result, since the decrease in an anorexigenic factor might keep the transgenic fish hungry. The down-regulation of npy seemed to be contradictory at first, but if we consider the GH's capacity to

  15. Prebiotic supplementation improves appetite control in children with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Megan P; Nicolucci, Alissa C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2017-02-22

    Background: Prebiotics have been shown to improve satiety in adults with overweight and obesity; however, studies in children are limited.Objective: We examined the effects of prebiotic supplementation on appetite control and energy intake in children with overweight and obesity.Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two boys and girls, ages 7-12 y, with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥85th percentile were randomly assigned to 8 g oligofructose-enriched inulin/d or placebo (maltodextrin) for 16 wk. Objective measures of appetite included energy intake at an ad libitum breakfast buffet, 3-d food records, and fasting satiety hormone concentrations. Subjective appetite ratings were obtained from visual analog scales before and after the breakfast. Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaires were also completed by caregivers.Results: Compared with placebo, prebiotic intake resulted in significantly higher feelings of fullness (P = 0.04) and lower prospective food consumption (P = 0.03) at the breakfast buffet at 16 wk compared with baseline. Compared with placebo, prebiotic supplementation significantly reduced energy intake at the week 16 breakfast buffet in 11- and 12-y-olds (P = 0.04) but not in 7- to 10-y-olds. Fasting adiponectin (P = 0.04) and ghrelin (P = 0.03) increased at 16 wk with the prebiotic compared with placebo. In intent-to-treat analysis, there was a trend for prebiotic supplementation to reduce BMI z score to a greater extent than placebo (-3.4%; P = 0.09) and a significant -3.8% reduction in per-protocol analysis (P = 0.043).Conclusions: Independent of other lifestyle changes, prebiotic supplementation in children with overweight and obesity improved subjective appetite ratings. This translated into reduced energy intake in a breakfast buffet in older but not in younger children. This simple dietary change has the potential to help with appetite regulation in children with obesity. This trial was registered at

  16. Appetite awareness as a mediator in an eating disorders prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda Joelle; Smith, Lucy T; Craighead, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties identifying appetite signals and emotions have been implicated in the development and maintenance of disordered eating. The current study evaluated the mediating roles of appetite awareness and emotional awareness in a brief eating disorders prevention program designed to help participants identify and respond to internal appetite signals. A series of regression analyses was carried out to test the mediator effects of appetite and emotional awareness. Appetite awareness, but not emotional awareness, mediated improvements in binge eating symptoms as well as eating- and weight-control self-efficacy. Appetite awareness appears to be an effective target for eating disorders prevention programs.

  17. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  18. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030. CONCLUSIONS: Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  19. Appetite and falls: Old age and lived experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Mahler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Falling among older adults is a well-known public health problem but the association between falling and appetite is seldom studied although poor nutritional status is accepted as a risk factor for falls. On this background the aim of this study was to understand how older adults, who have fallen several times within a year, related their experiences of appetite as a phenomenon in everyday life. In narrative in-depth interviews, eight women and four men contributed with their stories. Using interpretative phenomenology the thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: appetite for food; appetite for social relations and appetite for influence. Eating was not trivial everyday routine and required self-regimentation. Meals were not an object of desire, but of discipline out of the wish to survive. Feelings, reflections and ambivalence were bound to the lack of appetite on food. The participants were oriented towards the forbidden, the delicious and to everyday food as a strengthener and as medicine. In their dependency on help, home was the framework for establishing social relations as means of social support. As well as family and neighbours, the significant others were persons on whom the participants were dependent. Personal relationships and mutual dependencies may ensure social security in lives characterised by contingency and maintain influence in daily life. Falling is both a dramatic and a trivial incident where life and death could be at stake. From this perspective, connectedness was prominent in all fall stories. The quest for influence and a sense of social connectedness was the incentive to re-enter local community arenas and to express solidarity. In health-care practice multi-factorial fall-prevention should be complemented with a multi-dimensional approach in order to balance the medical approach with humanistic and societal approaches towards fall-prevention.

  20. Specific appetite for carotenoids in a colorful bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Senar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since carotenoids have physiological functions necessary for maintaining health, individuals should be selected to actively seek and develop a specific appetite for these compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Great tits Parus major in a diet choice experiment, both in captivity and the field, preferred carotenoid-enriched diets to control diets. The food items did not differ in any other aspects measured besides carotenoid content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific appetite for carotenoids is here demonstrated for the first time, placing these compounds on a par with essential nutrients as sodium or calcium.

  1. Both neuropeptide Y knockdown and Y1 receptor inhibition modulate CART-mediated appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Ho, Ying-Jui; Yu, Ching-Han; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression has been attributed to its inhibition of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons in the hypothalamus. This study examined whether hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-containing neurons and NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) were involved in the action of AMPH. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days, and changes in feeding behavior and expression levels of NPY, CART, and POMC were assessed and compared. The results showed that both feeding behavior and NPY expression decreased during AMPH treatment, with the biggest reduction occurring on Day 2. By contrast, the expression of CART and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), a member of the POMC neurotransmission, increased with the maximum response on Day 2, directly opposite to the NPY expression results. The intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY antisense or Y1R inhibitor both modulated AMPH-induced anorexia and the expression levels of MC3R and CART. The results suggest that in the hypothalamus both POMC- and CART-containing neurons participate in regulating NPY-mediated appetite control during AMPH treatment. These results may advance the knowledge of molecular mechanism of anorectic drugs.

  2. Prevalence and associated factors for decreased appetite among patients with stable heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Andreae, Christina; Strömberg, Anna; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectivesTo explore the prevalence of decreased appetite and factors associated with appetite among patients with stable heart failure. BackgroundDecreased appetite is an important factor for the development of undernutrition among patients with heart failure, but there are knowledge gaps about prevalence and the factors related to appetite in this patient group. DesignObservational, cross-sectional study. MethodsA total of 186 patients with mild to severe heart failure were consecu...

  3. Neuropeptide Regulation of Appetite and Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small CJ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now recognised that appropriate regulation of reproduction, energy intake and energy expenditure, and thus maintenance of body weight and fertility, relies on complex hypothalamic neuro-circuitry. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. During times of under nourishment and falling body fat the reproductive axis is down regulated. Circulating factors and hypothalamic circuits co-ordinate these responses. Leptin has been described to be an important peripheral signal that indicates body fat stores to the hypothalamus and thus links nutrition and reproduction. Leptin acts by altering neuropeptide circuits in the hypothalamus, which alter gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH release and food intake. The importance of key neuropeptide systems identified in rodents is now being established in man. Notably mutations in the melanocortin MC4 receptor are found in up to 4 % of the morbidly obese whilst in a proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa mutations have been identified in the agoutirelated peptide (AgRP gene, which codes for an endogenous antagonist of this receptor. Intranasal administration of a melanocortin fragment known to activate the MC4 receptor decreases adiposity in humans. The melanocortin system has been shown to influence the reproductive axis in rodents. However, the role of the melanocortin system in the control of reproduction in humans remains to be established. Since the discovery of leptin, attention has also been focused on peripheral signals that regulate reproduction, food intake and energy expenditure, either directly or via feedback on hypothalamic circuits. Notable new discoveries in this area include the gastric hormone ghrelin. Circulating ghrelin stimulates food intake in rodents and humans although an influence on the reproductive axis is yet to be reported. Neuropeptidregulation von Appetit und Reproduktion. Mittlerweile gilt es als anerkannt, daß eine entsprechende Regulation der

  4. An Appetitive Conditioned Stimulus Enhances Fear Acquisition and Impairs Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hiu T.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments used between- and within-subject designs to examine appetitive-aversive interactions in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of an excitatory appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) on acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, a CS shocked in a compound with an appetitive excitor (i.e., a stimulus…

  5. Nonhomeostatic control of human appetite and physical activity in regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characteristics of appetite and spontaneous activity stem from inhibition by leptin and ghrelin of brain reward circuit that is responsive to energy deficit, but refractory in obesity, and from the operation of a meal-timing circadian clock.

  6. An Emerging Technology Framework for the Neurobiology of Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternson, Scott M; Atasoy, Deniz; Betley, J Nicholas; Henry, Fredrick E; Xu, Shengjin

    2016-02-09

    Advances in neuro-technology for mapping, manipulating, and monitoring molecularly defined cell types are rapidly advancing insight into neural circuits that regulate appetite. Here, we review these important tools and their applications in circuits that control food seeking and consumption. Technical capabilities provided by these tools establish a rigorous experimental framework for research into the neurobiology of hunger.

  7. The endocannabinoid system and appetite: relevance for food reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the

  8. A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

  9. Sensitive period for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eKöbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Violent behaviour can be intrinsically rewarding; especially combatants fighting in current civil wars present with elevated traits of appetitive aggression. The majority of these fighters were recruited as children or adolescents. In the present study we test whether there is a developmental period where combatants are sensitive for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression.We investigated 95 combatants in their demobilization process that were recruited at different ages in the Kivu regions of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Using random forest with conditional inference trees, we identified recruitment at the ages from 16 and 17 years as being predictive of the level of appetitive aggression; the number of lifetime, perpetrated acts was the most important predictor. We conclude that high levels of appetitive aggression develop in ex-combatants, especially in those recruited during their middle to late teenage, which is a developmental period marked by a natural inclination to exercise physical force. Consequently, ex-combatants may remain vulnerable for aggressive behaviour patterns and re-recruitment unless they are provided alternative strategies for dealing with their aggression.

  10. Memory Elicited by Courtship Conditioning Requires Mushroom Body Neuronal Subsets Similar to Those Utilized in Appetitive Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Shelby A.; Baker, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    An animal’s ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female. As such, courtship conditioning is not clearly categorized as either appetitive or aversive conditioning. The mushroom body (MB) region in the fruit fly brain is important for several types of memory; however, the precise subsets of intrinsic and extrinsic MB neurons necessary for courtship conditioning are unknown. Here, we disrupted synaptic signaling by driving a shibirets effector in precise subsets of MB neurons, defined by a collection of split-GAL4 drivers. Out of 75 lines tested, 32 showed defects in courtship conditioning memory. Surprisingly, we did not have any hits in the γ lobe Kenyon cells, a region previously implicated in courtship conditioning memory. We did find that several γ lobe extrinsic neurons were necessary for courtship conditioning memory. Overall, our memory hits in the dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and the mushroom body output neurons were more consistent with results from appetitive memory assays than aversive memory assays. For example, protocerebral anterior medial DANs were necessary for courtship memory, similar to appetitive memory, while protocerebral posterior lateral 1 (PPL1) DANs, important for aversive memory, were not needed. Overall, our results indicate that the MB circuits necessary for courtship conditioning memory coincide with circuits necessary for appetitive memory. PMID

  11. Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yuen, V G; McNeill, J H

    2001-06-01

    Vanadium, a potent nonselective inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, has been shown to mimic many of the metabolic actions of insulin both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism(s) of the effect of vanadium on the decrease in appetite and body weight in Zucker fa/fa rats, an insulin-resistant model, is still unclear. Because insulin may inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is known to be related to appetite, and increase leptin secretion in adipose tissue, we studied the possibility that the changes in appetite produced by vanadium may be linked to altered NPY levels in the hypothalamus. We also examined effects of vanadium on leptin. Zucker lean and fatty rats were chronically treated with bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), an organic vanadium compound, in the drinking water. Plasma and adipose tissue leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting, respectively. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA and peptide levels were measured using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. BMOV treatment significantly reduced food intake, body fat, body weight, plasma insulin levels, and glucose levels in fatty Zucker rats. Fifteen minutes after insulin injection (5 U/kg, intravenous [IV]), circulating leptin levels (+100%) and adipose leptin levels (+60%) were elevated in BMOV-treated fatty rats, although these effects were not observed in untreated fatty rats. NPY mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) (-29%), NPY peptide levels in ARC (-31%), as well as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (-37%) were decreased with BMOV treatment in these fatty rats. These data indicate that BMOV may increase insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and decrease appetite and body fat by decreasing NPY levels in the hypothalamus. BMOV-induced reduction in appetite and weight gain along with normalized insulin levels in models of obesity, suggest its possible use as a therapeutic agent in obesity.

  12. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J

    2002-10-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in south of Benin. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements (VITALIA-tablets) contain 11 vitamins and 8 minerals. Stunted children (Ht/Age Z score appetite were assessed once a week for the three weeks preceding and the three weeks following the six-week intervention period. Growth was additionally assessed 4 months after intervention. Each appetite test day, morbidity data and mother's report on child's appetite throughout the preceding day were recorded. Reported appetite, intake of test food and knee-heel length increased after supplementation in both groups (p appetite and growth of stunted young children.

  13. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

  14. Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijlstra, Nicolien; Mars, Monica; de Wijk, René A

    2009-01-01

    /m(2)) participated in this cross-over study. Subjects received a fixed amount of a chocolate flavored milk-based liquid or semi-solid product similar in energy density and macronutrient composition. Before intake and 15, 30, 60 and 90 min thereafter, appetite was rated and blood was drawn to determine...... glucose, CCK-8, active ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and GLP-1 concentrations. After the last blood withdrawal, subjects were offered a chocolate cake meal to consume ad libitum. In the appetite ratings we observed a small effect showing that the semi-solid product is apparently considered as more satisfying...... product effect (p 0.004). Concentrations were consistently higher after intake of the semi-solid product. Ad libitum intake of the chocolate cake was 102+/-55 g after the liquid and 96+/-46 g after the semi-solid product (ns). The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro...

  15. Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Petit, A; Triki, R; Caulin, C; Segrestaa, J M

    1992-01-01

    The correlation between ultrasonographic gastric emptying and appetite was studied. Echographic evaluation of gastric emptying by measurement of the antral vertical diameter and assessment of sensations of hunger and satiety using analogue visual scales were performed simultaneously in 12 healthy volunteers. Measurements were carried out after the intake of 10.8 g psyllium or placebo in a randomised, crossover, double blind trial. The correlation between echographic gastric emptying and sensations of hunger and satiety was excellent (p < 0.001) after the intake of either psyllium or placebo. Psyllium significantly delayed gastric emptying from the third hour after a meal. It increased the sensation of satiety and decreased hunger at the sixth hour after the meal. The association between echographic measurement and visual scales is a simple method of evaluating the relationship between the stomach and appetite. The pharmacodynamic effect of psyllium should be confirmed by longterm therapeutic trials. PMID:1398229

  16. The endocannabinoid system and appetite: relevance for food reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Gerry; Witkamp, Renger F

    2014-06-01

    Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the functioning of the ECS, the present review specifically addresses its role in the modulation of hedonic eating. Humans possess strong motivational systems triggered by rewarding aspects of food. Food reward is comprised of two components: one appetitive (orienting towards food); the other consummatory (hedonic evaluation), also referred to as 'wanting' and 'liking', respectively. Endocannabinoid tone seems to influence both the motivation to feed and the hedonic value of foods, probably by modifying palatability. Human physiology underlying hedonic eating is still not fully understood. A better understanding of the role of the ECS in the rewarding value of specific foods or diets could offer new possibilities to optimise the balance between energy and nutrient intake for different target groups. These groups include the obese and overweight, and potentially individuals suffering from malnutrition. Examples for the latter group are patients with disease-related anorexia, as well as the growing population of frail elderly suffering from persistent loss of food enjoyment and appetite resulting in malnutrition and involuntary weight loss. It has become clear that the psychobiology of food hedonics is extremely complex and the clinical failure of CB1 inverse agonists including rimonabant (Accomplia®) has shown that 'quick wins' in this field are unlikely.

  17. Appetite Response among Those Susceptible or Resistant to Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative approach in determining cause, treatment, and prevention of obesity is to study those who appear resistant to the obesogenic environment. We examined appetite responses in 33 obesity resistant individuals (ORI versus 28 obesity susceptible individuals (OSI. Fingerprick blood samples to measure ghrelin, total peptide YY (PYY, leptin, glucose, and insulin along with appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min following consumption of a standardized meal. Fasting, area under the curve (AUC, peak/nadir, and time to peak/nadir were compared. Participants completed the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ. No significant differences were observed for ghrelin or PYY. Higher leptin concentrations in the OSI disappeared after controlling for percent body fat (%BF. Significant differences in appetite ratings included a lower hunger nadir among OSI compared with ORI (P=0.017. Dietary restraint (P<0.001 and disinhibition (P<0.001 were lower in ORI compared with OSI, with and without adjustment for %BF. Given the differential body weight of the study groups, similar observed ghrelin concentrations were unexpected, perhaps indicating OSI and ORI respond differently to the same ghrelin concentration. Also ORI response to hunger appears different as they exhibit lower levels of dietary restraint and disinhibition compared with OSI.

  18. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

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    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  19. The role of previous exposure in the appetitive and consummatory effects of orexigenic neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2005-05-01

    The ingestion of foods is comprised of two distinct phases of behavior: appetitive and consummatory. While most food intake paradigms include both phases, the intraoral intake test emphasizes the stereotyped consummatory-phase by infusing a liquid food directly into the oral cavity. Several hypothalamic peptides have been shown to increase intake of chow in standard food intake paradigms and the current experiments sought to test whether these peptides would increase food intake in the intraoral intake paradigm. NPY, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A were infused into the third ventricle (i3vt) in a counterbalanced latin-square design just prior to rats getting 0.1M sucrose solution infused via indwelling intraoral catheters and compared it to intake on bottle tests with access to the same sucrose solution. On the first day, each peptide increased intraoral intake relative to saline in the between-subjects comparison. Moreover, intake of sucrose following i3vt saline increased as a function of training. By the final day of the experiment, rats receiving saline consumed as much sucrose as rats receiving NPY, MCH, or orexin-A. This finding was conceptually replicated in the second experiment in which rats drank sucrose freely from a bottle on the home cage. A third experiment directly assessed the role of previous exposure in the sucrose intake induced by NPY. Those results confirm that repeated exposure to sucrose increases baseline intake and attenuates the hyperphagic effect of NPY. These results are consistent with two conclusions: (1) NPY, MCH, and orexin-A increase both appetitive and consummatory-phase ingestive behaviors on initial exposures; (2) repeated training interacts with the effects of these orexigenic peptides.

  20. Self-Reported Appetite and Intake Adequacy In Patients With Non-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.

  1. Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A A; Seimon, R V; Lee, C M Y; Ayre, J; Franklin, J; Markovic, T P; Caterson, I D; Sainsbury, A

    2015-01-01

    Very-low-energy diets (VLEDs) and ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets (KLCDs) are two dietary strategies that have been associated with a suppression of appetite. However, the results of clinical trials investigating the effect of ketogenic diets on appetite are inconsistent. To evaluate quantitatively the effect of ketogenic diets on subjective appetite ratings, we conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of studies that assessed appetite with visual analogue scales before (in energy balance) and during (while in ketosis) adherence to VLED or KLCD. Individuals were less hungry and exhibited greater fullness/satiety while adhering to VLED, and individuals adhering to KLCD were less hungry and had a reduced desire to eat. Although these absolute changes in appetite were small, they occurred within the context of energy restriction, which is known to increase appetite in obese people. Thus, the clinical benefit of a ketogenic diet is in preventing an increase in appetite, despite weight loss, although individuals may indeed feel slightly less hungry (or more full or satisfied). Ketosis appears to provide a plausible explanation for this suppression of appetite. Future studies should investigate the minimum level of ketosis required to achieve appetite suppression during ketogenic weight loss diets, as this could enable inclusion of a greater variety of healthy carbohydrate-containing foods into the diet.

  2. The hippocampus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: effects of excitotoxic hippocampal lesions on conditioned locomotor activity and autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rutsuko; Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampus (HPC) is known to be critically involved in the formation of associations between contextual/spatial stimuli and behaviorally significant events, playing a pivotal role in learning and memory. However, increasing evidence indicates that the HPC is also essential for more basic motivational processes. The amygdala, by contrast, is important for learning about the motivational significance of discrete cues. This study investigated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat HPC and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the acquisition of a number of appetitive behaviors known to be dependent on the formation of Pavlovian associations between a reward (food) and discrete stimuli or contexts: (1) conditioned/anticipatory locomotor activity to food delivered in a specific context and (2) autoshaping, where rats learn to show conditioned discriminated approach to a discrete visual CS+. While BLA lesions had minimal effects on conditioned locomotor activity, hippocampal lesions facilitated the development of both conditioned activity to food and autoshaping behavior, suggesting that hippocampal lesions may have increased the incentive motivational properties of food and associated conditioned stimuli, consistent with the hypothesis that the HPC is involved in inhibitory processes in appetitive conditioning.

  3. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M

    2015-02-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from

  4. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture;

    2016-01-01

    the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized......Objectives: Increased energy expenditure (EE) has been proposed an important mechanism for weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, this has never been investigated in a controlled setting independent of changes in energy balance. Likewise, only few studies have investigated...

  5. The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, reduces appetitive responding for sucrose and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Steensland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether the NK1-receptor system plays a role in the reinforcing properties of sucrose using a novel selective and clinically safe NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant (CJ-11,974, in three animal models of sucrose consumption and seeking. Furthermore, we compared the effect of ezlopitant on ethanol consumption and seeking in rodents. The NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant decreased appetitive responding for sucrose more potently than for ethanol using an operant self-administration protocol without affecting general locomotor activity. To further evaluate the selectivity of the NK1-receptor antagonist in decreasing consumption of sweetened solutions, we compared the effects of ezlopitant on water, saccharin-, and sodium chloride (NaCl solution consumption. Ezlopitant decreased intake of saccharin but had no effect on water or salty solution consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the NK1-receptor may be a part of a common pathway regulating the self-administration, motivational and reinforcing aspects of sweetened solutions, regardless of caloric value, and those of substances of abuse. Additionally, these results indicate that the NK1-receptor system may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity induced by over-consumption of natural reinforcers.

  6. Differential effects of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on appetitive and aversive Pavlovian conditioning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Ali, Syed F; Itzhak, Yossef

    2005-06-01

    The abuse of substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/Ecstasy) can result in neurotoxicity, manifested as the depletion of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT; serotonin) axon terminal markers in humans and animal models. Human METH and MDMA users exhibit impairments in memory and executive functions, which may be a direct consequence of the neurotoxic potential of amphetamines. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on Pavlovian learning. Using mouse models of selective DA neurotoxicity (METH; 5 mg/kg x 3), selective 5-HT neurotoxicity (fenfluramine /FEN; 25 mg/kg x 4) and dual DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity (MDMA; 15 mg/kg x 4), appetitive and aversive conditioning were investigated. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity significantly impaired METH and cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), but had no effect on LiCl-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). In contrast, serotonergic neurotoxicity significantly enhanced CPP, and had no effect on CPA. Dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity had no apparent effect on CPP; however, CPA was significantly attenuated. Postmortem analysis revealed that significantly diminished levels of DA and 5-HT markers persisted in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. These findings suggest that amphetamines-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity exert opposing influences on the affective state produced by subsequent drug reward, while dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity impairs associative learning of aversive conditioning. Furthermore, results revealed that amphetamines-induced DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity modulates appetitive Pavlovian conditioning similar to other DA and 5-HT neurotoxins. Modulation of Pavlovian conditioning by amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity may be relevant to compulsive drug-seeking behavior in METH and MDMA abusers.

  7. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Rodenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. METHODS: Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. RESULTS: Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. CONCLUSIONS: Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  8. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behavioral...... this peptide has been shown in other cell types to lead to rises in calcium via release of calcium from intracellular stores. To determine whether ghrelin induced intracellular calcium rises in mouse LDT neurons, we conducted calcium imaging studies in LDT brain slices loaded with the calcium binding dye, Fura...

  9. Role of the serotoninergic system in the sodium appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas

  10. How does not responding to appetitive stimuli cause devaluation: Evaluative conditioning or response inhibition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Veling, H.P.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Holland, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    In a series of 6 experiments (5 preregistered), we examined how not responding to appetitive stimuli causes devaluation. To examine this question, a go/no-go task was employed in which appetitive stimuli were consistently associated with cues to respond (go stimuli), or with cues to not respond (eit

  11. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...

  12. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  13. Neural Correlates of Appetitive-Aversive Interactions in Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2013-01-01

    We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in rats to identify the neural mechanisms for appetitive-aversive motivational interactions. In Stage I, rats were trained on conditioned stimulus (CS)-food (unconditioned stimulus [US]) pairings. In Stage II, this appetitive CS was transformed into a fear CS via pairings with footshock. The development of…

  14. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  15. The relationship between appetite and food preferences in British and Australian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fildes, A.; Mallan, K.M.; Cooke, L.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; Daniels, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appetitive traits and food preferences are key determinants of children's eating patterns but it is unclear how these behaviours relate to one another. This study explores relationships between appetitive traits and preferences for fruits and vegetables, and energy dense, nutrient poor (

  16. An appropriate tool for appetite testing and evaluation in young children in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18–30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad li

  17. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  18. The Appetitive Aggression Scale—development of an instrument for the assessment of human's attraction to violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background : Several instruments, notably Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire, have been developed for the assessment of aggressive behavior. However, in these instruments, the focus has been on reactive rather than instrumental forms of aggression, even though men in particular may find aggressive behavior attractive. A questionnaire or structured interview for the systematic assessment of the attraction to violence is not yet available. Objective : We, therefore, developed a freely available short form for the assessment of a person's attraction to violent and planned forms of aggression based on reports of former combatants on the attraction to violence and the characteristics of instrumental aggression described in the literature. Method : The Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS was administered to nine samples drawn from different populations, with a total of 1,632 former combatants and participants from war-affected regions (1,193 male and 439 female respondents. Results : From the initial set of 31 items, a selection of 15 items was extracted to improve the scale's psychometric properties and assess the construct of appetitive aggression validly with respect to content. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.85 was appropriate. All items loaded significantly on a single factor accounting for 32% of the total variance. Further analysis revealed that the scale measures a specific construct that can be distinguished from other concepts of human aggression. Conclusions : With the AAS, we present an easily administrable tool for the assessment of the attraction to violence.

  19. Sir David Cuthbertson Medal Lecture. Bariatric surgery as a model to study appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, Marco; le Roux, Carel W

    2009-08-01

    The obesity epidemic and its associated morbidity and mortality have led to major research efforts to identify mechanisms that regulate appetite. Gut hormones have recently been found to be an important element in appetite regulation as a result of the signals from the periphery to the brain. Candidate hormones include ghrelin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, all of which are currently being investigated as potential obesity treatments. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective therapy for substantial and sustained weight loss. Understanding how levels of gut hormones are modulated by such procedures has greatly contributed to the comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of appetite and obesity. The present paper is a review of how appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones are altered after bariatric surgery. Basic principles of common bariatric procedures and potential mechanisms for appetite regulation by gut hormones are also addressed.

  20. Towards mouse models of perseveration: a heritable component in extinction of operant behavior in fourteen standard and recombinant inbred mouse lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, J.W.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Extinction of instrumental responses is an essential skill for adaptive behavior such as foraging. So far, only few studies have focused on extinction following appetitive conditioning in mice. We studied extinction of appetitive operant lever-press behavior in six standard inbred mouse strains (A/J

  1. Oleoylethanolamide: A Novel Potential Pharmacological Alternative to Cannabinoid Antagonists for the Control of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial pharmaceutical interest for the endocannabinoid system as a target for antiobesity therapies has been restricted by the severe adverse effects of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant. This study points at oleoylethanolamide (OEA, a monounsaturated analogue, and functional antagonist of anandamide, as a potential and safer antiobesity alternative to CB1 antagonism. Mice treated with equal doses (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. of OEA or rimonabant were analyzed for the progressive expression of spontaneous behaviors (eating, grooming, rearing, locomotion, and resting occurring during the development of satiety, according to the paradigm called behavioral satiety sequence (BSS. Both drugs reduced food (wet mash intake to a similar extent. OEA treatment decreased eating activity within the first 30 min and caused a temporary increase of resting time that was not accompanied by any decline of horizontal, vertical and total motor activity. Besides decreasing eating activity, rimonabant caused a marked increase of the time spent grooming and decreased horizontal motor activity, alterations that might be indicative of aversive nonmotivational effects on feeding. These results support the idea that OEA suppresses appetite by stimulating satiety and that its profile of action might be predictive of safer effects in humans as a novel antiobesity treatment.

  2. CART in the Regulation of Appetite and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie eLau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s. However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions1,2. In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART’s role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.

  3. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.

  4. CART in the regulation of appetite and energy homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770

  5. Hippocampal unit activity during classical aversive and appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M; Disterhoft, J F; Olds, J

    1972-02-18

    Rats were trained with a tone being followed by either food or electric shock, on alternate days. Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from the dorsal hippocampus. The results indicate differentiation of the hippocampal system. Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. The hippocampus proper responds by augmentation in both situations. The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. These data cast light on the functions of the dorsal dentate-hippocampal connections and the hippocampus proper during aversive and appetitive conditioning.

  6. On the differentiation of N2 components in an appetitive choice task: evidence for the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2009-11-01

    Task- and personality-related modulations of the N2 were probed within the framework of the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). Using an appetitive choice task, we investigated 58 students with extreme scores on the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales. The baseline-to-peak N2 amplitude was sensitive to the strength of decision conflict and demonstrated RST-related personality differences. In addition to the baseline N2 amplitude, temporal PCA results suggested two N2 components accounting for a laterality effect and capturing different N2 patterns for BIS/BAS groups with increasing conflict level. Evidence for RST-related personality differences was obtained for baseline-to-peak N2 and tPCA components in the present task. The results support the RST prediction that BAS sensitivity modulates conflict processing and confirm the cognitive-motivational conflict concept of RST.

  7. NPY-leptin : opposing effects on appetitive and consummatory ingestive behavior and sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammar, AA; Sederholm, F; Saito, TR; Scheurink, AJW; Johnson, AE; Södersten, P.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates and leptin inhibits food intake. In line with this, intracerebroventricular injection of NPY (10 mu g) stimulated and leptin (10 mu g) inhibited intake of a sucrose solution when female rats were required to obtain the solution from a

  8. Feeding frequency and appetite in lean and obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I

    2011-03-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.

  9. Lack of association between plasma leptin levels and appetite in children with iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu, A K; Hallioglu, O; Canim, A; Duzovali, O; Yilgor, E

    2001-01-01

    A negative correlation between leptin and appetite or food intake has been shown in healthy individuals. However, the role of leptin in clinical conditions characterized by anorexia has not been established. One of the well-known clinical features of iron-deficiency anemia is poor appetite. We examined the changes in plasma leptin levels in relation to expected improvement in appetite with iron treatment in children with iron deficiency. In 24 infants and small children (mean age +/- standard deviation = 19.6 +/- 7.7 months) with iron deficiency, we studied plasma leptin levels before and after iron therapy. After 15.0 +/- 2.4 wk of iron treatment, serum ferritin levels improved significantly, with accompanying increases in their subjective appetite scores and food intakes. However, as their mean age and plasma leptin levels adjusted their body mass indexes were unchanged. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with appetite score (r = 0.680, P appetite in iron-deficient children treated with iron suggests a leptin-independent mechanism for the observed increase in appetite.

  10. Are post-exercise appetite sensations and energy intake coupled in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The effect of physical activity on energy balance is not restricted to its induced energy expenditure but also affects the control of energy intake and appetite. Although it is now clear that physical exercise affects subsequent energy intake and appetite, the mechanisms involved remain uncertain. Most previous studies have assessed both post-exercise energy intake and appetite but mainly focussed their analyses on food consumption, and it remains unclear whether changes in appetite provide an accurate reflection of changes in energy intake. This brief review aims to analyse conjointly the effective energy intake and appetite sensation responses to acute exercise in children and adolescents to examine whether or not these responses to exercise are coupled. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that acute exercise has an uncoupling effect on energy intake and appetite sensations in both lean and overweight/obese youth. Although methodological issues between studies can be highlighted, lack of consideration of inter-individual variability in terms of energy intake and appetite could be one of the main explanations for such a conclusion. It now appears necessary to further consider the impact of acute exercise and then chronic physical activity on an individual basis in the regulation of energy balance to prescribe successful weight loss programmes.

  11. Predictors of posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression in active soldiers and former combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Nandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion: We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression.

  12. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  13. Gemini: a UK twin birth cohort with a focus on early childhood weight trajectories, appetite and the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Johnson, Laura; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane

    2010-02-01

    Gemini is a cohort study of young twins in the United Kingdom designed to assess genetic and environmental influences on early childhood weight trajectories with a focus on infant appetite and the family environment. A total of 2402 families with twins born in England and Wales between March and December 2007 agreed to participate and returned completed baseline questionnaires. The sample includes 1586 same-sex and 816 opposite-sex twins. The study is currently funded for 5 years of follow-up, but is planned to continue into early adolescence and beyond, pending funding. With current funding of the study, families will be followed up when twins are: 8 months old (baseline), and then at 15, 20, 24, 36 and 48 months of age. Gemini is in its early stages, with baseline and first follow-up data collection completed. This is the first twin cohort to focus on childhood weight gain with detailed and repeated measures of children's appetite, food preferences, activity behavior and parental feeding styles, alongside detailed and repeated collection of anthropometrics. This article reviews the rationale for the Gemini study, its representativeness and the main measures.

  14. The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in addictions and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaro, Antonio; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Appetitive motivation and incentive states are essential functions sustained by a common emotional brain process, the SEEKING disposition, which drives explorative and approach behaviors, sustains goal-directed activity, promotes anticipatory cognitions, and evokes feelings of positive excitement which control reward-learning. All such functions are orchestrated by the same "archetypical" neural processes, activated in ancient subcortical areas and transported to the forebrain by the mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system. In mammals, the neurophysiology of the SEEKING urge is expressed by DA-promoted high-frequency oscillations, in the form of transient and synchronized gamma waves (>30Hz) emerging in limbic forebrain and diffusing throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BG-T-C) circuits. These patterns may be considered basic "SEEKING neurodynamic impulses" which represent the primary-process exploratory disposition getting integrated with information relative to the external and the internal environment. Abnormal manifestation of SEEKING and its neural substrates are evident in clinical depression and addiction. Specifically, depression is characterized by reduced recruitment of SEEKING, while addictions reflect re-organizations of the SEEKING disposition around ultra-specific appetitive memories and compulsive activities.

  15. Comportamento alimentar de alevinos de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg, 1887 por meio das observações do tempo de retorno do apetite e do tempo de saciação dos peixes em duas temperaturas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1802 The feed behavior of pacu figerling (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg, 1887, based on appetite revival and satiation of fish at two cultivate temperature - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i3.1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton José Carneiro

    2004-04-01

    semelhante ao gasto no período da manhã, 8,18min e 7,84min (para os períodos da manhã e da tarde, respectivamente. O consumo diário de ração foi influenciado pela temperatura, proporcionando índices de ingestão de 2,29% e 2,97% do peso vivo dos peixes ao dia para as temperaturas 23 e 27ºC, respectivamente. As duas temperaturas estudadas proporcionaram o mesmo TRA (tempo de retorno do apetite dos peixes (10,43g com maior valor de consumo de alimento registrado com jejum de 11h.The present work assessed the effects of the temperature on the feed ingestion by pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus determining the feed behavior based on appetite revival and satiation. Ninety-six 160g pacus were placed in 150-liter experimental aquariums with continuous water flow and fed a commercial floating feed containing 28% crude protein. To determine the appetite revival time, for each aquarium, fish from all repetitions were fed at the zero time. Fish form each aquarium was reefed at intervals of 60 min. The way, fish from aquarium one were reefed one hour after initial feeding, those of the aquarium two, two hours after, and subsequently until 24 hours after, for each temperature tested. To determine the feeding ingestion and satiation time, in each of the six observations, fish were fed several times until they no more search for food. Time was registered from the beginning to the end feeding. The satiation time was calculated in each aquarium through the mean of ingestion time. The statistical designs varied according to the characteristics of each trial. Fish were observed to feed better in the afternoons (6,53 and 3,97g for 23 and 27°C respectively, although time spent for the feed ingestion was similar to that spent in the mornings 8,18 and 7,84min for 23 and 27°C, respectively. The daily feed consumption was influenced by temperature, showing ingestion indexes of 2,29 and 2,97% of body weight per day at 23 and 27ºC, respectively. The two tested temperatures provided the same

  16. Food preference and appetite after switching between sweet and savoury odours in women

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaekers, Mariëlle G.; Luning, Pieternel A.; Lakemond, Catriona M. M.; van Boekel, Martinus A.J.S.; Gerrit Gort; Sanne Boesveldt

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown. Objective Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products. Design Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2) intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour) in a w...

  17. Evaluation of Behavioral Theory and Integrated Internet/telephone Technologies to Support Military Obesity and Weight Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    exercise, and dietary supplement use. The second session covers topics such as meal planning, weight loss strategies, behavior modification, hunger, and...Affect Energy Balance A. Herbal Supplements that may promote weight loss : - Ephedra (stimulant) - Garcinia Cambogia (appetite suppressant) - Green... Carnitine (alters fat metabolism) - Chromium - Pyruvate (appetite suppressant) B. Medications that may promote weight loss - Orlistat

  18. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  19. Validation and Factor Structure of the French-Language Version of the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdier, Léna; Lalanne, Christophe; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Romo, Lucia; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The concept of Emotional Eating (EE) is increasingly considered to be implicated in overeating and obesity, and in different subtypes of eating disorders. Among the self-report questionnaires assessing EE, the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) includes recent advances in this area: it evaluates a broad range of emotions and situations both positive and negative, and the way they modulate food intake (decrease, stability, or increase). The main objective of our study was to further investigate the psychometric properties of the French version of the EMAQ in a large sample of students. Participants completed the EMAQ (n = 679), the DEBQ (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) (n = 75) and the CIDI-eating disorders screening (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) (n = 604). Factorial structure, reliability, and validity of the EMAQ were tested. Factorial analyses supported a two-factor (Positive and Negative) structure. The internal consistency indices were satisfactory and results suggest good test–retest reliability for the scale. Convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed from the significant correlations observed between the EMAQ scores and the DEBQ-EE subscale scores. Regarding associations with weight, whereas EMAQ negative scores were positively correlated with BMI, EMAQ positive scores were negatively correlated with BMI. Finally, EMAQ scores differed significantly depending on gender and risk for bulimia nervosa. This study supports the validity and the reliability of the EMAQ, which appears to be a promising instrument to better understand individual differences that could modulate food intake. PMID:28386243

  20. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  1. APPETITE INHIBITORS CLASSIFIED AS ONE OF CONDITIONS RELATED TO DEVELOPMENT OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecilene Gomes Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian population leads the world in consumption of appetite suppressants/ anorectics. Prolonged use of appetite suppressants can cause pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, a chronic and disabling. Taking into consideration the large intake of appetite suppressants in Brazil and the fact that these are, according to the WHO, among the conditions related to the incidence of pulmonary hypertension and given the seriousness of this condition tothe carrier, saw the need to conduct a literature review on the adverse effects of these drugs, and know what are the risks of imminent health and also seek information about the HAP, with the aim of adding knowledge to nursing professionals to enable the health education regarding the conscious use of appetite suppressants and stimulate the search for information about a serious illness and so little known in nursing as PAH.

  2. Effects of methylphenidate on appetite and growth in children diagnosed with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih; Gurbuz, Berrak Bilginer; Celik, Gonca Gul; Yildirim, Veli; Ucakturk, Seyit Ahmet; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Ucakturk, Eda Mengen; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Yuksel, Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of leptin, ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 to elucidate the causes of poor appetite and growth retardation in patients receiving methylphenidate therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The study was performed on 89 male subjects; 48 patients and 41 healthy controls, aged 7-14 years. Following treatment, patients' leptin levels increased and ghrelin levels decreased while no significant change was found in nesfatin-1 levels. Of the 48 patients, 34 developed lack of appetite. In patients who developed lack of appetite, body weight SDS, body mass index (BMI), and BMI SDS were statistically significantly reduced; moreover, height SDS was reduced, though not to a statistically significant extent. This study attempted to elucidate the mechanisms that mediate the association between methylphenidate and appetite and growth, for which no studies have yet to be published.

  3. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...... eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...

  4. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese......, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even......PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous...

  5. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Richard D Mattes; Hendrickson, Sara J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  6. Investigating the Predictive Value of Functional MRI to Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli: A Pattern Classification Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ciara; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC) analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain. Method 25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001). If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001) and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001). In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the

  7. Use of Cyproheptadine as an Appetite Stimulant in Children with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu Yazal Erdem; Suna Emir; Hacı Ahmet Demir; Bahattin Tunç

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Malnutrition is frequently seen in pediatric cancer patients. It is very important to evaluate the nutritional status at diagnosis in these patients. The preferable method to treat cancer associated malnutrition in children is to increase their oral food intake with the help of stimulating their appetite. There are some studies supporting the use of appetite stimulants in patients with chronic illness. In this report, our aim is to share our experience with cyproheptadine as an ...

  8. Contrasting role of octopamine in appetitive and aversive learning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kaczer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.

  9. Use of Cyproheptadine as an Appetite Stimulant in Children with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yazal Erdem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malnutrition is frequently seen in pediatric cancer patients. It is very important to evaluate the nutritional status at diagnosis in these patients. The preferable method to treat cancer associated malnutrition in children is to increase their oral food intake with the help of stimulating their appetite. There are some studies supporting the use of appetite stimulants in patients with chronic illness. In this report, our aim is to share our experience with cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant in children with cancer. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 14 children who were used cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant were retrospectively evaluated. Their weight, height, body mass index, weight for age Z-score, appetite status and side effects were recorded at baseline, 4th week and 8th week. Results: Cyproheptadine was used in fourteen patients with a median age of 4.5 (range:2.25-16.5 years. Eleven of them demonstrated a response to cyproheptadine (average weight gain was 1.44 kg Mean weight-for-age z-score was increased from -2.22 to -1.56 (p<0.05. No serious adverse events due to cyproheptadine were reported. Conclusions: It seems that cyproheptadine is a safe and effective agent to stimulate appetite and weight gain in children with cancer, particularly in short term usage.

  10. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Painchaud Guérard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.

  11. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  12. Endocannabinoids in appetite control and the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, T C; Tucci, S A

    2006-06-01

    Research into the endocannabinoid 'system' has grown exponentially in recent years, with the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Important advances have been made in our understanding of endocannabinoid transduction mechanisms, their metabolic pathways, and of the biological processes in which they are implicated. A decade of endocannabinoid studies has promoted new insights into neural regulation and mammalian physiology that are as revolutionary as those arising from the discovery of the endogenous opioid peptides in the 1970s. Thus, endocannabinoids have been found to act as retrograde signals: released by postsynaptic neurons, they bind to presynaptic heteroceptors to modulate the release of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters through multiple G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-linked effector mechanisms. The metabolic pathways of anandamide and 2-AG have now been been characterised in great detail, and we can anticipate that these pathways -- together with endocannabinoid uptake mechanisms -- will complement cannabinoid receptors as targets for the pharmacological analysis of the physiological functions of these substances. Specific insights into the potential role of endocannabinoid-CB1 receptor systems in central appetite control, peripheral metabolism and body weight regulation herald the clinical application of CB1 receptor antagonists in the management of obesity and its associated disorders.

  13. Laboratory parameters and appetite regulators in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmerich, Hubertus; Schönknecht, Peter; Heitmann, Sabine; Sheldrick, Abigail J

    2010-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has serious negative effects on multiple organs and systems of the human body. As patients often do not make their eating disorder the subject of discussion, the physician is forced to rely on the physical examination and laboratory parameters as diagnostic hints. Obvious signs of AN are a body mass index (BMI) below 17.5 kg/m, dry and scaly skin, lanugo, edema, acrocyanosis, petechias, dental problems, and low blood pressure. However, because the often complex laboratory alterations can be difficult for the general psychiatrist to interpret, this article presents some useful guidelines. The plasma of patients with AN often shows alterations in laboratory parameters and appetite regulators, including electrolytes, liver enzymes, leukocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), triiodothyronine (T3), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and cortisol. Medical problems secondary to AN or due to the treatment itself may lead to further laboratory abnormalities. To date, despite these associated laboratory alterations, the diagnosis of anorexia is a clinical one, based on weight and specific psychopathology.

  14. Amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness and aversiveness of mixed gambles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...... with individual differences in loss aversion. Together, the results show that the amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness or aversiveness of gain-loss ratios at the time of choice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... individuals were responding to 50/50 gambles with varying potential gain and loss amounts. Overall, subjects demanded twice as high potential gain as loss to accept a gamble. The individual level of loss aversion was expressed by the decision boundary, i.e., the gain-loss ratio at which subjects accepted...... and rejected gambles with equal probability. Amygdala activity increased the more the gain-loss ratio deviated from the individual decision boundary showing that the amygdala codes action value. This response pattern was more strongly expressed in loss aversive individuals, linking amygdala activity...

  15. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  16. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  17. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  18. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  19. Appetite regulation via exercise prior or subsequent to high-fat meal consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mary Huey-Yu; Bushnell, Darcy; Cannon, Daniel T; Kern, Mark

    2009-02-01

    This study assessed the effect of exercise timing relative to meal consumption on appetite and its hormonal regulators (i.e., PYY(3-36), ghrelin and leptin) in moderately active young men. Twelve men performed three trials in a random order: (1) meal consumption, (2) exercise 2h after a meal, (3) exercise 1h before a meal. The test meal provided 16.5 kcal kg(-1) with 70% fat, 26% carbohydrate and 4% protein. Exercise was performed at a work rate eliciting 60% of VO(2max) for 50 min. Hunger ratings and plasma leptin concentrations were measured at baseline and hours 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-meal, and plasma concentrations of ghrelin and PYY(3-36) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, and 7h after meal consumption. Exercise performed 2h after meal consumption extended the appetite suppressing effect of food intake. Furthermore, plasma PYY(3-36) concentration tended to be elevated by exercise after meal consumption. Exercise prior to food intake decreased appetite and increased plasma ghrelin concentrations. No response to timing of exercise relative to food intake on plasma leptin concentration was detected. These data indicated the timing of exercise to meal consumption may influence appetite and its hormonal regulators. Post-meal exercise may extend the suppressive effects of meal consumption on appetite.

  20. Appetite regulation in overweight, sedentary men after different amounts of endurance exercise: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkilde, Mads; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Auerbach, Pernille; Toräng, Signe; Gram, Anne Sofie; Ploug, Thorkil; Holst, Jens Juul; Sjödin, Anders; Stallknecht, Bente

    2013-12-01

    Weight loss induced by endurance exercise is often disappointing, possibly due to an increase in energy intake mediated through greater appetite. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting, postprandial, and postexercise appetite regulation after an intervention prescribing two amounts of endurance exercise. Sixty-four sedentary, overweight, healthy young men were randomized to control (CON), moderate-dose (MOD: ≈ 30 min/day), or high-dose (HIGH: ≈ 60 min/day) endurance exercise for 12 wk. Along with subjective appetite ratings, plasma ghrelin, glucagon, insulin, peptide YY3-36, glucose, free fatty acids, and glycerol were measured during fasting and in relation to a breakfast meal and an acute bout of exercise, both at baseline and at follow-up. Ad libitum lunch energy intake was evaluated 3 h after the breakfast meal. Despite different amounts of endurance exercise, the subjects lost similar amounts of fat mass (MOD: 4.2 ± 0.5 kg; HIGH: 3.7 ± 0.5 kg). Fasting and postprandial insulin decreased ≈ 20% in both exercise groups (P Appetite measurements were not upregulated in the fasting and postprandial states. On the contrary, fasting and postprandial ratings of fullness and postprandial PYY3-36 increased in HIGH (P appetite, but a high dose of exercise was associated with an increase in fasting and meal-related ratings of fullness and satiety.

  1. Leptin-dependent serotonin control of appetite: temporal specificity, transcriptional regulation, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vijay K; Oury, Franck; Tanaka, Kenji F; Tanaka, Kenji; Thomas, Tiffany; Wang, Ying; Cremers, Serge; Hen, Rene; Krust, Andree; Chambon, Pierre; Karsenty, Gerard

    2011-01-17

    Recent evidence indicates that leptin regulates appetite and energy expenditure, at least in part by inhibiting serotonin synthesis and release from brainstem neurons. To demonstrate that this pathway works postnatally, we used a conditional, brainstem-specific mouse CreER(T2) driver to show that leptin signals in brainstem neurons after birth to decrease appetite by inhibiting serotonin synthesis. Cell-specific gene deletion experiments and intracerebroventricular leptin infusions reveal that serotonin signals in arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus through the Htr1a receptor to favor food intake and that this serotonin function requires the expression of Creb, which regulates the expression of several genes affecting appetite. Accordingly, a specific antagonist of the Htr1a receptor decreases food intake in leptin-deficient but not in Htr1a(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results establish that leptin inhibition of serotonin is necessary to inhibit appetite postnatally and provide a proof of principle that selective inhibition of this pathway may be a viable option to treat appetite disorders.

  2. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal.

  3. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Howick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrallymediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.

  4. The Use of Functional MRI to Study Appetite Control in the CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila De Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has provided the opportunity to safely investigate the workings of the human brain. This paper focuses on its use in the field of human appetitive behaviour and its impact in obesity research. In the present absence of any safe or effective centrally acting appetite suppressants, a better understanding of how appetite is controlled is vital for the development of new antiobesity pharmacotherapies. Early functional imaging techniques revealed an attenuation of brain reward area activity in response to visual food stimuli when humans are fed—in other words, the physiological state of hunger somehow increases the appeal value of food. Later studies have investigated the action of appetite modulating hormones on the fMRI signal, showing how the attenuation of brain reward region activity that follows feeding can be recreated in the fasted state by the administration of anorectic gut hormones. Furthermore, differences in brain activity between obese and lean individuals have provided clues about the possible aetiology of overeating. The hypothalamus acts as a central gateway modulating homeostatic and nonhomeostatic drives to eat. As fMRI techniques constantly improve, functional data regarding the role of this small but hugely important structure in appetite control is emerging.

  5. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  6. From Belly to Brain: Targeting the Ghrelin Receptor in Appetite and Food Intake Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howick, Ken; Griffin, Brendan T.; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a) internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrally-mediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. PMID:28134808

  7. Coincident activation of NMDA and dopamine D1 receptors within the nucleus accumbens core is required for appetitive instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Roe, S L; Kelley, A E

    2000-10-15

    The nucleus accumbens, a brain structure ideally situated to act as an interface between corticolimbic information-processing regions and motor output systems, is well known to subserve behaviors governed by natural reinforcers. In the accumbens core, glutamatergic input from its corticolimbic afferents and dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area converge onto common dendrites of the medium spiny neurons that populate the accumbens. We have previously found that blockade of NMDA receptors in the core with the antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 5 nmol) abolishes acquisition but not performance of an appetitive instrumental learning task (Kelley et al., 1997). Because it is currently hypothesized that concurrent dopamine D(1) and glutamate receptor activation is required for long-term changes associated with plasticity, we wished to examine whether the dopamine system in the accumbens core modulates learning via NMDA receptors. Co-infusion of low doses of the D(1) receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (0.3 nmol) and AP-5 (0.5 nmol) into the accumbens core strongly impaired acquisition of instrumental learning (lever pressing for food), whereas when infused separately, these low doses had no effect. Infusion of the combined low doses had no effect on indices of feeding and motor activity, suggesting a specific effect on learning. We hypothesize that co-activation of NMDA and D(1) receptors in the nucleus accumbens core is a key process for acquisition of appetitive instrumental learning. Such an interaction is likely to promote intracellular events and gene regulation necessary for synaptic plasticity and is supported by a number of cellular models.

  8. Meal Replacement: Calming the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle ePaolini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to hot states which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A that exists after a brief period of food restraint followed either by the consumption of a meal replacement (MR or water. Fourteen overweight/obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they consumed a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 hours prior to an MRI scan. On one visit, they consumed a meal replacement (MR liquid meal after this period of food restriction; on the other visit they consumed an equal amount of water. After these manipulations, the participants underwent a resting fMRI scan. Our first study aim employed an exploratory, data-driven approach to identify hubs relevant to the HBN-A. Using data from the water condition, five regions were found to be the hubs or nodes of the HBN-A: insula, anterior cingulated cortex, the superior temporal pole, the amygdala, and the hippocampus. We then demonstrated that the consumption of a liquid MR dampened interconnectivity between the nodes of the HBN-A as compared to water. Importantly and consistent with these network data, the consumption of a MR beverage also lowered state cravings and hunger.

  9. Simulation for the KlBS Employee Behavior Decision-making in Demand-driven---Based on the Perspective of Risk Appetite%KIBS员工需求驱动下行为决策的模拟--基于风险偏好视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凤珍; 胡斌

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization , more and more academics are focused on knowledge-intensive service ( KIBS) .In order to provide support management decisions for the KIBS ,this paper studies the evolutionary law of KIBS employees ’ cooperation and conflict behavior when effected by the risk preference .We develop a behavior decision model of KIBS employees ’ cooperation and conflict and employee incentive model , design utility function considering the risk neutral and risk aversion of employee .Organization should give differ-ent appropriate incentives for different risk preference employees , which can improve the staff ’ s cooperation . Then MATLAB2010 and EXCEL are used to implement this simulation analysis .The simulation results show that:1)Different degrees of risk preference have different impacts on the decision-making behavior of employees;2)In order to improve the staff’s cooperation, organization should give appropriate incentives for employees;3)When the task of the work load reaches a certain degree , organization should increase the staff ’ s fixed income rather than the degree of motivation .%随着经济全球化的发展,知识密集型服务业( KIBS)越来越受到学术界的关注。本文研究员工的风险偏好对KIBS员工合作与冲突行为的影响演化规律,目的在于为KIBS的管理决策提供支持。为了发现风险偏好对员工合作与冲突行为的影响,设计效用函数,并建立了风险规避和风险中性下KIBS员工合作与冲突行为决策模型,给出了KIBS员工在不同风险假定下的最优行为决策,对风险规避员工组织应当给予适度的激励,这样能够提高员工的合作程度。之后使用MATLAB2010进行模拟,并使用EXCEL对数据进行分析,发现:(1)风险偏好程度不同对员工的决策行为的影响程度不同;(2)对于员工应该给予适当的激励措施,以便提高员工的合作程度;(3)

  10. Development of a lack of appetite item bank for computer-adaptive testing (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K

    2015-01-01

    measurement precision. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Here, we report on the development of the lack of appetite CAT. METHODS: The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases: literature search, operationalization, pre......-testing, and field testing. Phases 1-3 are described in this paper. First, a list of items was retrieved from the literature. This was refined, deleting redundant and irrelevant items. Next, new items fitting the "QLQ-C30 item style" were created. These were evaluated by international samples of experts and cancer...... to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...

  11. Taste matters - effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetter, Maartje S; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6±3.8y, BMI 22.3±1.6kg/m(2)) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/0kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (Pdecreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned associations between sensory characteristics and associated metabolic consequences serve to adapt hormone responses to nutrient content. These findings underscore the importance of oral stimulation in the regulation of food intake.

  12. Influence of dexamethasone on appetite and body weight in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarčev Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Anorexia and cachexia are the most common symptoms in cancer patients. They increase morbidity and mortality among cancer patients as well as complications of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The most common drugs for treatment of cancer cachexia are corticosteroids and megestrol acetate. Material and Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dexamethasone on appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Group A (30 patients was treated with cisplatin, etoposide and standard supportive therapy, while group B (30 patients received, in addition to this treatment, dexamethasone in the dose of 8 mg intravenously per day (1-3 day of chemotherapy. Results There was a statistically significant difference in appetite loss between two groups after the second chemotherapy cycle favoring group A. The analysis of weight loss showed a statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles, once again in favor of group A. Concerning the improvement of appetite and weight gain, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles. Discussion Many double-blind randomized controlled studies showed beneficial symptomatic effect of corticosteroids in cancer cachexia, especially on the improvement of appetite, food intake and performance status. In most of the studies the weight gain was not recorded. The most effective type of corticosteroids, dose and route of administration have not been established. Conclusion Dexamethasone significantly decreases appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, while it has no influence on appetite improvement and weight gain.

  13. Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.

  14. Development and validation of a smartphone application to analyze subjective appetite variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Hernández-Morante

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays dietary treatment for obesity is not effective in most cases, probably because it is designed taking into account patient's total energy expenditure while other important circumstances such as hunger/satiety daily rhythms are usually not considered. New electronic devices may help in this regard. Objective: The objective of the present work was to develop an accurate and reliable smartphone application to analyze subjective appetite variables. Methods: Subjective appetite sensations were evaluated in 15 healthy volunteers by two different methods: paper and pen (P-P and a new Android and iOS application. Appetite scores were completed every 30 minutes for 4 hours in two conditions: high-carbohydrate (HC or high-fat (HF breakfast. Secondly, subjects completed the new application every 30 minutes in free-living conditions. Results: Our repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences regarding method (P-P or new application or meal (HC or HF (p > 0.05 in all cases for hunger, desire to eat or fullness scores. Correlation coefficients showed a high agreement between both methods (R² from 0.94-0.98. In addition, Bland-Altman test also revealed a high concordance between both methods. The application was also able to measure daily variation of subjective sensations under free-living conditions. Conclusion: The smartphone application was able to accurately determine subjective appetite scores in both laboratory and free-living conditions. The application was able to detect the effect of meal and recovery of appetite during two different conditions, following HC or HF breakfasts, which confirm the suitability of this application to future studies conducted to evaluate appetite regulation in humans.

  15. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie M; Taryn M. Hand; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Kathleen J. Austin; Alexander, Brenda M.; Melinda M. Manore

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity ...

  16. Food Preference and Appetite after Switching between Sweet and Savoury Odours in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle G Ramaekers

    Full Text Available Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown.Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products.Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2 intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour in a within-subject design with four combinations: no-odour/banana, no-odour/meat, meat/banana and banana/meat. Participants received one combination per test day. In each combination, two cups with different fillings were smelled for five minutes after each other. Treatment order was balanced as much as possible. The effects of previous exposure and current odour on the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, and odour pleasantness were analysed. A change from meat to banana odour or banana to meat odour was referred to as switch, whereas a change from no-odour to meat odour or no-odour to banana odour was no-switch.The current odour (P<0.001, as opposed to the previous exposure (P = 0.71, determined the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, already one minute after a switch between sweet and savoury odours. The pleasantness of the odour decreased during odour exposure (P = 0.005.After a switch, the appetite for specific products quickly adjusted to the new odour and followed the typical pattern as found during odour exposure in previous studies. Interestingly, the appetite for the smelled food remained elevated during odour exposure, known as sensory-specific appetite, whereas the pleasantness of the odour decreased over time, previously termed olfactory sensory-specific satiety. This seeming contradiction may result from different mechanisms underlying the odour-induced anticipation of food intake versus the decrease in hedonic value during prolonged sensory

  17. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.;

    2013-01-01

    flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded......: Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a doubleblind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from...

  18. Gut hormone release and appetite regulation in healthy non-obese participants following oligofructose intake. A dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Camilla; Lefevre, Solenne; Peters, Véronique; Patterson, Michael; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Morgan, Linda M; Frost, Gary S

    2013-07-01

    Prevention of weight gain in adults is a major public health target. Animal experiments have consistently demonstrated a relationship between fermentable carbohydrate intake, such as oligofructose, anorectic gut hormones, and appetite suppression and body weight control. This study was designed to determine the dose of oligofructose which would augment the release of anorectic gut hormones and reduce appetite consistently in non-obese humans. Twelve non-obese participants were recruited for a 5-week dose-escalation study. Following a 9-14-day run-in, participants increased their daily oligofructose intake every week from 15, 25, 35, 45, to 55 g daily. Subjective appetite and side effects were monitored daily. Three-day food diaries were completed every week. Appetite study sessions explored the acute effects of 0, 15, 35, and 55 g oligofructose on appetite-related hormones, glycaemia, subjective appetite, and energy intake. In the home environment, oligofructose suppressed hunger, but did not affect energy intake. Oligofructose dose-dependently increased peptide YY, decreased pancreatic polypeptide and tended to decrease ghrelin, but did not significantly affect appetite profile, energy intake, glucose, insulin, or glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations during appetite study sessions. In conclusion, oligofructose supplementation at ≥ 35 g/day increased peptide YY and suppressed pancreatic polypeptide and hunger; however, energy intake did not change significantly.

  19. Multivitamin-multimineral and iron supplementation did not improve appetite of young stunted and anemic Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, low food intake is often reported in children < 5 y old. Reduced appetite may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether a combination of a multivitamin-multimineral supplement and additional iron treatment improved appetite and growth of 18- to 30-mo-old stunted and

  20. Taste matters-effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Mars, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrel

  1. Is decreased appetite for food a physiological consequence of alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokavec, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence linking alcohol to the development of disease, the contribution of alcohol toxicity to ill health remains controversial. One of the major problems facing researchers is the fact that alcoholic beverages, which contribute little to the nutritional requirements of the body, are often substituted for food and nutritional deficiency alone can promote cell damage. Long-term alcohol intake can decrease the total amount of food consumed when food is freely available and the alcoholic individual is often held accountable for their irregular eating behaviour. Assessment of meal composition has highlighted that appetite for food-containing carbohydrate (in particular) is altered in moderate-heavy drinkers but at present there is insufficient biochemical evidence to confirm or deny this observation. The biochemical processes associated with appetite are many and it would be impossible to address all of these events in a single paper. Therefore, the aim of this review will be to focus on one of the major biochemical markers of appetite for carbohydrate in order to put forward the suggestion that a decreased appetite for food could be a physiological consequence of consuming some forms of alcohol.

  2. Acute interval exercise intensity does not affect appetite and nutrient preferences in overweight and obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.

  3. Odors: appetizing or satiating? Development of appetite during odor exposure over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor exposu

  4. Appetite regulation in overweight, sedentary men after different amounts of endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Auerbach, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    of endurance exercise. Sixty-four sedentary, overweight, healthy young men were randomized to control (CON), moderate-dose (MOD: ≈ 30 min/day), or high-dose (HIGH: ≈ 60 min/day) endurance exercise for 12 wk. Along with subjective appetite ratings, plasma ghrelin, glucagon, insulin, peptide YY3-36, glucose...

  5. Role of gut nutrient sensing in stimulating appetite and conditioning food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2012-05-15

    The discovery of taste and nutrient receptors (chemosensors) in the gut has led to intensive research on their functions. Whereas oral sugar, fat, and umami taste receptors stimulate nutrient appetite, these and other chemosensors in the gut have been linked to digestive, metabolic, and satiating effects that influence nutrient utilization and inhibit appetite. Gut chemosensors may have an additional function as well: to provide positive feedback signals that condition food preferences and stimulate appetite. The postoral stimulatory actions of nutrients are documented by flavor preference conditioning and appetite stimulation produced by gastric and intestinal infusions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Recent findings suggest an upper intestinal site of action, although postabsorptive nutrient actions may contribute to flavor preference learning. The gut chemosensors that generate nutrient conditioning signals remain to be identified; some have been excluded, including sweet (T1R3) and fatty acid (CD36) sensors. The gut-brain signaling pathways (neural, hormonal) are incompletely understood, although vagal afferents are implicated in glutamate conditioning but not carbohydrate or fat conditioning. Brain dopamine reward systems are involved in postoral carbohydrate and fat conditioning but less is known about the reward systems mediating protein/glutamate conditioning. Continued research on the postoral stimulatory actions of nutrients may enhance our understanding of human food preference learning.

  6. MALNUTRITION SCREENING IN AN IN-CENTRE HAEMODIALYSIS UNIT: APPETITE FOR CHANGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Dasey

    2012-06-01

    Asking patients to rate their appetite on a five point scale appears to be an effective way to screen for malnutrition in the haemodialysis population. In centres with limited dietitian support, this may be preferable to screening with albumin due to the reduced number of inappropriate referrals and therefore enabling the priority to lie with the patients with malnutrition.

  7. Association between plasma endocannabinoids and appetite in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is a well-recognized complication in subjects undergoing hemodialysis for impaired kidney function. This pilot study explored whether plasma levels of compounds known to mediate appetite, the endocannabinoids (EC) and EC-like compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ar...

  8. Appetitive Pavlovian Goal-Tracking Memories Reconsolidate Only under Specific Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive evidence that appetitive memories undergo reconsolidation, two notable failures to observe reconsolidation have been reported: instrumental responding and goal-tracking. However, these studies do not provide conclusive evidence for a lack of memory reconsolidation due to the numerous boundary conditions that dictate whether a…

  9. Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca eLizarbe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI, Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD and Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI have revealed Mn2+accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks, becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable.

  10. Associations of Children's Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provid

  11. Branding and Positioning to Satisfy the Customer's Appetite: An Educational Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Rebranding and positioning a school district has become critical to satisfy the "customer's" appetite, enhance public relations, and advance consumer perceptions. A service design model provides a district with the framework to advance its position by identifying attributes and prompts to satisfy customer needs and increase student enrollment. A…

  12. Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South-African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.R.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritiona

  13. Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarbe, Blanca; Benitez, Ania; Peláez Brioso, Gerardo A.; Sánchez-Montañés, Manuel; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main MRI and MRS strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast (BOLD), and Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) have revealed Mn2+ accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions, and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable. PMID:23781199

  14. Branding and Positioning to Satisfy the Customer's Appetite: An Educational Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Rebranding and positioning a school district has become critical to satisfy the "customer's" appetite, enhance public relations, and advance consumer perceptions. A service design model provides a district with the framework to advance its position by identifying attributes and prompts to satisfy customer needs and increase student…

  15. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.

  16. Validation of an iPad visual analogue rating system for assessing appetite and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Louise; Smith, Adam; Re, Roberta; Wickham, Martin; Philippides, Andrew; Watten, Phil; Yeomans, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77 kcal) and high energy (HE: 274 kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data.

  17. When competition breeds equality: effects of appetitive versus aversive competition in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. ten Velden; B. Beersma; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2011-01-01

    Competitive motivation is prevalent in negotiation but systematic insight into its effects is missing. We introduce the distinction between appetitive competition, in which negotiators seek relative gain, and aversive competition, in which negotiators seek to prevent relative loss. Two experiments t

  18. An appropriate tool for appetite testing and evaluation in young children in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J

    2002-04-01

    Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18-30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad libitum intakes of the foods served after an overnight fast according to a standardized offering procedure were measured on 3 days. The children's habitual intakes were measured during 3 consecutive days not overlapping with the days when the test meals were provided. Energy intake from the test foods was comparable to breakfast energy intake which was 0.8-1.0 MJ, representing 21% of total daily energy intake. Energy intake from aklui was significantly correlated with daily intake (r=0.41, n=38, pappetite test as calculated from the triplicate measurements was 40% for aklui and 25% for riz-au-gras. This reproducibility is better than that of the habitual breakfast intake (43-45%). In conclusion, the appetite test used in our studies can be considered as an appropriate tool in appetite evaluations.

  19. Caffeine increases food intake while reducing anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patrick; Levack, Russell; Watters, Jared; Xu, Zhenping; Yang, Yunlei

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of caffeine on appetite and anxiety-related behavior. Additionally, we sought to determine if withdrawal from chronic caffeine administration promotes anxiety. In this study, we utilized rodent open field testing and feeding behavior assays to determine the effects of caffeine on feeding and anxiety-related behavior (n = 8 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We also measured 2 h and 24 h food intake and body-weight during daily administration of caffeine (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). To test for caffeine withdrawal induced anxiety, anxiety-related behavior in rodents was quantified following withdrawal from four consecutive days of caffeine administration (n = 12 mice; 4-8 weeks old). We find that acute caffeine administration increases food intake in a dose-dependent manner with lower doses of caffeine more significantly increasing food intake than higher doses. Acute caffeine administration also reduced anxiety-related behaviors in mice without significantly altering locomotor activity. However, we did not observe any differences in 24 h food intake or body weight following chronic caffeine administration and there were no observable differences in anxiety-related behaviors during caffeine withdrawal. In conclusion, we find that caffeine can both increase appetite and decrease anxiety-related behaviors in a dose dependent fashion. Given the complex relationship between appetite and anxiety, the present study provides additional insights into potential caffeine-based pharmacological mechanisms governing appetite and anxiety disorders, such as bulimia nervosa.

  20. Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; MacIntyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J

    2011-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritional status of HIV-infected children with that of uninfected children. A cross-sectional study was performed on children (2-24 months) admitted with diarrhoea or pneumonia to the university hospital. Children were tested for HIV, and the duration of hospitalization was noted for 189 children. Follow-up for blood analysis (n=154) and appetite measurement (n=48) was performed 4-8 weeks after discharge. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial infant cereal using highly standardized procedures. Hospitalization (in days) was significantly longer in HIV-infected children; among children admitted with diarrhoea (5.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.8 ± 1.5) (mean ± standard deviation) and with pneumonia (9.0 ± 2.5 vs. 5.9 ± 1.9). Serum zinc, iron and transferrin concentrations, and haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected children compared with uninfected children. Appetites [amounts eaten (g) per kg body weight] of HIV-infected children were significantly poorer than those of HIV-uninfected children (18.6 ± 5.8 vs. 25.2 ± 7.4). The eating rates (g min(-1) ) of HIV-infected children were also slower (17.6 ± 6.2 vs. 10.1 ± 3.7) Mean Z-scores for length-for-age were significantly lower among HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Weight-for-length Z-scores were not significantly different. In summary, HIV-infected children had a 55% longer duration of hospitalization and a 21% lower appetite.

  1. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  2. Social change and access to a palatable diet produces differences in reward neurochemistry and appetite in female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Wilson, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure. Social subordination in macaques is a well-established animal model of a chronic psychogenic stressor that results in stress axis dysregulation, attenuated striatal D2R levels, and stress-induced hyperphagia in complex dietary environment. However, it remains unclear how these phenotypes emerge as the stressor becomes chronic during the formation of new social groups. Thus, the goal of the current study was to assess how the imposition of social subordination over a four-month period would affect food intake, socioemotional behavior, and D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) in female rhesus monkeys maintained on a typical laboratory chow diet (LCD) compared with those having a choice between a LCD and a CDD. Results showed that access to a CDD leads to increased total caloric intake and preference for a CDD over a LCD. For the dietary choice condition, females directing less aggression towards group mates during the four-month period, a characteristic of lower social status, consumed progressively more calories over the four-month period than more aggressive females. This relation between agonistic behavior and appetite was not observed for females in LCD-only condition. Finally, decreased D2R-BP in the orbitofrontal cortex was predictive of increased overall caloric intake in all females regardless of dietary environment, suggesting that reduced availability of D2R within the prefrontal cortex is associated with unrestrained eating. Studies are

  3. Female attraction to appetitive-aggressive men is modulated by women's menstrual cycle and men's vulnerability to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gilda; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-03-20

    Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier´s experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the "warrior" was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness.

  4. Do maternal ratings of appetite in infants predict later Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire scores and body mass index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2010-02-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort maternal ratings of children's appetite made at 6 weeks, 12 months and 5-6 years were correlated with one another and with subscales from the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 5-6 years, and body mass index (BMI) at 6-8 years. Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's appetite ratings. Appetite ratings in infancy were also correlated with the CEBQ subscale scores at 5-6 years to a limited extent, but not with the BMI at 6-8 years. The appetite rating at 5-6 years and three of the CEBQ subscales were independently associated with BMI. Children with higher levels of Emotional Over-Eating and Desire to Drink had higher BMIs, and children with higher levels of Satiety Responsiveness had lower BMIs. These results provide further evidence that there are concurrent associations between appetite ratings in childhood and BMI but suggest that appetite ratings in infancy are related only weakly to later appetite measures and do not predict later BMI.

  5. Specific food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite. A forced-choice test conducted in various care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-07-01

    A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent undernutrition.

  6. Parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status over a 2-year period in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi

    2007-04-01

    This study sought to examine the association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status after 2 years. The design was a 2-year prospective study. A total of 531 Korean children aged 11 to 12 years were followed up for change in weight status (persistent overweight, persistent nonoverweight, recently overweight, recently nonoverweight) between 2001 and 2003 after the measurement of their appetite (low, moderate, and high) using a questionnaire administered to their parents in 2001. Weight status of each child was determined based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) recommended by the International Obesity Task Force reference. The statistical analyses performed were multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for parental factors (parents' weight and height, education level, and income) and the child's characteristics (baseline BMI, physical activity, and television viewing). Main outcome measures were child's mean BMI and weight status, and the proportions of overweight children at the baseline and at the end of the follow-up were greater among those children whose parents reported that they had high appetites (Pchildren with a low appetite, the odds ratio for overweight at the end of follow-up was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 11.7) in children with a high appetite. Subgroup analysis of overweight children at baseline showed that the risk of being persistently overweight over the 2-year follow-up was 5.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 27.5) higher in children with a high appetite than in those with a low appetite. There was a strong association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and being overweight after 2 years. Identifying children with higher appetites and targeting them for lifestyle modification may provide an effective way of reducing the incidence of childhood overweight.

  7. An automated device for appetitive conditioning in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Kazuchika; Dooling, R J; Takaku, Shinichi

    2013-12-01

    An automated device and a procedure for the operant conditioning individual zebrafish were developed. The key feature of this procedure was the construction of a simple, inexpensive feeder that can deliver extremely small amounts of food, thus preventing rapid satiation. This allows the experimenter to run multiple trails in a single test session and multiple sessions in one day. In addition, small response keys made from acryl rods and fiber sensors were developed that were sufficiently sensitive to detect fish contact. To illustrate the efficiency and utility of the device for traditional learning paradigms, we trained zebrafish in a fixed ratio schedule where subjects were reinforced with food after 10 responses. Zebrafish reliably responded on the response key for sessions that lasted as long 80-reinforcements. They also showed the traditional "break and run" response pattern that has been found in many species. These results show that this system will be valuable for behavioral studies with zebrafish, especially for experiments that need many repeated trials using food reinforcer in a session. The present system can be used for sensory and learning investigations, as well applications in behavioral pharmacology, behavioral genetics, and toxicology where the zebrafish is becoming the vertebrate model of choice.

  8. The histamine H3 receptor and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passani, Maria Beatrice; Blandina, Patrizio; Torrealba, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the histaminergic system as a potential target for the treatment of feeding disorders is driven by the unsatisfactory history of the pharmacotherapy of obesity. Eating behavior is regulated by a complex interplay of central neurotransmitter systems, peripheral endocrine stimuli, the circadian rhythm, and environmental cues, all factors that change the behavioral state and alter homeostatic aspects of appetite and energy expenditure. Key factors driving eating behavior are appetite and satiety that are regulated through different mechanisms. Brain histamine has long been considered a satiety signal in the nervous system. Recent observations, however, indicate that histamine does not meet the criteria for being a satiety signal, because augmented histamine release accompanies the appetitive phase of feeding behavior rather than food consumption and satiety. The appetitive phase requires a high and yet optimal arousal state, and the histaminergic system is crucial for sustaining a high degree of arousal during motivated behavior. Histamine H(1) receptors in the brain are crucial for the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of food intake and the regulation of obesity; however, from a therapeutic standpoint, no brain-penetrating H(1) receptor agonists have been identified that would have antiobesity effects. Despite conflicting preclinical data, insights are emerging into the potential role of histamine H(3) receptors as a target of antiobesity therapeutics. The aim of this review is to outline the relevance of the histaminergic system in controlling feeding behavior and evaluate the potential therapeutic use of histaminergic ligands for the treatment of eating disorders.

  9. Is glycemic index of food a feasible predictor of appetite, hunger, and satiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwano, Yoshimi; Adachi, Takashi; Kashimura, Jun; Sakata, Takashi; Sasaki, Hajime; Sekine, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yonekubo, Akie; Kimura, Shuichi

    2009-06-01

    This review assesses the feasibility of using glycemic index (GI) as a predictor of appetite, hunger and satiety by surveying published human intervention studies. We also discuss the relationship between GI and two appetite/satiety control hormones, leptin and ghrelin. Ingestion of high-GI food increased hunger and lowered satiety in short-term human intervention studies. This effect may be attributed to the rapid decline in blood glucose level following a hyperinsulinemic response caused by a sharp and transient increase in blood glucose level that occurs after the ingestion of high-GI food, which is defined as the glucostatic theory. However, appetite, hunger and satiety after the ingestion of foods with varying GI were inconsistent among long-term human intervention studies. From the few relevant long-term studies available, we selected two recent well-designed examples for analysis, but they failed to elicit clear differences in glycemic and insulinemic responses between high- and low-GI meals (consisting of a combination of different foods or key carbohydrate-rich foods incorporated into habitual diets). One of the reasons that these studies could not predict glycemic response to mixed meals is presumably that the GI of each particular food was not reflected in that of the mixed meals as a whole. Thus, it is difficult to conclude that the GI values of foods or mixed meals are a valid long-term predictor for appetite, hunger and satiety. Both insulin and insulin-mediated glucose uptake and metabolism in adipose tissue affect blood leptin concentration and its diurnal pattern. Circulating ghrelin level is suppressed by carbohydrate-rich meals, presumably via glycemia and insulinemia. Accordingly, low-GI foods may not necessarily increase satiety or suppress appetite and/or hunger because of the lack of insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression. However, insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression per se is not consistent among

  10. Exercise training during normobaric hypoxic confinement does not alter hormonal appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. METHODS: Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003% either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2 or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2. A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre and after the confinement (Post to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. RESULTS: While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01 following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01. At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01 and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03. Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01 at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01. No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does

  11. The timing of "catch-up growth" affects metabolism and appetite regulation in male rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Bérengère; Grit, Isabelle; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between low birth weight mainly caused by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and adult metabolic disorders. The concept of metabolic programming centers on the idea that nutritional and hormonal status during the key period of development determines the long-term control of energy balance by programming future feeding behavior and energy expenditure. The present study examined the consequence of early or late "catch-up growth" after IUGR on feeding behavior and metabolic cues of male offspring of rat dams exposed to protein restriction during gestation and/or lactation. Our results suggest that early catch-up growth may be favorable for fasting metabolic parameters at weaning, as no differences were observed on plasma leptin, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels compared with controls. In contrast, if pups remained malnourished until weaning, low insulin concentration was detected and was accompanied by hyperphagia associated with a large increase in hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression. At adult age, on a regular chow diet, only the meal structure was modified by fetal programming. The two IUGR groups demonstrated a reduced meal duration that enhanced the speed of food ingestion and consequently increased the rest period associated to the satiety state without changes in the hypothalamic expression of appetite neuropeptides. Our findings demonstrate that in IUGR, regardless of postnatal growth magnitude, metabolic programming occurred in utero and was responsible for both feeding behavior alteration and postprandial higher insulin level in adults. Additionally, catch-up growth immediately after early malnutrition could be a key point for the programming of postprandial hyperleptinemia.

  12. Two Pairs of Mushroom Body Efferent Neurons Are Required for Appetitive Long-Term Memory Retrieval in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Plaçais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing memory research is to combine network- and cellular-level descriptions of memory encoding. In this context, Drosophila offers the opportunity to decipher, down to single-cell resolution, memory-relevant circuits in connection with the mushroom bodies (MBs, prominent structures for olfactory learning and memory. Although the MB-afferent circuits involved in appetitive learning were recently described, the circuits underlying appetitive memory retrieval remain unknown. We identified two pairs of cholinergic neurons efferent from the MB α vertical lobes, named MB-V3, that are necessary for the retrieval of appetitive long-term memory (LTM. Furthermore, LTM retrieval was correlated to an enhanced response to the rewarded odor in these neurons. Strikingly, though, silencing the MB-V3 neurons did not affect short-term memory (STM retrieval. This finding supports a scheme of parallel appetitive STM and LTM processing.

  13. Effects of methylphenidate on leptin and appetite in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: an open label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işeri, E; Kiliç, B G; Senol, S; Karabacak, N I

    2007-01-01

    Appetite suppression is one of the most common side effects of methylphenidate (MPH), which is used for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relation of appetite and leptin is well known but there is no report regarding MPH use and leptin. In this study we compared the baseline leptin levels of ADHD children with the controls and studied the interaction between MPH and leptin-insulin level in ADHD children under MPH treatment. The major finding of this study is that at a total daily dose of 0.6 mg/kg short-acting MPH treatment, one does not observe significant side effects related to appetite suppression and metabolic features as measured via body mass index, insulin and leptin levels. Thus this range seems to be safe in developing ADHD children with minimum side effects regarding appetite for short-term treatment.

  14. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  15. Whole body, regional fat accumulation, and appetite-related hormonal response after hypoxic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (Pdecreased in both groups (Pappetite-related hormones.

  16. The effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet induced thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne; Frederiksen, Rikke; Hoppe, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    of different types of protein are limited. In the present study we compare the effect of whey, casein and milk on DIT and satiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventeen slightly overweight (29 ± 4 kg/m(2)) male subjects completed the study. The study had a randomized, crossover design, where the effect on 4 h...... postprandial energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and subjective appetite sensation of three isocaloric test meals containing either a whey drink, a casein drink or skim milk was examined. Energy intake (EI) at a subsequent ad libitum lunch was also measured. RESULTS: There was no significant effect...... on subjective appetite sensation, but EI at lunch was lower after the milk test meal than after the casein (9%; P=0.0260) and the whey (9%; P=0.0258) test meals. Postprandial lipid oxidation was significantly higher after the casein test meal compared with the whey test meal (P=0.0147) when adjusted...

  17. What contributes to excessive diet soda intake in eating disorders: appetitive drive, weight concerns, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n = 240) and non-eating disorder controls (n = 157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in bulimia nervosa.

  18. Alcohol intake and its effect on some appetite-regulating hormones in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...... is hardly mediated by any of the hormones studied in this investigation, as the GLP-1 and obestatin levels were unaffected by alcohol, the ghelin level decreased, and leptin - although declining after alcohol - has not previously been found to have short-term inhibitory effect on hunger....

  19. Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Energy Expenditure and Appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg

    literature. In the same study, it was explored how PYY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, and ghrelin contribute to postsurgical lterations in appetite. The possibility of GLP-1 and PYY exerting overlapping, additive, or even synergistic effects on energy intake and appetite...... of the hormones and signaling molecules peptide YY (PYY), leptin, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and bile acids in these alterations. This was investigated in a clinical study with subjects randomized to either GBP or to a ‘pair-fed’ control group and was supported by a critical review of the existing...... acutely after GBP, nor does the existing literature provide evidence for such roles. On the contrary, basal metabolic rate and total EE were suppressed more in GBP patients compared to pair-fed control subjects. This suppressive effect was associated with an additional decrease in leptin. Despite...

  20. Evaluation of appetite-stimulating hormones in prepubertal children with epilepsy during topiramate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyaz, Cetin; Kursel, Onur; Komur, Mustafa; Tamer, Lulufer

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the mechanism of topiramate-related appetite loss and exposed its relationship to body weight, body mass index, body fat index, and serum insulin, lipid, leptin, neuropeptide-Y, cortisol, ghrelin, and adiponectin levels. Twenty children with epilepsy were evaluated at baseline and months 3 and 6 of treatment. Their body fat index, leptin, and neuropeptide-Y levels significantly decreased at month 3, whereas significant decreases occurred in body weight, body mass index, body fat index, neuropeptide-Y, cholesterol, and cortisol levels of patients at month 6 compared with baseline. Weight loss during topiramate treatment was attributed to loss of appetite and reduced food intake caused by reductions in neuropeptide-Y. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe reductions in neuropeptide-Y with topiramate use in humans.

  1. Intense Sweeteners, Appetite for the Sweet Taste, and Relationship to Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2015-03-01

    High intensity, low-energy sweeteners (LES) are used by many consumers in order to limit energy intake and possibly facilitate body weight control. These beneficial effects are often questioned in the scientific and lay media. LES are frequently accused of stimulating and/or maintaining a liking for sweetness which in turn would be deleterious for adequate body weight control. Evidence for the specific effects of LES use on appetite for sweet products will be extracted from observational studies, experimental laboratory studies, randomized controlled trials, and finally brain imaging studies. While many of the existing studies cannot identify any causal links between use of LES and appetite for sweetness, randomized trials in children and adults suggest that use of LES tends to reduce rather than increase the intake of sugar-containing foods and to facilitate, rather than impair, weight loss.

  2. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Laura E; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    . They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair......Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...

  3. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark A; Erickson, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Schrankler, Karilyn; Raatz, Susan K; Lytle, Leslie A; Pellegrini, Anthony D

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies of breakfast frequency in children and adults suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. More prospective studies with stronger designs are needed, as are experimental studies on this topic. In addition, above and beyond breakfast frequency, the roles of dietary quality and composition need to be studied in the context of eating or skipping breakfast. Experimental studies are also necessary to rigorously test causality and biological mechanisms. Therefore, we conducted 2 pilot experimental studies to examine some of the effects of breakfast skipping and breakfast composition on blood glucose and appetite in children and adults. Our results suggest that breakfast frequency and quality may be related in causal ways to appetite controls and blood sugar control, supporting the hypothesis that the breakfast meal and its quality may have important causal implications for the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  4. Low dose daily iron supplementation improves iron status and appetite but not anemia, whereas quarterly anthelminthic treatment improves growth, appetite and anemia in Zanzibari preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Chway, Hababu M; Montresor, Antonio; Tielsch, James M; Jape, Jape Khatib; Albonico, Marco; Savioli, Lorenzo

    2004-02-01

    Iron deficiency and helminth infections are two common conditions of children in developing countries. The consequences of helminth infection in young children are not well described, and the efficacy of low dose iron supplementation is not well documented in malaria-endemic settings. A 12-mo randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial of 10 mg daily iron and/or mebendazole (500 mg) every 3 mo was conducted in a community-based sample of 459 Zanzibari children age 6-71 mo with hemoglobin > 70 g/L at baseline. The trial was designed to examine treatment effects on growth, anemia and appetite in two age subgroups. Iron did not affect growth retardation, hemoglobin concentration or mild or moderate anemia (hemoglobin children children children's appetite, according to mothers' report. In this study, iron's effect on anemia was limited, likely constrained by infection, inflammation and perhaps other nutrient deficiencies. Mebendazole treatment caused unexpected and significant reductions in wasting malnutrition and anemia in very young children with light infections. We hypothesize that incident helminth infections may stimulate inflammatory immune responses in young children, with deleterious effects on protein metabolism and erythropoiesis.

  5. Effect of shortened sleep on energy expenditure, core body temperature, and appetite: a human randomised crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Masanobu Hibi; Chie Kubota; Tomohito Mizuno; Sayaka Aritake; Yuki Mitsui; Mitsuhiro Katashima; Sunao Uchida

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects’ energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were co...

  6. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; MARUYAMA, Keisuke; OKAME, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation per...

  7. Effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel-Kergoat, S; Azais-Braesco, V; Burton-Freeman, B; Hetherington, MM

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a systematic review of the effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and a meta-analysis of the effects of chewing on self-reported hunger. Objectives: To seek insights into the relationship between chewing, appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and to consider potentially useful recommendations to promote benefits of chewing for weight management. Materials and methods: Papers were obtained from two electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane), from searc...

  8. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Bellissimo, N; Lawton, CL; Ford, NA; Rains, TM; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Dye, L

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This re...

  9. Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, M; De Graaf, C.; de Groot, C. P. G. M.; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. SUBJECTS: A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). MEASUREMENTS: Fasting serum leptin concentrations a...

  10. Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Alexander, Erin; Mars, Monica; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-11-01

    Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.

  11. mPGES-1 deletion impairs aldosterone escape and enhances sodium appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Zhanjun; Aoyagi, Toshinori; Kohan, Donald E.; Yang, Tianxin

    2010-01-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) is a major sodium-retaining hormone that reduces renal sodium excretion and also stimulates sodium appetite. In the face of excess Aldo, the sodium-retaining action of this steroid is overridden by an adaptive regulatory mechanism, a phenomenon termed Aldo escape. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon is not well defined but appeared to involve a number of natriuretic factors such prostaglandins (PGs). Here, we investigated the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synth...

  12. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  13. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium on appetite in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Baghban Taraghdari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05 differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05. So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.

  14. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  15. The effect of bariatric surgery on gut hormones that alter appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaras, D-J; Le Roux, C-W

    2009-12-01

    Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity in the long term. Gut hormones are key players in the metabolic mechanisms causing obesity. Furthermore gut hormones are involved in the signalling process of hunger and satiety which leads to the control of nutrient intake. In this review, the role of these hormones as facilitators of appetite control after bariatric and metabolic surgery will be explored.

  16. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  17. Research on young children's breakfast and lifestyle patterns (schedule, meal partner, appetite)

    OpenAIRE

    戸井田, 英子; 野池, 裕子; 林, 恵里; 加藤, 麻樹; 村澤, 初子

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship among young children's breakfast grouping from view point of combination of the menu and lifestyle patterns (schedule, meal partner, television, appetite). A questionnaire survey was conducted with a total of 118 parents of the children aged 3-6 attending 2 nursery schools in Nagano city. The results show that many children have with their mother. Most of them take 30 minutes for starting breakfast after getting up. 56% children took well balanced br...

  18. Intense Sweeteners, Appetite for the Sweet Taste, and Relationship to Weight Management

    OpenAIRE

    BELLISLE France

    2015-01-01

    High intensity, low-energy sweeteners (LES) are used by many consumers in order to limit energy intake and possibly facilitate body weight control. These beneficial effects are often questioned in the scientific and lay media. LES are frequently accused of stimulating and/or maintaining a liking for sweetness which in turn would be deleterious for adequate body weight control. Evidence for the specific effects of LES use on appetite for sweet products will be extracted from observational stud...

  19. Amygdala Dopamine Receptors Are Required for the Destabilization of a Reconsolidating Appetitive Memory(1,2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Emiliano; Ratano, Patrizia; Ilioi, Elena C; Robbins, Miranda A L S; Everitt, Barry J; Milton, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Disrupting maladaptive memories may provide a novel form of treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders, but little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the induction of lability, or destabilization, of a retrieved consolidated memory. Destabilization has been theoretically linked to the violation of expectations during memory retrieval, which, in turn, has been suggested to correlate with prediction error (PE). It is well-established that PE correlates with dopaminergic signaling in limbic forebrain structures that are critical for emotional learning. The basolateral amygdala is a key neural substrate for the reconsolidation of pavlovian reward-related memories, but the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in inducing lability of amygdala-dependent memories has not been investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic signaling within the basolateral amygdala is required for the destabilization of appetitive pavlovian memories by investigating the effects dopaminergic and protein synthesis manipulations on appetitive memory reconsolidation in rats. Intra-amygdala administration of either the D1-selective dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or the D2-selective dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride prevented memory destabilization at retrieval, thereby protecting the memory from the effects of an amnestic agent, the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. These data show that dopaminergic transmission within the basolateral amygdala is required for memory labilization during appetitive memory reconsolidation.

  20. Effects of sleep fragmentation on appetite and related hormone concentrations over 24 h in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-02-28

    In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; Pdecreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (Pdecreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.

  1. Identification of hypothalamic neuron-derived neurotrophic factor as a novel factor modulating appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Mardi S; Swanson, Roy D; Semsarzadeh, Nina N; McCulloh, Patrick S; Kwon, Kiwook; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H; Wong, G William; Blackshaw, Seth

    2013-06-15

    Disruption of finely coordinated neuropeptide signals in the hypothalamus can result in altered food intake and body weight. We identified neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NENF) as a novel secreted protein through a large-scale screen aimed at identifying novel secreted hypothalamic proteins that regulate food intake. We observed robust Nenf expression in hypothalamic nuclei known to regulate food intake, and its expression was altered under the diet-induced obese (DIO) condition relative to the fed state. Hypothalamic Nenf mRNA was regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, itself an important regulator of appetite. Delivery of purified recombinant BDNF into the lateral cerebral ventricle decreased hypothalamic Nenf expression, while pharmacological inhibition of trkB signaling increased Nenf mRNA expression. Furthermore, recombinant NENF administered via an intracerebroventricular cannula decreased food intake and body weight and increased hypothalamic Pomc and Mc4r mRNA expression. Importantly, the appetite-suppressing effect of NENF was abrogated in obese mice fed a high-fat diet, demonstrating a diet-dependent modulation of NENF function. We propose the existence of a regulatory circuit involving BDNF, NENF, and melanocortin signaling. Our study validates the power of using an integrated experimental and bioinformatic approach to identify novel CNS-derived proteins with appetite-modulating function and reveals NENF as an important central modulator of food intake.

  2. Does monosodium glutamate interact with macronutrient composition to influence subsequent appetite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-05-27

    The influence of flavour enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) on satiation and satiety is unclear, and the present study aimed to explore this by examining the effects consumption of soups varying in MSG (1% MSG added or no MSG) and macronutrient content (added carbohydrate, protein or control) had on appetite. 24 non-obese, low-restraint male participants consumed a fixed portion of soup and rated their appetite before, immediately after intake and at 15 minute intervals for 120 min post-ingestion across six sessions. Added MSG significantly increased flavour pleasantness and tended to result in a smaller decrease in hunger immediately after soup ingestion. MSG also reduced rather than enhanced feelings of fullness immediately after ingestion of the high protein soup. As expected, hunger increased, and fullness decreased, over the subsequent 120 min, but the increase in hunger was significantly lower in the MSG than no-MSG conditions with the protein soup between 30 and 60 min post-ingestion. Overall these data suggest that MSG may have a bi-phasic effect on appetite, with reduced satiation mediated by effects on palatability, but potential for enhanced post-ingestive satiety particularly in the context of protein ingestion.

  3. GLP-1 receptor activation modulates appetite- and reward-related brain areas in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; IJzerman, Richard G; Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Barkhof, Frederik; Konrad, Robert J; Drent, Madeleine L; Veltman, Dick J; Diamant, Michaela

    2014-12-01

    Gut-derived hormones, such as GLP-1, have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety, leading to decreases in food intake and body weight. We hypothesized that food intake reduction after GLP-1 receptor activation is mediated through appetite- and reward-related brain areas. Obese T2DM patients and normoglycemic obese and lean individuals (n = 48) were studied in a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Using functional MRI, we determined the acute effects of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide, with or without prior GLP-1 receptor blockade using exendin 9-39, on brain responses to food pictures during a somatostatin pancreatic-pituitary clamp. Obese T2DM patients and normoglycemic obese versus lean subjects showed increased brain responses to food pictures in appetite- and reward-related brain regions (insula and amygdala). Exenatide versus placebo decreased food intake and food-related brain responses in T2DM patients and obese subjects (in insula, amygdala, putamen, and orbitofrontal cortex). These effects were largely blocked by prior GLP-1 receptor blockade using exendin 9-39. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which GLP-1 regulates food intake and how GLP-1 receptor agonists cause weight loss.

  4. Lean and obese dietary phenotypes: differences in energy and substrate metabolism and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, Louise; Hehir, Anthony P J; Lambert, Estelle V; Beglinger, Christoph; Goedecke, Julia H

    2015-11-28

    This study aimed to characterise lean and obese phenotypes according to diet and body composition, and to compare fasting and postprandial appetite and metabolic profiles following a high-fat test meal. A total of ten lean (BMI40 and 30 kg/m2) high-fat consumers (OHF; >40 % energy from fat) were recruited. Before and following the test meal (4727 kJ (1130 kcal), 77 % fat, 20 % carbohydrate (CHO) and 3 % protein), fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), RER, RMR and subjective appetite ratings (AR) were measured for 6 h. Thereafter, subjects consumed a self-selected portion of a standardised post-test meal (40 % fat, 45 % CHO and 15 % protein) and reported AR. Fasting (P=0·01) and postprandial (Plean groups, fasting and postprandial energy expenditures were significantly higher in OHF compared with LHF (Plean groups showed appropriate changes in plasma ghrelin and PYY following the test meal, whereas the OHF group showed a blunted response. In conclusion, the LHF phenotype had a greater capacity for fat oxidation, which may be protective against weight gain. OHF individuals had a blunted appetite hormone response to the high-fat test meal, which may subsequently increase energy intake, driving further weight gain.

  5. Prader-Willi syndrome: From genetics to behaviour, with special focus on appetite treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Joanne L; Sinnayah, Puspha; Mathai, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from a deletion in the expression of the paternally derived alleles in the region of 15q11-q13. PWS has a prevalence rate of 1:10,000-1:30,000 and is characterized by marked endocrine abnormalities including growth hormone deficiency and raised ghrelin levels. The hyperphagic phenotype in PWS is established over a number of phases and is exacerbated by impaired satiety, low energy expenditure and intellectual difficulties including obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or autistic behaviours. Clinical management in PWS typically includes familial/carer restriction and close supervision of food intake. If the supervision of food is left unmanaged, morbid obesity eventuates, central to the risk of cardiorespiratory disorder. None of the current appetite management/intervention strategies for PWS include pharmacological treatment, though recent research shows some promise. We review the established aberrant genetics and the endocrine and neuronal attributes which may determine disturbed regulatory processes in PWS. Focusing on clinical trials for appetite behaviours in PWS, we define the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with a view to initiating and focusing research towards possible targets for modulating appetite in PWS.

  6. Impact of yogurt on appetite control, energy balance, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Angelo; Doyon, Caroline; Sanchez, Marina

    2015-08-01

    Recent data support the idea that regular yogurt consumption promotes body weight stability. The simplest explanation is that regular consumption of healthful foods such as yogurt results in decreased intake of less healthful foods containing high amounts of fat and/or sugar. There is also evidence to suggest that the high calcium and protein contents of yogurt and other dairy foods influence appetite and energy intake. The existence of a calcium-specific appetite control mechanism has been proposed. Milk proteins differ in terms of absorption rate and post-absorptive responses, which can influence their satiating properties. Studies in humans have shown that consumption of milk and yogurt increases the circulating concentration of the anorectic peptides glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY (PYY). The food matrix can also affect appetite and satiety. Yogurt is a fermented milk that contains bacteria that enrich the microbiota of the host. It appears that lean vs obese humans differ in the composition of their gut microbiota. The available relevant literature suggests that yogurt is a food that facilitates the regulation of energy balance.

  7. High Amylose White Rice Reduces Post-Prandial Glycemic Response but Not Appetite in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Zenel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.

  8. Weakening self-control biases the emotional evaluation of appetitive cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Exerting self-control in a first task weakens self-control in a second completely unrelated task (ego-depletion). It has been proposed that ego-depletion increases approach motivation which would amplify positive emotions to appetitive cues. Here we investigated the effect of the depletion of cognitive self-control on the subsequent emotional evaluation of appetitive cues. Participants of the depletion group copied a text omitting frequent letters and thereby exerting self-control to inhibit automated writing habits. Participants of the control group just copied the text. In a subsequent task participants had to rate valence and arousal of their responses to neutral vs. positive pictures of humans, animals, food, or sceneries. Ego-depletion caused more positive valence ratings of neutral pictures and lower arousal ratings of positive pictures. The findings do not support the notion that ego-depletion increases approach motivation in general. Rather they suggest that—without a specific motivational context—depletion of cognitive self-control differentially alters the immediate emotional evaluation of appetitive cues. PMID:28141811

  9. Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A J; Duka, T

    2010-11-12

    Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable.

  10. Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E

    2016-09-01

    Energy balance is not a simple algebraic sum of energy expenditure and energy intake as often depicted in communications. Energy balance is a dynamic process and there exist reciprocal effects between food intake and energy expenditure. An important distinction is that of metabolic and behavioural components of energy expenditure. These components not only contribute to the energy budget directly, but also by influencing the energy intake side of the equation. It has recently been demonstrated that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potential driver of energy intake, and evidence is accumulating on the influence of physical activity (behavioural energy expenditure) on mechanisms of satiety and appetite control. These effects are associated with changes in leptin and insulin sensitivity, and in the plasma levels of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The influence of fat-free mass on energy expenditure and as a driver of energy intake directs attention to molecules emanating from skeletal tissue as potential appetite signals. Sedentariness (physical inactivity) is positively associated with adiposity and is proposed to be a source of overconsumption and appetite dysregulation. The molecular signals underlying these effects are not known but represent a target for research.

  11. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  12. Cognitive reappraisal fails when attempting to reduce the appetitive value of food: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Michela; Ubel, Sonja; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2013-12-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during the exposure to food cues. Thirty-three healthy, normal-weight women viewed images of high-caloric food and non-food items after an overnight fast. The participants were instructed to either passively look at the pictures, or to change (increase, decrease) the appetitive value of the food items. The P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) were higher across all conditions for food relative to non-food pictures. In the 'increase condition' the food images were rated as more appetizing and arousing than during passive viewing which was accompanied by increased amplitudes of the P300 and LPP. In contrast, the 'watch condition' and the 'decrease condition' did not differ with regard to appetite and arousal ratings as well as ERPs. Amplitudes of late positive potentials in the 'decrease condition' were positively correlated with scores on eating disorder scales indicating bulimic tendencies. The ERP data show that the appetitive value of food cues can easily be enhanced via reappraisal but is difficult to reduce, especially in women who display non-clinical forms of purging. The reduced ERP reactivity might constitute a risk factor for bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal-prospective studies should follow up on this aspect.

  13. Short-term effects of liraglutide on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, and food preference: a pilot study of obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

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    Inoue Kana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue, on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study subjects were 20 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide [age; 61.2 ± 14.0 years, duration of diabetes; 16.9 ± 6.6 years, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; 9.1 ± 1.2%, body mass index (BMI; 28.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean ± SD]. After improvement in glycemic control by insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents, patients were switched to liraglutide. We assessed the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis, glycemic control by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and eating behavior by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity questionnaire. Results Treatment with liraglutide (dose range: 0.3 to 0.9 mg/day for 20.0 ± 6.4 days significantly reduced waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, eVFA. It also significantly improved the scores of eating behavior, food preference and the urge for fat intake and tended to reduce scores for sense of hunger. Liraglutide increased serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and disposition index. Conclusions Short-term treatment with liraglutide improved visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference and the urge for fat intake in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  15. Validation of a new hand-held electronic data capture method for continuous monitoring of subjective appetite sensations

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    King Neil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When large scale trials are investigating the effects of interventions on appetite, it is paramount to efficiently monitor large amounts of human data. The original hand-held Electronic Appetite Ratings System (EARS was designed to facilitate the administering and data management of visual analogue scales (VAS of subjective appetite sensations. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel hand-held method (EARS II (HP® iPAQ against the standard Pen and Paper (P&P method and the previously validated EARS. Methods Twelve participants (5 male, 7 female, aged 18-40 were involved in a fully repeated measures design. Participants were randomly assigned in a crossover design, to either high fat (>48% fat or low fat (ad libitum lunch was provided immediately before completing a final set of appetite sensations. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for ratings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. There were no significant differences between P&P compared with either EARS or EARS II (p > 0.05. Correlation coefficients between P&P and EARS II, controlling for age and gender, were performed on Area Under the Curve ratings. R2 for Hunger (0.89, Fullness (0.96 and Desire to Eat (0.95 were statistically significant (p Conclusions EARS II was sensitive to the impact of a meal and recovery of appetite during the postprandial period and is therefore an effective device for monitoring appetite sensations. This study provides evidence and support for further validation of the novel EARS II method for monitoring appetite sensations during large scale studies. The added versatility means that future uses of the system provides the potential to monitor a range of other behavioural and physiological measures often important in clinical and free living trials. This study was registered as a clinical trial by Current Controlled Trials (Registration Number - ISRCTN47291569.

  16. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

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    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  17. Food Cravings, Appetite, and Snack-Food Consumption in Response to a Psychomotor Stimulant Drug: The Moderating Effect of ‘Food Addiction’

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    Caroline eDavis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating are behavioral addictions. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-based study of overeating in healthy adults who were predominately overweight and obese (aged 25-50 years, 136 participants completed the YFAS, of whom 23 met the diagnostic criteria for food addiction. They took part in a 2-day, double-blind, cross-over, single-dose drug challenge using a psychomotor stimulant (methylphenidate and placebo. Participants were first assessed on ratings of appetite and food cravings after holding and tasting their favorite snack food, after which they were able to eat all or part of the snack, as they wished. Three separate repeated-measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA procedures were carried out, each with 2 between-subjects factors (Diagnosis: food addiction vs non-food addiction and (Sex: male vs female and 1 within-subjects factor (Days: drug vs placebo. As anticipated, for all three dependent variables, there was a significant main effect for Days with a response decrease from placebo to the drug condition. With respect to food cravings and appetite ratings, results indicated that the food-addiction group had significantly higher scores on both variables (p<0.0001. For food consumption, there was a significant Days x Diagnosis interaction (p=0.018 whereby the food-addiction group showed no food-intake suppression across days compared to the non-food-addiction group who demonstrated a significant decrease in snack-food consumption with methylphenidate. The finding that the food-addiction group was resistant to the food

  18. Involvement of oxidative stress in the regulation of NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yu, Ching-Han; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Tsung-Ta; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) treatment can suppress appetite and increase oxidative stress in the brain. AMPH-induced appetite suppression is associated with the regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus. The present study explored whether antioxidants, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GP), were involved in this NPY/CART-mediated appetite control. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days. Changes in food intake and expression levels of hypothalamic NPY, CART, GST, and GP were examined and compared. Results showed that, in AMPH-treated rats, (1) food intake and NPY expression decreased, while CART, GST, and GP expression increased; (2) NPY knockdown in the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and the increases in CART, GST, and GP expression; and (3) central inhibition of reactive oxygen species production decreased GST and GP and modulated AMPH anorexia and the expression levels of NPY and CART. The present results suggest that oxidative stress in the brain participates in regulating NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in AMPH-treated rats. These results may advance the knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of AMPH-evoked or NPY/CART-mediated appetite suppression.

  19. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  20. Long-term trial of cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homnick, Douglas N; Marks, John H; Hare, Karyl L; Bonnema, Sally K

    2005-09-01

    Appetite stimulants have been used to help overcome decreased appetite and malnutrition in children and adults with various chronic illnesses, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Stimulants have included megestrol acetate (MA), cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CH), cannabinoids, hydrazine sulfate, anabolic hormones, and growth hormone. Many of these, including MA, have substantial side effects and may not be suitable for prolonged use. We previously studied the effects of CH on weight gain in a short-term (12 week) trial in CF with good results compared to placebo. Side effects were few, and weight gain was significant. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of CH over a longer term in order to assess its suitability for prolonged use. Sixteen CF children and adults enrolled in the original short-term study subsequently entered this study, and 12 completed the 9-month trial. All patients receiving placebo in the original short-term study received CH 4 mg up to four times a day in the long-term study continuation, and those receiving CH in the short-term study continued on the drug. No pill counts were done, and patients were queried at quarterly visits as to their CH use. Anthropometrics and spirometry were also done quarterly, and antibiotic use was quantified. Subjects who had changed from placebo (CH2 group) gained weight significantly over 3-6 months, and those continuing on CH (CH1 group) generally maintained previously gained weight over the duration of the study. Select spirometric measures improved in both groups but not significantly, and side effects were mild. CH appears to be an effective appetite stimulant in CF, and generally maintains its effect over time with an acceptable side-effect profile.

  1. Chronic excitotoxic lesion of the dorsal raphe nucleus induces sodium appetite

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    Cavalcante-Lima H.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined if the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN exerts tonic control of basal and stimulated sodium and water intake. Male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were microinjected with phosphate buffer (PB-DRN, N = 11 or 1 µg/0.2 µl, in a single dose, ibotenic acid (IBO-DRN, N = 9 to 10 through a guide cannula into the DRN and were observed for 21 days in order to measure basal sodium appetite and water intake and in the following situations: furosemide-induced sodium depletion (20 mg/kg, sc, 24 h before the experiment and a low dose of dietary captopril (1 mg/g chow. From the 6th day after ibotenic acid injection IBO-DRN rats showed an increase in sodium appetite (12.0 ± 2.3 to 22.3 ± 4.6 ml 0.3 M NaCl intake whereas PB-DRN did not exceed 2 ml (P < 0.001. Water intake was comparable in both groups. In addition to a higher dipsogenic response, sodium-depleted IBO-DRN animals displayed an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake compared to PB-DRN (37.4 ± 3.8 vs 21.6 ± 3.9 ml 300 min after fluid offer, P < 0.001. Captopril added to chow caused an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake during the first 2 days (IBO-DRN, 33.8 ± 4.3 and 32.5 ± 3.4 ml on day 1 and day 2, respectively, vs 20.2 ± 2.8 ml on day 0, P < 0.001. These data support the view that DRN, probably via ascending serotonergic system, tonically modulates sodium appetite under basal and sodium depletion conditions and/or after an increase in peripheral or brain angiotensin II.

  2. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

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    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  3. Satiety-enhancing products for appetite control: science and regulation of functional foods for weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A

    2012-05-01

    The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims.

  4. Pre- and post- prandial appetite hormone levels in normal weight and severely obese women

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    Wiebke Gail

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appetite is affected by many factors including the hormones leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Ghrelin stimulates hunger, leptin promotes satiety, and adiponectin affects insulin response. This study was designed to test whether the pre- and postprandial response of key appetite hormones differs in normal weight (NW and severely obese (SO women. Methods Twenty three women ages 25–50 were recruited for this study including 10 NW (BMI = 23.1 ± 1.3 kg/m2 and 13 SO (BMI = 44.5 ± 7.1 kg/m2. The study was conducted in a hospital-based clinical research centre. Following a 12-hour fast, participants had a baseline blood draw, consumed a moderately high carbohydrate meal (60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 20% fat based on body weight. Postprandially, participants had six blood samples drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Primary measures included pre- and post-prandial total ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin. A repeated measures general linear model was used to evaluate the hormone changes by group and time (significance p ≤ 0.05. Results There were significant differences between the NW and the SO for all hormones in the preprandial fasting state. The postprandial responses between the SO versus NW revealed: higher leptin (p Conclusion This study indicates that significant differences in both pre- and selected post- prandial levels of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and insulin exist between NW and SO women. Improving our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms accounting for these differences in appetite hormones among individuals with varying body size and adiposity should aid in the development of future therapies to prevent and treat obesity.

  5. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...

  6. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea;

    2016-01-01

    isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile....

  7. Effect of electrolytic lesion of the dorsal raphe nucleus on water intake and sodium appetite

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    E.L. Olivares

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effect of an electrolytic lesion of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN on water intake and sodium appetite. Male Wistar rats weighing 290-320 g with a lesion of the DRN (L-DRN, performed two days before experiments and confirmed by histology at the end of the experiments, presented increased sensitivity to the dehydration induced by fluid deprivation. The cumulative water intake of L-DRN rats reached 23.3 ± 1.9 ml (a 79% increase, N = 9 while sham-lesioned rats (SL-DRN did not exceed 13.0 ± 1.0 ml (N = 11, P < 0.0001 after 5 h. The L-DRN rats treated with isoproterenol (300 µg kg-1 ml-1, sc exhibited an increase in water intake that persisted throughout the experimental period (L-DRN, 15.7 ± 1.47 ml, N = 9 vs SL-DRN, 9.3 ± 1.8 ml, N = 11, P < 0.05. The L-DRN rats also showed an increased spontaneous sodium appetite during the entire period of assessment. The intake of 0.3 M NaCl after 12, 24, 36 and 72 h by the L-DRN rats was always higher than 20.2 ± 4.45 ml (N = 10, while the intake by SL-DRN was always lower than 2.45 ± 0.86 ml (N = 10, P < 0.00001. Sodium- and water-depleted L-DRN rats also exhibited an increased sodium appetite (13.9 ± 2.0 ml, N = 11 compared to SL-DRN (4.6 ± 0.64 ml, N = 11 after 120 min of observation (P < 0.02. The sodium preference of L-DRN rats in both conditions was always higher than that of SL-DRN rats. These results suggest that electrolytic lesion of the DRN overcomes a tonic inhibitory component of sodium appetite.

  8. Effect of chronic exercise on appetite control in overweight and obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia Vanessa Garcia; Kulseng, Bard; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exercise on body mass is likely to be partially mediated through changes in appetite control. However, no studies have examined the effect of chronic exercise on obestatin and cholecystokinin (CCK) plasma concentrations or the sensitivity to detect differences in preload energy...... in obese individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on 1) fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of obestatin, CCK, leptin, and glucose insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and 2) the accuracy of energy compensation in response to covert preload manipulation....

  9. Determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e apetite Physiological determinants of weight and appetite control

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    Zuleika S. C. Halpern

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública da atualidade, apresentando etiologia multifatorial. Entre os determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e do apetite, estão fatores neuronais, endócrinos, adipocitários e intestinais. A leptina e a insulina são hormônios secretados em proporção à massa adiposa e atuam perifericamente, estimulando o catabolismo. No sistema nervoso central, a insulina e a leptina interagem com receptores hipotalâmicos, favorecendo a saciedade. Indivíduos obesos têm maiores concentrações séricas destes hormônios e apresentam resistência à sua ação. Os peptídeos intestinais, combinados a outros sinais, podem estimular (grelina e orexina ou inibir (CCK, leptina e oximodulina a ingestão alimentar. Todos atuam nos centros hipotalâmicos, que são os grandes responsáveis pelo comportamento alimentar.Obesity is currently one of the main problems of public health, presenting multifactorial etiology. The main involved factors in the control of weight and appetite are neuronal, endocrine, adipocity and intestinal. Leptine and insuline are hormones produced proportionally to adipose mass and act stimulating the catabolism. In the central nervous system, insuline and leptine interact with hypothalamic receivers favoring the satiety. Individuals with obesity have high seric concentrations of these hormones and present resistance to their action. The intestinal peptides, associated with other signals, can stimulate (greline and orexine or inhibit (CKK, leptine and oxymodulin the food intake. All act in the hypothalamic centers, that are the major responsible for the nutrititional behavior.

  10. Renewal and spontaneous recovery, but not latent inhibition, are mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid in appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Andrew R; Campese, Vincent; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2009-04-01

    Previous research has reported a role for the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the extinction and renewal of conditioned fear. Here, the authors examine whether GABA is involved in the acquisition, extinction, renewal, spontaneous recovery, and latent inhibition of appetitive conditioning. Using Long-Evans rats, systemic injection of the GABA A receptor inverse agonist FG 7142 was shown to eliminate ABA renewal (Experiment 1) and spontaneous recovery (Experiment 4) of appetitive responding by selectively reducing the recovery of extinguished magazine approach. Furthermore, treatment with FG 7142 had no effects on acquisition or single-session extinction (Experiment 3) or on the context-specific expression of latent inhibition (Experiment 2). These data suggest that ABA renewal and spontaneous recovery, but not latent inhibition or responding during acquisition and an initial extinction session, are mediated by GABAergic mechanisms in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. They provide support for the view that renewal and spontaneous recovery share a common psychological mechanism.

  11. Appetite - increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes may include: Anxiety Certain drugs (such as corticosteroids, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants) Bulimia (most common in women 18 to 30 years old) Diabetes mellitus (including gestational diabetes ) Graves disease ...

  12. Test-meal palatability is associated with overconsumption but better represents preceding changes in appetite in non-obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Frampton, James; Gonzalez, Javier T

    2016-09-01

    Single-course, ad libitum meals are recommended for the assessment of energy intake within appetite research. This study represents the first investigation of the comparative sensitivity of two single-course, ad libitum meals designed to differ in palatability. We conducted two experiments using a preload study design. All protocols were identical except for the energy content of the preloads (Expt 1: 579 and 1776 kJ; Expt 2: 828 and 4188 kJ). During each experiment, ten healthy men completed four experimental trials constituting a low- or high-energy preload beverage, a 60-min intermeal interval and consumption of a pasta-based or a porridge-based, ad libitum meal. Appetite ratings were measured throughout each trial, and palatability was assessed after food consumption. Preload manipulation did not influence appetite (P=0·791) or energy intake (P=0·561) in Expt 1. Palatability and energy intake were higher for the pasta meal than for the porridge meal in both experiments (palatability P≤0·002; energy intake P≤0·001). In Expt 2, consumption of the high-energy preload decreased appetite (P=0·051) and energy intake (P=0·002). Energy compensation was not significantly different between pasta and porridge meals (P=0·172), but was more strongly correlated with preceding changes in appetite at the pasta meal (r -0·758; P=0·011) than the porridge meal (r -0·498; P=0·143). The provision of a highly palatable, pasta-based meal produced energy intakes that were more representative of preceding appetite ratings, but the moderately palatable, porridge-based meal produced more ecologically valid energy intakes. Ad libitum meal selection and design may require a compromise between sensitivity and ecological validity.

  13. A review on botanical species and chemical compounds with appetite suppressing properties for body weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-09-01

    As obesity has reached epidemic proportions, the management of this global disease is of clinical importance. The availability and popularity of natural dietary supplements for the treatment of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of commonly available over the counter plant-derived supplements used to suppress appetite for obesity control and management. The data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE with full text (via EBSCOHost) and the databases were accessed during late 2012 - early January 2013. The botanical species discussed in this review include Camellia sinensis, Caralluma fimbriata, Citrus aurantium, Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia and Phaseolus vulgaris. This review found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss. However, many of these crude extracts and compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long term safety, and potential side effects.

  14. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59 provided milk samples (n = 283 at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008 and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007, and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028 concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively. Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.

  15. Water deprivation-induced sodium appetite: humoral and cardiovascular mediators and immediate early genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Laurival A Jr; Xu, Zhice; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Menani, Jose V.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2002-01-01

    Adult rats deprived of water for 24-30 h were allowed to rehydrate by ingesting only water for 1-2 h. Rats were then given access to both water and 1.8% NaCl. This procedure induced a sodium appetite defined by the operational criteria of a significant increase in 1.8% NaCl intake (3.8 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h; n = 6). Expression of Fos (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), subfornical organ (SFO), and supraoptic nucleus (SON) after water deprivation. After rehydration with water but before consumption of 1.8% NaCl, Fos expression in the SON disappeared and was partially reduced in the OVLT and MnPO. However, Fos expression did not change in the SFO. Water deprivation also 1) increased plasma renin activity (PRA), osmolality, and plasma Na+; 2) decreased blood volume; and 3) reduced total body Na+; but 4) did not alter arterial blood pressure. Rehydration with water alone caused only plasma osmolality and plasma Na+ concentration to revert to euhydrated levels. The changes in Fos expression and PRA are consistent with a proposed role for ANG II in the control of the sodium appetite produced by water deprivation followed by rehydration with only water.

  16. Ghrelin-Reactive Immunoglobulins in Conditions of Altered Appetite and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O.; Lucas, Nicolas; Legrand, Romain

    2017-01-01

    Part of circulating ghrelin is bound to immunoglobulins (Ig) protecting it from degradation and preserving its functional activity. This review summarizes the data on ghrelin- and desacyl-ghrelin-reactive IgG in conditions of altered appetite and energy balance. Plasma levels and affinity kinetics of such IgG were compared in patients with obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) and in animal models of obesity including ob/ob mice, high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and obese Zucker rats as well as in mice after chronic food restriction and activity-based anorexia and in rats with methotrexate-induced anorexia. We show that plasmatic IgG in both obese humans and animals are characterized by increased affinity for ghrelin. In contrast, patients with AN and anorectic rodents all show lower affinity of ghrelin- and desacyl-ghrelin-reactive IgG, respectively, the changes which were not observed in non-anorectic, chronically starved mice. We also show that affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG correlate with plasma levels of ghrelin. These data point to common mechanisms underlying modifications of affinity kinetics properties of ghrelin-reactive IgG during chronic alterations of energy balance in humans and rodents and support a functional role of such autoantibodies in ghrelin-mediated regulation of appetite. PMID:28191004

  17. Effects of high fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien eLowette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source of energy, isolated fructose, in processed food products has been associated with several health disorders such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Apart from its metabolic consequences, a growing body of literature suggests that free fructose can also affect neuronal systems. High fructose intake may on the one hand affect central appetite regulation by altering specific components of the endocannabinoid system. On the other hand it appears to impact on cognitive function by affecting phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin. The present report reviews the recent evidence showing a negative effect of free fructose consumption on central appetite control, as well as cognitive function.

  18. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers.

  19. Pontomesencephalic Tegmental Afferents to VTA Non-dopamine Neurons Are Necessary for Appetitive Pavlovian Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Jie Yau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.

  20. Pontomesencephalic Tegmental Afferents to VTA Non-dopamine Neurons Are Necessary for Appetitive Pavlovian Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hau-Jie; Wang, Dong V; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Billy T; Deisseroth, Karl; Ikemoto, Satoshi; Bonci, Antonello

    2016-09-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA) neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.

  1. Extinction of goal tracking also eliminates the conditioned reinforcing effects of an appetitive conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, David N; Tunstall, Brendan J; Marks, Katherine R; Weiss, Stanley J

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the effects of extinction are response-specific. The present study investigated whether an extinction treatment that eliminated goal tracking elicited by an appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) would also eliminate the conditioned reinforcing effects of that CS. Rats were first trained on a goal-tracking procedure in which an auditory CS was paired with a food unconditioned stimulus. Animals learned to approach the location where the food was delivered. In a subsequent phase, rats in one group received extinction training that eliminated the goal-tracking elicited by the CS. Rats in the other group did not experience extinction of the food-paired CS. Then, both groups received a test for conditioned reinforcement in which leverpresses resulted in the brief presentation of the stimulus previously paired with food. This stimulus did not act as a conditioned reinforcer in the group that had been subjected to extinction training, but did serve as a conditioned reinforcer in the group that did not experience extinction. These results indicate that the effects of extinction generalize from the approach-eliciting to the conditioned reinforcing effects of an appetitive CS.

  2. Associations between Maternal Body Composition and Appetite Hormones and Macronutrients in Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Gridneva, Zoya; Lai, Ching T.; Hepworth, Anna R.; Mark, Peter J.; Kakulas, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59) provided milk samples (n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007), and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028) concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively). Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components. PMID:28282925

  3. A note on eating disorders and appetite and satiety in the orthodox Jewish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, Yigal; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal.

  4. Pork, beef and chicken have similar effects on acute satiety and hormonal markers of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Tapsell, Linda C; Batterham, Marijka J; Thorne, Rebecca; O'Shea, Jane; Zhang, Qingsheng; Beck, Eleanor J

    2011-02-01

    The effects of three different meat-containing breakfast meals (pork, beef or chicken) on acute satiety and appetite regulatory hormones were compared using a within-subjects study design. Thirty fasting non-smoking pre-menopausal women attended a research centre on three test days to consume, a meat-containing meal matched in energy (kJ) and protein content, palatability, and appearance. No difference was found between meat groups for either energy intake or macronutrient profile of food consumed at a subsequent ad libitum buffet lunch, or over the rest of the day. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ratings for hunger and satiety over an 180 min period did not differ between test meals. After consumption of the test meals, a significant difference was found in PYY response between pork and chicken meals (P=0.027) but not for levels of CCK, ghrelin, insulin or glucose. This study positions pork, beef, and chicken as equal in their effect on satiety and release of appetite-related intestinal hormones and of insulin.

  5. Parametric and genetic analysis of Drosophila appetitive long-term memory and sugar motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, J; Kaiser, L; Chabaud, M-A; Preat, T

    2009-06-01

    Distinct forms of memory can be highlighted using different training protocols. In Drosophila olfactory aversive learning, one conditioning session triggers memory formation independently of protein synthesis, while five spaced conditioning sessions lead to the formation of long-term memory (LTM), a long-lasting memory dependent on de novo protein synthesis. In contrast, one session of odour-sugar association appeared sufficient for the fly to form LTM. We designed and tuned an apparatus that facilitates repeated discriminative conditioning by alternate presentations of two odours, one being associated with sugar, as well as a new paradigm to test sugar responsiveness (SR). Our results show that both SR and short-term memory (STM) scores increase with starvation length before conditioning. The protein dependency of appetitive LTM is independent of the repetition and the spacing of training sessions, on the starvation duration and on the strength of the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast to a recent report, our test measures an abnormal SR of radish mutant flies, which might initiate their STM and LTM phenotypes. In addition, our work shows that crammer and tequila mutants, which are deficient for aversive LTM, present both an SR and an appetitive STM defect. Using the MB247-P[switch] system, we further show that tequila is required in the adult mushroom bodies for normal sugar motivation.

  6. Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Lyons, David J; Cristiano, Claudia; Burke, Luke K; Madara, Joseph C; Campbell, John N; Garcia, Ana Paula; Land, Benjamin B; Lowell, Bradford B; Dileone, Ralph J; Heisler, Lora K

    2016-03-14

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a key gateway for meal-related signals entering the brain from the periphery. However, the chemical mediators crucial to this process have not been fully elucidated. We reveal that a subset of NTS neurons containing cholecystokinin (CCK(NTS)) is responsive to nutritional state and that their activation reduces appetite and body weight in mice. Cell-specific anterograde tracing revealed that CCK(NTS) neurons provide a distinctive innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), with fibers and varicosities in close apposition to a subset of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R(PVH)) cells, which are also responsive to CCK. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within the PVH reveal the satiating function of CCK(NTS) neurons to be mediated by a CCK(NTS)→PVH pathway that also encodes positive valence. These data identify the functional significance of CCK(NTS) neurons and reveal a sufficient and discrete NTS to hypothalamus circuit controlling appetite.

  7. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-08-01

    The belief that breakfast is the most important meal of day has been derived from cross-sectional studies that have associated breakfast consumption with a lower BMI. This suggests that breakfast omission either leads to an increase in energy intake or a reduction in energy expenditure over the remainder of the day, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. However, observational studies do not imply causality. A number of intervention studies have been conducted, enabling more precise determination of breakfast manipulation on indices of energy balance. This review will examine the results from these studies in adults, attempting to identify causal links between breakfast and energy balance, as well as determining whether consumption of breakfast influences exercise performance. Despite the associations in the literature, intervention studies have generally found a reduction in total daily energy intake when breakfast is omitted from the daily meal pattern. Moreover, whilst consumption of breakfast supresses appetite during the morning, this effect appears to be transient as the first meal consumed after breakfast seems to offset appetite to a similar extent, independent of breakfast. Whether breakfast affects energy expenditure is less clear. Whilst breakfast does not seem to affect basal metabolism, breakfast omission may reduce free-living physical activity and endurance exercise performance throughout the day. In conclusion, the available research suggests breakfast omission may influence energy expenditure more strongly than energy intake. Longer term intervention studies are required to confirm this relationship, and determine the impact of these variables on weight management.

  8. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Heimerikx, J.; Rubingh, C.M.; Berg, R. van den; O'Shea, M.; Gambelli, L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Einerhand, A.W.C.; Scott, C.; Keizer, H.G.; Mennen, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (

  9. Pectin is not pectin: A randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jonathan, M.C.; Schols, H.A.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber

  10. Twenty-four-week effects of liraglutide on body composition, adherence to appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondanelli M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mariangela Rondanelli,1 Simone Perna,1 Paolo Astrone,2 Annalisa Grugnetti,2 Sebastiano Bruno Solerte,2 Davide Guido3,4 1Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Section of Human Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Medical and Genomics Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Liraglutide has well-known effects on glucose patterns. However, its several other metabolic properties are still controversial. Given this background, the aims of the present study are to evaluate the effects of 24-week liraglutide treatment on body composition, appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods: A cohort study was carried out on overweight and obese T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c equal to 6% (42 mmol/mol-10% (86 mmol/mol, under a 3-month treatment (at least with maximal dose of metformin as stable regime, by adding liraglutide at doses up to 3 mg/d. Body composition markers were measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was monitored by glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment. Finally, the appetite sensation and plasma lipids were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-eight subjects (male/female: 16/12, mean age: 58.75±9.33 years, body mass index: 34.13±5.46 kg/m2 were evaluated. Accounting for the adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, we noted significant

  11. Global Integration of the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite Predicts Short Term Weight Loss in Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle M Paolini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE. The present work is a sub-study (n = 56 of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, superior temporal pole, amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis. After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of

  12. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  13. Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E

    2013-10-01

    Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS.

  14. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  15. Preference and satiety : short- and long-term studies on food acceptance, appetite control and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, L.H.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments studying the impact of nutritionally modified foods on food acceptance and appetite control. The major outcomes of the studies relate to (1) predictive validity of laboratory sensory tests on food consumption, (2) effects of macronutrient and energy content manipula

  16. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. DESIGN: The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol...

  17. The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M. W.; McLaughlin, John; Gilmore, William; Maughan, Ronald J.; Evans, Gethin H.

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min. Appetite was measured using visual analogue scales (VAS). The ingestion of F and S resulted in a lower GIP incremental area under the curve (iAUC) compared to the ingestion of G (p < 0.05). No differences in the iAUC for GLP-1 or ghrelin were present between the trials, nor for insulin between the sugars. No differences in appetite ratings or hepatic metabolism measures were found, except for lactate, which was greater following the ingestion of F, S, and C, when compared to W and G (p < 0.05). The acute ingestion of typical amounts of fructose, in a variety of forms, results in marked differences in circulating GIP and lactate concentration, but no differences in appetite ratings, triglyceride concentration, indicative lipolysis, or NEFA metabolism, when compared to glucose. PMID:28216550

  18. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic ...

  19. Control of Appetite and Food Preference by NMDA Receptor and Its Co-Agonist d-Serine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Sasaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity causes a significant negative impact on health of human beings world-wide. The main reason for weight gain, which eventually leads to obesity, is excessive ingestion of energy above the body’s homeostatic needs. Therefore, the elucidation of detailed mechanisms for appetite control is necessary to prevent and treat obesity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor is a post-synaptic glutamate receptor and is important for excitatory neurotransmission. It is expressed throughout the nervous system, and is important for long-term potentiation. It requires both ligand (glutamate and co-agonist (d-serine or glycine for efficient opening of the channel to allow calcium influx. d-serine is contained in fermented foods and marine invertebrates, and brain d-serine level is maintained by synthesis in vivo and supply from food and gut microbiota. Although the NMDA receptor has been reported to take part in the central regulation of appetite, the role of d-serine had not been addressed. We recently reported that exogenous d-serine administration can suppress appetite and alter food preference. In this review, we will discuss how NMDA receptor and its co-agonist d-seine participate in the control of appetite and food preference, and elaborate on how this system could possibly be manipulated to suppress obesity.

  20. Differential incretin effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and insulin-glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edholm, T; Degerblad, M; Grybäck, P

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are major incretins with important effects on glucoregulatory functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying and appetite after a mixed meal, and effects on ins...

  1. Effect of growth in infancy on body composition, insulin resistance, and concentration of appetite hormones in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjaer, Anni; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    High infancy weight gain is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR) in later life, but the association with later body composition has not been well explored. Appetite regulatory hormones may be programmed in early life, but data to support this are lacking....

  2. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foltz, Martin; Maljaars, Jeroen; Schuring, Ewoud A. H.; van der Wal, Robert J. P.; Boer, Theo; Duchateau, Guus S. M.; Peters, Harry P. F.; Stellaard, Frans; Masclee, Ad A.

    2009-01-01

    Foltz M, Maljaars J, Schuring EA, van der Wal RJ, Boer T, Duchateau GS, Peters HP, Stellaard F, Masclee AA. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G982-G991,

  3. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; Macintyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements or placebos for six months. Appetite tests were performed at enrollment and after three and six months. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial cereal test food served after an overnight fast according to standardized procedures. Body weights and total amount of test food eaten were measured. In total, 99 children completed the study (50 on supplements and 49 on placebos). Amounts eaten per kilogram body weight in the supplement group at enrollment and after six months were 36.7+/-17.7 g/kg (mean+/-SD) and 41.3+/-15.0 g/kg respectively, while the amounts in the placebo group were 47.1+/-14.9 g/kg and 45.7+/-13.1g/kg respectively. The change in amount eaten per kilogram body weight over six months was significantly higher in the supplement group (4.7+/-14.7 g/kg) than in the placebo group (-1.4+/-15.1g/kg). Multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months seems to significantly improve the appetite of HIV-infected children.

  4. Pre- and within-meal effects of fluid dairy products on appetite, food intake, glycemia, and regulatory hormones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Patel, Barkha P; Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Mollard, Rebecca C; Hamilton, Jill K; Anderson, G Harvey

    2017-03-01

    The effect of beverages commonly consumed by children in-between or with meals on short-term food intake (FI) and glycemic control has received little attention. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted in 9- to 14-year-old children following a randomized repeated-measures design. Experiment 1 (n = 32) compared the effects of water (control) and isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk, chocolate milk, yogurt drink, and fruit punch on subjective appetite and FI. Experiment 2 (n = 20) compared the effects of isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk and fruit punch on subjective appetite, FI, and glycemic and appetite hormone responses. One serving of the beverages was given as a pre-meal drink at baseline (0 min) and a second serving 60 min later with an ad libitum pizza meal. Meal FI in experiment 1 was lower by 14% and 10%, respectively, after chocolate milk and yogurt drink (p children (p = 0.02). Milk led to higher pre-meal glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-meal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) than fruit punch (p appetite, and satiety hormones than a sugar-sweetened beverage, but all caloric beverages result in more cumulative calories than if water is the beverage.

  5. Immediate Extinction Causes a Less Durable Loss of Performance than Delayed Extinction following Either Fear or Appetitive Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In…

  6. How partial reinforcement of food cues affects the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses. A new model for dieting success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco C; Bouton, Mark E; Jansen, Anita

    2014-10-01

    Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in responding that occurs during extinction is slow. After extinction, increases in responding with renewed reinforcement of food cues (reacquisition) might be less rapid after acquisition with partial reinforcement. In humans, it may be that the eating behaviour of some individuals resembles partial reinforcement schedules to a greater extent, possibly affecting dieting success by interacting with extinction and reacquisition. Furthermore, impulsivity has been associated with less successful dieting, and this association might be explained by impulsivity affecting the learning and extinction of appetitive responses. In the present two studies, the effects of different reinforcement schedules and impulsivity on the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition of appetitive responses were investigated in a conditioning paradigm involving food rewards in healthy humans. Overall, the results indicate both partial reinforcement schedules and, possibly, impulsivity to be associated with worse extinction performance. A new model of dieting success is proposed: learning histories and, perhaps, certain personality traits (impulsivity) can interfere with the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses to food cues and they may be causally related to unsuccessful dieting.

  7. A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, I.

    2015-01-01

    A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control. From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients. Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can influence

  8. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements

  9. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Bellissimo, Nick; Lawton, Clare L; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Dye, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day.

  10. Comparative analysis reveals loss of the appetite-regulating peptide hormone ghrelin in falcons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2015-05-15

    Ghrelin and leptin are key peripherally secreted appetite-regulating hormones in vertebrates. Here we consider the ghrelin gene (GHRL) of birds (class Aves), where it has been reported that ghrelin inhibits rather than augments feeding. Thirty-one bird species were compared, revealing that most species harbour a functional copy of GHRL and the coding region for its derived peptides ghrelin and obestatin. We provide evidence for loss of GHRL in saker and peregrine falcons, and this is likely to result from the insertion of an ERVK retrotransposon in intron 0. We hypothesise that the loss of anorexigenic ghrelin is a predatory adaptation that results in increased food-seeking behaviour and feeding in falcons.

  11. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Field

    Full Text Available Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

  12. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Brent A; Buck, Cara L; McClure, Samuel M; Nystrom, Leigh E; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.

  13. Attentional Modulation of Brain Responses to Primary Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Brent A.; Buck, Cara L.; McClure, Samuel M.; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects’ attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value. PMID:26158468

  14. The brain-gut axis in regulation of appetite and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dham, Shefali; Banerji, Mary A

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease globally. It is increasingly a problem of children and individuals in poor countries characterized by food insecurity. This is of great concern as childhood obesity predicts increased future adult obesity. To curb the epidemic of obesity, it is essential to understand the regulation of appetite. Energy stores and nutrient homeostasis are maintained by hypothalamic regulation of energy balance. The hypothalamus receives neural and endocrine signals from the gut, adipose tissue and pancreas in response to food intake. These are integrated, interpreted and directed to other centers in the brain and peripheral organs to orchestrate energy homeostasis. This brain-gut axis is disrupted in obesity. This review discusses the various hormones involved in the regulation of energy balance both at the level of the gut and in the central nervous system.

  15. Review: Efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2013-01-01

    on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence......This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...... on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity...

  16. Nesfatin–1 As a Novel Appetite-Controlling Peptide: Will Obesity Be History?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Baydın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine the role of a novel peptide – nesfatin 1- in appetite control and define its anorectic mechanism in order to reveal whether it can be used in fight against obesity. We reviewed the articles in the literature investigating the structure, mechanism of effect and experimental usefulness of nesfatin-1. We entered the word “nesfatin” to medical databases and reviewed the literature. Administration of nesfatin-1 maintains a significant reduce in food intake. Its effectiveness in rats is proven. More and more, new researches are in progress to determine its exact mechanism of effect. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety agent. However, use of nesfatin-1 as an anti-obesity agent in humans remains an unclarified field and needs further investigations. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 60-64

  17. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.

  18. A systematic review of the effect of oral glucocorticoids on energy intake, appetite, and body weight in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthon, Bronwyn S; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Wood, Lisa G

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a serious risk factor for chronic disease, and commonly prescribed oral glucocorticoids (OCS) may be contributing to the prevalence of obesity. The objective of this review was to assess the impact of OCS on obesity in humans through effects on body weight (BW), energy intake, appetite, and body composition. An electronic search of English language peer-reviewed studies from 1973 up to March 2012 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Original studies that addressed the effects of OCS on appetite, energy intake, BW, or body composition in adults were considered eligible. Data from 21 studies with objectively measured outcomes were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. The publication year varied from 1986 to 2013, and the sample size, from 6 to 189. Energy intake was measured in 6 studies; BW, in 19 studies; energy expenditure, in 3 studies; body composition, in 6 studies; and appetite was evaluated in 3 studies. Short-term oral glucocorticoid therapy may result in small increases in energy intake but does not appear to result in increased BW, possibly due to an increase in energy expenditure. Long-term therapy may result in clinically significant weight gain. Within-subject variation due to metabolism and physical activity levels confounds the relationship. A dose-response relationship of oral glucocorticoid therapy on energy intake, appetite, BW, or body composition was not found. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized doses of OCS and assess the effects on appetite, energy intake, BW, and composition are strongly justified to confirm the findings of this review.

  19. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children.

  20. The relationship of appetitive, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones to alcoholism and craving in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.

  1. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  2. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose.

  3. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  4. Association between Australian-Indian mothers' controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.

  5. Dopamine and food reward: effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Herbert, Vanessa M B; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Munafò, Marcus R; Rogers, Peter J

    2012-03-20

    It has been suggested that obese individuals over-eat in order to compensate for deficits in the dopaminergic reward system. The current study used acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) to investigate the effect of reduced dopamine function on appetite and the reward value of food in healthy volunteers. The compensatory-eating hypothesis would predict an increase in the reward value and consumption of food following depletion by this method. In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 17 male participants (mean age=29.2 (SEM=2.7) years; mean body mass index=24.4 (SEM=0.6) kg/m(2)) were administered with a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free; depletion condition) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL; control). Plasma amino acid levels were measured at baseline and peak depletion (300 min). Appetite, willingness to pay for food, liking, desired portion size and ad libitum food intake were also assessed. The TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with significant decreases in tyrosine, phenylalanine, and the ratio of tyrosine+phenylalanine to the other large neutral amino acids (all p<.001). There were no effects on our measures of willingness to pay for food or liking. However, in the TYR/PHE-free condition, participants reported significantly lower levels of hunger following a fixed-test meal relative to the BAL condition. In conclusion, we found no evidence for compensatory eating following ATPD. Our results also provide support for the role of dopamine in motivational components of eating.

  6. Internal States and Behavioral Decision-Making: Toward an Integration of Emotion and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann; Asahina, Kenta; Hoopfer, Eric; Inagaki, Hidehiko; Jung, Yonil; Lee, Hyosang; Remedios, Ryan; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions, such as an aggressive encounter between two conspecific males or a mating encounter between a male and a female, typically progress from an initial appetitive or motivational phase, to a final consummatory phase. This progression involves both changes in the intensity of the animals' internal state of arousal or motivation and sequential changes in their behavior. How are these internal states, and their escalating intensity, encoded in the brain? Does this escalation drive the progression from the appetitive/motivational to the consummatory phase of a social interaction and, if so, how are appropriate behaviors chosen during this progression? Recent work on social behaviors in flies and mice suggests possible ways in which changes in internal state intensity during a social encounter may be encoded and coupled to appropriate behavioral decisions at appropriate phases of the interaction. These studies may have relevance to understanding how emotion states influence cognitive behavioral decisions at higher levels of brain function.

  7. Preproghrelin gene polymorphisms in obese Japanese women. Minor homozygotes are light eaters, do not prefer protein or fat, and apparently have a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Jun; Yamada, Kouichi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Morita, Akemi; Aiba, Naomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2013-04-01

    Preproghrelin gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms are possible predisposing factors to obesity and other metabolic syndromes. To study the correlation between genotypes and obesity, we recruited 117 obese Japanese women (BMI, 25.0-41.1; average, 31.1). Minor homozygotes for five preproghrelin gene polymorphisms, namely, -1500C>G (rs3755777), -1062G>C (rs26311), -994C>T (rs26312) (promoter region), Leu72Met (rs696217) (exon 2), and +3056T>C (rs2075356) (intron 2), had high values of total and visceral fat areas, waist circumference, and BMI, indicating significant correlation of the polymorphisms with obesity and fat metabolism. Here, we studied the relationship between the genotypes and dietary tendency. Self-administered Diet History Questionnaire showed that total food intake, sugar, and dairy product intake were low in +3056C/C women. Their energy, protein, fat, and meat intake was also low. Energy balance calculation showed considerably reduced fat and protein consumption. Dietary habits were surveyed using Sakata's Questionnaire on Eating Behavior. Of the genotypes, -1062C/C women showed low scores for "motivation for eating" and "eating because of stress or something else." Thus, surprisingly, it was revealed that minor homozygotes for preproghrelin gene polymorphisms were light eaters, did not prefer fat or protein, and apparently had a poor appetite, although they were predisposed to obesity.

  8. The effect of meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen on the gastrointestinal and appetite hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2017-01-01

    Background Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs. The aim of this secondary analysis was to explore the effect of two hypocaloric diet regimens on fasting levels of appetite and GIHs and on their postprandial responses after a standard meal. It was hypothesized that lower meal frequency in a reduced-energy regimen leading to greater body weight reduction and reduced hunger would be associated with decreased plasma concentrations of GIHs: gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1), peptide YY(PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and leptin and increased plasma concentration of ghrelin. The postprandial response of satiety hormones (GLP-1, PYY and PP) and postprandial suppression of ghrelin will be improved. Methods In a randomized crossover study, 54 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) underwent both regimens. The concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, PP, PYY, amylin, leptin and ghrelin were determined using multiplex immunoanalyses. Results Fasting leptin and GIP decreased in response to both regimens with no difference between the treatments (p = 0.37 and p = 0.83, respectively). Fasting ghrelin decreased in A6 and increased in B2 (with difference between regimens p = 0.023). Fasting PP increased in B2with no significant difference between regimens (p = 0.17). Neither GLP-1 nor PYY did change in either regimen. The decrease in body weight correlated negatively with changes in fasting ghrelin (r = -0.4, pdiabetic patients on a hypocaloric diet, eating larger

  9. In vitro neuropeptide Y mRNA expressing model for screening essences that may affect appetite using Rolf B1.T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiau-Wei; Wu, Po-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2012-08-15

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most important appetite regulator. This study aimed to establish an in vitro NPY mRNA expression model for screening essences to determine if they are an appetite stimulator or inhibitor. We cultured the olfactory nerve cells Rolf B1.T for 2 days and then treated the cells with the known appetite inhibitor limonene and stimulator linalool. It was found that linalool could significantly stimulate NPY mRNA expression in 10 min, and limonene had the opposite effect. Similar results were also found in primary olfactory ensheathing cells isolated from rats. Further clinical trials using human subjects found that, when 10 min of treatment was applied, linalool indeed increased the serum NPY level in human peripheral blood. Limonene, on the other hand, decreased the serum NPY level. Thus, NPY mRNA expression in Rolf B1.T cells could be used as an in vitro model for screening essences that may affect appetite.

  10. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnouris...

  11. Orlistat inhibition of intestinal lipase acutely increases appetite and attenuates postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide-1, cholecystokinin, and peptide YY concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellrichmann, Mark; Kapelle, Mario; Ritter, Peter R;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intestinal lipase inhibition using tetrahydrolipstatin (Orlistat) has been widely used in the pharmacotherapy of morbid obesity. However, the effects of Orlistat on the secretion of appetite regulating gastrointestinal hormones and appetite sensations are still debated. We addressed...... whether Orlistat alters the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin as well as postprandial appetite sensations. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy human volunteers were examined with a solid-liquid test meal after the oral administration...... of Orlistat or placebo. Gastric emptying, gallbladder volume and the plasma levels of CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin were determined and appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was accelerated by Orlistat administration (P

  12. Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children123

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, Tanja VE; Whiteford, Linda M; Heo, Moonseong; Faith, Myles S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional data indicate an inverse relation between breakfast consumption and child weight. It has been suggested that skipping breakfast may adversely affect appetite in children, which could lead to overeating later in the day.

  13. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  14. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/- weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/- mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/- mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  15. A Prospective Cohort Study of the Effects of Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy on Taste Function, Food Liking, Appetite and Associated Nutritional Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Boltong; Sanchia Aranda; Russell Keast; Rochelle Wynne; Francis, Prudence A.; Jacqueline Chirgwin; Karla Gough

    2014-01-01

    Background ‘Taste’ changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status. Patients and methods This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n = 52) prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food...

  16. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  17. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Elham Ranjar; Seyed. Mohammad-Ali Kooshesh; Seyed-Ali Keshavarz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: on...

  18. Short-term effects of whole-grain wheat on appetite and food intake in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinham, Caroline L; Hitchen, Katie L; Youngman, Penelope J; Frost, Gary S; Robertson, M Denise

    2011-08-01

    While it has been proposed, based on epidemiological studies, that whole grains may be beneficial in weight regulation, possibly due to effects on satiety, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming this. The present cross-over study aimed to investigate the short-term effects on appetite and food intake of 48 g of whole-grain wheat (daily for 3 weeks) compared with refined grain (control). A total of fourteen healthy normal-weight adults consumed, within their habitual diets, either two whole-grain bread rolls (providing 48 g of whole grains over two rolls) or two control rolls daily for 3 weeks. Changes in food intake were assessed using 7 d diet diaries. Changes in subjective appetite ratings and food intake were also assessed at postprandial study visits. There were no significant differences between interventions in energy intake (assessed by the 7 d diet diaries and at the ad libitum test meal), subjective appetite ratings or anthropometric measurements. However, there was a significant difference between interventions for systolic blood pressure, which decreased during the whole-grain intervention and increased during the control intervention (-2 v. 4 mmHg; P = 0·015). The present study found no effect of whole grains on appetite or food intake in healthy individuals; however, 48 g of whole grain consumed daily for 3 weeks did have a beneficial effect on systolic blood pressure. The findings from the present study therefore do not support epidemiological evidence that whole grains are beneficial in weight regulation, although further investigation in other population groups (such as overweight and obese) would be required.

  19. Differential influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype, neuroticism and real-life acute stress exposure on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Aimée E M; Markus, C Rob

    2014-06-01

    Stress or negative mood often promotes energy intake and overeating. Since the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is found to mediate stress vulnerability as well as to influence energy intake, this gene may also influence the negative effects of stress exposure on overeating. Moreover, since stress proneness also reflects cognitive stress vulnerability - as often defined by trait neuroticism - this may additionally predispose for stress-induced overeating. In the present study it was investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with neuroticism on changes in mood, appetite and energy intake following exposure to a real-life academic examination stressor. In a balanced-experimental design, homozygous S-allele and L-allele carriers (N = 94) with the lowest and highest neuroticism scores were selected from a large database of 5-HTTLPR genotyped students. Mood, appetite and energy intake were measured before and after a 2-hour academic examination and compared with a control day. Examination influenced appetite for particular sweet snacks differently depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism. S/S compared with L/L subjects reported greater examination stress, and this was accompanied by a more profound post-stress increase in appetite for sweet snacks. Data also revealed a 5-HTTLPR genotype by trait neuroticism interaction on energy intake, regardless of examination. These results consolidate previous assumptions of 5-HTTLPR involvement in stress vulnerability and suggest 5-HTTLPR and neuroticism may influence stress-induced overeating depending on the type of food available. These findings furthermore link previous findings of increased risk for weight gain in S/S-allele carriers, particularly with high scores on trait neuroticism, to increased energy intake.

  20. Immediate extinction causes a less durable loss of performance than delayed extinction following either fear or appetitive conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In all experiments, conditioning and extinction were accomplished in single sessions, and retention testing took place 24 h after extinction. In both f...

  1. The role of ACTH and adrenal glucocorticoids in the salt appetite of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, E H; Covelli, M D; Denton, D A; Nelson, J F; Shulkes, A A

    1975-10-01

    The selective appetites of wild rabbits for 500 mEq/1 solutions of NaC1, KC1, MgC1(2), and CaC1(2) were studied in intact and adrenalectomized rabbits during daily treatment with either 4 IU long acting ACTH, 1.0 or 2.5 mg cortisol acetate, or 2.5 mg corticosterone. The animals were individually caged and external sodium balances performed. In intact rabbits, cortisol or corticosterone produced a significant stimulation of NaC1 appetite. The response to concurrent dosage of cortisol and corticosterone was less than half of that obtained with ACTH which produced a comparable alteration of blood glucocorticoid levels but a 10-fold increase in NaC1 intake. CaC1(2) intake was increased in intact rabbits by cortisol treatment but not by corticosterone or ACTH. Adrenalectomized rabbits maintained on daily steroid replacement therapy of 0.1 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate and 0.75 mg cortisone acetate showed a normal pattern of electolyte, food, and water intake. Under these conditions ACTH produced a 4-fold increase in NaC1 intake. Further addition of cortisol and corticosterone to steroid replacement therapy produced an increase in NaC1 intake comparable to their effect on normal rabbits. Thereupon supplementation with ACTH resulted in an increase to a level at least as great as that found in ACTH treated, normal rabbits. The effects of ACTH and glucocorticoids on NaC1 appetite were synergistic. Sodium balance showed that increases in NaC1 intake were not the result of the treatment initially producing a body sodium deficit, which was then corrected by increased intake. The results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that NaC1 appetite may be hormonally regulated, and demonstrate that ACTH is capable of stimulating NaC1 intake by a previously unsuspected non-adrenal pathway.

  2. Post-exercise appetite was affected by fructose content but not glycemic index of pre-exercise meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether both glycemic index (GI) and breakfast fructose content affect appetite during the postprandial period and recovery period after 1 hr of brisk walking. Ten healthy young men (age: 21.7 ± 1.5 y, body mass index: 20.9 ± 1.1 kg∙m(-2), VO2max: 53.7 ± 3.7 mL∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) completed 1 hr of brisk walking at 46% VO2max 2 hr after eating one of three isocaloric breakfasts: a low-GI breakfast not including fructose content (LGI), a low-GI breakfast including fructose beverage (LGIF) and a high-GI breakfast (HGI). All breakfasts provided 1.0 g∙kg(-1) body weight carbohydrates, and the calculated GI values for the three breakfasts were 41, 39, and 72, respectively. In the LGIF and HGI trials, approximately 25% of participants' energy was derived from either fructose or glucose beverage. Appetite scores were measured every 30 min during the 2-hr postprandial period and 1-hr recovery period. During the postprandial period, the incremental areas under the blood response curve values of glucose and insulin were higher in the HGI trial, compared with those in the LGI and LGIF trials. At 30 and 60 min during the recovery period, the appetite scores were lower in the LGIF trial than those in the LGI and HGI trials. No differences were observed between the LGI and HGI trials. Breakfast fructose content, rather than GI, seems to affect appetite during the recovery period after 1 hr of brisk walking.

  3. Recent progress of appetite regulation in central nervous system%中枢食欲调节研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程笑冰; 宁光

    2009-01-01

    Concordant ingestion of appetite regulation internet is the basic physiological activity of human. Appetite regulation relates to complicate mechanisms and involves many systems and factors. Their impacting and controlling formed the appetite regulation internet. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in re-cepting,integrating and releasing signals of energy status in central nervous system. The consummated con-struction of hypothalamus about appetite regulation and the finding of new regulation factors are very impor-tant for the learning of mechanism of obesity and diabetes and the development of drugs.%食欲调节网络的协调性摄食活动是维持人类生命的基本生理活动,食欲调节具有复杂而精细的调节机制,而下丘脑正是接受、整合与发放食欲调节信号、维持体重稳定的重要中枢.中枢神经系统或外周组织产生的具有促/抑食欲作用的神经内分泌因子在下丘脑形成复杂的食欲调节网络和相互投射的神经环路,对食欲进行精确的调控.不断完善下丘脑食欲调节区域,不断发现新的调控因子及其作用机制,对深入了解肥胖及糖尿病的病理生理机制及设计开发各种有效控制体重和血糖的药物有重大意义.

  4. Analyzing the microfoundations of human violence in the DRC : intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and the prediction of appetitive aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Haer, Roos; Banholzer, Lilli; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundCivil wars are characterized by intense forms of violence, such as torture, maiming and rape. Political scientists suggest that this form of political violence is fostered through the provision of particular intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to combatants. In the field of psychology, the perpetration of this kind of cruelty is observed to be positively linked to appetitive aggression. Over time, combatants start to enjoy the fights and even the perpetration of atrocities. In this stud...

  5. Relation of addiction genes to hypothalamic gene changes subserving genesis and gratification of a classic instinct, sodium appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Liedtke, Wolfgang B.; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L.; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J.; Hilton, Donald L.; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Denton, Derek A.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 ...

  6. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P decreased hunger (P decreased prospective consumption (P decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  7. Prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation associated with aerobic exercise change aspects of appetite sensation in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Rafael A; Okano, Alexandre H; Cunha, Felipe A; Gurgel, Jonas L; Fontes, Eduardo B; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) isolated or combined with aerobic exercise influenced the desire to eat, hunger, and satiety in overweight subjects. Nine volunteers underwent anodal or sham tDCS (2 mA; 20 min) over DLPFC and isocaloric exercise bouts (70%VO(2)R; ~200 kcal). The appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales at four moments: I - Baseline; II - After tDCS; III - Post-Exercise and IV - 30-min Post-Exercise. The tDCS on left DLPFC decreased the desire to eat at baseline (tDCS -26% vs. -14% Sham). The tDCS associated with exercise had greater suppressing effect in desire to eat compared to either tDCS or exercise alone (tDCS -39% vs. -27% Sham). Moreover, the tDCS associated with exercise decreased hunger (tDCS -48% vs. 36% Sham) and increased satiety (tDCS 28% vs. 7% Sham) immediately after exercise. The post-exercise 30-min recovery elicited an overall increase in appetite. However the increase in desire to eat and hunger after recovery was lower after tDCS (29% and 13%, respectively) compared to sham stimulation (77% and 113%, respectively). These findings in overweight subjects indicate that the combination of tDCS over DLPFC and aerobic exercise induced greater decrease in appetite sensations compared to anodal tDCS or exercise alone.

  8. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-04-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation.

  9. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years. We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2 than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2 adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64. Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD: −17 (−22 to −13 mm to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9 mm lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.

  10. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  11. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Zahra, Jessica C; Stensel, David J

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed at 0-1 h in the fasted exercise trial and 4-5 h in the postprandial exercise trial. A standardised breakfast was provided at 1.5 h and ad libitum buffet meals at 5.5 and 9.5 h. Appetite ratings and resting expired air samples were collected throughout each trial. Postprandial exercise suppressed appetite to a greater extent than fasted exercise. Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials, resulting in a negative energy balance in exercise trials relative to control after accounting for differences in energy expenditure (control: 9774±2694 kJ; fasted exercise: 6481±2318 kJ; postprandial exercise: 6017±3050 kJ). These findings suggest that 60 min treadmill running induces a negative daily energy balance relative to a sedentary day but is no more effective when performed before or after breakfast.

  12. Acute antipsychotic treatments induce distinct c-Fos expression patterns in appetite-related neuronal structures of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; See, Lionel Kee Yon; Dawe, Gavin Stewart

    2013-05-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs are known to perturb appetite regulation causing greater hyperphagia in humans and rodents than earlier generation typical agents. However, the neuronal structures that underlie hyperphagic effects are poorly understood. Arcuate nucleus (ArcN), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVA) and nucleus incertus (NI) have been implicated in appetite regulation. The NI is the principal source of the relaxin-3 (RLN3) peptide, which is reported to have orexigenic effects. Moreover, ArcN, PVN, and PVA receive RLN3 immunoreactive fibers from the NI and express relaxin family peptide type 3 (RXFP3) receptor. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of clozapine (atypical), chlorpromazine (typical) and fluphenazine (typical) on c-Fos expression (a marker of neuronal response) in these appetite-related centers of the rat brain. The numbers of c-Fos expressing neurons in these structures were counted in immunofluorescence stained brain sections. Acute treatment with clozapine, chlorpromazine and fluphenazine differentially influenced c-Fos expression in these brain structures. This study is also the first demonstration that antipsychotics influence the NI. The patterns of the effects of these antipsychotics are related to their reported hyperphagic properties.

  13. Association of a carboxylesterase 1 polymorphism with appetite reduction in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxel, E M; Salatino-Oliveira, A; Genro, J P; Zeni, C P; Polanczyk, G V; Chazan, R; Rohde, L A; Hutz, M H

    2013-10-01

    Carboxylesterase 1 is the enzyme involved in methylphenidate (MPH) metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between a -75 T>G polymorphism and appetite reduction in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A sample of 213 children with ADHD was investigated. The primary outcome was appetite reduction measured by the Barkley Stimulant Side Effect Rating Scale applied at baseline, at 1 and 3 months of treatment. MPH doses were augmented until no further clinical improvement or significant adverse events occurred. The G allele presented a trend for association with appetite reduction scores (P=0.05). A significant interaction between the G allele and treatment over time for appetite reduction scores was also observed (P=0.03). The G allele carriers presented a higher risk for appetite reduction worsening when compared with T allele homozygotes (odds ratio=3.47, P=0.01). The present results suggest an influence of carboxylesterase 1 -75 T>G polymorphism on the worsening of appetite reduction with MPH treatment in youths with ADHD.

  14. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Alan Watkins; Jeffrey eKim

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endogenous endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converte...

  15. The endocannabinoid system: directing eating behavior and macronutrient metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Bruce A.; Kim, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the brain has been the primary focus for research on eating behavior. More recently, the discovery of the endocannabinoids (EC) and the endocannabinoid system (ECS), as well as the characterization of its actions on appetite and metabolism, has provided greater insight on the brain and food intake. The purpose of this review is to explain the actions of EC in the brain and other organs as well as their precursor polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are converted to these en...

  16. Driving Opposing Behaviors with Ensembles of Piriform Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Gloria B.; Stettler, Dan D.; Kallman, Benjamin R.; Bhaskar, Shakthi T.; Fleischmann, Alexander; Axel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Anatomic and physiologic studies have suggested a model in which neurons of the piriform cortex receive convergent input from random collections of glomeruli. In this model, odor representations can only be afforded behavioral significance upon experience. This property is consistent with the observation that the same odor can elicit appetitive or aversive responses dependent upon learning. We have devised an experimental strategy that permits us to ask whether the activation of an arbitraril...

  17. Ghrelin and the brain-gut axis as a pharmacological target for appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; El-Salhy, Magdy; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; Chopin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Appetite regulation is highly complex and involves a large number of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptide hormones. These are small, processed, secreted peptides derived from larger prepropeptide precursors. These peptides are important targets for the development of therapeutics for obesity, a global health epidemic. As a case study, we consider the ghrelin axis. The ghrelin axis is likely to be a particularly useful drug target, as it also plays a role in energy homeostasis, adipogenesis, insulin regulation and reward associated with food intake. Ghrelin is the only known circulating gut orexigenic peptide hormone. As it appears to play a role in diet-induced obesity, blocking the action of ghrelin is likely to be effective for treating and preventing obesity. The ghrelin peptide has been targeted using a number of approaches, with ghrelin mirror-image oligonucleotides (Spiegelmers) and immunotherapy showing some promise. The ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, may also provide a useful target and a number of antagonists and inverse agonists have been developed. A particularly promising new target is the enzyme which octanoylates ghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), and drugs that inhibit GOAT are likely to circumvent pharmacological issues associated with approaches that directly target ghrelin or its receptor.

  18. The ghrelin axis--does it have an appetite for cancer progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Lisa K; Seim, Inge; Walpole, Carina M; Herington, Adrian C

    2012-12-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is a peptide hormone with diverse physiological roles. Ghrelin regulates GH release, appetite and feeding, gut motility, and energy balance and also has roles in the cardiovascular, immune, and reproductive systems. Ghrelin and the GHSR are expressed in a wide range of normal and tumor tissues, and a fluorescein-labeled, truncated form of ghrelin is showing promise as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Plasma ghrelin levels are generally inversely related to body mass index and are unlikely to be useful as a biomarker for cancer, but may be useful as a marker for cancer cachexia. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ghrelin and GHSR genes have shown associations with cancer risk; however, larger studies are required. Ghrelin regulates processes associated with cancer, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration, cell invasion, inflammation, and angiogenesis; however, the role of ghrelin in cancer is currently unclear. Ghrelin has predominantly antiinflammatory effects and may play a role in protecting against cancer-related inflammation. Ghrelin and its analogs show promise as treatments for cancer-related cachexia. Further studies using in vivo models are required to determine whether ghrelin has a role in cancer progression.

  19. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  20. Reward signal in a recurrent circuit drives appetitive long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Abe, Ayako; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-11-17

    Dopamine signals reward in animal brains. A single presentation of a sugar reward to Drosophila activates distinct subsets of dopamine neurons that independently induce short- and long-term olfactory memories (STM and LTM, respectively). In this study, we show that a recurrent reward circuit underlies the formation and consolidation of LTM. This feedback circuit is composed of a single class of reward-signaling dopamine neurons (PAM-α1) projecting to a restricted region of the mushroom body (MB), and a specific MB output cell type, MBON-α1, whose dendrites arborize that same MB compartment. Both MBON-α1 and PAM-α1 neurons are required during the acquisition and consolidation of appetitive LTM. MBON-α1 additionally mediates the retrieval of LTM, which is dependent on the dopamine receptor signaling in the MB α/β neurons. Our results suggest that a reward signal transforms a nascent memory trace into a stable LTM using a feedback circuit at the cost of memory specificity.

  1. [Change of peripheral blood appetite regulation factor of anorexia children and infect of child anorexia granule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hui-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhong; Fang, Guo-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.

  2. The L-cell in nutritional sensing and the regulation of appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor eSpreckley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract senses the ingestion of food and responds by signalling to the brain to promote satiation and satiety. Representing an important part of the gut-brain axis, enteroendocrine Lcells secrete the anorectic peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY in response to the ingestion of food. The release of GLP-1 has multiple effects, including the secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells, decreased gastric emptying and increased satiation. PYY also slows gastrointestinal motility and reduces food intake. At least part of the gut-brain response seems to be due to direct sensing of macronutrients by L-cells, by mechanisms including specific nutrient-sensing receptors. Such receptors may represent possible pathways to target to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure. Designing drugs or functional foods to exploit the machinery of these nutrient-sensing mechanisms may offer a potential approach for agents to treat obesity and metabolic disease.

  3. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  4. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren’s anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkarimi Heba A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of treating dental caries on various aspects of children’s health. This study was conducted to assess the impact of dental treatment of severe dental caries on children’s weight, height and subjective health related outcomes, namely dental pain, satisfaction with teeth and smile, dental sepsis and child’s appetite. Methods The study was a community-based, randomized, controlled trial in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years with untreated dental caries. Participants were randomly assigned to early (test or regular (control dental treatment. The primary outcome was Weight-for-age Z-score. Secondary outcomes were Height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores, dental pain, dental sepsis, satisfaction with teeth and child’s appetite. Results 86 children were randomly assigned to test (42 children and control (44 groups. Mean duration of follow-up was 34.8 (±1.1 weeks. There were insignificant improvements in anthropometric outcomes between the groups after treatment of caries. However, treated children had significantly less pain experience (P = 0.006 (OR 0.09, [0.01-0.51] and higher satisfaction with teeth (P = 0.001 (OR 9.91, [2.68-36.51] compared to controls. Controls had significantly poorer appetites (P = 0.01 (OR 2.9, [1.24-6.82] compared to treated children. All treated children were free of clinical dental sepsis whereas 20% (9 of 44 of controls who were free of sepsis at baseline had sepsis at follow-up. Conclusions Although dental treatment did not significantly improve the anthropometric outcomes, it significantly improved the dental outcomes and children’s satisfaction with teeth, smile and appetite. This is the first study to provide evidence that treatment of severe dental caries can improve children’s appetite. Trial registration Effect of Dental Treatment on Children's Growth. Clinical Trial Gov ID# NCT01243866

  5. Comparison of the MK-801-induced appetitive extinction deficit with pressing for reward and associated pERK1/2 staining in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Matthew R; Westby, Erin P; Albert, Katrina

    2012-03-01

    Administration of the noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801) has been shown to produce extinction deficits on appetitive operant tasks. The present study sought to further explore this by comparing extinction pressing to pressing for the primary reward and examining associated neural correlates to determine if the MK-801 extinction profile resembled the behavioral and neural profile associated with pressing for primary reward. Immunohistochemical labeling of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2(pERK1/2) in the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) cortices and nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) was examined after rewarded or extinction lever pressing conditions. A dose-response curve revealed a within-day extinction deficit following administration of 0.05 mg/kg MK-801. All doses of MK-801 were associated with reduced IL pERK1/2 staining but only the 0.05 mg/kg dose was associated with elevated AcbSh pERK1/2 labeling. Extinction pressing under the influence of MK-801 was elevated compared to that seen during rewarded pressing-whether on MK-801 or saline. Rewarded pressing following saline or MK-801 was associated with elevated pERK1/2 in the PrL with no similar patterns in the MK-801/extinction group. There was more pERK1/2 labeling in the AcbSh of the MK-801 extinction group than any other condition. These data suggest that the MK-801-induced extinction deficit may be due to the combination of an underactive cortical behavioral inhibition system and an overactive AcbSh reward system.

  6. Acute Exercise and Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Anne Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In lean individuals, acute aerobic exercise is reported to transiently suppress sensations of appetite, suppress blood concentrations of acylated ghrelin (AG, and increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide-YY (PYY. Findings in overweight/obese individuals have yet to be synthesised. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we quantified the effects that acute exercise has on AG and total PYY and GLP-1 in overweight/obese individuals. The potential for body mass index (BMI to act as a moderator for AG was also explored. Six published studies (73 participants, 78% male, mean BMI: 30.6 kg·m−2 met the inclusion criteria. Standardised mean differences (SMDs and standard errors were extracted for AG and total PYY and GLP-1 concentrations in control and exercise trials and synthesised using a random effects meta-analysis model. BMI was the predictor in metaregression for AG. Exercise moderately suppressed AG area-under-the-curve concentrations (pooled SMD: −0.34, 95% CI: −0.53 to −0.15. The magnitude of this reduction was greater for higher mean BMIs (pooled metaregression slope: −0.04 SMD/kg·m−2 (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.00. Trivial SMDs were obtained for total PYY (0.10, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.31 and GLP-1 (−0.03, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.13. This indicates that exercise in overweight/obese individuals moderately alters AG in a direction that could be associated with decreased hunger and energy intake. This trial is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42014006265.

  7. Intertrial intervals and contextual conditioning in appetitive pavlovian learning: effects over the ABA renewal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Jasso, Rodrigo; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Nieto, Javier; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia

    2014-09-01

    Three experiments using rats in an appetitive conditioning procedure analyzed the effect of short and long (50s vs. 1440s) intertrial intervals (ITI) over the acquisition of conditioned stimulus (CS), context (Ctxt), and unconditioned stimulus (US) associations, as well as the effect on the extinction and renewal of the conditioned response to the CS. Experiment 1 revealed more contextual conditioned responses in groups trained with the short ITIs, however the renewal effect was not observed during test phase with either ITI condition. When subjects were pre-exposed to the contexts before the acquisition phase (Experiment 2) renewal of the conditioned response (CR) was only observed in long ITI group. However, when the acquisition context was extinguished (Experiment 3) the renewal effect observed in the Experiment 2 was weakened. In all three experiments subjects showed a similar number of responses to the tone predicting food, however they showed a clear contextual conditioning effect only for the groups trained with short ITIs. It is noteworthy that the acquisition context showed high levels of the CR in the renewal test only for groups trained with short ITIs (Experiment 2) but these responses were absent if additional contextual extinction was imposed before such test (Experiment 3). In general, all groups showed similar acquisition curves for the CS but only Short groups had an increase in the CR during the pre-CS. Also, context conditioning does not interfere with the conditioning of the CS and context pre-exposure prior to acquisition is essential in order to observe the renewal effect when long ITIs are used.

  8. Involvement of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and its interaction with haloperidol in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalha, Carla Christina; Mattioli, Rosana

    2007-05-17

    This study investigated the actions of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and memory, and its interaction with the dopaminergic system in goldfish. It consisted of nine sessions, in which fish were tested in a four-arm tank. On day 1, the animals were habituated for 10 min. On day 2, they were placed in one arm and had to find food at the left or the right arm. Time to begin feeding was recorded, and the procedure repeated for more 3 days (training phase). On training day 4, seven groups were injected with saline, seven with haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg) and one with DMSO solution before training and after feeding, three groups received saline, six chlorpheniramine (CPA) (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg), and six l-histidine (LH) (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg). Saline groups were considered as control of CPA and LH treated groups and DMSO as control of haloperidol. A non-injected group was also included. Testing occurred after 24 h. A reversal procedure was conducted 24h after testing and repeated for 3 days. The groups receiving CPA at 1.0 and 8.0 mg/kg and LH at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg differed between Test and Reversal day 1. Pre-treatment with haloperidol plus 8.0 mg/kg of CPA and 25 and 50 mg/kg of LH reverted the treatment effect. However, in the groups treated with 1.0 mg/kg of CPA and 100 mg/kg of LH, the difference remained. This study confirmed the interaction between the histaminergic and the dopaminergic systems on memory process in goldfish.

  9. mPGES-1 deletion impairs aldosterone escape and enhances sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhanjun; Aoyagi, Toshinori; Kohan, Donald E; Yang, Tianxin

    2010-07-01

    Aldosterone (Aldo) is a major sodium-retaining hormone that reduces renal sodium excretion and also stimulates sodium appetite. In the face of excess Aldo, the sodium-retaining action of this steroid is overridden by an adaptive regulatory mechanism, a phenomenon termed Aldo escape. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon is not well defined but appeared to involve a number of natriuretic factors such prostaglandins (PGs). Here, we investigated the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in the response to excess Aldo. A 14-day Aldo infusion at 0.35 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) via an osmotic minipump in conjunction with normal salt intake did not produce obvious disturbances in fluid metabolism in WT mice as suggested by normal sodium and water balance, plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit, and body weight, despite the evidence of a transient sodium accumulation on days 1 or 2. In a sharp contrast, the 14-day Aldo treatment in mPGES-1 knockoute (KO) mice led to increased sodium and water balance, persistent reduction of hematocrit, hypernatremia, and body weight gain, all evidence of fluid retention. The escaped wild-type (WT) mice displayed a remarkable increase in urinary PGE(2) excretion in parallel with coinduction of mPGES-1 in the proximal tubules, accompanied by a remarkable, widespread downregulation of renal sodium and water transporters. The increase in urinary PGE(2) excretion together with the downregulation of renal sodium and water transporters were all significantly blocked in the KO mice. Interestingly, compared with WT controls, the KO mice exhibited consistent increases in sodium and water intake during Aldo infusion. Together, these results suggest an important role of mPGES-1 in antagonizing the sodium-retaining action of Aldo at the levels of both the central nervous system and the kidney.

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  11. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success.

  12. Role of neuropeptides in appetite regulation and obesity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sarika; Anubhuti

    2006-12-01

    Obesity represents the most prevalent nutritional problem worldwide which in the long run predisposes to development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, endometrial carcinoma, osteoarthritis, gall stones and cardiovascular diseases. Despite significant reductions in dietary fat consumption, the prevalence of obesity is on a rise and is taking on pandemic proportions. Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. Recently, a close evolutionary relationship between the peripheral and hypothalamic neuropeptides has become apparent. The hypothalamus being the central feeding organ mediates regulation of short-term and long-term dietary intake via synthesis of various orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptides. The structure and function of many hypothalamic peptides (neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortins, agouti-related peptide (AGRP), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), orexins have been characterized in rodent models The peripheral neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY3-36), amylin, bombesin regulate important gastrointestinal functions such as motility, secretion, absorption, provide feedback to the central nervous system on availability of nutrients and may play a part in regulating food intake. The pharmacological potential of several endogenous peripheral peptides released prior to, during and/or after feeding are being explored. Long-term regulation is provided by the main circulating hormones leptin and insulin. These systems implicated in hypothalamic appetite regulation provide potential targets for treatment of obesity which could potentially pass into clinical development in the next 5 years. This review summarizes various effects and interrelationship of these central and peripheral neuropeptides in metabolism, obesity and their potential role as targets for treatment of obesity.

  13. Central lead administration inhibits water intake and sodium appetite in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. De-Castro-e-Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that acute third ventricle injections of lead acetate (PbAc exert a powerful antidipsogenic effect and induce a significant increase in renal sodium excretion. In the present study we confirm the antidipsogenic effect of lead and demonstrate that central administration of this metal, in minute amounts, significantly reduces salt intake both during dehydration and after central angiotensinergic stimulation. Adult male Wistar rats had the third ventricle cannulated seven days before the experiments. During this period they had free access to distilled water and hypertonic saline solution (1.5%. After a 24-h period of fluid deprivation, experimental animals received third ventricle injections of PbAc (0.3, N = 8 and 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 14 while controls received sodium acetate (NaAc; 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 10. Rats treated with PbAc at the highest dose showed a significant reduction (P<0.05 both in water and hypertonic saline intake when compared to controls. When the effect of lead administration on angiotensin II-induced water and salt intake was studied, normohydrated animals received third ventricle injections of angiotensin II (9.6 nmol/rat after pretreatment with 3.0 nmol/rat of PbAc (experimental group, N = 10 or NaAc (controls, N = 8. The group pretreated with PbAc presented a significant reduction (P<0.05 in both water and salt intake compared to controls. Thus, this study confirms the antidipsogenic effect of central lead injections and demonstrates that the presence of lead in the brain exerts a significant inhibition of sodium appetite.

  14. Changes in expression of appetite-regulating hormones in the cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) during short-term fasting and winter torpor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichuk, Nicole A; Volkoff, Hélène

    2013-08-15

    Feeding in vertebrates is controlled by a number of appetite stimulating (orexigenic, e.g., orexin and neuropeptide Y, NPY) and appetite suppressing (anorexigenic, e.g., cholecystokinin, CCK and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART) hormones. Cunners (Tautogolabrus adspersus) survive the winter in shallow coastal waters by entering a torpor-like state, during which they forgo feeding. In order to better understand the mechanisms regulating appetite/fasting in these fish, quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure transcript expression levels of four appetite-regulating hormones: NPY, CART, orexin and CCK in the forebrain (hypothalamus and telencephalon) and CCK in the gut of fed, short-term summer fasted, and natural winter torpor cunners. Summer fasting induced a decrease in hypothalamic orexin levels and telencephalon NPY, CART and CCK mRNA levels. All brain hormone mRNA levels decreased during natural torpor as compared to fed summer fish. In the gut, CCK expression levels decreased during summer fasting. These results indicate that, in cunner, orexin, NPY, CART and CCK may play a role in appetite regulation and might mediate different physiological responses to short-term summer fasting and torpor-induced long-term fasting.

  15. Comparison between the effect of 6 weeks of morning or evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Z; Younespour, S; Rajabian Tabesh, M; Haghravan, S

    2017-03-26

    Several studies have shown that exercise is directly related to creating negative energy balance and changes in appetite. However, few studies have examined the effect of exercise time during the day on these factors. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effect of 6 weeks of morning and evening aerobic exercise on appetite and anthropometric indices. A total of 48 overweight females were recruited to this clinical trial. By the time of exercise, they were divided into two groups (morning or evening) and performed 6 weeks of exercise with a target heart rate on the ventilatory threshold. Appetite change, calorie intake and anthropometric indices were assessed. Consistent changes in appetite scores were not found during the 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Calorie consumption of the morning group decreased significantly more than that of the evening group (P = 0.02) during the 6 weeks. In addition, significant changes in body weight, body mass index, abdominal skin fold thickness and abdominal circumference were seen in the morning group. It appears that moderate- to high-intensity aerobic exercise in the morning could be considered a more effective programme than evening exercise on appetite control, calorie intake and weight loss in inactive overweight women. However, the limitations of the study, such as short-term duration, should be noticed.

  16. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  17. Field Study of Dairy Cows with Reduced Appetite in Early Lactation: Clinical Examinations, Blood and Rumen Fluid Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 125 cows with reduced appetite and with clinical signs interpreted by the owner as indicating bovine ketosis 6 to 75 days postpartum. Almost all of the cows were given concentrates 2 to 3 times daily. With a practitioners view to treatment and prophylaxis the cows were divided into 5 diagnostic groups on the basis of thorough clinical examination, milk ketotest, decreased protozoal activity and concentrations, increased methylene blue reduction time, and increased liver parameters: ketosis (n = 32, indigestion (n = 26, combined ketosis and indigestion (n = 29, liver disease combined with ketosis, indigestion, or both (n = 15, and no specific diagnosis (n = 17. Three cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and 3 with abomasal displacement were not grouped. Nonparametric methods were used when groups were compared. Aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were elevated in the group with liver disease. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in cows with ketosis, compared with cows with indigestion. Activity and concentrations of large and small protozoas were reduced, and methylene blue reduction time was increased in cows with indigestion. The rumen fluid pH was the same for groups of cows with and without indigestion. Prolonged reduced appetite before examination could have led to misclassification. Without careful interpretation of the milk ketotest, many cases with additional diagnoses would have been reported as primary ketosis. Thorough clinical examination together with feasible rumen fluid examination and economically reasonable blood biochemistry did not uncover the reason(s for reduced appetite in 14% of the cows. More powerful diagnostic methods are needed.

  18. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  19. Frank A. Beach award. Homologies of animal and human sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical models of animal and human sexual behavior have evolved from two very different literatures, yet they contain many common behavioral components that may reflect the action of similar neuroendocrine and neurochemical systems. The study of animal sexual behavior has been largely concerned with mechanisms that underlie the pattern of consummatory behaviors observed during copulation, behaviors that tend to be highly stereotyped, sexually differentiated, and species-specific. There are important species differences in the behavioral topography, endocrine control, and neural substrates of consummatory behaviors, which tend to be extreme when comparing animals and humans. Although this has led to an increased interest in comparative animal behavior, it has also helped to foster a general perception that animals and humans are fundamentally different. In contrast to consummatory behaviors, appetitive behaviors (which serve to bring animals and humans into contact with sexual incentives) are more flexible, less sexually differentiated, and less species-specific and span a variety of situations other than sexual interactions. Appetitive behaviors are thus viewed as "sexually specific" when they are displayed under sexual circumstances and reinforced by sexual incentives. Interestingly, an appetitive/consummatory dichotomy has emerged in the human literature which distinguishes measures of sexual desire or arousal from "performance" measures of masturbation or copulation. In fact, sexual desire, which reflects fantasy and behavioral excitement, has been further differentiated from sexual arousal, which reflects genital blood flow. The present analysis attempts to pull together these seemingly disparate literatures into a coherent theoretical framework that emphasizes similarities and differences in the structure of sexual behavior across rats and humans.

  20. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    OpenAIRE

    Deighton, K; Zahra, JC; Stensel, DJ

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake ...

  1. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...... and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix...

  2. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p < 0.001; peak insulin level: 370.4 ± 66.5 vs. 109.6 ± 21.5 pmol/l; t(14) = 4.563, p < 0.001) followed by a sharp decline in glycaemia to a nadir of 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l (vs. 3.9 ± 0.1 mmol/l at the corresponding time in the control condition; t(14) = -3.972, p = 0.001) after stopping the infusion. Despite this wide glycemic fluctuation in the glucose infusion condition subjective feelings of hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  3. Social recipes for appetite: Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform to others. The research described in this dissertation aims to advance the understanding of the impact of one’s consumption behavior on young people’s food choice and intake. Social modeling studi...

  4. Anti-ghrelin antibodies in appetite suppression: recent advances in obesity pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altabas V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Velimir Altabas, Vanja Zjačić-Rotkvić Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, “Mladen Sekso”, Clinic for Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center “Sestre milosrdnice”, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: Obesity is a medical condition caused by accumulated excess body fat with negative impact on patients' health, including decreased life expectancy. It has become a major health problem in most developed and developing countries, since the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled during the last 30 years. Consequently, novel treatments focusing on obesity are being investigated. Potential targets include several pathophysiological mechanisms involved in appetite control affecting multiple organ systems, like adipose tissue; some cell types in the stomach and gut; pancreas; thyroid gland; several hypothalamic areas; and centers located in the brainstem. One of the most important orexigenic neuropeptides is ghrelin, which is produced and secreted primarily by ghrelin cells located in the stomach and duodenum. In humans, plasma ghrelin levels rise when the stomach is empty and fall shortly after meal ingestion. In fat tissue, ghrelin increases fat storage. In the brain, it exerts its orexigenic action through activation of NPY/AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus. From the pharmacological point of view, it seems that opposing ghrelin activity could be used as a therapeutic principle in treating obesity. The principal idea of antiobesity drugs is to augment anorexigenic and lipolytic signaling, or to block orexigenic and lipogenic mediators. Recent studies have shown that therapeutic vaccines could be a new approach in the development of antiobesity medications. A vaccine should provoke an immune response to a specific causal factor for a particular disease. Several types of anti-ghrelin vaccines have been developed so far, with significant immune response in terms of rising anti-ghrelin antibodies. However, in the

  5. Selective associations produced solely with appetitive contingencies: the stimulus-reinforcer interaction revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V; Schindler, C W

    1993-03-01

    which a reinforcer is presented, rather than (or as well as) its physical properties, can generate the selective associations previously attributed to "stimulus-reinforcer interactions." This could mean that regardless of the class of reinforcer that ultimately maintains responding (appetitive or aversive), the contingency-generated hedonic value of the compound stimulus may influence the dominant modality of stimulus control.

  6. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Eleanor; Smith, Stephen P; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs. Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management. Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test-retest reliability. Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test-retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food), four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken) and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health). Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation) and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise) were associated with obesity. Owners of

  7. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Different dietary fats are metabolized differently in humans and may influence energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, appetite regulation, and body weight regulation.Objective: We examined the short-term effects of 4 triacylglycerols (test fats) on subjective appetite, ad libitum en...... fat)] in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.Results: No significant differences in appetite sensations or ad libitum energy intakes were observed between the 4 test fats. Overall, the 4 fats exerted different effects on energy expenditure (meal effect: P...... energy intake, meal-induced thermogenesis, and postprandial substrate oxidation.Design: Eleven healthy, normal-weight men (mean age: 25.1 +/-0.5 y) consumed 4 different test fats [conventional fat (rapeseed oil) and 3 modified fats (lipase-structured fat, chemically structured fat, and physically mixed...

  8. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Rachel C; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Kennedy, David O; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-07-14

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  9. Social recipes for appetite: Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform

  10. A prospective cohort study of the effects of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy on taste function, food liking, appetite and associated nutritional outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boltong

    Full Text Available 'Taste' changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status.This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n = 52 prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined.Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05 but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01 but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001. Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r = 0.31; p = 0.008 as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r = 0.34; p = 0.002 and protein intake (r = 0.36; p = 0.001 early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p = <0.0005 over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea.The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education.

  11. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men.

  12. Inactivating the infralimbic but not prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex facilitates the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J; Sanio, C; Chaudhri, N

    2015-02-01

    The infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL) has been posited as a common node in distinct neural circuits that mediate the extinction of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, appetitive extinction is typically assessed using instrumental conditioning procedures, whereas the extinction of aversive conditioning is customarily studied using Pavlovian assays. The role of the IL in the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning remains underexplored. We investigated the involvement of the IL and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PrL) in appetitive extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning assays in male, Long-Evans rats. Following acquisition, a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist solution (0.03 nmol muscimol; 0.3 nmol baclofen; 0.3 μl/side) was bilaterally microinfused into the IL or PrL to pharmacologically inactivate each region before the first extinction session. Compared to saline, PrL inactivation did not affect the acquisition of extinction or the recall of extinction memory 24-h later. IL inactivation caused a more rapid extinction of Pavlovian conditioning, but had no effect on the extinction of instrumental conditioning or extinction recall. IL inactivation during a Pavlovian conditioning session in which conditioned stimulus (CS) trials were paired with sucrose did not affect CS-elicited behaviour, but increased responding during intervals that did not contain the CS. The same manipulation did not impact lever pressing for sucrose. These findings suggest that the IL may normally maintain Pavlovian conditioned responding when an anticipated appetitive CS is unexpectedly withheld, and that this region has distinct roles in the expression of Pavlovian conditioning when an appetitive unconditioned stimulus is either presented or omitted.

  13. Regulación del peso corporal y del apetito Body Weight and Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Vásquez-Machado

    2010-06-01

    capacidad reguladora del sistema de balance energético. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos reguladores del peso corporal y el apetito, los cuales han ampliado la visión de la fisiopatología de la obesidad, al tiempo que ofrecen diversas perspectivas para su tratamiento.Due to the fact that the obesity epidemic shows no signs of diminishing, a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has become necessary. During this process energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time, in such a way that body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant despite daily fluctuations in caloric intake. The system that controls energy balance possesses 2 components: a short and a long-term. The short-term system is in charge of appetite regulation or the initiation and termination of individual meals. It responds basically to gut hormones or satiety signals that accumulate during eating and ultimately contribute to meal termination. Adiposity factors are circulating signals generated in proportion to the body energy storages, such as insulin and leptin, levels of which are involved in the regulation of energy balance over long intervals thereby promoting body weight stability. The central melanocortin pathway represents a crucial integration point for these signals. Melanocortin receptor ligands are synthesized by discrete neuronal populations within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and exert actions in both components of the energy balance equation. In addition to hormones, the brain also responds directly to the nutrient circulating levels. Two fuel-sensing protein kinases functioning as main regulators of body weight and food intake in the hypothalamus have been identified: mTOR and AMPK. Besides these basic homeostatic circuits, the hedonic mechanisms of feeding are important in the regulation of energy intake since they can override the energy balance

  14. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  15. A chronic high fat diet alters the homologous and heterologous control of appetite regulating peptide receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Stephen J; Wittert, Gary A; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Page, Amanda J

    2013-08-01

    Leptin, ghrelin and neuropeptide W (NPW) modulate vagal afferent activity, which may underlie their appetite regulatory actions. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity induces changes in the plasma levels of these peptides and alters the expression of receptors on vagal afferents. We investigated homologous and heterologous receptor regulation by leptin, ghrelin and NPW. Mice were fed (12 weeks) a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD. Nodose ganglia were cultured overnight in the presence or absence of each peptide. Leptin (LepR), ghrelin (GHS-R), NPW (GPR7) and cholecystokinin type-1 (CCK1R) receptor mRNA, and the plasma leptin, ghrelin and NPW levels were measured. SLD: leptin reduced LepR, GPR7, increased GHS-R and CCK1R mRNA; ghrelin increased LepR, GPR7, CCK1R, and decreased GHS-R. HFD: leptin decreased GHS-R and GPR7, ghrelin increased GHS-R and GPR7. NPW decreased all receptors except GPR7 which increased with HFD. Plasma leptin was higher and NPW lower in HFD. Thus, HFD-induced obesity disrupts inter-regulation of appetite regulatory receptors in vagal afferents.

  16. Dynamics of appetite-mediated gene expression in daidzein-fed female rats in the meal-feeding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Mina; Mizushige, Takafumi; Bhattarai, Keshab; Iwahara, Asami; Aida, Ryojiro; Segawa, Tomomi; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that daidzein decreased food intake in female rats. The present study aimed to elucidate the relationship between dynamics of appetite-mediated neuropeptides and the anorectic effect of daidzein. We examined appetite-mediated gene expression in the hypothalamus and small intestine during the 3 meals per day feeding method. Daidzein had an anorectic effect specifically at the second feeding. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and galanin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly higher after feeding in the control but not in the daidzein group, suggesting that daidzein attenuated the postprandial increase in NPY and galanin expression. The daidzein group had higher corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus after feeding, and increased cholelcystokinin (CCK) mRNA levels in the small intestine, suggesting that CCK is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of this anorectic effect. Therefore, daidzein may induce anorexia by suppressing expression of NPY and galanin and increasing expression of CRH in the hypothalamus.

  17. The medial orbitofrontal cortex encodes a general unsigned value signal during anticipation of both appetitive and aversive events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metereau, Elise; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been proposed to signal the expected value of rewards when learning stimuli-rewards associations. Yet, it is still unclear whether identical or distinct orbitofrontal cortex regions encode expected rewards and punishments at the time of the cue during appetitive and aversive classical conditioning. Moreover, it is unknown whether anticipation of different types of positive and negative reinforcers differentially influence specific orbitofrontal cortex regions. To answer these questions, this study investigated whether the human mOFC/vmPFC region encodes a general unsigned anticipatory value signal for different types of rewards and punishments (responding in a positive fashion in anticipation of both appetitive and aversive events) or a signed expected value signal (responding positively in anticipation of rewards and negatively in anticipation of punishments) when learning cue-outcomes associations. Using a model-based fMRI approach implementing a reinforcement learning model to compute the expected values of two types of rewards (pleasant juice, monetary gain) and two types of punishments (aversive juice, aversive picture), we found that mOFC/vmPFC activity correlated positively with the expected value of the cues, in anticipation of both rewards and punishments. This finding indicates that the mOFC/vmPFC encodes a general unsigned anticipatory value signal, regardless of reinforcers valence (positive/negative) and types (gustatory, visual).

  18. Influence of hippophae rhamnoides on two appetite factors, gastric emptying and metabolic parameters, in children with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mantian; Qiu, Xiaoshan; Yue, Dianchao; Cai, Yongyi; Mo, Qingping

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore in children with functional dyspepsia the effect of hippophae rhamnoides on the levels of plasma appetite factors and on their gastrointestinal motility. A hundred and twenty children with functional dyspepsia were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (treated with hippophae rhamnoides), Group II (treated with domperidone), and Group III (treated with hippophae rhamnoides plus domperidone). The treatment lasted for eight weeks. The levels of plasma leptin (LP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured before and after treatment. All patients underwent a gastric emptying (GE) test by ultrasound (US) to measure the rate of postprandial gastric antrum residual, at 30min, 60min, 90min and 120min. The average value of subcutaneous fat, body fat percentage, upper arm girth and body mass index (BMI) were also measured. To compare the US with the radionuclide GE test 14 healthy adults volunteers were tested by both GE techniques. We found that the levels of LP and NPY in plasma were markedly higher after treatment in Groups I and III than in Group II. The postprandial gastric antrum remains at 60min, 90min and 120min in Groups I and III fell greatly and the thickness of skin fold (SF), body fat percentage and arm girth increased (P0.05). In conclusion, in children's functional dyspepsia, our study showed that hippophae rhamnoides increases the levels of appetite factors, leptin and neuropeptide Y, increases gastric emptying and gastrointestinal digestive function, children's growth and development.

  19. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika

    2011-01-01

    types and amounts of DF exert are still poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of wheat and oat brans alone and as combination in semisolid food matrix on postprandial appetite profile and gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal responses. Twenty healthy, normal-weight subjects (5...... including 5 g wheat bran DF + 5 g oat bran DF. Blood samples were drawn before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after the test meals to determine plasma glucose, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and serum insulin concentrations. Subjective profiles of appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS...

  20. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    ) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained......, but the relationship is disrupted in the overweight and obese. We conclude that the postprandial insulin response may be an important satiety signal, and that central nervous system insulin resistance in overweight might explain the blunted effect on appetite....

  1. Driving opposing behaviors with ensembles of piriform neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gloria B; Stettler, Dan D; Kallman, Benjamin R; Bhaskar, Shakthi T; Fleischmann, Alexander; Axel, Richard

    2011-09-16

    Anatomic and physiologic studies have suggested a model in which neurons of the piriform cortex receive convergent input from random collections of glomeruli. In this model, odor representations can only be afforded behavioral significance upon experience. We have devised an experimental strategy that permits us to ask whether the activation of an arbitrarily chosen subpopulation of neurons in piriform cortex can elicit different behavioral responses dependent upon learning. Activation of a small subpopulation of piriform neurons expressing channelrhodopsin at multiple loci in the piriform cortex, when paired with reward or shock, elicits either appetitive or aversive behavior. Moreover, we demonstrate that different subpopulations of piriform neurons expressing ChR2 can be discriminated and independently entrained to elicit distinct behaviors. These observations demonstrate that the piriform cortex is sufficient to elicit learned behavioral outputs in the absence of sensory input. These data imply that the piriform does not use spatial order to map odorant identity or behavioral output.

  2. Conditioning and sexual behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, J G; Kippin, T E; Centeno, S

    2001-09-01

    Sexual behavior is directed by a sophisticated interplay between steroid hormone actions in the brain that give rise to sexual arousability and experience with sexual reward that gives rise to expectations of competent sexual activity, sexual desire, arousal, and performance. Sexual experience allows animals to form instrumental associations between internal or external stimuli and behaviors that lead to different sexual rewards. Furthermore, Pavlovian associations between internal and external stimuli allow animals to predict sexual outcomes. These two types of learning build upon instinctual mechanisms to create distinctive, and seemingly "automated," patterns of sexual response. This article reviews the literature on conditioning and sexual behavior with a particular emphasis on incentive sequences of sexual behavior that move animals from distal to proximal with regard to sexual stimuli during appetitive phases of behavior and ultimately result in copulatory interaction and mating during consummatory phases of behavior. Accordingly, the role of learning in sexual excitement, in behaviors that bring about the opportunity to mate, in courtship and solicitation displays, in sexual arousal and copulatory behaviors, in sexual partner preferences, and the short- and long-term influence of copulatory experience on sexual and reproductive function is examined. Although hormone actions set the stage for sexual activity by generating the ability of animals to become sexually excited and aroused, it is each animal's unique experience with sexual behavior and sexual reward that molds the strength of responses made toward sexual incentives.

  3. Effects of twelve weeks of capsaicinoid supplementation on body composition, appetite and self-reported caloric intake in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Stacie L; Roberts, Michael D; Kephart, Wesley C; Villa, Katelyn B; Santos, Emily N; Olivencia, Alyssa M; Bennett, Haley M; Lara, Marissa D; Foster, Cliffa A; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf; Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D

    2017-02-21

    We examined if 12 weeks of capsaicinoid (CAP) supplementation affected appetite, body composition and metabolic health markers. Seventy seven healthy male and female volunteers (30 ± 1 y, 171.2 ± 9.8 cm, 81.0 ± 2.2 kg, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to ingest either low-dose CAP (2 mg/d; L-CAP, n = 27), high-dose CAP (4 mg/d; H-CAP, n = 22) from Capsimax or placebo (corn starch; PLA, n = 28) for 12 weeks. At baseline (0 WK), 6 weeks (6 WK) and 12 weeks (12 WK) waist: hip ratio, body composition via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, 0 WK and 12 WK only), self-reported Calorie intakes, appetite levels via Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and serum metabolic health markers (0 WK and 12 WK only) were analyzed. Moreover, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered at 0 WK and 12 WK, and serum glucose and insulin responses were examined 30-120 min post test-drink consumption. Waist: hip ratio significantly decreased in L-CAP from 0 WK to 6 WK (p decreases in serum HDL cholesterol levels from WK0 to WK12. However, supplementation did not affect the insulin response to the administered OGTT and/or other indices of insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that H-CAP supplementation reduces self-reported energy intake after 12 weeks of supplementation, and L-CAP supplementation also reduces waist: hip ratio. Longer-term effects of capsaicinoid supplementation on basal insulin and cholesterol levels warrant further investigation.

  4. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  5. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  6. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p  0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance over longer periods of time warrant further investigation.

  7. Participation of ghrelin signalling in the reciprocal regulation of hypothalamic NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ching-Han; Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2017-02-14

    Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have been documented to participate in amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression. This study investigated whether ghrelin signalling is associated with changes in NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control. Rats were given AMPH daily for four days, and changes in food intake, body weight, plasma ghrelin, hypothalamic NPY, melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), acyl ghrelin (AG) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a) were examined and compared. Food intake, body weight and NPY expression decreased, while MC3R expression increased and expressed reciprocally to NPY expression during AMPH treatment. Plasma ghrelin and hypothalamic AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression decreased on Day 1 and Day 2, which was associated with the positive energy metabolism, and returned to normal levels on Day 3 and Day 4, which was associated with the negative energy metabolism; this expression pattern was similar to that of NPY. Infusion with a GHSR1a antagonist or an NPY antisense into the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and AG/GOAT/GHSR1a expression and the increase in MC3R expression compared to the AMPH-treated group. Peripheral ghrelin and the central ghrelin system participated in the regulation in AMPH-induced appetite control. These results shed light on the involvement of ghrelin signalling in reciprocal regulation of NPY/POMC-mediated appetite control and may prove useful for the development of anti-obesity drugs.

  8. Quantification of appetite suppressing steroid glycosides from Hoodia gordonii in dried plant material, purified extracts and food products using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.-G.; Swindells, C.; Gunning, P.; Wang, W.; Grün, C.; Mahabir, K.; Maharaj, V.J.; Apps, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV and HPLC-Mass Spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for the quantitative analysis of the family of Hoodia gordonii steroid glycosides with appetite suppressing properties in dried plant material, in purified and enriched extracts and in various pro

  9. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Veasey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05. In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR. Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h, immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40, though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37 and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038. Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43. These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  10. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  11. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Enette Larson-Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p<0.05 postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  12. Effects of concentrated arabinoxylan and β-glucan compared with refined wheat and whole grain rye on glucose and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Gregersen, S; Lærke, H N;

    2014-01-01

    grain on glucose, hormone responses and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over intervention study. The test breads provided 50 g of digestible carbohydrate: wheat bread with concentrated...

  13. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  14. Ghrelin receptor regulates appetite and satiety during aging in mice by regulating meal frequency and portion size but not total food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is often associated with overweight and obesity. There exists a long-standing debate about whether meal pattern also contributes to the development of obesity. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin regulates appetite and satiety by activating its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R)...

  15. Meatballs with 3% and 6% dietary fibre from rye bran or pea fibre - effects on sensory quality and subjective appetite sensations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Pagter, Mette; Aaslyng, Margit D.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated dose-response effects of rye bran and pea fibre added to meatballs on sensory quality and subjective appetite sensations. Pea fibre or rye bran was added to meatballs in doses ranging from 3 g to 6 g dietary fibre per 100 g. In a sensory profile, a trained panel (n=9) eval...

  16. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-11-02

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory.

  17. Stress and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Y H C; Potenza, M N

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous construct that, despite multiple and diverse attempts, has been difficult to treat. One conceptualization gaining media and research attention in recent years is that foods, particularly hyperpalatable (e.g., high-fat, high sugar) ones, may possess addictive qualities. Stress is an important factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse, and may contribute to an increased risk for obesity and other metabolic diseases. Uncontrollable stress changes eating patterns and the salience and consumption of hyperpalatable foods; over time, this could lead to changes in allostatic load and trigger neurobiological adaptations that promote increasingly compulsive behavior. This association may be mediated by alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other appetite-related hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides. At a neurocircuitry level, chronic stress may affect the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and other brain regions involved in stress/motivation circuits. Together, these may synergistically potentiate reward sensitivity, food preference, and the wanting and seeking of hyperpalatable foods, as well as induce metabolic changes that promote weight and body fat mass. Individual differences in susceptibility to obesity and types of stressors may further moderate this process. Understanding the associations and interactions between stress, neurobiological adaptations, and obesity is important in the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for obesity and related metabolic diseases.

  18. Changes in appetite hormone (ghrelin) levels of saliva and serum in acute appendicitis cases before and after operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Ziya; Aydin, Suleyman; Cerrahoglu, Yusuf Z; Ayten, Refik; Erman, Fazilet; Aygen, Erhan

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to measure the levels of serum and saliva ghrelin concentrations before and after surgery in an attempt to clarify whether this hormone plays any significant roles in acute appendicitis and cholelithiasis patients when compared with healthy controls. Samples were obtained from 20 patients with appendicitis, 10 patients with cholelithiasis before and after operation, and 16 healthy controls. The levels of ghrelin (acylated) were measured by means of a RIA assay. The results revealed that preoperative levels of ghrelin in saliva and serum were significantly decreased with respect to post-op in patients undergoing appendectomy, and control levels. This was also the case when the preoperative ghrelin concentrations in patients with appendicitis were compared with those having choelithiasis. Taken together, decreased ghrelin concentration in preoperative appendicitis might be a causative factor for the "loss of appetite" observed in an acute inflammatory condition such as acute appendicitis. However, further studies are necessary to reveal the exact mechanisms behind this observation.

  19. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, and decreased late postprandial secretion of ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Dietary thylakoids may be a novel agent in reducing the glycaemic responses to high carbohydrate and high glycaemic index foods. Thylakoids may in the future be promising for treatment and prevention of diabetes, overweight and obesity....

  20. The feedback-related negativity reflects ‘more or less’ prediction error in appetitive and aversive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans make predictions and use feedback to update their subsequent predictions. The feedback-related negativity (FRN has been found to be sensitive to negative feedback as well as negative prediction error, such that the FRN is larger for outcomes that are worse than expected. The present study examined prediction errors in both appetitive and aversive conditions. We found that the FRN was more negative for reward omission versus wins and for loss omission versus losses, suggesting that the FRN might classify outcomes in a more-or-less than expected fashion rather than in the better-or-worse than expected dimension. Our findings challenge the previous notion that the FRN only encodes negative feedback and ‘worse than expected’ negative prediction error.

  1. Fish oil supplementation is beneficial on caloric intake, appetite and mid upper arm muscle circumference in children with leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Zaid, Zalina; Shahar, Suzana; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Noor Aini

    2012-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (pappetite level (0.12±0.33) (pappetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia.

  2. Thermic effect of a meal and appetite in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis of meal-test trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ravn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermic effect of a meal (TEF has previously been suggested to influence appetite. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether there is an association between appetite and TEF. Second, to examine whether protein intake is associated with TEF or appetite. Design: Individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis on studies were performed at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Five randomized meal-test studies, with 111 participants, were included. The included studies measured energy expenditure (EE in respiration chambers and pre- and postprandial appetite sensations using Visual Analog Scales (VAS. The primary meta-analysis was based on a generic-inverse variance random-effects model, pooling individual study Spearman's correlation coefficients, resulting in a combined r-value with 95% confidence interval (95% CI. The I2 value quantifies the proportion (% of the variation in point estimates due to among-study differences. Results: The IPD meta-analysis found no association between satiety and TEF expressed as the incremental area under the curve (TEFiAUC (r=0.06 [95% CI −0.16 to 0.28], P=0.58; I2=15.8%. Similarly, Composite Appetite Score (CAS was not associated with TEFiAUC (r=0.08 [95% CI −0.12 to 0.28], P = 0.45; I2=0%. Posthoc analyses showed no association between satiety or CAS and TEF expressed as a percentage of energy intake (EI (P>0.49 or TEF expressed as a percentage of baseline EE (P>0.17. When adjusting for covariates, TEFiAUC was associated with protein intake (P=0.0085. Conclusions: This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence supporting an association between satiety or CAS and TEF at protein intakes ∼15 E% (range 11–30 E%.

  3. The effect of beverages varying in glycaemic load on postprandial glucose responses, appetite and cognition in 10-12-year-old school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Baird, Danielle; Slater, Amy; Danthiir, Vanessa; Wilson, Carlene; Bowen, Jane; Noakes, Manny

    2013-08-28

    Reducing glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) inconsistently improves aspects of cognitive function and appetite in children. Whether altering the GL by lowering carbohydrate relative to protein and fat has a role in these effects is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the differential effects of beverages varying in GL and dairy composition on appetite, energy intake and cognitive function in children. A total of forty children (10–12 years) completed a double-blind, randomised, crossover trial, receiving three isoenergetic drinks (approximately 1100 kJ): a glucose beverage (GI 100, GL 65), a full milk beverage (GI 27, GL 5) and a half milk/glucose beverage (GI 84, GL 35). For 3 h post-consumption, subjective appetite and cognitive performance (speed of processing, memory, attention and perceptual speed) were measured hourly. At completion, each child was provided a buffet-style lunch and energy intake was calculated. Blood glucose was objectively measured using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Blood glucose AUC values were significantly different between the drinks (P,0·001), but did not sustain above the baseline for 3 h for any drink. Mixed modelling revealed no effect of beverage on subjective appetite or energy intake. Participant sex and drink GL significantly interacted for short-term memory (P,0·001). When girls consumed either milk-containing beverage, they recalled 0·7–0·8 more words compared with 0·5 less words after the glucose drink (P#0·014). Altering GL of drinks by reducing carbohydrate and increasing protein did not affect appetite or cognition in children. Girls may demonstrate improved short-term memory after consuming beverages with higher protein and lower GL.

  4. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins: Reliability and Association With Subsequent Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løkkegaard, Laura E.; Larsen, Lisbeth A.; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We aimed to investigate the association between self-reported lifestyle factors and subsequent survival in 347 Danish twin pairs aged 70 years and older and, additionally, to investigate the reliability of these self-reports. The twins were interviewed in 2003 and followed for mortality until 2015. They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa values for the inter-twin agreement on who ate the most were 0.16 to 0.34 in different life stages, and for physical activity 0.19 to 0.26, corresponding to a slight-to-fair agreement. Approximately, 50% of the twin pairs were not in agreement regarding physical activity, and of these twins 75% (95% CI: 67–82%) considered themselves the most active twin. These findings indicate a still-existing tendency of answering according to social norms, even in a twin study designed to minimize this. PMID:27485765

  5. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. M. Wijlens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2 participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1 oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF for 1 or 8 min; and (2 energy content of gastric load (GL by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001. All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.002; fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02. In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  6. Effect of alginate on satiation, appetite, gastric function, and selected gut satiety hormones in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T; Vázquez-Roque, María I; Camilleri, Michael; Papathanasopoulos, Athanasios; Clark, Matthew M; Wodrich, Lynne; Lempke, Mary; McKinzie, Sanna; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2010-08-01

    Lack of control of food intake, excess size, and frequency of meals are critical to the development of obesity. The stomach signals satiation postprandially and may play an important role in control of calorie intake. Sodium alginate (based on brown seaweed Laminaria digitata) is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, but its effects on gastric motor functions and satiation are unknown. We evaluated effects of 10 days treatment with alginate or placebo on gastric functions, satiation, appetite, and gut hormones associated with satiety in overweight or obese adults. We conducted a randomized, 1:1, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study in 48 overweight or obese participants with excluded psychiatric comorbidity and binge eating disorder. All underwent measurements of gastric emptying (GE), fasting, and postprandial gastric volumes (GVs), postprandial satiation, calorie intake at a free choice meal and selected gut hormones after 1 week of alginate (three capsules vs. matching placebo per day, ingested 30 min before the main meal). Six capsules were ingested with water 30 min before the GE, GV, and satiation tests on days 8-10. There were no treatment group effects on GE or volumes, gut hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY)), satiation, total and macronutrient calorie intake at a free choice meal. There was no difference detected in results between obese and overweight patients. Alginate treatment for a period of 10 days showed no effect on gastric motor functions, satiation, appetite, or gut hormones. These results question the use of short-term alginate treatment for weight loss.

  7. CD146 deletion in the nervous system impairs appetite, locomotor activity and spatial learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Tao; Gao, Qian; Luo, Yongting; Chen, Jianan; Lu, Di; Feng, Jing; Yang, Dongling; Song, Lina; Yan, Xiyun

    2013-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are crucial effectors for the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Mutations in human CAM genes are linked to brain disorders and psychological diseases, and CAM knockout mice always exhibit similar behavioral abnormalities. CD146 is a CAM of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with Neurite Outgrowth Factor and involved in neurite extension in vitro. However, little is known about its in vivo function in the nervous system. In this study, we used a murine CD146 nervous system knockout (CD146(ns-ko)) model. We found that the brains of some CD146(ns-ko) mice were malformed with small olfactory bulbs. CD146(ns-ko) mice exhibited lower body weights and smaller food intake when compared with wild type littermates. Importantly, behavior tests revealed that CD146(ns-ko) mice exhibited significant decreased locomotor activity and impaired capacity for spatial learning and memory. Our results demonstrate that CD146 is important for mammalian nervous system development and proper behavior patterns.

  8. "Sexy stimulants": the interaction between psychomotor stimulants and sexual behavior in the female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently.

  9. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  10. A lack of appetite for information and computation. Simple heuristics in food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Sohn, Matthias; de Bellis, Emanuel; Martin, Nathalie; Hertwig, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    The predominant, but largely untested, assumption in research on food choice is that people obey the classic commandments of rational behavior: they carefully look up every piece of relevant information, weight each piece according to subjective importance, and then combine them into a judgment or choice. In real world situations, however, the available time, motivation, and computational resources may simply not suffice to keep these commandments. Indeed, there is a large body of research suggesting that human choice is often better accommodated by heuristics-simple rules that enable decision making on the basis of a few, but important, pieces of information. We investigated the prevalence of such heuristics in a computerized experiment that engaged participants in a series of choices between two lunch dishes. Employing MouselabWeb, a process-tracing technique, we found that simple heuristics described an overwhelmingly large proportion of choices, whereas strategies traditionally deemed rational were barely apparent in our data. Replicating previous findings, we also observed that visual stimulus segments received a much larger proportion of attention than any nutritional values did. Our results suggest that, consistent with human behavior in other domains, people make their food choices on the basis of simple and informationally frugal heuristics.

  11. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  12. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months....... No difference in body weight, energy intake or appetite ratings were observed between diets. Both the LF and MUFA diets compared to CTR diet reduced postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia and lowered fasting insulin from month 0 to month 6. Following the 8-week LED period lower levels of the appetite...... regulating peptides, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2, along with increased appetite scores were seen in comparison to measurements performed after the 6-month dietary intervention. In conclusion, the two competing diets, MUFA and LF, were equally good...

  13. Parallel encoding of sensory history and behavioral preference during Caenorhabditis elegans olfactory learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Christine E; Brueggemann, Chantal; L'Etoile, Noelle D; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2016-01-01

    Sensory experience modifies behavior through both associative and non-associative learning. In Caenorhabditis elegans, pairing odor with food deprivation results in aversive olfactory learning, and pairing odor with food results in appetitive learning. Aversive learning requires nuclear translocation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase EGL-4 in AWC olfactory neurons and an insulin signal from AIA interneurons. Here we show that the activity of neurons including AIA is acutely required during aversive, but not appetitive, learning. The AIA circuit and AGE-1, an insulin-regulated PI3 kinase, signal to AWC to drive nuclear enrichment of EGL-4 during conditioning. Odor exposure shifts the AWC dynamic range to higher odor concentrations regardless of food pairing or the AIA circuit, whereas AWC coupling to motor circuits is oppositely regulated by aversive and appetitive learning. These results suggest that non-associative sensory adaptation in AWC encodes odor history, while associative behavioral preference is encoded by altered AWC synaptic activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14000.001 PMID:27383131

  14. Behavioral effects of subchronic inhalation of toluene in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Gilbert, Mary E; Bushnell, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    Whereas the acute neurobehavioral effects of toluene are robust and well characterized, evidence for persistent effects of repeated exposure to this industrial solvent is less compelling. The present experiment sought to determine whether subchronic inhalation of toluene caused persistent behavioral changes in rats. Adult male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene vapor (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) for 6h/day, 5 days/week for 13 weeks and were evaluated on a series of behavioral tests beginning 3 days after the end of exposure. Toluene delayed appetitively-motivated acquisition of a lever-press response, but did not affect motor activity, anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze, trace fear conditioning, acquisition of an appetitively-motivated visual discrimination, or performance of a visual signal detection task. Challenges with acute inhalation of toluene vapor (1200-2400 ppm for 1 h) and injections of quinpirole (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.03-0.10 mg/kg) revealed no toluene-induced latent impairments in visual signal detection. These results are consistent with a pattern of subtle and inconsistent long-term effects of daily exposure to toluene vapor, in contrast to robust and reliable effects of acute inhalation of the solvent.

  15. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.

  16. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig

    OpenAIRE

    Bidanel, Jean Pierre; Billon, Yvon; Lagant, Herve; Guillouet, Philippe; Sellier, Pierre; NOBLET, Jean; Hermesch,

    2012-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for so...

  17. 胰高血糖素样肽-1与下丘脑食欲调节%Glucagon-like peptide-1 and appetite regulation in the hypothalamus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶; 郗光霞

    2012-01-01

    Hypothalamus is the center of neuroendocrine and appetite-regulation.Glucagons-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin which is expressed in the hypothalamus,and regulates the appetite center.GLP-1 is considered as an anorexia-peptide and reduces food intake via negative feedback signal within the hypothalamus.The important pathways of controlling appetite are corticotrophin-releasing hormone ( CRH ),histamine,neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein ( NPY/AgRP),pro-opiomelanocortin/cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (POMC/CART) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).Research on the mechanism of GLP-1 appetite-regulation may provide evidences on the treatment and prevention of obesity,insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.%下丘脑是神经内分泌中枢,也是食欲调节中枢.胰高血糖素样肽-1(GLP-1)是一种胃肠道激素,能够在下丘脑表达并对食欲中枢有调节作用.GLP-1作为一种厌食信号肽,通过促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(CRH)通路、组胺神经元通路、神经肽和刺鼠相关蛋白(NPY/AgRP)以及前阿片黑皮质素原和可卡因-苯丙胺调节转录肽(POMC/CART)通路及AMP活化蛋白激酶(AMPK)介导的摄食负反馈信号通路参与调节摄食活动.针对GLP-1调节摄食作用机制的研究对肥胖、胰岛素抵抗和2型糖尿病的防治有重要的理论意义.

  18. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  19. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriks Henk FJ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8 secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 μM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day. CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

  20. Effects of Two Dietary Fibers as Part of Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC Breakfasts on Perceived Appetite and Gut Hormones in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Lafond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an enzyme-hydrolyzed arabinoxylan from wheat (AXOS versus an intact arabinoxylan from flax (FLAX added to a ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC on the postprandial appetitive, hormonal, and metabolic responses in overweight women (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 were evaluated. Subsequent meal energy intake was also assessed. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover design studies were completed. For trial 1, the participants consumed the following RTEC breakfast, matched for total weight and varied in energy content: low-fiber (LF, 4 g; high-fiber (HF, 15 g as either AXOS or FLAX. For trial 2, the participants consumed LF, HF-AXOS, and HF-FLAX RTECs but also consumed another LF breakfast that was isocaloric (LF-iso to that of the HF breakfasts. Perceived appetite and blood samples (trial 2 only were assessed before and after breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was offered 4 h post-breakfast. No differences in postprandial appetite responses were observed among any breakfasts in either trial. The HF-AXOS and HF-FLAX led to increased postprandial GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY concentrations vs. LF-iso. No differences were observed in lunch meal energy intake among breakfast meals in either trial. Collectively, these data suggest that 15 g of low molecular weight fiber added to RTECs did not affect perceived appetite or subsequent energy intake despite differences in satiety hormone signaling in overweight females.

  1. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Møller, P.; Smeets, A.

    2009-01-01

    the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...... ingredients may therefore be helpful in reducing energy intake and might support weight loss periods by relatively sustaining satiety and suppressing hunger....

  2. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  3. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.

  4. Glycemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomized Control Trial in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Gonzalez-Anton; Rico, Maria C.; Estefania Sanchez-Rodriguez; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D.; Angel Gil; Maria D. Mesa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulinemic index (InI), appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-...

  5. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

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    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance.

  6. Transient inactivation of the pigeon hippocampus or the nidopallium caudolaterale during extinction learning impairs extinction retrieval in an appetitive conditioning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengersdorf, Daniel; Stüttgen, Maik C; Uengoer, Metin; Güntürkün, Onur

    2014-05-15

    The majority of experiments exploring context-dependent extinction learning employ Pavlovian fear conditioning in rodents. Since mechanisms of appetitive and aversive learning are known to differ at the neuronal level, we sought to investigate extinction learning in an appetitive setting. Working with pigeons, we established a within-subject ABA renewal paradigm based on Rescorla (Q J Exp Psychol 61:1793) and combined it with pharmacological interventions during extinction. From the fear conditioning literature, it is known that both prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus are core structures for context-specific extinction learning. Accordingly, we transiently inactivated the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL, a functional analogue of mammalian prefrontal cortex) and the hippocampus in separate experiments by intracranial infusion of the sodium-channel blocker tetrodotoxin immediately before extinction training. We find that TTX in both structures non-specifically suppresses conditioned responding, as revealed by a reduction of response rate to both the extinguished conditioned stimulus and a control stimulus which remained reinforced throughout the experiment. Furthermore, TTX during extinction training impaired later extinction retrieval assessed under drug-free conditions. This was true when responding to the extinguished stimulus was assessed in the context of extinction but not when tested in the context of acquisition, although both contexts were matched with respect to their history of conditioning. These results indicate that both NCL and hippocampus are involved in extinction learning under appetitive conditions or, more specifically, in the consolidation of extinction memory, and that their contribution to extinction is context-specific.

  7. Effects of the Non-Nutritive Sweeteners on Glucose Metabolism and Appetite Regulating Hormones: Systematic Review of Observational Prospective Studies and Clinical Trials

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    Romo-Romo, Alonso; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Brito-Córdova, Griselda X.; Gómez Díaz, Rita A.; Vilchis Valentín, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones are not clear. There is an ongoing debate concerning NNS use and deleterious changes in metabolism. Objectives The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific available evidence regarding the effects of NNS on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones. Data Sources and Study Eligibility Criteria We identified human observational studies evaluating the relation between NNS consumption and obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, in addition to clinical trials evaluating the effects of NNS in glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones. Results Fourteen observational studies evaluating the association between NNS consumption and the development of metabolic diseases and twenty-eight clinical trials studying the effects of NNS on metabolism were included. Finally, two meta-analyses evaluating the association between the consumption of NNS-containing beverages and the development of type 2 diabetes were identified. Conclusions Some observational studies suggest an association between NNS consumption and development of metabolic diseases; however, adiposity is a confounder frequently found in observational studies. The effects of the NNS on glucose metabolism are not clear. The results of the identified clinical trials are contradictory and are not comparable because of the major existing differences between them. Studies evaluating specific NNS, with an adequate sample size, including a homogeneous study group, identifying significant comorbidities, with an appropriate control group, with an appropriate exposure time, and considering adjustment for confounder variables such as adiposity are needed. PMID:27537496

  8. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

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    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women.

  9. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males.

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    Allerton, Dean M; Campbell, Matthew D; Gonzalez, Javier T; Rumbold, Penny L S; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-02-25

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m²) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0--180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  10. Acute effects of violent video-game playing on blood pressure and appetite perception in normal-weight young men: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-12-01

    Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV.

  11. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

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    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating.

  12. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  13. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

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    Yukihisa eMatsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

  14. Integration of reward signalling and appetite regulating peptide systems in the control of food-cue responses.

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    Reichelt, A C; Westbrook, R F; Morris, M J

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the neurobiological substrates that encode learning about food-associated cues and how those signals are modulated is of great clinical importance especially in light of the worldwide obesity problem. Inappropriate or maladaptive responses to food-associated cues can promote over-consumption, leading to excessive energy intake and weight gain. Chronic exposure to foods rich in fat and sugar alters the reinforcing value of foods and weakens inhibitory neural control, triggering learned, but maladaptive, associations between environmental cues and food rewards. Thus, responses to food-associated cues can promote cravings and food-seeking by activating mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurocircuitry, and exert physiological effects including salivation. These responses may be analogous to the cravings experienced by abstaining drug addicts that can trigger relapse into drug self-administration. Preventing cue-triggered eating may therefore reduce the over-consumption seen in obesity and binge-eating disorder. In this review we discuss recent research examining how cues associated with palatable foods can promote reward-based feeding behaviours and the potential involvement of appetite-regulating peptides including leptin, ghrelin, orexin and melanin concentrating hormone. These peptide signals interface with mesolimbic dopaminergic regions including the ventral tegmental area to modulate reactivity to cues associated with palatable foods. Thus, a novel target for anti-obesity therapeutics is to reduce non-homeostatic, reward driven eating behaviour, which can be triggered by environmental cues associated with highly palatable, fat and sugar rich foods.

  15. Functional food and satiety. Impact of a satiating context effect on appetite control of non-obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Gagnon-Sweeney, Marlène; Pigeon, Étienne; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the addition of satiating nutrients and a satiating context effect could influence appetite sensations, spontaneous energy intake and food appreciation under conditions of standardized energy density of a meal. Eighteen non-obese men were submitted to a control, a satiating, and a context effect condition composed of a standardized breakfast and an ad libitum test lunch (macaroni entrée plus chocolate cake). The satiating macaroni contained more proteins, unsaturated fats, fibres and calcium than the control macaroni despite similar energy density, appearance and palatability. In the context effect condition, participants believed they were eating "a highly satiating macaroni", but were served the control macaroni. Appreciation of the macaronis, quantities of macaroni and cake consumed and 4-h satiating potential were measured for each condition. Quantities of macaroni and dessert consumed did not differ between conditions. Satiating potential was greater for the context effect meal compared to the control and/or the satiating meals up to 4h after its consumption. The context effect macaroni obtained higher appreciation rates than the control and the satiating macaronis. The context effect may positively influence the appreciation toward a meal and contribute to increase its satiety potential for many hours.

  16. The effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma

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    Rouhollah Haghshenas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity. Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet (HFD on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma. Materials and Methods:Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group with standard diet (CSD, endurance training with a standard diet (ESD, control group with high-fat diet (CHFD and endurance training with high-fat diet (EHFD. Twenty-four hr after the last training session, the blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hormones levels. Results: The significant increased weight gain and food intake and decreased plasma nesfatin-1 and PYY3-36 levels were observed in CHFD group, while exercise under the HFD antagonized these effects. There were no significant changes in ghrelin, insulin and leptin levels in different groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise can prevent fattening effect of HFD. Probably, performing exercise makes a reduction of food intake and weight gain in rat via the increase in nesfatin-1 and PYY levels. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this field.

  17. Appetite enhancement and weight gain by peripheral administration of TrkB agonists in non-human primates.

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    John C Lin

    Full Text Available Loss of function mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB pathway resulted in hyperphagia and morbid obesity in human and rodents. Conversely, peripheral or central stimulation of TrkB by its natural ligands BDNF or NT4 reduced body weight and food intake in mice, supporting the idea that TrkB is a key anorexigenic signal downstream of the melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r system. Here we show that in non-human primates TrkB agonists were anorexigenic when applied centrally, but surprisingly orexigenic, leading to gain in appetite, body weight, fat deposits and serum leptin levels, when given peripherally. The orexigenic and pro-obesity effects of peripherally administered TrkB agonists appear to be dose dependent, not associated with fluid retention nor with evidence of receptor down regulation. Our findings revealed that TrkB signaling exerts dual control on energy homeostasis in the primates that could be targeted for the treatment of either wasting disorders or obesity.

  18. The appetite suppressant d-fenfluramine reduces water intake, but not food intake, in activity-based anorexia.

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    Hillebrand, J J G; Heinsbroek, A C M; Kas, M J H; Adan, R A H

    2006-02-01

    Biochemical, genetic and imaging studies support the involvement of the serotonin (5-HT) system in anorexia nervosa. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model of anorexia nervosa, and combines scheduled feeding with voluntary running wheel activity (RWA). We investigated the effect of d-fenfluramine (d-FEN) treatment on development and propagation of ABA. d-FEN is an appetite suppressant and acts on 5-HT(2C) receptors that are located on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Since stimulation activation of the melanocortin system stimulates ABA, we hypothesized that d-FEN treatment enhances the development and propagation of ABA. Rats were exposed to the ABA model and chronically infused with d-FEN. Unexpectedly, d-FEN-treated ABA rats did not reduce food intake or increase wheel running as compared with vehicle-treated ABA rats. Furthermore d-FEN treatment did not affect body weight loss, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, or starvation-induced hypothermia in ABA rats. POMC mRNA levels in d-FEN-treated rats were not different from vehicle-treated rats after one week of exposure to the ABA paradigm. However, d-FEN-treated ABA rats showed hypodypsia and increased plasma osmolality and arginine-vasopressin expression levels in the hypothalamus. We conclude that d-FEN treatment does not enhance ABA under the experimental conditions of this study, but strongly reduces water intake in ABA rats.

  19. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals.

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    Ke Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The giant panda has an interesting bamboo diet unlike the other species in the order of Carnivora. The umami taste receptor gene T1R1 has been identified as a pseudogene during its genome sequencing project and confirmed using a different giant panda sample. The estimated mutation time for this gene is about 4.2 Myr. Such mutation coincided with the giant panda's dietary change and also reinforced its herbivorous life style. However, as this gene is preserved in herbivores such as cow and horse, we need to look for other reasons behind the giant panda's diet switch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since taste is part of the reward properties of food related to its energy and nutrition contents, we did a systematic analysis on those genes involved in the appetite-reward system for the giant panda. We extracted the giant panda sequence information for those genes and compared with the human sequence first and then with seven other species including chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, cat, horse, and cow. Orthologs in panda were further analyzed based on the coding region, Kozak consensus sequence, and potential microRNA binding of those genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch.

  20. Appetite suppressive effects of yeast hydrolysate on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactivity in hypothalamus.

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    Jung, E Y; Suh, H J; Kim, S Y; Hong, Y S; Kim, M J; Chang, U J

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effects of yeast hydrolysate on appetite regulation mechanisms in the central nervous system, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) of the hypothalamus were examined. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to five groups: control (normal diet), BY-1 and BY-2 (normal diet with oral administration of 0.1 g and 1.0 g of yeast hydrolysate yeast hydrolysate 10-30 kDa/kg body weight, respectively). The body weight gain in the BY groups was less than that in the control. In particular, the weight gain of the BY-2 group (133.0 +/- 5.1 g) was significantly lower (p yeast hydrolysate of <10 kDa reduced the body weight gain and body fat in normal diet-fed rats and increased the lipid energy metabolism by altering the expression of NOS and VIP in neurons.

  1. Appetitively motivated instrumental learning in SynGAP heterozygous knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhia, Mary; Feldon, Joram; Knuesel, Irene; Yee, Benjamin K

    2009-10-01

    The synaptic Ras/Rap-GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP) regulates specific intracellular events following N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation. Here, the impact of SynGAP heterozygous knockout (SG+/-) on NMDAR-dependent functions was assessed using different positive reinforcement schedules in instrumental conditioning. The knockout did not affect the temporal control of operant responding under a fixed interval (FI) schedule, but led to a putative enhancement in response vigor and/or disinhibition. When examined on differential reinforcement of low rates of response (DRL) schedules, SG+/- mice showed increased responding under DRL-4s and DRL-8s, without impairing the response efficiency (total rewards/total lever presses) because both rewarded and nonrewarded presses were elevated. Motivation was unaffected as evaluated using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Yet, SG+/- mice persisted in responding during extinction at the end of PR training, although an equivalent phenotype was not evident in extinction learning following FI-20s training. This extinction phenotype is therefore schedule-specific and cannot be generalized to Pavlovian conditioning. In conclusion, constitutive SynGAP reduction increases vigor in the execution of learned operant behavior without compromising its temporal control, yielding effects readily distinguishable from NMDAR blockade.

  2. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

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    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: one received melatonin (3 or 6 mg based on weight combined with ritalin (1mg/kg and the other took placebo combined with ritalin (1mg/kg in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Three-day food record, and standard weight and height of children were evaluated prior to the treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment. Children’s appetite and sleep were evaluated in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. Hypotheses were then analyzed using SPSS17.Results: Paired sample t-test showed significant changes in sleep latency (23.15±15.25 vs. 17.96±11.66; p=0.047 and total sleep disturbance score (48.84±13.42 vs. 41.30±9.67; p=0.000 before and after melatonin administration, respectively. However, appetite and food intake did not change significantly during the study. Sleep duration and appetite were significantly correlated in melatonin group (Pearson r=0.971, p=0.029. Mean height (138.28±16.24 vs. 141.35±16.78; P=0.000 and weight (36.73±17.82 vs. 38.97±17.93; P=0.005 were significantly increased in melatonin treated children before and after the trial.Conclusion: Administration of melatonin along with ritalin improves height and weight growth of children. These effects may be attributed to circadian cycle modification, increasing sleep duration and the consequent more growth hormone release during sleep.

  3. Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Alvin Ibarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. Methods: A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD. Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.018; this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.015. There were no other significant results. Conclusion: It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed

  4. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

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    Jonna C Sandberg

    Full Text Available Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF. The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal.Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings.With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05. The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, P<0.001, GLP-1 (0-90 min, P<0.05 and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05, compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0-120 min, P = 0.001, serum insulin response (0-120 min, P<0.05 and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05. Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05, and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001, indicating increased colonic fermentation activity.The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could

  5. Hemiballismus, Hyperphagia, and Behavioral Changes following Subthalamic Infarct

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    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of subthalamic nucleus (STN which is a part of the basal ganglia system is not clear, but it is hypothesized that this component might be involved in action selection. Unilateral damage to STN, which can commonly occur due to the small vessel stroke mainly, causes hemiballismus and sometimes hemichorea-hemiballismus. This paper deals with a 60-year-old patient with sudden onset of abnormal movements in his right limbs. He had increased appetite and hyperphagia and also developed mood and behavioral changes (aggressiveness, irritability, anxiety, and sometimes obscene speech. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed infarct area in left subthalamus. In our case, hemiballismus is caused by infarction in left subthalamic area. Occurrence of irritability, anxiety, and some behavioral changes such as aggressiveness and obscene speech can be explained by impairment of STN role in nonmotor behavior and cognitive function as a result of infarct.

  6. Male isolation: a behavioral representation of the pheromonal 'female effect' in donkey (Equus asinus).

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    Carluccio, Augusto; Contri, Alberto; Amendola, Sonia; De Angelis, Elisabetta; De Amicis, Ippolito; Mazzatenta, Andrea

    2013-06-13

    The appearance of a decisive component of the sexual response to chemosexual signals in the male donkey was investigated through a comparison of the variations in the time-span of the behavioral classes and units for the natural versus induced breeding seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant variations in the length of the appetitive sexual behavior (ASB) and consummatory sexual behavior (CSB) under these two reproductive conditions. These differences are analyzed for the ASB, which is adaptable, compared with the stereotyped CSB. For the ASB, male isolation is the most represented behavior of both the natural and induced breeding seasons. This is the key that allows the passage from courtship, which consists of appetitive behaviors, to copula, the consummatory behavior. This isolation appears to provide the time required to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through the chemosexual pathway of pheromone stimuli. This isolation is lengthened with induced breeding, supporting the hypothesis of the activation of the neuroendocrine system, which is not 'primed' outside the natural breeding season, and which is necessary to release the stereotyped CSB.

  7. NPY receptor subtype specification for behavioral adaptive strategies during limited food access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjetri, E; Adan, R A; Herzog, H; de Haas, R; Oppelaar, H; Spierenburg, H A; Olivier, B; Kas, M J

    2012-02-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system in the brain regulates a wide variety of behavioral, metabolic and hormonal homeostatic processes required for energy balance control. During times of limited food availability, NPY promotes behavioral hyperactivity necessary to explore and prepare for novel food resources. As NPY can act via 5 different receptor subtypes, we investigated the path through which NPY affects different behavioral components relevant for adaptation to such conditions. We tested NPY Y1 and Y2 receptor knockout mice and their wild-type littermate controls in a daily scheduled limited food access paradigm with unlimited access to running wheel. Here we show that NPY Y1 receptor deficient mice lack the expression of appetitive behavior and that NPY Y2 receptors control the level of hyperactive behavior under these conditions. Thus, receptor specificity determines the differential expression of NPY-mediated behavioral adaptations to overcome a negative energy status.

  8. Validating a behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: effects of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: (1) Validate a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior, and (2) Assess the contribution of individual level factors that may differentially impact food choice behavior. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, female subjects (N=17) participated in two consecutive food choice experimental sessions, whereas in Study 2, female subjects (N=21) participated in one concurrent food choice experimental session. During consecutive choice sessions (Study 1), demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic than the less palatable (i.e., low-sugar/low-fat) option. During concurrent choice sessions, demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic for restrained vs. unrestrained eaters, and for those who were overweight vs. normal weight. Demand for both palatable and less palatable choices was more elastic for high-impulsive vs. low-impulsive subjects. These findings suggest that the behavioral economic framework can be used successfully to develop a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior.

  9. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (PLactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (Plactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant.

  10. fDWI Evaluation of Hypothalamic Appetite Regulation Pathways in Mice Genetically Deficient in Leptin or Neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarbe, Blanca; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the contribution of leptin-dependent anorexigenic pathways and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent orexigenic pathways to the changes in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters observed in vivo by functional diffusion weighted MRI (fDWI). Mice genetically deficient in leptin (B6.V-Lep (ob) /J) or NPY (129S-Npy (tm1Rpa) /J) and the corresponding wild-type controls, were subjected to sequential isocaloric feeding, fasting and recovery regimes. Non-invasive fDWI measurements were performed under these conditions, and complemented with parallel determinations of food and water consumption, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), locomotor activity and endocrine profiles. Control mice showed significant increases in hypothalamic water diffusion parameters upon fasting, returning to normal values in the recovery period. Leptin deficient mice depicted permanently increased water diffusion parameters under all feeding conditions as compared to wild type controls, without important changes upon fasting or recovery. These results paralleled sustained increases in food and water intake, significantly augmented body weight, and decreased RER values or locomotor activity, thus configuring an obese phenotype. NPY-deficient mice showed significantly reduced increases (or even slight decreases) in the water diffusion parameters upon fasting as compared to wild type controls, paralleled by decreased food and water intake during the recovery period. In conclusion, leptin deficiency results in sustained orexigenic stimulation, leading to increased water diffusion parameters, while NPY deficiency lead to reduced orexigenic stimulation and water diffusion parameters. Diffusion changes are proposed to reflect net astrocytic volume changes induced by the balance between the orexigenic and anorexigenic firings of AgRP/NPY and POMC/CART neurons, respectively. Together, our results suggest that fDWI provides an adequate tool to investigate hypothalamic appetite disorders.

  11. Maternal nutrient restriction between early-to-mid gestation and its impact upon appetite regulation following juvenile obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébert, S.P.; Hyatt, M.A.; Chan, L.L.Y.; Patel, N.; Bell, R. C.; Keisler, D.; Stephenson, T.; Budge, H.; Symonds, M.E.; Gardner, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of maternal nutrient restriction during early-to-mid gestation, a period coinciding with early fetal brain development, on appetite regulation and energy balance in the offspring following juvenile obesity was examined. Pregnant sheep were either fed to fully meet their nutritional requirements throughout gestation or 50% of this amount between 30-80 days gestation. Following weaning, offspring were either made obese through exposure to a sedentary obesogenic environment or remained lean. Maternal nutrient restriction had no effect on birth weight or subsequent growth. At one week of age, only, gene expression for neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus was reduced in nutrient restricted offspring. By 1 year of age, all obese animals had raised plasma leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin, with the latter effect amplified in nutrient restricted offspring. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and cortisol were unaffected by obesity. The entrained reduction in physical activity that led to obesity persisted when all animals were maintained within individual pens. Obese nutrient restricted offspring, however, exhibited reduced daily food intake and were, therefore, no longer in positive “energy balance”. This adaptation was accompanied by elevated hypothalamic gene expression for the melanocortin-4 and insulin receptors, AMP-activated kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase α. In conclusion, nutrient restriction specifically targeted over the period of early fetal brain development, contributes to a profoundly different adaptation in energy balance following juvenile obesity. The extent to which this adaptive response may benefit the offspring or result in an exacerbated risk for type II diabetes remains to be established. PMID:18818297

  12. Glucose-induced inhibition of the appetitive brain response to visual food cues in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Dean A; Krzemien, Alicja; Alsaadi, Hanin; Frank, Tamar C; Reid, Robert L

    2014-04-16

    We postulate that insulin regulation of food intake is compromised when insulin resistance is present. In order to investigate the effect of insulin sensitivity on appetitive brain responses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in a group of women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in which insulin sensitivity ranged from normal to resistant. Subjects (n=19) were imaged while viewing pictures of high calorie (HC) foods and low calorie (LC) foods after ingesting either 75 g glucose or an equivalent volume of water. The insulin sensitive group showed reduced blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in response to food pictures following glucose ingestion in numerous corticolimbic brain regions, whereas the insulin resistant group did not. There was a significant interaction between insulin sensitivity (sensitive vs resistant) and condition (water vs glucose). The largest clusters identified included the left insula, bilateral limbic/parahippocampal gyrus/culmen/midbrain, bilateral limbic lobe/precuneus, and left superior/mid temporal gyrus/parietal for HC and LC stimuli combined, the left parahippocampal gyrus/fusiform/pulvinar/midbrain for HC pictures, and the left superior/mid temporal gyrus/parietal and middle/inferior frontal gyrus/orbitofrontal cortex for LC pictures. Furthermore, BOLD signal in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and parietal cortex during a glucose challenge correlated negatively with insulin sensitivity. We conclude the PCOS women with insulin resistance have an impaired brain response to a glucose challenge. The inability of postprandial hyperinsulinemia to inhibit brain responsiveness to food cues in insulin resistant subjects may lead to greater non-homeostatic eating.

  13. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  14. Individual differences in nucleus accumbens dopamine receptors predict development of addiction-like behavior: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Keramati, Mohammad Mahdi; Dezfouli, Amir; Lucas, Caro; Mokri, Azarakhsh

    2010-09-01

    Clinical and experimental observations show individual differences in the development of addiction. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that dopamine receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) predisposes drug reinforcement. Here, modeling striatal-midbrain dopaminergic circuit, we propose a reinforcement learning model for addiction based on the actor-critic model of striatum. Modeling dopamine receptors in the NAc as modulators of learning rate for appetitive--but not aversive--stimuli in the critic--but not the actor--we define vulnerability to addiction as a relatively lower learning rate for the appetitive stimuli, compared to aversive stimuli, in the critic. We hypothesize that an imbalance in this learning parameter used by appetitive and aversive learning systems can result in addiction. We elucidate that the interaction between the degree of individual vulnerability and the duration of exposure to drug has two progressive consequences: deterioration of the imbalance and establishment of an abnormal habitual response in the actor. Using computational language, the proposed model describes how development of compulsive behavior can be a function of both degree of drug exposure and individual vulnerability. Moreover, the model describes how involvement of the dorsal striatum in addiction can be augmented progressively. The model also interprets other forms of addiction, such as obesity and pathological gambling, in a common mechanism with drug addiction. Finally, the model provides an answer for the question of why behavioral addictions are triggered in Parkinson's disease patients by D2 dopamine agonist treatments.

  15. Comparison of short-term energy intake and appetite responses to active and seated video gaming, in 8-11-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, Susan; Green, Benjamin P; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Barry, Gillian; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-03-28

    The acute effects of active and seated video gaming on energy intake (EI), blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness) were examined in 8-11-year-old boys. In a randomised, crossover manner, twenty-two boys completed one 90-min active and one 90-min seated video gaming trial during which food and drinks were provided ad libitum. EI, plasma GLP-17-36, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured during and following both trials. Time-averaged AUC blood glucose was increased (P=0·037); however, EI was lower during active video gaming (1·63 (sem 0·26) MJ) compared with seated video gaming (2·65 (sem 0·32) MJ) (P=0·000). In a post-gaming test meal 1 h later, there were no significant differences in EI between the active and seated gaming trials. Although estimated energy expenditure was significantly higher during active video gaming, there was still no compensation for the lower EI. At cessation of the trials, relative EI (REI) was significantly lower following active video gaming (2·06 (sem 0·30) MJ) v. seated video gaming (3·34 (sem 0·35) MJ) (P=0·000). No significant differences were detected in time-averaged AUC GLP-17-36 or subjective appetite. At cessation of the active video gaming trial, EI and REI were significantly less than for seated video gaming. In spite of this, the REI established for active video gaming was a considerable amount when considering the total daily estimated average requirement for 8-11-year-old boys in the UK (7·70 MJ).

  16. Acute sodium ingestion has no effect on short-term food and water intake, subjective appetite, thirst, or glycemic response in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Maria Fernanda; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Wong, Christina L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-07-01

    The high intake of dietary sodium (Na(+)) has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance, sparking the hypothesis that the consumption of salty foods affects food intake (FI) and postprandial blood glucose (BG) response. Therefore, we conducted 2 randomized repeated-measures experiments to examine the acute effects of the Na(+) content of solid food and beverage on FI, water intake (WI), subjective appetite, thirst, and BG. FI and WI were measured at ad libitum pizza test meals; appetite, thirst, and BG were measured at baseline and at regular intervals before and after meals. In the first experiment, 16 males (mean body mass index (BMI), 22.2 kg·m(-2)) consumed a low-Na(+) (71 mg) bean preload (300 kcal) with or without 740 mg or 1480 mg of added Na(+) 120 min prior to the pizza meal. Participants ate 116 kcal more at the test meal after consuming beans with 740 mg of added Na(+) than after beans with 1480 mg of added Na(+). In the second experiment, 19 males (mean BMI, 23.2 kg·m(-2)) consumed a low-Na(+) (62 mg) tomato beverage (73 kcal) with or without 500, 1000, 1500, or 2000 mg of added Na(+) 30 min prior to a pizza meal. The beverage with 2000 mg of added Na(+) led to higher WI during the pizza meal than the beverage with 500 mg of added Na(+). However, compared with the control conditions (no added Na(+)), added Na(+) treatments had no effect on dependent measures in either experiment. In conclusion, the acute intake of Na(+), in a solid or liquid form, did not affect short-term subjective ratings of appetite or thirst, ad libitum FI or WI, or BG in healthy young men.

  17. Mouth rinsing with a sweet solution increases energy expenditure and decreases appetite during 60 min of self-regulated walking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Duckworth, Lauren; Matu, Jamie; Suter, Matthew; Fletcher, Charlotte; Stead, Samuel; Ali, Shaho; Gunby, Neil; Korsness, Keelie

    2016-12-01

    Carbohydrate mouth rinsing can improve endurance exercise performance and is most ergogenic when exercise is completed in the fasted state. This strategy may also be beneficial to increase exercise capacity and the energy deficit achieved during moderate-intensity exercise relevant to weight control when performed after an overnight fast. Eighteen healthy men (mean (SD); age, 23 (4) years; body mass index, 23.1 (2.4) kg·m(-2)) completed a familiarisation trial and 3 experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants performed 60 min of treadmill walking at a speed that equated to a rating of perceived exertion of 13 ("fairly hard"). Participants manually adjusted the treadmill speed to maintain this exertion. Mouth rinses for the experimental trials contained either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution with sweetener (CHO), a taste-matched placebo (PLA), or water (WAT). Appetite ratings were collected using visual analogue scales and exercise energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were calculated from online gas analysis. Increased walking distance during CHO and PLA induced greater energy expenditure compared with WAT (mean difference (90% confidence interval); 79 (60) kJ, P = 0.035, d = 0.24; and 90 (63) kJ, P = 0.024, d = 0.27, respectively). Appetite area under the curve was lower in CHO and PLA than WAT (8 (6) mm, P = 0.042, d = 0.43; and 6 (8) mm, P = 0.201, d = 0.32, respectively). Carbohydrate oxidation was higher in CHO than PLA and WAT (7.3 (6.7) g, P = 0.078, d = 0.47; and 10.1 (6.5) g, P = 0.015, d = 0.81, respectively). This study provides novel evidence that mouth rinsing with a sweetened solution may promote a greater energy deficit during moderate-exertion walking exercise by increasing energy expenditure and decreasing appetite. A placebo effect may have contributed to these benefits.

  18. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8–11-year-old boys

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8–11 year-old boys in a schoolbased setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum....

  19. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George

    2015-01-01

    in malnourished patients starting ART and that vitamin and mineral supplementation would improve appetite and permit nutritional recovery. DESIGN:: The randomised controlled Nutritional Support for Africans Starting Antiretroviral Therapy (NUSTART) trial was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania and Lusaka, Zambia. ART......-naïve adults referred for ART and with body mass index (BMI)supplements either without (LNS) or with added vitamins and minerals (LNS-VM), beginning prior to ART initiation. Participants were given 30 g/day LNS from recruitment until 2 weeks after starting ART...

  20. Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nilsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary prevention strategies are increasingly recognized as essential to combat the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential prebiotic effects of indigestible carbohydrates in Swedish brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus in relation to cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Brown beans, or white wheat bread (WWB, reference product were provided as evening meals to 16 healthy young adults in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, insulin, appetite regulatory hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2, appetite sensations, and markers of inflammation were measured at a following standardised breakfast, that is at 11 to 14 h post the evening meals. Additionally, colonic fermentation activity was estimated from measurement of plasma short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including also branched chain fatty acids and breath hydrogen (H2 excretion. RESULTS: An evening meal of brown beans, in comparison with WWB, lowered blood glucose (-15%, p<0.01- and insulin (-16%, p<0.05 responses, increased satiety hormones (PYY 51%, p<0.001, suppressed hunger hormones (ghrelin -14%, p<0.05, and hunger sensations (-15%, p = 0.05, increased GLP-2 concentrations (8.4%, p<0.05 and suppressed inflammatory markers (IL-6 -35%, and IL-18 -8.3%, p<0.05 at a subsequent standardised breakfast. Breath H2 (141%, p<0.01, propionate (16%, p<0.05, and isobutyrate (18%, P<0.001 were significantly increased after brown beans compared to after WWB, indicating a higher colonic fermentative activity after brown beans. CONCLUSIONS: An evening meal with brown beans beneficially affected important measures of cardiometabolic risk and appetite regulatory hormones, within a time frame of 11-14 h, in comparison to a WWB evening meal. Concentrations of plasma SCFA and H2 were increased, indicating involvement of colonic fermentation. Indigestible colonic substrates from brown