WorldWideScience

Sample records for appetite

  1. Appetite in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite is defined as ‘a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food’. The counterpart of appetite is satiety, which is the state of satisfaction that follows after the need for food is fulfilled. However, palatable food can be appetizing in the absence of hunger and people may eng

  2. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories. PMID:11177517

  3. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    Summary There is emerging focus on the gut microbiota’s (GM) effects on health. GM is suggested to be a contributing factor to the rapid development of obesity and its related diseases like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The omposition of the GM has been associated with weight, insulin...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human......-armed parallel four weeks intervention study with W8 (1010 CFU) or placebo capsules was performed on young, normal to overweight participants. In the four weeks intervention study the effects of W8 on appetite, blood lipids, SCD1 activity and fecal microbiota were also investigated. Finally, associations between...

  4. On histamine and appetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eTorrealba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.

  5. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably cons...

  6. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced

  7. Neuropharmacology of Human Appetite Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C. G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of appetite relies on the integration of numerous episodic (meal) and tonic (energy storage) generated signals in energy regulatory centres within the central nervous system (CNS). These centers provide the pharmacological potential to modify human appetite (hunger and satiety) to increase or decrease caloric intake, or to normalize…

  8. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal way, not overeat. That is a good habit for lifelong health. Provided by NIBBLES FOR HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? ...

  9. Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoon, H.F.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury), determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low) as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-wei

  10. Risk Appetite and Endogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Zigrand; Hyun Song Shin; Jon Danielsson

    2010-01-01

    Risk is endogenous. Equilibrium risk is the fixed point of the mapping that takes perceived risk to actual risk. When risk-neutral traders operate under Value-at-Risk constraints, market conditions exhibit signs of fluctuating risk appetite and amplification of shocks through feedback effects. Correlations in returns emerge even when underlying fundamental shocks are independent. We derive a closedform solution of equilibrium returns, correlation and volatility by solving the fixed point prob...

  11. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....

  12. Clinical Approach to Children with Low Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ünal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is a conscious desire for food and it is regulated mainly by the gastrointestinal system, pancreas and adrenal glands. Poor appetite is a common problem in childhood. For assessment, history of development, nutrition and family are important. Poor appetite may also be a symptom of feeding disorders. Even though the etiology of feeding disorders may be classified as organic or functional, it indeed reflects the complex interaction of biological, behavioral and social factors. Personal, familial, economic and sociocultural factors may affect appetite. In this review, approaches to a child with low appetite who presents a difficult problem for his/her family and doctor are discussed in the light of recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 79-84

  13. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eAndreatta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning

  14. Role of guar fiber in appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna

    2016-10-01

    Appetite control and reduction of additional calorie intake may be a logical approach for proper weight management. Viscous dietary fibers are effective in appetite control but difficult to apply in normal serving sizes in foods and nutritional supplements due to their viscosity and required high doses. Guar fiber popularly known as partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is near non-viscous soluble fiber that has been proven effective in providing many physiological benefits. Guar fiber has also been identified as potential natural food and nutritional supplement ingredient for appetite control. The aim of this review is to summarize all the clinical studies pertinent to its effects on appetite control in normal subjects and postulate the mechanism of action. Guar fiber exhibited appetite control via delaying the colonic transit time of digested food, stimulation of satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) and induction of prolonged perception of post-meal satiation and satiety effects. Regular intake of guar fiber at a dose of 2g/serving provided significant sustained post-meal satiation effects and minimized the inter-meal calorie intake by about 20% in normal subjects. The intake of guar fiber alone at a dose >5g/serving or its combination with protein (2.6g guar fiber+8g protein/serving) showed acute satiety effects in normal subjects. Guar fiber containing >85% dietary fiber, with clear solubility and negligible taste impact, may be an ideal natural dietary fiber for use in food and supplement applications at low dosage levels for appetite control. PMID:27317834

  15. Glutamate and GABA in appetite regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cardoso Delgado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms.Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the

  16. Gastrointestinal targets of appetite regulation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delzenne, N.M.; Blundell, J.E.; Brouns, F.; Cunningham, K.; Graaf, de C.; Erkner, A.; Lluch, A.; Mars, M.; Peters, H.P.F.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss relevant aspects of the assessment of physiological functions – and related biomarkers – implicated in the regulation of appetite in humans. A short introduction provides the background and the present state of biomarker research as related to satiety

  17. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher...... ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... sweetener supplements. In paper 2, the modified triacylglycerol salatrim did not reduce energy intake, compared with traditional fat, despite slightly higher ratings of fullness during the salatrim test day. The slight difference in fullness was not due to differences in gastro-intestinal satiety hormones...

  18. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-08-01

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. PMID:27083128

  19. Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alison S; Hibbert, Emily J; Champion, Bernard L; Nanan, Ralph K H

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate) and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone), are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilization of this effective and inexpensive class of drug. PMID:27199749

  20. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and the regulation of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2012-07-01

    Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extrasynaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators: altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central control of Food Intake'.

  1. Anandamide administration into the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulates appetite in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshidi, Nazila; Taylor, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation reports the possible role of the endocannabinoid anandamide in modulating appetitive behaviour. Given that cannabinoids have been used clinically to stimulate appetite in HIV and cancer chemotherapy patients, there has been a renewed interest in the involvement of cannabinoids in appetite modulation. This is the first report on the administration of anandamide into the ventromedial hypothalamus. Pre-satiated rats received an intrahypothalamic injection of anandamide (50 ng ...

  2. Genetic identification of a neural circuit that suppresses appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Matthew E.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite suppression occurs following a meal and also during conditions when it is unfavorable to eat, such as during illness or exposure to toxins. A brain region hypothesized to play a role in appetite suppression is the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) 1-3 , a heterogeneous population of neurons surrounding the superior cerebellar peduncle in the brainstem. The PBN is thought to mediate the suppression of appetite induced by the anorectic hormones amylin and cholecystokinin, as well as lithium c...

  3. The Effect of Wholegrain on Appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine

    Background: Wholegrain consumption is suggested to improve short-term appetite sensation. This may occur immediately after wholegrain intake but also after a second meal. The latter may potentially be mediated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that are generated during colonic fermentation...... hydrogen excretion and habitual wholegrain intake was even negatively associated with breath hydrogen excretion. Conclusion: Consumption of coarse wholegrain rye products may reduce energy intake at a later meal, which may potentially be mediated by colonic fermentation. It is, however, not clear whether...

  4. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  5. Appetitive Motivation and Negative Emotion Reactivity among Remitted Depressed Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted…

  6. The role of infant appetite in extended formula feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch

  7. Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Both; E. Laan; M. Spiering; T. Nilsson; S. Oomens; W. Everaerd

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. AIM: The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of sex

  8. Aging & appetite : Social and physiological approaches in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.F.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by anorexia of aging, described as a decline in appetite, a lower dietary intake and followed by unexplained weight loss. The present thesis described research on anorexia of aging. Focus was given to social and physiological determinants of appetite and the relationship w

  9. Appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M; McNally, Gavan P

    2012-06-01

    The existence of value coding and salience coding neurons in the mammalian brain, including in habenula and ventral tegmental area, has sparked considerable interest in the interactions that occur between Pavlovian appetitive and aversive conditioning. Here we studied these appetitive-aversive interactions at the behavioral level by assessing the learning that occurs when a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus (conditional stimulus, CS) serves as a CS for shock in Pavlovian fear conditioning. A Pavlovian appetitive CS was retarded in the rate at which it could be transformed into a fear CS (counterconditioning), but the presence of the appetitive CS augmented fear learning to a concurrently presented neutral CS (superconditioning). Retardation of fear learning was not alleviated by manipulations designed to restore the associability of the appetitive CS before fear conditioning but was alleviated by manipulations designed to increase the aversive quality of the shock unconditioned stimulus (US). These findings are consistent with opponent interactions between the appetitive and aversive motivational systems and provide a behavioral approach for assessing the neural correlates of these appetitive-aversive interactions.

  10. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  11. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista L. Barberini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  12. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, Crista L; Morrison, Sara E; Saez, Alex; Lau, Brian; Salzman, C Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors - approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence - these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  13. Genetics of Amino Acid Taste and Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Glendinning, John I; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Manita, Satoshi; McCaughey, Stuart A; Murata, Yuko; Reed, Danielle R; Tordoff, Michael G; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of amino acids by animals is controlled by both oral and postoral mechanisms. We used a genetic approach to investigate these mechanisms. Our studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in voluntary amino acid consumption, and these differences depend on sensory and nutritive properties of amino acids. Like humans, mice perceive some amino acids as having a sweet (sucrose-like) taste and others as having an umami (glutamate-like) taste. Mouse strain differences in the consumption of some sweet-tasting amino acids (d-phenylalanine, d-tryptophan, and l-proline) are associated with polymorphisms of a taste receptor, type 1, member 3 gene (Tas1r3), and involve differential peripheral taste responsiveness. Strain differences in the consumption of some other sweet-tasting amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, and l-threonine) do not depend on Tas1r3 polymorphisms and so must be due to allelic variation in other, as yet unknown, genes involved in sweet taste. Strain differences in the consumption of l-glutamate may depend on postingestive rather than taste mechanisms. Thus, genes and physiologic mechanisms responsible for strain differences in the consumption of each amino acid depend on the nature of its taste and postingestive properties. Overall, mouse strain differences in amino acid taste and appetite have a complex genetic architecture. In addition to the Tas1r3 gene, these differences depend on other genes likely involved in determining the taste and postingestive effects of amino acids. The identification of these genes may lead to the discovery of novel mechanisms that regulate amino acid taste and appetite. PMID:27422518

  14. Weight Loss Leads to Strong Increase in Appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Friday, October 14, 2016 Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite Study with ... changes in caloric expenditure that typically accompany weight loss — and weight loss plateau. Findings from the analyses suggest that ...

  15. China Looks to Worldwide Resourccs to Sate Its Energy Appetite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An appetite for resources has long been a key determinant of Chinese foreign policy and recent figures detailing China's crude imports have posed further daunting geopolitical challenges over how China can ensure its oil supply.

  16. Contribution of gastroenteropancreatic appetite hormones to protein-induced satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Anita Belza; Ritz, Christian; Sørensen, Mejse Q;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of protein intake on appetite-regulating hormones and their dynamics are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the satiating effects of meals with varying protein contents and whether there was an effect of dose on appetite-regulating hormones and appetite ratings.Design: Twenty...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (P consumption dose-dependently decreased by 15% and 13% for MHP and by 25% and 26% for HP compared with NP...... (P effect of GLP-1 and PYY 3-36 (P = 0.03) next to the additive effect of GLP-1 (P = 0.006) on the composite appetite score. No difference was shown in ad libitum energy intake. CONCLUSION: Protein dose-dependently increased satiety and GLP-1, PYY 3-36, and glucagon...

  17. Validation of screening tools to assess appetite among geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisah, R; Suzana, S; Lee, F S

    2012-07-01

    Poor appetite is one of the main contributing factors of poor nutritional status among elderly individuals. Recognizing the importance of assessment of appetite, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the validity of appetite screening tools namely, the Council on Nutrition Appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) and the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) against the appetite, hunger and sensory perception questionnaire (AHSPQ), measures of nutritional status and food intake among geriatric patients at the main general hospital in Malaysia. Nutritional status was assessed using the subjective global assessment (SGA) while food intake was measured using the dietary history questionnaire (DHQ). Anthropometric parameters included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). A total of 145 subjects aged 60 to 86 years (68.3 ± 5.8 years) with 31.7% men and 68.3% women were recruited from outpatients (35 subjects) and inpatients (110 subjects) of Kuala Lumpur Hospital of Malaysia. As assessed by SGA, most subjects were classified as mild to moderately malnourished (50.4%), followed by normal (38.6%) and severely malnourished (11.0%). A total of 79.3% and 57.2% subjects were classified as having poor appetite according to CNAQ and SNAQ, respectively. CNAQ (80.9%) had a higher sensitivity than SNAQ (69.7%) when validated against nutritional status as assessed using SGA. However, the specificity of SNAQ (62.5%) was higher than CNAQ (23.2%). Positive predictive value for CNAQ and SNAQ were 62.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for CNAQ and SNAQ were 0.546 and 0.578, respectively. History of weight loss over the past one year (Adjusted odds ratio 2.49) (p risk factors for poor appetite among subjects. In conclusion, malnutrition and poor appetite were prevalent among the geriatric outpatients and inpatients. SNAQ was more reliable and valid as an appetite screening tool among this special

  18. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required. PMID:25335699

  19. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...... (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  20. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin

    2014-08-01

    Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning.

  1. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M;

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  2. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  3. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030. CONCLUSIONS: Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  4. Appetite and falls: Old age and lived experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Mahler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Falling among older adults is a well-known public health problem but the association between falling and appetite is seldom studied although poor nutritional status is accepted as a risk factor for falls. On this background the aim of this study was to understand how older adults, who have fallen several times within a year, related their experiences of appetite as a phenomenon in everyday life. In narrative in-depth interviews, eight women and four men contributed with their stories. Using interpretative phenomenology the thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: appetite for food; appetite for social relations and appetite for influence. Eating was not trivial everyday routine and required self-regimentation. Meals were not an object of desire, but of discipline out of the wish to survive. Feelings, reflections and ambivalence were bound to the lack of appetite on food. The participants were oriented towards the forbidden, the delicious and to everyday food as a strengthener and as medicine. In their dependency on help, home was the framework for establishing social relations as means of social support. As well as family and neighbours, the significant others were persons on whom the participants were dependent. Personal relationships and mutual dependencies may ensure social security in lives characterised by contingency and maintain influence in daily life. Falling is both a dramatic and a trivial incident where life and death could be at stake. From this perspective, connectedness was prominent in all fall stories. The quest for influence and a sense of social connectedness was the incentive to re-enter local community arenas and to express solidarity. In health-care practice multi-factorial fall-prevention should be complemented with a multi-dimensional approach in order to balance the medical approach with humanistic and societal approaches towards fall-prevention.

  5. Specific appetite for carotenoids in a colorful bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Senar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since carotenoids have physiological functions necessary for maintaining health, individuals should be selected to actively seek and develop a specific appetite for these compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Great tits Parus major in a diet choice experiment, both in captivity and the field, preferred carotenoid-enriched diets to control diets. The food items did not differ in any other aspects measured besides carotenoid content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific appetite for carotenoids is here demonstrated for the first time, placing these compounds on a par with essential nutrients as sodium or calcium.

  6. Neuropeptide Regulation of Appetite and Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small CJ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now recognised that appropriate regulation of reproduction, energy intake and energy expenditure, and thus maintenance of body weight and fertility, relies on complex hypothalamic neuro-circuitry. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. During times of under nourishment and falling body fat the reproductive axis is down regulated. Circulating factors and hypothalamic circuits co-ordinate these responses. Leptin has been described to be an important peripheral signal that indicates body fat stores to the hypothalamus and thus links nutrition and reproduction. Leptin acts by altering neuropeptide circuits in the hypothalamus, which alter gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH release and food intake. The importance of key neuropeptide systems identified in rodents is now being established in man. Notably mutations in the melanocortin MC4 receptor are found in up to 4 % of the morbidly obese whilst in a proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa mutations have been identified in the agoutirelated peptide (AgRP gene, which codes for an endogenous antagonist of this receptor. Intranasal administration of a melanocortin fragment known to activate the MC4 receptor decreases adiposity in humans. The melanocortin system has been shown to influence the reproductive axis in rodents. However, the role of the melanocortin system in the control of reproduction in humans remains to be established. Since the discovery of leptin, attention has also been focused on peripheral signals that regulate reproduction, food intake and energy expenditure, either directly or via feedback on hypothalamic circuits. Notable new discoveries in this area include the gastric hormone ghrelin. Circulating ghrelin stimulates food intake in rodents and humans although an influence on the reproductive axis is yet to be reported. Neuropeptidregulation von Appetit und Reproduktion. Mittlerweile gilt es als anerkannt, daß eine entsprechende Regulation der

  7. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fa...

  8. An Appetitive Conditioned Stimulus Enhances Fear Acquisition and Impairs Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hiu T.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments used between- and within-subject designs to examine appetitive-aversive interactions in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of an excitatory appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) on acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, a CS shocked in a compound with an appetitive excitor (i.e., a stimulus…

  9. Appetitive and regulatory processes in young adolescent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Hemel-Ruiter; P.J. de Jong; R.W. Wiers

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol (mis)use develops because of an imbalance between a fast automatic appetitive system, in which stimuli are valued in terms of their emotional and motivational significance and a slower controlled regulatory system, which acts on deliberate consid

  10. The endocannabinoid system and appetite: relevance for food reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the

  11. A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

  12. Dietary fibres and appetite : comparing apples and oranges?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: dietary fibre, satiation, satiety, appetite, energy intake, body weight, viscosity, eating time, gastric emptying, fermentation.

    Background and objective:Dietary fibre can contribute in th

  13. Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yuen, V G; McNeill, J H

    2001-06-01

    Vanadium, a potent nonselective inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, has been shown to mimic many of the metabolic actions of insulin both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism(s) of the effect of vanadium on the decrease in appetite and body weight in Zucker fa/fa rats, an insulin-resistant model, is still unclear. Because insulin may inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is known to be related to appetite, and increase leptin secretion in adipose tissue, we studied the possibility that the changes in appetite produced by vanadium may be linked to altered NPY levels in the hypothalamus. We also examined effects of vanadium on leptin. Zucker lean and fatty rats were chronically treated with bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), an organic vanadium compound, in the drinking water. Plasma and adipose tissue leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting, respectively. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA and peptide levels were measured using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. BMOV treatment significantly reduced food intake, body fat, body weight, plasma insulin levels, and glucose levels in fatty Zucker rats. Fifteen minutes after insulin injection (5 U/kg, intravenous [IV]), circulating leptin levels (+100%) and adipose leptin levels (+60%) were elevated in BMOV-treated fatty rats, although these effects were not observed in untreated fatty rats. NPY mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) (-29%), NPY peptide levels in ARC (-31%), as well as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (-37%) were decreased with BMOV treatment in these fatty rats. These data indicate that BMOV may increase insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and decrease appetite and body fat by decreasing NPY levels in the hypothalamus. BMOV-induced reduction in appetite and weight gain along with normalized insulin levels in models of obesity, suggest its possible use as a therapeutic agent in obesity.

  14. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This revie......, methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline), drugs that suppress appetite (phentermine, rimonabant, and sibutramine) and drugs used in Alzheimer's disease (donepezil and rivastigmine).......The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This review...... of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  15. An approach to the development of drugs for appetite disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, J E

    1989-01-01

    This review covers some modern concepts in the development of drugs to treat appetite disorders. Specific attention is paid to the peripheral satiety system and the role of gastrointestinal peptides such as cholecystokinin in the pathogenesis of satiety. Alterations in neuropeptide Y and/or peptide YY are suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of bulimia. Corticotropin-releasing factor is a putative candidate peptide involved in anorexia nervosa. The serotonin reuptake inhibitors fenfluramine and fluoxetene decrease weight in obese subjects. Endogenous opioids modulate the choice of palatable foods. Anorexia in the old appears to be related to a decrease in opioid feeding drive and an excess of the satiety action of cholecystokinin. Other agents involved in weight regulation include those which alter gastric emptying, increase thermogenesis, or modulate fat cell metabolism. It should be stressed that many neurotransmitters that modulate appetite also alter other behaviors, increasing their propensity to produce side effects. PMID:2573002

  16. Deletion of Ghrelin Impairs neither Growth nor Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuxiang; Ahmed, Saira; Smith, Roy G

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacological studies show that ghrelin stimulates growth hormone release, appetite, and fat deposition, but ghrelin's physiological role in energy homeostasis has not been established. Ghrelin was also proposed to regulate leptin and insulin release and to be important for the normal function of stomach, heart, kidney, lung, testis, and placenta. To help determine a definable physiological role for ghrelin, we generated ghrelin-null mice. In contrast to predictions made from the pharmacolo...

  17. Richter and Sodium Appetite: from adrenalectomy to molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Eric G.; Sakai, Randall R.

    2007-01-01

    Nearly three-quarters of a century ago, Curt Richter removed the adrenal glands from rats and noted that the animal's vitality was dependent on its increased consumption of sodium chloride. In doing so, Richter revealed an innate behavioral mechanism that serves to maintain the hydromineral balance of an animal faced with sodium deficit. This experiment and others like it, led to the development of a field of research devoted to the investigation of salt appetite. The following is a discussio...

  18. Altered motivation masks appetitive learning potential of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Mazen R; Almeida, Osborne F X

    2014-01-01

    Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant) as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that (i) the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; (ii) higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and (iii) mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate). Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in the mouse

  19. Altered motivation masks appetitive learning potential of obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen R. Harb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that i the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; ii higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and iii mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate. Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in

  20. THE TOLERANCE AND OPERATIONAL RISK APPETITE IN BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    PETRIA Nicolae; Ioan TRENCA; Simona MUTU

    2012-01-01

    Operational risk appetite is an area that attracts differing views among practitioners. In theory, accepting any type of risk may carry some aspect of reward but it is important for operational risk practitioners to be aware of the view that this risk type differs from, for example, credit risk and market risk. Operational risks may be inherent in operational activities but are rarely intentionally sought and have no material upside in terms of return/income generation. There are, however, co...

  1. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  2. The Acute Effects of Swimming on Appetite, Food Intake, and Plasma Acylated Ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Stensel, David J.; Wasse, Lucy K.; King, James A

    2011-01-01

    Swimming may stimulate appetite and food intake but empirical data are lacking. This study examined appetite, food intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin responses to swimming. Fourteen healthy males completed a swimming trial and a control trial in a random order. Sixty min after breakfast participants swam for 60 min and then rested for six hours. Participants rested throughout the control trial. During trials appetite was measured at 30 min intervals and acylated ghrelin was assessed periodic...

  3. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture;

    2016-01-01

    the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized...... different between the groups, but RYGB operated had lower fasting glucose (Pmediated...... by changes in gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Furthermore, we found that the early changes in glycaemic control after RYGB is to a large extent mediated by caloric restriction....

  4. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Møller Georg

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation...... of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. This may be linked to increased chyme viscosity, as linseed dietary fibre has water holding capacity and intrinsic viscosity which...

  5. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1 for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  6. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  7. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Rodenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. METHODS: Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. RESULTS: Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. CONCLUSIONS: Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  8. Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients During Appetitive Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Oliviana Diaconescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioural level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and galvanic skin recordings (GSR while patients and controls performed an appetitive conditioning experiment with visual cues as the conditioned (CS stimuli, and monetary reward as the appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US. Based on explicit stimulus contingency ratings, conditioning occurred in both groups; however, based on implicit, physiological GSR measures, patients failed to show differences between CS+ and CS- conditions. Healthy controls exhibited increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity across striatal, hippocampal and prefrontal regions and increased effective connectivity from the ventral striatum (VS to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC BA 11 in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition. Compared to controls, patients showed increased BOLD activity across a similar network of brain regions, and increased effective connectivity from the striatum to hippocampus and prefrontal regions in the CS- compared to the CS+ condition. The findings of increased BOLD activity and effective connectivity in response to the CS- in patients with schizophrenia offer insight into the aberrant assignment of motivational salience to non-reinforced stimuli during conditioning that is thought to accompany schizophrenia.

  9. Role of the serotoninergic system in the sodium appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas

  10. Appetite-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Binge Eating with Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Stacy L.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon

    2004-01-01

    The first-line treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), uses food-based self-monitoring. Six young women presenting with BN or significant purging behavior were treated with a modification, Appetite-Focused CBT (CBT-AF), in which self-monitoring is based on appetite cues and food monitoring is proscribed. This change…

  11. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa...

  12. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  13. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  14. Neural Correlates of Appetitive-Aversive Interactions in Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2013-01-01

    We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in rats to identify the neural mechanisms for appetitive-aversive motivational interactions. In Stage I, rats were trained on conditioned stimulus (CS)-food (unconditioned stimulus [US]) pairings. In Stage II, this appetitive CS was transformed into a fear CS via pairings with footshock. The development of…

  15. An appropriate tool for appetite testing and evaluation in young children in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18–30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad li

  16. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep–wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psyc...

  17. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  18. The relationship between appetite and food preferences in British and Australian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fildes, A.; Mallan, K.M.; Cooke, L.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; Daniels, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appetitive traits and food preferences are key determinants of children's eating patterns but it is unclear how these behaviours relate to one another. This study explores relationships between appetitive traits and preferences for fruits and vegetables, and energy dense, nutrient poor (

  19. The Acute Effects of Swimming on Appetite, Food Intake, and Plasma Acylated Ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming may stimulate appetite and food intake but empirical data are lacking. This study examined appetite, food intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin responses to swimming. Fourteen healthy males completed a swimming trial and a control trial in a random order. Sixty min after breakfast participants swam for 60 min and then rested for six hours. Participants rested throughout the control trial. During trials appetite was measured at 30 min intervals and acylated ghrelin was assessed periodically (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7.5 h. =10. Appetite was suppressed during exercise before increasing in the hours after. Acylated ghrelin was suppressed during exercise. Swimming did not alter energy or macronutrient intake assessed at buffet meals (total trial energy intake: control 9161 kJ, swimming 9749 kJ. These findings suggest that swimming stimulates appetite but indicate that acylated ghrelin and food intake are resistant to change in the hours afterwards.

  20. Modeling appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental interactions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eoin C; Stephens, David N; Crombag, Hans S

    2010-10-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian associative learning, a stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) that has been associated with the delivery of a reinforcing event (unconditioned stimulus, US; e.g., food) can subsequently elicit or modulate goal-directed instrumental behaviors. For example, a Pavlovian CS can serve to reinforce (novel) instrumental behavior (conditioned reinforcement or CRf), or it can energize and potentiate ongoing instrumental responses when presented non-contingently (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer or PIT). Notably, these different effects of a Pavlovian CS on instrumental behavior are mediated by dissociable psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. Given the critical role that Pavlovian-instrumental interactions play in regulating motivated behavior and maladaptive manifestations of motivation such as eating disorders and addictions, understanding the underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms will be important. This unit describes behavioral protocols that produce robust and reliable PIT and CRf in mice and that open the door for future studies using transgenic approaches into the molecular mechanisms underlying associative learning and motivation.

  1. Hippocampal unit activity during classical aversive and appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M; Disterhoft, J F; Olds, J

    1972-02-18

    Rats were trained with a tone being followed by either food or electric shock, on alternate days. Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from the dorsal hippocampus. The results indicate differentiation of the hippocampal system. Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. The hippocampus proper responds by augmentation in both situations. The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. These data cast light on the functions of the dorsal dentate-hippocampal connections and the hippocampus proper during aversive and appetitive conditioning.

  2. CART in the Regulation of Appetite and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie eLau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s. However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions1,2. In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART’s role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.

  3. The Histaminergic Tuberomamillary Nucleus Is Involved in Appetite for Sex, Water and Amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Marco; Riveros, María E; Quispe, Maricel; Sánchez, Cristián; Perdomo, Guayec; Torrealba, Fernando; Valdés, José L

    2016-01-01

    The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.

  4. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  5. Development of a lack of appetite item bank for computer-adaptive testing (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K;

    2015-01-01

    measurement precision. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Here, we report on the development of the lack of appetite CAT. METHODS: The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases: literature search, operationalization, pre...... to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...

  6. Participation of α2 -adrenoceptors in sodium appetite inhibition during sickness behaviour following administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Laurival A; Almeida, Roberto L; David, Richard B; de Paula, Patricia M; Andrade, Carina A F; Menani, José V

    2016-03-15

    Sickness behaviour, a syndrome characterized by a general reduction in animal activity, is part of the active-phase response to fight infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an effective endotoxin to model sickness behaviour, reduces thirst and sodium excretion, and increases neurohypophysial secretion. Here we review the effects of LPS on thirst and sodium appetite. Altered renal function and hydromineral fluid intake in response to LPS occur in the context of behavioural reorganization, which manifests itself as part of the syndrome. Recent data show that, in addition to its classical effect on thirst, non-septic doses of LPS injected intraperitoneally produce a preferential inhibition of intracellular thirst versus extracellular thirst. Moreover, LPS also reduced hypertonic NaCl intake in sodium-depleted rats that entered a sodium appetite test. Antagonism of α2 -adrenoceptors abolished the effect of LPS on sodium appetite. LPS and cytokine transduction potentially recruit brain noradrenaline and α2 -adrenoceptors to control sodium appetite and sickness behaviour. PMID:26036817

  7. APPETITE INHIBITORS CLASSIFIED AS ONE OF CONDITIONS RELATED TO DEVELOPMENT OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecilene Gomes Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian population leads the world in consumption of appetite suppressants/ anorectics. Prolonged use of appetite suppressants can cause pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, a chronic and disabling. Taking into consideration the large intake of appetite suppressants in Brazil and the fact that these are, according to the WHO, among the conditions related to the incidence of pulmonary hypertension and given the seriousness of this condition tothe carrier, saw the need to conduct a literature review on the adverse effects of these drugs, and know what are the risks of imminent health and also seek information about the HAP, with the aim of adding knowledge to nursing professionals to enable the health education regarding the conscious use of appetite suppressants and stimulate the search for information about a serious illness and so little known in nursing as PAH.

  8. Appetitive and aversive olfactory learning induce similar generalization rates in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nick; Roussel, Edith; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2014-03-01

    Appetitive and aversive learning drive an animal toward or away from stimuli predicting reinforcement, respectively. The specificity of these memories may vary due to differences in cost–benefit relationships associated with appetitive and aversive contexts. As a consequence, generalization performances may differ after appetitive and aversive training. Here, we determined whether honey bees show different rates of olfactory generalization following appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response, or aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension response. In both cases, we performed differential conditioning, which improves discrimination learning between a reinforced odor (CS?) and a non-reinforced odor (CS-) and evaluated generalization to two novel odors whose similarity to the CS? and the CS- was different. We show, given the same level of discriminatory performance, that rates of generalization are similar between the two conditioning protocols and discuss the possible causes for this phenomenon.

  9. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing

    OpenAIRE

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Ávila, César

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objec...

  10. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    OpenAIRE

    Mareike eAugsburger; Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis; Manassé eBambonye; Thomas eElbert; Anselm eCrombach

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  11. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  12. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additio...

  13. Ghrelin-derived peptides: a link between appetite/reward, GH axis and psychiatric disorders ?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra eLabarthe; Oriane eFiquet; Rim eHassouna; Philippe eZizzari; Laurence eLanfumey; Nicolas eRamoz; Dominique eGrouselle; Jacques eEpelbaum; Virginie eTolle

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiat...

  14. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Mattes, Richard D.; Hendrickson, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  15. Understanding the role of Umami in appetite control: a protein-specific effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Masic, Una

    2014-01-01

    The fifth basic taste, ‘umami’, is the flavour function elicited by amino acids like monosodium glutamate (MSG) in foods. This taste is recognized for its flavour enhancing properties but little is known about its effects on appetite and intake. Thus the experiments in this thesis aimed to understand how umami influences pleasantness, appetite stimulation, satiation and satiety using MSG, with some additional focus on its associated ribonucleotide inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP). Chapter 2...

  16. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd A; Casey, B J

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI...

  17. Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijlstra, Nicolien; Mars, Monica; de Wijk, René A;

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22+/-2 y, BMI 21.9+/-2.2 kg...... than the liquid. There was a significant product effect for fullness (p 0.03), desire to eat (p 0.04), appetite something sweet (p 0.002) and prospective consumption (p 0.0009). We observed no clear effect of viscosity on gastro-intestinal hormones. Only for desacyl ghrelin there was a significant...... product effect (p 0.004). Concentrations were consistently higher after intake of the semi-solid product. Ad libitum intake of the chocolate cake was 102+/-55 g after the liquid and 96+/-46 g after the semi-solid product (ns). The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro...

  18. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Tucci

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  19. Prenatal imprinting of postnatal specific appetites and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaïdis, Stylianos

    2008-10-01

    Epigenetic influences on the fetus's genotype have been shown to occur during intrauterine life. Experimentally imposed extracellular dehydration in pregnant rats (a model for human hyponatremia caused by gravidic vomiting) brings about a dramatic enhancement of salt appetite not only in the dam, but also in offspring when they reach adulthood. This phenomenon has been verified in human newborn infants and adults whose mothers experienced nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy enhances its palatability for the offspring. Ingestion of olfactory test substances like anise or carrot by the mother during pregnancy gives rise to a preference for the same testants in the offspring. Under- or overnutrition in the pregnant mother appears to play a role in reprogramming the postnatal regulation of both feeding and fat reserves in offspring. Both maternal under- and overnutrition during pregnancy predispose the offspring to later development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A careful examination of the systems concerned with the regulation of food intake, and the neurosubstances involved in such regulation, reveals some of the mechanisms by which maternal nutritional status can affect the offspring and their food-related behaviors.

  20. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF TRIKATU AS APPETITE STIMULENT (AGNIVARDHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Human beings, in order to adjust themselves in the modest era, have been compelled to become fast and mechanical. This is the reason why they can’t give proper attention to daily and seasonal regimes, exercise and diet. This change in lifestyle is responsible for Agnimandya. According to them Mandagni is Root cause of every disease. Agni plays the key role in the process of bio-transformation. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the role of Trikatu (Pippali, Maricha and Shunthi as appetite stimulent (Agnivardhan.Methods and Material: This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Agnimandya between 20 and 60 years of age were randomly assigned to receive treatments. One group received Trikatu churna while another group received Agnitundi Vati. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 3 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Avipak, Prasek, Kshudhamandya, Shirogaurav, Amashay Pradeshi gaurav, Antrakujan, Pravahan were graded and interpreted at the end of the trial.Results: The result was found effective for treating Avipak, Prasek, Kshudhamandya, Shirogaurav, Amashay Pradeshi gaurav, Antrakujan, Pravahan of Agnimandya in the group treated with Trikatu Churna. The results for the above criteria for the assessment was found statically highly significant.Conclusions: Trikatu Churna is highly effective in treating Agnimandya.

  1. Appetitive and aversive learning in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ali; Colson, Violaine; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these conditions, the memory formed could be recalled at least 24 h after pairing with an aversive stimulus and only 5 min after pairing with an appetitive stimulus. This learning was specific to CS because trained larvae were able to discriminate CS from another odor that was present during the training but unrewarded. These results suggest that Lepidoptera larvae exhibit more behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated. PMID:21653242

  2. Predicting Hunger: The Effects of Appetite and Delay on Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read; van Leeuwen B

    1998-11-01

    Preferences often fluctuate as a result of transient changes in hunger and other visceral states. When current decisions have delayed consequences, the preferences that should be relevant are those that will prevail when the consequences occur. However, consistent with the notion of an intrapersonal empathy gap (Loewenstein, 1996) we find that an individual's current state of appetite has a significant effect on choices that apply to the future. Participants in our study made advance choices between healthy and unhealthy snacks (i.e., fruit and junk food) that they would receive in 1 week when they were either hungry (late in the afternoon) or satisfied (immediately after lunch). In 1 week, at the appointed time, they made an immediate choice, an opportunity to change their advance choice. Our main predictions were strongly confirmed. First, advance choices were influenced by current hunger as well as future hunger: hungry participants chose more unhealthy snacks than did satisfied ones. Second, participants were dynamically inconsistent: they chose far more unhealthy snacks for immediate choice than for advance choice. An additional hypothesis related to gender differences was also confirmed. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9831521

  3. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  4. Contrasting role of octopamine in appetitive and aversive learning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kaczer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.

  5. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

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    Geneviève Painchaud Guérard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.

  6. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  7. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  8. The Histaminergic Tuberomamillary Nucleus Is Involved in Appetite for Sex, Water and Amphetamine.

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    Marco Contreras

    Full Text Available The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.

  9. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

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    Stephanie M. Howe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  10. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal.

  11. Association between plasma endocannabinoids and appetite in hemodialysis patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N; Kim, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Shaun; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W; Watkins, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    Uremia-associated anorexia may be related to altered levels of long chain n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derived circulating endocannabinoids (EC) and EC-like compounds that are known to mediate appetite. Our study's hypothesis was that such molecules are associated with appetite in patients with end-stage renal disease. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 20 chronic hemodialysis patients (9 females, 11 males) and 10 healthy female controls in whom appetite was assessed using the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and blood drawn in the fasting (and when applicable) pre-dialysis state. Blood levels of PUFA and EC were also measured. Higher blood levels of the long chain n-6 fatty acid 20:4n6 (arachidonic acid) and lower levels of the long chain n-3 fatty acid 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) were observed in female hemodialysis patients compared to controls. No differences were observed between male and female patients. In female study participants strong correlations between specific EC-like compounds and total SNAQ scores were noted, including with the n-6 PUFA derived linoleoyl ethanolamide (L-EA; ρ=-0.60, Psupport a link between circulating EC and appetite in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27333956

  12. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  13. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal. PMID:15527924

  14. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H; Hare, Todd; Casey, B J

    2011-09-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal, and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using fMRI scanning. Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go/no-go task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. This performance decrement in teens was paralleled by enhanced activity in the ventral striatum. Prefrontal cortical recruitment correlated with overall accuracy and showed a linear response with age for no-go versus go trials. Connectivity analyses identified a ventral frontostriatal circuit including the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal striatum during no-go versus go trials. Examining recruitment developmentally showed that teens had greater between-subject ventral-dorsal striatal coactivation relative to children and adults for happy no-go versus go trials. These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. Connectivity and coactivity data suggest these systems communicate at the level of the dorsal striatum differentially across development. Biased responding in this system is one possible mechanism underlying heightened risk-taking during adolescence. PMID:20809855

  15. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-09-10

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight.

  16. Neuroticism and extraversion moderate neural responses and effective connectivity during appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweckendiek, Jan; Stark, Rudolf; Klucken, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Classical appetitive conditioning constitutes a basic learning process through which environmental stimuli can be associated with reward. Previous studies showed that individual differences in neuroticism and extraversion influence emotional processing and have been shown to modulate neural activity in subcortical and prefrontal areas in response to emotional stimuli. However, the role of individual differences in appetitive conditioning has so far not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the association between neuroticism and extraversion with neural activity and connectivity during appetitive conditioning. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was either a picture of a dish or a cup. One stimulus (CS+) was paired with a monetary reward and the other stimulus (CS-) was associated with its absence while hemodynamic activity was measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. A significant negative correlation of neuroticism scores with amygdala activity was observed during appetitive conditioning. Further, extraversion was positively associated with responses in the hippocampus and the thalamus. In addition, effective connectivity between the amygdala as a seed region and the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the thalamus was negatively correlated with neuroticism scores and positively correlated with extraversion scores. The results may indicate a neural correlate for the deficits in appetitive learning in subjects with high neuroticism scores and point to a facilitating effect of extraversion on reward-related learning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2992-3002, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27132706

  17. Exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone does not elicit a salt appetite in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankevicius, M L; Widowski, T M

    2003-02-01

    In rodents, rabbits, and sheep, exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) leads to a marked increase in sodium appetite. It has been suggested that if pigs show a similar response to stress, an appetite for salt could increase their attraction to blood and contribute to the development of tail biting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ACTH on salt appetite in growing pigs. Individually housed Yorkshire pigs (45 kg) were divided into three groups of four. Group 1 had free access to water, 0.5 M NaCl, and 0.5 M KCl solutions; Group 2 to water, 0.5, and 0.25 M NaCl solutions; Group 3 to water, 0.25, and 0.125 M NaCl solutions. Intramuscular injection of long-acting synthetic ACTH (50 IU twice daily for 5 days) did not elicit increases in intakes of any of the available salt solutions compared to pretreatment intakes. However, there was a 1.6-fold increase in both water and feed intake during ACTH treatment. ACTH treatment also stimulated significant increases in salivary cortisol concentrations. Although increases in salivary cortisol concentrations and in water and feed intake indicate that there were physiological responses to the treatment, exogenous ACTH given for 5 days did not elicit a sodium appetite in growing pigs. These findings do not support the notion that a stress-induced salt appetite serves as an underlying mechanism for tail biting. PMID:12576126

  18. The Use of Functional MRI to Study Appetite Control in the CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila De Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has provided the opportunity to safely investigate the workings of the human brain. This paper focuses on its use in the field of human appetitive behaviour and its impact in obesity research. In the present absence of any safe or effective centrally acting appetite suppressants, a better understanding of how appetite is controlled is vital for the development of new antiobesity pharmacotherapies. Early functional imaging techniques revealed an attenuation of brain reward area activity in response to visual food stimuli when humans are fed—in other words, the physiological state of hunger somehow increases the appeal value of food. Later studies have investigated the action of appetite modulating hormones on the fMRI signal, showing how the attenuation of brain reward region activity that follows feeding can be recreated in the fasted state by the administration of anorectic gut hormones. Furthermore, differences in brain activity between obese and lean individuals have provided clues about the possible aetiology of overeating. The hypothalamus acts as a central gateway modulating homeostatic and nonhomeostatic drives to eat. As fMRI techniques constantly improve, functional data regarding the role of this small but hugely important structure in appetite control is emerging.

  19. Is physical activity associated with appetite? A survey of long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermott, Megann; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Weiss, Edward P; Tomazic, Terry J; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this research was to explore the influence of physical activity on the appetite of older adults in long-term care. Given the impact of the anorexia of aging and the increasing numbers of older adults, this could have significant health implications. Residents (N = 93) of a long-term care, assisted living, and rehabilitation facility were surveyed using the "Appetite & Activity Questionnaire." There was no relationship found between physical activity and appetite regardless of the participants' sex or age. BMI appeared to correlate well with the amount of activity that was performed. The most salient finding was the near absence of physical activity, even in the presence of facilities, support personnel, and available time. PMID:19234996

  20. Appetitive behavioral traits and stimulus intensity influence maintenance of conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eOlshavsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in appetitive learning have long been reported, and generally divide into two classes of responses: cue- vs. reward-directed. The influence of cue- vs. reward-directed phenotypes on aversive cue processing, is less well understood. In the current study, we first categorized rats based on their predominant cue-directed orienting responses during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. Then, we investigated the effect of phenotype on the latency to exit a familiar dark environment and enter an unfamiliar illuminated open field. Next, we examined whether the two phenotypes responded differently to a reconsolidation updating manipulation (retrieval+extinction after fear conditioning. We report that the rats with a cue-directed (orienting phenotype differentially respond to the open field, and also to fear conditioning, depending on US-intensity. In addition, our findings suggest that, regardless of appetitive phenotype or shock intensity, extinction within the reconsolidation window prevents spontaneous recovery of fear.

  1. Influence of dexamethasone on appetite and body weight in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarčev Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Anorexia and cachexia are the most common symptoms in cancer patients. They increase morbidity and mortality among cancer patients as well as complications of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The most common drugs for treatment of cancer cachexia are corticosteroids and megestrol acetate. Material and Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dexamethasone on appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Group A (30 patients was treated with cisplatin, etoposide and standard supportive therapy, while group B (30 patients received, in addition to this treatment, dexamethasone in the dose of 8 mg intravenously per day (1-3 day of chemotherapy. Results There was a statistically significant difference in appetite loss between two groups after the second chemotherapy cycle favoring group A. The analysis of weight loss showed a statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles, once again in favor of group A. Concerning the improvement of appetite and weight gain, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles. Discussion Many double-blind randomized controlled studies showed beneficial symptomatic effect of corticosteroids in cancer cachexia, especially on the improvement of appetite, food intake and performance status. In most of the studies the weight gain was not recorded. The most effective type of corticosteroids, dose and route of administration have not been established. Conclusion Dexamethasone significantly decreases appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, while it has no influence on appetite improvement and weight gain.

  2. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...

  3. Impact of appetitive and aversive outcomes on brain responses: Linking the animal and human literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B Bissonette

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is motivated by the possibility of obtaining reward and/or avoiding punishment. Though many have investigated behavior associated with appetitive or aversive outcomes, few have examined behaviors that rely on both. Fewer still have addressed questions related to how anticipated appetitive and aversive outcomes interact to alter neural signals related to expected value, motivation, and salience. Here we review recent rodent, monkey, and human research that address these issues. Further development of this area will be fundamental to understanding the etiology behind human psychiatric diseases and cultivating more effective treatments.

  4. Food Preference and Appetite after Switching between Sweet and Savoury Odours in Women.

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    Mariëlle G Ramaekers

    Full Text Available Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown.Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products.Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2 intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour in a within-subject design with four combinations: no-odour/banana, no-odour/meat, meat/banana and banana/meat. Participants received one combination per test day. In each combination, two cups with different fillings were smelled for five minutes after each other. Treatment order was balanced as much as possible. The effects of previous exposure and current odour on the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, and odour pleasantness were analysed. A change from meat to banana odour or banana to meat odour was referred to as switch, whereas a change from no-odour to meat odour or no-odour to banana odour was no-switch.The current odour (P<0.001, as opposed to the previous exposure (P = 0.71, determined the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, already one minute after a switch between sweet and savoury odours. The pleasantness of the odour decreased during odour exposure (P = 0.005.After a switch, the appetite for specific products quickly adjusted to the new odour and followed the typical pattern as found during odour exposure in previous studies. Interestingly, the appetite for the smelled food remained elevated during odour exposure, known as sensory-specific appetite, whereas the pleasantness of the odour decreased over time, previously termed olfactory sensory-specific satiety. This seeming contradiction may result from different mechanisms underlying the odour-induced anticipation of food intake versus the decrease in hedonic value during prolonged sensory

  5. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ...

  6. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse;

    2014-01-01

    no differences in 24 h and postprandial EE or appetite regulation. However, lipid oxidation, estimated from the respiratory quotient (RQ), was found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC during daytime (P= 0·014) as well as during the time after the breakfast meal (P= 0·008) when...... the food was provided. Likewise, NEFA concentrations were found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC and IC (P...-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on EE and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC....

  7. Reinforcement in an in Vitro Analog of Appetitive Classical Conditioning of Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia": Blockade by a Dopamine Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Fredy D.; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2005-01-01

    In a recently developed in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding in "Aplysia," the unconditioned stimulus (US) was electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve (En). This nerve is rich in dopamine (DA)-containing processes, which suggests that DA mediates reinforcement during appetitive conditioning. To test this…

  8. Multivitamin-multimineral and iron supplementation did not improve appetite of young stunted and anemic Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, low food intake is often reported in children < 5 y old. Reduced appetite may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether a combination of a multivitamin-multimineral supplement and additional iron treatment improved appetite and growth of 18- to 30-mo-old stunted and

  9. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results...

  10. Branding and Positioning to Satisfy the Customer's Appetite: An Educational Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Rebranding and positioning a school district has become critical to satisfy the "customer's" appetite, enhance public relations, and advance consumer perceptions. A service design model provides a district with the framework to advance its position by identifying attributes and prompts to satisfy customer needs and increase student enrollment. A…

  11. When competition breeds equality: effects of appetitive versus aversive competition in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. ten Velden; B. Beersma; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2011-01-01

    Competitive motivation is prevalent in negotiation but systematic insight into its effects is missing. We introduce the distinction between appetitive competition, in which negotiators seek relative gain, and aversive competition, in which negotiators seek to prevent relative loss. Two experiments t

  12. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues.

  13. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  14. Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca eLizarbe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI, Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD and Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI have revealed Mn2+accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks, becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable.

  15. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.

  16. Aversive Learning and Appetitive Motivation Toggle Feed-Forward Inhibition in the Drosophila Mushroom Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisse, Emmanuel; Owald, David; Barnstedt, Oliver; Talbot, Clifford B; Huetteroth, Wolf; Waddell, Scott

    2016-06-01

    In Drosophila, negatively reinforcing dopaminergic neurons also provide the inhibitory control of satiety over appetitive memory expression. Here we show that aversive learning causes a persistent depression of the conditioned odor drive to two downstream feed-forward inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the mushroom body, called MVP2, or mushroom body output neuron (MBON)-γ1pedc>α/β. However, MVP2 neuron output is only essential for expression of short-term aversive memory. Stimulating MVP2 neurons preferentially inhibits the odor-evoked activity of avoidance-directing MBONs and odor-driven avoidance behavior, whereas their inhibition enhances odor avoidance. In contrast, odor-evoked activity of MVP2 neurons is elevated in hungry flies, and their feed-forward inhibition is required for expression of appetitive memory at all times. Moreover, imposing MVP2 activity promotes inappropriate appetitive memory expression in food-satiated flies. Aversive learning and appetitive motivation therefore toggle alternate modes of a common feed-forward inhibitory MVP2 pathway to promote conditioned odor avoidance or approach. PMID:27210550

  17. Appetitive Pavlovian Goal-Tracking Memories Reconsolidate Only under Specific Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive evidence that appetitive memories undergo reconsolidation, two notable failures to observe reconsolidation have been reported: instrumental responding and goal-tracking. However, these studies do not provide conclusive evidence for a lack of memory reconsolidation due to the numerous boundary conditions that dictate whether a…

  18. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response (PER conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate (IPA, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  19. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Francés, Bernard; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular, and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones) affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP) which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24 h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  20. The combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers and the nature of their interaction during auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W

    2010-03-31

    Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance.

  1. Validation of an iPad visual analogue rating system for assessing appetite and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Louise; Smith, Adam; Re, Roberta; Wickham, Martin; Philippides, Andrew; Watten, Phil; Yeomans, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77 kcal) and high energy (HE: 274 kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data.

  2. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antisense Oligonucleotides Attenuates Salt Appetite in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma; Itharat; Fluharty; Sakai

    1997-10-01

    The anterior ventral third ventricle (AV3V) region of the brain contains high concentrations of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that are important in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance as well as other physiological processes. Daily intracerebroventricular pulse injections of MR antisense oligonucleotides significantly suppressed deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) induced salt appetite in a dose-related manner. Similar administration of GR antisense or scrambled/sense oligonucleotide into the third ventricle failed to inhibit salt appetite. Salt appetite aroused after adrenalectomy was not suppressed by MR antisense oligonucleotide treatments but was suppressed by an antisense oligonucleotide directed against the angiotensin II AT1 receptor subtype. Receptor binding analysis demonstrated that MR and GR oligonucleotide treatments each reduced their respective receptor subtypes. Finally, although GR antisense oligonucleotide treatment was ineffective in suppressing DOCA-induced salt appetite, this treatment did increase stress induced corticosterone release as well as delayed the recovery of corticosterone to basal levels after stress. PMID:9787254

  3. Association between plasma endocannabinoids and appetite in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is a well-recognized complication in subjects undergoing hemodialysis for impaired kidney function. This pilot study explored whether plasma levels of compounds known to mediate appetite, the endocannabinoids (EC) and EC-like compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ar...

  4. Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South-African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.R.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritiona

  5. Associations of Children's Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provid

  6. Frontostriatal Maturation Predicts Cognitive Control Failure to Appetitive Cues in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions…

  7. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  8. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  9. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Michael P; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  10. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  11. Female attraction to appetitive-aggressive men is modulated by women's menstrual cycle and men's vulnerability to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gilda; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier´s experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the "warrior" was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness. PMID:23531810

  12. Two Pairs of Mushroom Body Efferent Neurons Are Required for Appetitive Long-Term Memory Retrieval in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Plaçais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing memory research is to combine network- and cellular-level descriptions of memory encoding. In this context, Drosophila offers the opportunity to decipher, down to single-cell resolution, memory-relevant circuits in connection with the mushroom bodies (MBs, prominent structures for olfactory learning and memory. Although the MB-afferent circuits involved in appetitive learning were recently described, the circuits underlying appetitive memory retrieval remain unknown. We identified two pairs of cholinergic neurons efferent from the MB α vertical lobes, named MB-V3, that are necessary for the retrieval of appetitive long-term memory (LTM. Furthermore, LTM retrieval was correlated to an enhanced response to the rewarded odor in these neurons. Strikingly, though, silencing the MB-V3 neurons did not affect short-term memory (STM retrieval. This finding supports a scheme of parallel appetitive STM and LTM processing.

  13. Alcohol intake and its effect on some appetite-regulating hormones in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...... is hardly mediated by any of the hormones studied in this investigation, as the GLP-1 and obestatin levels were unaffected by alcohol, the ghelin level decreased, and leptin - although declining after alcohol - has not previously been found to have short-term inhibitory effect on hunger....

  14. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain...... rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake......Background: Wholegrain rye has been associated with decreased hunger sensations. This may be partly mediated by colonic fermentation. Sustained consumption of fermentable components is known to change the gut microflora and may increase numbers of saccharolytic bacteria. Objective: To investigate...

  15. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  16. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  17. Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Howard L; Hjelmstad, Gregory O; Margolis, Elyssa B; Nicola, Saleem M

    2007-01-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuron firing precedes behaviors elicited by reward-predictive sensory cues and scales with the magnitude and unpredictability of received rewards. These patterns are consistent with roles in the performance of learned appetitive behaviors and in positive reinforcement, respectively. The VTA includes subpopulations of neurons with different afferent connections, neurotransmitter content, and projection targets. Because the VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta are the sole sources of striatal and limbic forebrain dopamine, measurements of dopamine release and manipulations of dopamine function have provided critical evidence supporting a VTA contribution to these functions. However, the VTA also sends GABAergic and glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, VTA-mediated but dopamine-independent positive reinforcement has been demonstrated. Consequently, identifying the neurotransmitter content and projection target of VTA neurons recorded in vivo will be critical for determining their contribution to learned appetitive behaviors.

  18. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Laura E; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    . They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair......Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...

  19. Age-related changes in reappraisal of appetitive cravings during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to regulate temptation and manage appetitive cravings is an important aspect of healthy adolescent development, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In the present study, 60 healthy females evenly distributed from 10 to 23 years of age used reappraisal to regulate the desire to consume personally-craved and not craved unhealthy foods. Reappraisal elicited activity in common self-regulation regions including dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (...

  20. Cachexia in chronic kidney disease: a link to defective central nervous system control of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Mitch, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Anorexia is one of several abnormalities characterizing chronic kidney disease (CKD) that cause cachexia, the loss of muscle and adipose stores. It has been attributed to mechanisms ranging from accumulation of toxic “middle molecules” to psychological problems. In this issue of the JCI, Cheung and coworkers used elegant techniques to demonstrate that CKD-associated anorexia is caused by defective hypothalamic regulation of appetite. They attributed the defect to an alteration in the hypothal...

  1. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, James K.; Weierstall, Roland; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated “appetitive” aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N = 50) presented with an imaginative listening task i...

  2. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

    OpenAIRE

    James Kenneth Moran

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated ‘appetitive’ aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N=50) presented with an imaginative listening task inv...

  3. The influence of CS-US interval on several different indices of learning in appetitive conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Delamater, Andrew R.; Holland, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of varying the CS-US interval (and US density) on learning in an appetitive magazine approach task with rats. Learning was assessed with conditioned response (CR) measures, as well as measures of sensory-specific stimulus-outcome associations (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, potentiated feeding, and US devaluation). The results from these studies indicate that there exists an inverse relation between CS-US interval and magazine approach CRs, but that sen...

  4. The Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonist, Ezlopitant, Reduces Appetitive Responding for Sucrose and Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Pia Steensland; Simms, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Carsten K.; Joan Holgate; Bito-Onon, Jade J.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; howeve...

  5. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women. PMID:25138661

  6. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. Pautassi; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditione...

  7. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: Using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed – by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eati...

  8. Ghrelin-derived peptides: a link between appetite/reward, GH axis and psychiatric disorders ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eLabarthe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress, …. but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe 1 the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, 2 how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH

  9. Appetite-modifying actions of pro-neuromedin U-derived peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtold, David A.; Ivanov, Tina R.; Luckman, Simon M.

    2009-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is known to have potent actions on appetite and energy expenditure. Deletion of the NMU gene in mice leads to an obese phenotype, characterized by hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely, transgenic mice that overexpress proNMU exhibit reduced body weight and fat storage. Here, we show that central administration of NMU or the related peptide neuromedin S (NMS) dose-dependently decreases food intake, increases metabolic rate, and leads to significant weight...

  10. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  11. Can Flaxseed Help Satisfy Appetite in Women Subjected to Bariatric Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliane Cosendey-Menegati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective immediate weight loss method for the morbidly obese, despite widely reported weight regain after a few years. Appetite, satiety and satiation control are essential to maintaining a long-term result post-surgery. Dietary fatty acids composition may be implicated in the satiety. As flaxseed is a food high in linolenic acid, we aimed to verify the influence of flaxseed fat on appetite and satiety of women after bariatric surgery.Material and methods: Six women who underwent bariatric surgery at least 2 years before participated in a single-blind crossover trial that compared the effect of two isocaloric meals on satiety, one containing whole golden flaxseed (high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber (G1 and another withdefatted flaxseed (high in fiber (G2, with one week of washout period. This variable was estimated by visual analogue scales in both meals at baseline (T0, immediately after ingestion (T1 and 60, 120, and 180 minutes after the meal (T60, T120 and T180. Fasting anthropometric, body composition, laboratory tests (glucose and lipids and dietary variables, were evaluated while fasting.Results: The volunteers were obese and had excess central adiposity, even after two years of surgery and still showed habitual fibre intake below recommended levels. G1 had reduced hunger after 180 minutes compared to G2 (P=.046. Other parameters related to appetite and satiety did not differ between groups.Conclusions: Less hunger was observed after 180 minutes in whole golden flaxseed meal compared with the defatted flaxseed meal, indicating that the whole golden flaxseed meal, possibly, supports obesity treatment in the long-term after bariatric surgery by controlling appetite and satiety sensations.

  12. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  13. The combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers and the nature of their interaction during auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W

    2010-03-31

    Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance. PMID:20080152

  14. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker;

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.......Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  15. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Ying eDuan; Fang eShen; Ting Ting Gu; Nan eSui

    2016-01-01

    AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward betw...

  16. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug...

  17. Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E

    2016-09-01

    Energy balance is not a simple algebraic sum of energy expenditure and energy intake as often depicted in communications. Energy balance is a dynamic process and there exist reciprocal effects between food intake and energy expenditure. An important distinction is that of metabolic and behavioural components of energy expenditure. These components not only contribute to the energy budget directly, but also by influencing the energy intake side of the equation. It has recently been demonstrated that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potential driver of energy intake, and evidence is accumulating on the influence of physical activity (behavioural energy expenditure) on mechanisms of satiety and appetite control. These effects are associated with changes in leptin and insulin sensitivity, and in the plasma levels of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The influence of fat-free mass on energy expenditure and as a driver of energy intake directs attention to molecules emanating from skeletal tissue as potential appetite signals. Sedentariness (physical inactivity) is positively associated with adiposity and is proposed to be a source of overconsumption and appetite dysregulation. The molecular signals underlying these effects are not known but represent a target for research.

  18. Lean and obese dietary phenotypes: differences in energy and substrate metabolism and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, Louise; Hehir, Anthony P J; Lambert, Estelle V; Beglinger, Christoph; Goedecke, Julia H

    2015-11-28

    This study aimed to characterise lean and obese phenotypes according to diet and body composition, and to compare fasting and postprandial appetite and metabolic profiles following a high-fat test meal. A total of ten lean (BMI40 and 30 kg/m2) high-fat consumers (OHF; >40 % energy from fat) were recruited. Before and following the test meal (4727 kJ (1130 kcal), 77 % fat, 20 % carbohydrate (CHO) and 3 % protein), fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), RER, RMR and subjective appetite ratings (AR) were measured for 6 h. Thereafter, subjects consumed a self-selected portion of a standardised post-test meal (40 % fat, 45 % CHO and 15 % protein) and reported AR. Fasting (P=0·01) and postprandial (Plean groups, fasting and postprandial energy expenditures were significantly higher in OHF compared with LHF (Plean groups showed appropriate changes in plasma ghrelin and PYY following the test meal, whereas the OHF group showed a blunted response. In conclusion, the LHF phenotype had a greater capacity for fat oxidation, which may be protective against weight gain. OHF individuals had a blunted appetite hormone response to the high-fat test meal, which may subsequently increase energy intake, driving further weight gain.

  19. Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E

    2016-09-01

    Energy balance is not a simple algebraic sum of energy expenditure and energy intake as often depicted in communications. Energy balance is a dynamic process and there exist reciprocal effects between food intake and energy expenditure. An important distinction is that of metabolic and behavioural components of energy expenditure. These components not only contribute to the energy budget directly, but also by influencing the energy intake side of the equation. It has recently been demonstrated that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potential driver of energy intake, and evidence is accumulating on the influence of physical activity (behavioural energy expenditure) on mechanisms of satiety and appetite control. These effects are associated with changes in leptin and insulin sensitivity, and in the plasma levels of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The influence of fat-free mass on energy expenditure and as a driver of energy intake directs attention to molecules emanating from skeletal tissue as potential appetite signals. Sedentariness (physical inactivity) is positively associated with adiposity and is proposed to be a source of overconsumption and appetite dysregulation. The molecular signals underlying these effects are not known but represent a target for research. PMID:27503946

  20. High Amylose White Rice Reduces Post-Prandial Glycemic Response but Not Appetite in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Zenel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.

  1. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  2. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  3. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  4. Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A J; Duka, T

    2010-11-12

    Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable.

  5. Impact of yogurt on appetite control, energy balance, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Angelo; Doyon, Caroline; Sanchez, Marina

    2015-08-01

    Recent data support the idea that regular yogurt consumption promotes body weight stability. The simplest explanation is that regular consumption of healthful foods such as yogurt results in decreased intake of less healthful foods containing high amounts of fat and/or sugar. There is also evidence to suggest that the high calcium and protein contents of yogurt and other dairy foods influence appetite and energy intake. The existence of a calcium-specific appetite control mechanism has been proposed. Milk proteins differ in terms of absorption rate and post-absorptive responses, which can influence their satiating properties. Studies in humans have shown that consumption of milk and yogurt increases the circulating concentration of the anorectic peptides glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY (PYY). The food matrix can also affect appetite and satiety. Yogurt is a fermented milk that contains bacteria that enrich the microbiota of the host. It appears that lean vs obese humans differ in the composition of their gut microbiota. The available relevant literature suggests that yogurt is a food that facilitates the regulation of energy balance.

  6. Effects of the Menopausal Transition on Dietary Intake and Appetite. A MONET Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karine, Duval; Denis, Prud’homme; Rémi, Rabasa-Lhoret; Irene, Strychar; Martin, Brochu; Jean-Marc, Lavoie; Éric, Doucet

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in dietary intake and appetite across the menopausal transition. Methods This was a 5-year observational, longitudinal study on the menopausal transition. The study included 94 premenopausal women at baseline (age: 49.9 ± 1.9 yrs; BMI: 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2). Body composition (DXA), appetite (visual analogue scale), eating frequency, energy intake (EI) and macronutrient composition (7-day food diary and buffet-type meal) were measured annually. Results Repeated-measures analyses revealed that total EI and carbohydrate intake from food diary decreased significantly over time in women who became postmenopausal by year 5 (P > 0.05) compared to women in the menopausal transition. In women who became postmenopausal by year 5, fat and protein intakes decreased across the menopausal transition (0.05 > P food consumption increased during the menopausal transition and remained at this higher level in the postmenopausal years (0.05 > PFasting fullness decreased across the menopausal transition (P food intake and an increase in appetite. PMID:24065065

  7. Prader-Willi syndrome: From genetics to behaviour, with special focus on appetite treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Joanne L; Sinnayah, Puspha; Mathai, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from a deletion in the expression of the paternally derived alleles in the region of 15q11-q13. PWS has a prevalence rate of 1:10,000-1:30,000 and is characterized by marked endocrine abnormalities including growth hormone deficiency and raised ghrelin levels. The hyperphagic phenotype in PWS is established over a number of phases and is exacerbated by impaired satiety, low energy expenditure and intellectual difficulties including obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or autistic behaviours. Clinical management in PWS typically includes familial/carer restriction and close supervision of food intake. If the supervision of food is left unmanaged, morbid obesity eventuates, central to the risk of cardiorespiratory disorder. None of the current appetite management/intervention strategies for PWS include pharmacological treatment, though recent research shows some promise. We review the established aberrant genetics and the endocrine and neuronal attributes which may determine disturbed regulatory processes in PWS. Focusing on clinical trials for appetite behaviours in PWS, we define the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with a view to initiating and focusing research towards possible targets for modulating appetite in PWS.

  8. A high-glycemic meal pattern elicited increased subjective appetite sensations in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Visalakshi; Lee, Jung-Sheng; Nowak, Janice K; Pohle, Rachael J; Nyrop, Jessica E; Leddy, John J; Pelkman, Christine L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of variations in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia on subjective satiety in overweight and obese women. We altered the ingestion rate of a glucose beverage to model the postprandial effects of high- and low-glycemic meals. Fourteen women were tested in a within-subjects' design with two conditions: (1) Rapid, with a large glucose beverage consumed with breakfast and lunch and (2) Slow, with the same volume of glucose beverage consumed in eight portions (one with each meal, and the remaining seven at 20-min intervals after each meal). Meals were identical in the two conditions. Subjective appetitive sensations were measured with visual analog scales before and after meals, and hourly after each meal until 5 pm. Serum glucose and insulin were measured at similar time points. Subjects reported higher ratings of hunger and prospective consumption in the Rapid versus Slow condition at 4h after breakfast and several hours after lunch. Serum glucose was more strongly correlated with the appetitive ratings in the Rapid than the Slow condition, and explained more of the variance (20-31%) than insulin (2-4%). The results of this study support the glucostatic theory linking dynamic changes in blood glucose with appetitive sensations. PMID:17714828

  9. The involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in appetitive and aversive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, J D

    1994-04-18

    In recent years, considerable emphasis has been placed upon the putative role of nucleus accumbens dopamine systems in appetitive motivation and positive reinforcement. However, considerable evidence indicates that brain dopamine in general, and nucleus accumbens dopamine in particular, is involved in aspects of aversive motivation. Administration of dopamine antagonists or localized interference with nucleus accumbens dopamine systems has been shown to disrupt active avoidance behavior. In addition, accumbens dopamine release and metabolism is activated by a wide variety of stressful conditions. A review of the literature indicates that there are substantial similarities between the characteristics of dopaminergic involvement in appetitive and aversive motivation. There is conflicting evidence about the role of dopamine in emotion, and little evidence to suggest that the profound and consistent changes in instrumental behavior produced by interference with DA systems are due to direct dopaminergic mediation of positive affective responses such as hedonia. It is suggested that nucleus accumbens dopamine is involved in aspects of sensorimotor functions that are involved in both appetitive and aversive motivation. PMID:8037860

  10. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shimada

    Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  11. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress-A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders-namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression-are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace. PMID:26696913

  12. Relation of addiction genes to hypothalamic gene changes subserving genesis and gratification of a classic instinct, sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Wolfgang B; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J; Hilton, Donald L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Denton, Derek A

    2011-07-26

    Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 and neural plasticity regulator activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) were up-regulated in lateral hypothalamic orexinergic neurons by sodium deficiency. Administration of dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 receptor (raclopride) antagonists reduced gratification of sodium appetite triggered by sodium deficiency. SCH23390 was specific, having no effect on osmotic-induced water drinking, whereas raclopride also reduced water intake. D1 receptor KO mice had normal sodium appetite, indicating compensatory regulation. Appetite was insensitive to SCH23390, confirming the absence of off-target effects. Bilateral microinjection of SCH23390 (100 nM in 200 nL) into rats' lateral hypothalamus greatly reduced sodium appetite. Gene set enrichment analysis in hypothalami of mice with sodium appetite showed significant enrichment of gene sets previously linked to addiction (opiates and cocaine). This finding of concerted gene regulation was attenuated on gratification with perplexingly rapid kinetics of only 10 min, anteceding significant absorption of salt from the gut. Salt appetite and hedonic liking of salt taste have evolved over >100 million y (e.g., being present in Metatheria). Drugs causing pleasure and addiction are comparatively recent and likely reflect usurping of evolutionary ancient systems with high survival value by the gratification of contemporary hedonic indulgences. Our findings outline a molecular logic for instinctive behavior encoded by the brain with

  13. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  14. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  15. Involvement of oxidative stress in the regulation of NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yu, Ching-Han; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Tsung-Ta; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) treatment can suppress appetite and increase oxidative stress in the brain. AMPH-induced appetite suppression is associated with the regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus. The present study explored whether antioxidants, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GP), were involved in this NPY/CART-mediated appetite control. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days. Changes in food intake and expression levels of hypothalamic NPY, CART, GST, and GP were examined and compared. Results showed that, in AMPH-treated rats, (1) food intake and NPY expression decreased, while CART, GST, and GP expression increased; (2) NPY knockdown in the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and the increases in CART, GST, and GP expression; and (3) central inhibition of reactive oxygen species production decreased GST and GP and modulated AMPH anorexia and the expression levels of NPY and CART. The present results suggest that oxidative stress in the brain participates in regulating NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in AMPH-treated rats. These results may advance the knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of AMPH-evoked or NPY/CART-mediated appetite suppression.

  16. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children. PMID:27507005

  17. Effect of chronic exercise on appetite control in overweight and obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia Vanessa Garcia; Kulseng, Bard; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exercise on body mass is likely to be partially mediated through changes in appetite control. However, no studies have examined the effect of chronic exercise on obestatin and cholecystokinin (CCK) plasma concentrations or the sensitivity to detect differences in preload energy...... in obese individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on 1) fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of obestatin, CCK, leptin, and glucose insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and 2) the accuracy of energy compensation in response to covert preload manipulation....

  18. Meal replacement: calming the hot-state brain network of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Brielle M Paolini; Laurienti, Paul J.; Norris, James; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to “hot states” which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) that exists after a brief period of food ...

  19. Meal Replacement: Calming the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Brielle ePaolini; Laurienti, Paul J.; James eNorris; W. Jack eRejeski

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to hot states which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) that exists after a brief period of food re...

  20. Food intake and appetite control in a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmolin, Camila; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-10-01

    The biological actions of growth hormone (GH) are pleiotropic, including growth promotion, energy mobilization, gonadal development, appetite, and social behavior. The regulatory network for GH is complex and includes many central and peripheral endocrine factors as well as that from the environment. It is known that GH transgenesis results in increased growth, food intake, and consequent metabolic rates in fishes. However, the manner in which GH transgenesis alters the energetic metabolism in fishes has not been well explored. In order to elucidate these consequences, we examined the effect of GH overexpression on appetite control mechanisms in a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. To this, we analyzed feeding behavior and the expression of the main appetite-related genes in two different feeding periods (fed and fasting) in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T) zebrafish as well as glycaemic parameters of them. Our initial results have shown that NT males and females present the same feeding behavior and expression of main appetite-controlling genes; therefore, the data of both sexes were properly grouped. Following grouped data analyses, we compared the same parameters in NT and T animals. Feeding behavior results have shown that T animals eat significantly more and faster than NT siblings. Gene expression results pointed out that gastrointestinal (GT) cholecystokinin has a substantial contribution to the communication between peripheral and central control of food intake. Brain genes expression analyses revealed that T animals have a down-regulation of two strong and opposite peptides related to food intake: the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (npy). The down-regulation of pomc in T when compared with NT is an expected result, since the decrease in an anorexigenic factor might keep the transgenic fish hungry. The down-regulation of npy seemed to be contradictory at first, but if we consider the GH's capacity to

  1. The intestinal distribution pattern of appetite- and glucose regulatory peptides in mice, rats and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Toräng, Signe;

    2016-01-01

    distribution analysis of the tissue content of the major appetite- and glucose regulatory peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-2), oxyntomodulin/glicentin, neurotensin, and peptide YY (PYY) from the duodenum to distal colon...... mouse the highest level was found in the distal colon. In rats and pigs, neurotensin was predominantly detected in mid and lower part of the small intestine, while the mouse showed the highest levels in the distal small intestine. In contrast, the distribution of GIP was restricted to the proximal small...

  2. Appetite - increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes may include: Anxiety Certain drugs (such as corticosteroids, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants) Bulimia (most common in women 18 to 30 years old) Diabetes mellitus (including gestational diabetes ) Graves disease ...

  3. Test-meal palatability is associated with overconsumption but better represents preceding changes in appetite in non-obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Frampton, James; Gonzalez, Javier T

    2016-09-01

    Single-course, ad libitum meals are recommended for the assessment of energy intake within appetite research. This study represents the first investigation of the comparative sensitivity of two single-course, ad libitum meals designed to differ in palatability. We conducted two experiments using a preload study design. All protocols were identical except for the energy content of the preloads (Expt 1: 579 and 1776 kJ; Expt 2: 828 and 4188 kJ). During each experiment, ten healthy men completed four experimental trials constituting a low- or high-energy preload beverage, a 60-min intermeal interval and consumption of a pasta-based or a porridge-based, ad libitum meal. Appetite ratings were measured throughout each trial, and palatability was assessed after food consumption. Preload manipulation did not influence appetite (P=0·791) or energy intake (P=0·561) in Expt 1. Palatability and energy intake were higher for the pasta meal than for the porridge meal in both experiments (palatability P≤0·002; energy intake P≤0·001). In Expt 2, consumption of the high-energy preload decreased appetite (P=0·051) and energy intake (P=0·002). Energy compensation was not significantly different between pasta and porridge meals (P=0·172), but was more strongly correlated with preceding changes in appetite at the pasta meal (r -0·758; P=0·011) than the porridge meal (r -0·498; P=0·143). The provision of a highly palatable, pasta-based meal produced energy intakes that were more representative of preceding appetite ratings, but the moderately palatable, porridge-based meal produced more ecologically valid energy intakes. Ad libitum meal selection and design may require a compromise between sensitivity and ecological validity.

  4. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-08-01

    The belief that breakfast is the most important meal of day has been derived from cross-sectional studies that have associated breakfast consumption with a lower BMI. This suggests that breakfast omission either leads to an increase in energy intake or a reduction in energy expenditure over the remainder of the day, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. However, observational studies do not imply causality. A number of intervention studies have been conducted, enabling more precise determination of breakfast manipulation on indices of energy balance. This review will examine the results from these studies in adults, attempting to identify causal links between breakfast and energy balance, as well as determining whether consumption of breakfast influences exercise performance. Despite the associations in the literature, intervention studies have generally found a reduction in total daily energy intake when breakfast is omitted from the daily meal pattern. Moreover, whilst consumption of breakfast supresses appetite during the morning, this effect appears to be transient as the first meal consumed after breakfast seems to offset appetite to a similar extent, independent of breakfast. Whether breakfast affects energy expenditure is less clear. Whilst breakfast does not seem to affect basal metabolism, breakfast omission may reduce free-living physical activity and endurance exercise performance throughout the day. In conclusion, the available research suggests breakfast omission may influence energy expenditure more strongly than energy intake. Longer term intervention studies are required to confirm this relationship, and determine the impact of these variables on weight management.

  5. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and appetitive sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jessica Y; Wood, Ruth I

    2014-09-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) increase libido and sexual behavior, but the underlying behavioral mechanisms are unclear. One way AAS may enhance expression of sexual behavior is by increasing the willingness to work for sex. In the present study, sexually-experienced male rats received daily injections of testosterone at supraphysiologic doses (7.5 mg/kg in water with 13% cyclodextrin) or vehicle and were tested for appetitive sexual behavior measured by operant responding for access to an estrous female. Initially, rats were trained in their home cage to respond on a nose-poke under a 10-min fixed-interval schedule for food reward. Once rats achieved stable response rates, the food was replaced by a female, followed by mating for 10 min. There was no effect of testosterone on operant responding for food (28.1 ± 4.4 responses/10 min for testosterone, 30.6 ± 4.3 for vehicle) or sex (35.0 ± 4.0 responses/10 min for testosterone, 37.3 ± 5.2 for vehicle). However, rats made significantly more responses for sex than for food (p 0.05). These findings suggest that chronic high-dose testosterone does not enhance appetitive drive for sexual behavior. PMID:25200201

  6. Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Lyons, David J; Cristiano, Claudia; Burke, Luke K; Madara, Joseph C; Campbell, John N; Garcia, Ana Paula; Land, Benjamin B; Lowell, Bradford B; Dileone, Ralph J; Heisler, Lora K

    2016-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a key gateway for meal-related signals entering the brain from the periphery. However, the chemical mediators crucial to this process have not been fully elucidated. We reveal that a subset of NTS neurons containing cholecystokinin (CCK(NTS)) is responsive to nutritional state and that their activation reduces appetite and body weight in mice. Cell-specific anterograde tracing revealed that CCK(NTS) neurons provide a distinctive innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), with fibers and varicosities in close apposition to a subset of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R(PVH)) cells, which are also responsive to CCK. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within the PVH reveal the satiating function of CCK(NTS) neurons to be mediated by a CCK(NTS)→PVH pathway that also encodes positive valence. These data identify the functional significance of CCK(NTS) neurons and reveal a sufficient and discrete NTS to hypothalamus circuit controlling appetite. PMID:26974347

  7. Pontomesencephalic Tegmental Afferents to VTA Non-dopamine Neurons Are Necessary for Appetitive Pavlovian Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Jie Yau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.

  8. Pontomesencephalic Tegmental Afferents to VTA Non-dopamine Neurons Are Necessary for Appetitive Pavlovian Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hau-Jie; Wang, Dong V; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Billy T; Deisseroth, Karl; Ikemoto, Satoshi; Bonci, Antonello

    2016-09-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA) neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.

  9. Effects of high fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien eLowette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source of energy, isolated fructose, in processed food products has been associated with several health disorders such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Apart from its metabolic consequences, a growing body of literature suggests that free fructose can also affect neuronal systems. High fructose intake may on the one hand affect central appetite regulation by altering specific components of the endocannabinoid system. On the other hand it appears to impact on cognitive function by affecting phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin. The present report reviews the recent evidence showing a negative effect of free fructose consumption on central appetite control, as well as cognitive function.

  10. A note on eating disorders and appetite and satiety in the orthodox Jewish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, Yigal; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal.

  11. Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Lyons, David J; Cristiano, Claudia; Burke, Luke K; Madara, Joseph C; Campbell, John N; Garcia, Ana Paula; Land, Benjamin B; Lowell, Bradford B; Dileone, Ralph J; Heisler, Lora K

    2016-03-14

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a key gateway for meal-related signals entering the brain from the periphery. However, the chemical mediators crucial to this process have not been fully elucidated. We reveal that a subset of NTS neurons containing cholecystokinin (CCK(NTS)) is responsive to nutritional state and that their activation reduces appetite and body weight in mice. Cell-specific anterograde tracing revealed that CCK(NTS) neurons provide a distinctive innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), with fibers and varicosities in close apposition to a subset of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R(PVH)) cells, which are also responsive to CCK. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within the PVH reveal the satiating function of CCK(NTS) neurons to be mediated by a CCK(NTS)→PVH pathway that also encodes positive valence. These data identify the functional significance of CCK(NTS) neurons and reveal a sufficient and discrete NTS to hypothalamus circuit controlling appetite.

  12. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p < 0.05). Following the meal, BG was lower after lentils and chickpeas at 150 and 165 min, and AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05). PMID:24797207

  13. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, C. K.; Rosenbaum, D.; Han, H.; Geiselman, P.; Wyatt, H; Hill, J.; Brill, C; Bailer, B.; Miller, B. V.; R. Stein; Klein, S; Foster, Gard D.

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n=134) or a LFD (n=136) for two years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated d...

  14. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Heimerikx, J.; Rubingh, C.M.; Berg, R. van den; O'Shea, M.; Gambelli, L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Einerhand, A.W.C.; Scott, C.; Keizer, H.G.; Mennen, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (

  15. Pectin is not pectin: A randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jonathan, M.C.; Schols, H.A.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber

  16. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Background: Different dietary fats are metabolized differently in humans and may influence energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, appetite regulation, and body weight regulation.Objective: We examined the short-term effects of 4 triacylglycerols (test fats) on subjective appetite, ad libitum...

  17. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  18. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A;

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic ...

  19. Effect of growth in infancy on body composition, insulin resistance, and concentration of appetite hormones in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjaer, Anni; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    High infancy weight gain is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR) in later life, but the association with later body composition has not been well explored. Appetite regulatory hormones may be programmed in early life, but data to support this are lacking....

  20. Immediate Extinction Causes a Less Durable Loss of Performance than Delayed Extinction following Either Fear or Appetitive Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In…

  1. A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, I.

    2015-01-01

    A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control. From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients. Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can influence

  2. Control of Appetite and Food Preference by NMDA Receptor and Its Co-Agonist d-Serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Matsui, Sho; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes a significant negative impact on health of human beings world-wide. The main reason for weight gain, which eventually leads to obesity, is excessive ingestion of energy above the body's homeostatic needs. Therefore, the elucidation of detailed mechanisms for appetite control is necessary to prevent and treat obesity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a post-synaptic glutamate receptor and is important for excitatory neurotransmission. It is expressed throughout the nervous system, and is important for long-term potentiation. It requires both ligand (glutamate) and co-agonist (d-serine or glycine) for efficient opening of the channel to allow calcium influx. d-serine is contained in fermented foods and marine invertebrates, and brain d-serine level is maintained by synthesis in vivo and supply from food and gut microbiota. Although the NMDA receptor has been reported to take part in the central regulation of appetite, the role of d-serine had not been addressed. We recently reported that exogenous d-serine administration can suppress appetite and alter food preference. In this review, we will discuss how NMDA receptor and its co-agonist d-seine participate in the control of appetite and food preference, and elaborate on how this system could possibly be manipulated to suppress obesity. PMID:27399680

  3. Control of Appetite and Food Preference by NMDA Receptor and Its Co-Agonist d-Serine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Sasaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity causes a significant negative impact on health of human beings world-wide. The main reason for weight gain, which eventually leads to obesity, is excessive ingestion of energy above the body’s homeostatic needs. Therefore, the elucidation of detailed mechanisms for appetite control is necessary to prevent and treat obesity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor is a post-synaptic glutamate receptor and is important for excitatory neurotransmission. It is expressed throughout the nervous system, and is important for long-term potentiation. It requires both ligand (glutamate and co-agonist (d-serine or glycine for efficient opening of the channel to allow calcium influx. d-serine is contained in fermented foods and marine invertebrates, and brain d-serine level is maintained by synthesis in vivo and supply from food and gut microbiota. Although the NMDA receptor has been reported to take part in the central regulation of appetite, the role of d-serine had not been addressed. We recently reported that exogenous d-serine administration can suppress appetite and alter food preference. In this review, we will discuss how NMDA receptor and its co-agonist d-seine participate in the control of appetite and food preference, and elaborate on how this system could possibly be manipulated to suppress obesity.

  4. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants with a range of putative health benefits. However, high beverage energy and fructose intake may lead to weight gain and insulin resistance, respectively. This study assessed the effects of CGJ consumption for 12-wk on appetite, di...

  5. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  6. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foltz, Martin; Maljaars, Jeroen; Schuring, Ewoud A. H.; van der Wal, Robert J. P.; Boer, Theo; Duchateau, Guus S. M.; Peters, Harry P. F.; Stellaard, Frans; Masclee, Ad A.

    2009-01-01

    Foltz M, Maljaars J, Schuring EA, van der Wal RJ, Boer T, Duchateau GS, Peters HP, Stellaard F, Masclee AA. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G982-G991,

  7. Slimming and Appetite-Suppressing Effects of Caraway Aqueous Extract as a Natural Therapy in Physically Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Hamzah, Sareena; Hajifaraji, Majid; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Following the current 'Globesity' trend, there is an increasing demand for alternative natural therapies for weight management. Numerous phytoconstituents reduce body weight through suppressing appetite and reducing food intake. Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is one of the medicinal plants that is traditionally used for weight loss. In this study, the appetite-suppressing effects of caraway aqueous extract (CAE) on 70 aerobically trained, overweight, and obese women were examined in a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Subjects were randomly allocated into placebo and experimental groups and consumed either 30 mL/day of CAE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity over a period of 90 days. Calorie and macronutrient intake and anthropometric indices were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, appetite changes were assessed through a visual analog scale and an ad libitum pizza test. After the intervention, the results showed a significant reduction in appetite levels and carbohydrate intake of the experimental group compared with the placebo group. All of the anthropometric indices were reduced significantly in CAE compared with placebo group (p < 0.01). These preliminary outcomes suggest that a dietary CAE might be effective in weight management of physically active, adult females, reducing their body size and hunger level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26988309

  8. Review: Efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal;

    2013-01-01

    on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence......This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...... on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity...

  9. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin......, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels...

  10. Comparative analysis reveals loss of the appetite-regulating peptide hormone ghrelin in falcons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2015-05-15

    Ghrelin and leptin are key peripherally secreted appetite-regulating hormones in vertebrates. Here we consider the ghrelin gene (GHRL) of birds (class Aves), where it has been reported that ghrelin inhibits rather than augments feeding. Thirty-one bird species were compared, revealing that most species harbour a functional copy of GHRL and the coding region for its derived peptides ghrelin and obestatin. We provide evidence for loss of GHRL in saker and peregrine falcons, and this is likely to result from the insertion of an ERVK retrotransposon in intron 0. We hypothesise that the loss of anorexigenic ghrelin is a predatory adaptation that results in increased food-seeking behaviour and feeding in falcons.

  11. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea;

    2016-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different...... isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... glucose (p = 0.001) was lower for RG+T, and triacylglycerols (p = 0.02) increased for LRG+T; however, insulin, C-peptide, and ghrelin were comparable in all other meals. In conclusion, our study indicates that acute consumption of whole-grain pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering...

  12. Molecular mechanisms of appetite and obesity: a role for brain AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Urisarri, Adela; Couce, María L; López, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Feeding behaviour and energy storage are both crucial aspects of survival. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating these basic processes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been revealed as one of the key molecules modulating energy homoeostasis. Indeed, AMPK appears to be essential for translating nutritional and energy requirements into generation of an adequate neuronal response, particularly in two areas of the brain, the hypothalamus and the hindbrain. Failure of this physiological response can lead to energy imbalance, ultimately with extreme consequences, such as leanness or obesity. Here, we will review the data that put brain AMPK in the spotlight as a regulator of appetite. PMID:27555613

  13. Defining the neural basis of appetite and obesity: from genes to behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2014-06-01

    Obesity represents one of the biggest public health challenges facing us today. Urbanisation, sedentary lifestyles and the availability of inexpensive, highly palatable foods have promoted the increasing prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years. However, some people gain weight more easily than others, and there is strong evidence that, within a given environment, this variance in body weight is influenced by genetic factors. This article discusses how genetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of body weight. We now understand that weight is regulated by neural mechanisms that regulate appetite and energy expenditure and that disruption of these pathways can result in severe obesity in some patients. These studies provide a framework for investigating patients and ultimately may guide the development of more rational, targeted therapies for genetically susceptible individuals with severe obesity. PMID:24889574

  14. Expanding the role of striatal cholinergic interneurons and the midbrain dopamine system in appetitive instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical nuclei thought to underlie a wide variety of vertebrate behavior. Although a great deal is known about the functional and physiological properties of the basal ganglia, relatively few models have been formally developed that have been tested against both behavioral and physiological data. Our previous work (Ashby FG, Crossley MJ. J Cogn Neurosci 23: 1549-1566, 2011) showed that a model grounded in the neurobiology of the basal ganglia could account for basic single-neuron recording data, as well as behavioral phenomena such as fast reacquisition that constrain models of conditioning. In this article we show that this same model accounts for a variety of appetitive instrumental conditioning phenomena, including the partial reinforcement extinction (PRE) effect, rapid and slowed reacquisition following extinction, and renewal of previously extinguished instrumental responses by environmental context cues.

  15. Expanding the role of striatal cholinergic interneurons and the midbrain dopamine system in appetitive instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical nuclei thought to underlie a wide variety of vertebrate behavior. Although a great deal is known about the functional and physiological properties of the basal ganglia, relatively few models have been formally developed that have been tested against both behavioral and physiological data. Our previous work (Ashby FG, Crossley MJ. J Cogn Neurosci 23: 1549-1566, 2011) showed that a model grounded in the neurobiology of the basal ganglia could account for basic single-neuron recording data, as well as behavioral phenomena such as fast reacquisition that constrain models of conditioning. In this article we show that this same model accounts for a variety of appetitive instrumental conditioning phenomena, including the partial reinforcement extinction (PRE) effect, rapid and slowed reacquisition following extinction, and renewal of previously extinguished instrumental responses by environmental context cues. PMID:26467514

  16. Delayed Dopamine Signaling of Energy Level Builds Appetitive Long-Term Memory in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Musso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory cues relevant to a food source, such as odors, can be associated with post-ingestion signals related either to food energetic value or toxicity. Despite numerous behavioral studies, a global understanding of the mechanisms underlying these long delay associations remains out of reach. Here, we demonstrate in Drosophila that the long-term association between an odor and a nutritious sugar depends on delayed post-ingestion signaling of energy level. We show at the neural circuit level that the activity of two pairs of dopaminergic neurons is necessary and sufficient to signal energy level to the olfactory memory center. Accordingly, we have identified in these dopaminergic neurons a delayed calcium trace that correlates with appetitive long-term memory formation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the Drosophila brain remembers food quality through a two-step mechanism that consists of the integration of olfactory and gustatory sensory information and then post-ingestion energetic value.

  17. The role of previous exposure in the appetitive and consummatory effects of orexigenic neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2005-05-01

    The ingestion of foods is comprised of two distinct phases of behavior: appetitive and consummatory. While most food intake paradigms include both phases, the intraoral intake test emphasizes the stereotyped consummatory-phase by infusing a liquid food directly into the oral cavity. Several hypothalamic peptides have been shown to increase intake of chow in standard food intake paradigms and the current experiments sought to test whether these peptides would increase food intake in the intraoral intake paradigm. NPY, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A were infused into the third ventricle (i3vt) in a counterbalanced latin-square design just prior to rats getting 0.1M sucrose solution infused via indwelling intraoral catheters and compared it to intake on bottle tests with access to the same sucrose solution. On the first day, each peptide increased intraoral intake relative to saline in the between-subjects comparison. Moreover, intake of sucrose following i3vt saline increased as a function of training. By the final day of the experiment, rats receiving saline consumed as much sucrose as rats receiving NPY, MCH, or orexin-A. This finding was conceptually replicated in the second experiment in which rats drank sucrose freely from a bottle on the home cage. A third experiment directly assessed the role of previous exposure in the sucrose intake induced by NPY. Those results confirm that repeated exposure to sucrose increases baseline intake and attenuates the hyperphagic effect of NPY. These results are consistent with two conclusions: (1) NPY, MCH, and orexin-A increase both appetitive and consummatory-phase ingestive behaviors on initial exposures; (2) repeated training interacts with the effects of these orexigenic peptides.

  18. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose. PMID:21255472

  19. GABA levels in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during the viewing of appetitive and disgusting food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Caterina; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura; Edden, Richard A E; Ferretti, Antonio; Marzoli, Daniele; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Brancucci, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing how the brain appraises the psychological dimensions of reward is one of the central topics of neuroscience. It has become clear that dopamine neurons are implicated in the transmission of both rewarding information and aversive and alerting events through two different neuronal populations involved in encoding the motivational value and the motivational salience of stimuli, respectively. Nonetheless, there is less agreement on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the related neurotransmitter release during the processing of biologically relevant stimuli. To address this issue, we employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-invasive methodology that allows detection of some metabolites in the human brain in vivo, in order to assess the role of the vmPFC in encoding stimulus value rather than stimulus salience. Specifically, we measured gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and, with control purposes, Glx levels in healthy subjects during the observation of appetitive and disgusting food images. We observed a decrease of GABA and no changes in Glx concentration in the vmPFC in both conditions. Furthermore, a comparatively smaller GABA reduction during the observation of appetitive food images than during the observation of disgusting food images was positively correlated with the scores obtained to the body image concerns sub-scale of Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). These results are consistent with the idea that the vmPFC plays a crucial role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli, possibly by encoding stimulus salience through glutamatergic and/or noradrenergic projections to deeper mesencephalic and limbic areas. PMID:27436536

  20. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Theeuwes, Wessel F; McMullen, Michael K; McMullen, Anna K; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Schellekens, Harriët

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek) stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits. PMID:25068823

  1. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  2. The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, reduces appetitive responding for sucrose and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Steensland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether the NK1-receptor system plays a role in the reinforcing properties of sucrose using a novel selective and clinically safe NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant (CJ-11,974, in three animal models of sucrose consumption and seeking. Furthermore, we compared the effect of ezlopitant on ethanol consumption and seeking in rodents. The NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant decreased appetitive responding for sucrose more potently than for ethanol using an operant self-administration protocol without affecting general locomotor activity. To further evaluate the selectivity of the NK1-receptor antagonist in decreasing consumption of sweetened solutions, we compared the effects of ezlopitant on water, saccharin-, and sodium chloride (NaCl solution consumption. Ezlopitant decreased intake of saccharin but had no effect on water or salty solution consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the NK1-receptor may be a part of a common pathway regulating the self-administration, motivational and reinforcing aspects of sweetened solutions, regardless of caloric value, and those of substances of abuse. Additionally, these results indicate that the NK1-receptor system may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity induced by over-consumption of natural reinforcers.

  3. Dopamine and food reward: effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Herbert, Vanessa M B; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Munafò, Marcus R; Rogers, Peter J

    2012-03-20

    It has been suggested that obese individuals over-eat in order to compensate for deficits in the dopaminergic reward system. The current study used acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) to investigate the effect of reduced dopamine function on appetite and the reward value of food in healthy volunteers. The compensatory-eating hypothesis would predict an increase in the reward value and consumption of food following depletion by this method. In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 17 male participants (mean age=29.2 (SEM=2.7) years; mean body mass index=24.4 (SEM=0.6) kg/m(2)) were administered with a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free; depletion condition) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL; control). Plasma amino acid levels were measured at baseline and peak depletion (300 min). Appetite, willingness to pay for food, liking, desired portion size and ad libitum food intake were also assessed. The TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with significant decreases in tyrosine, phenylalanine, and the ratio of tyrosine+phenylalanine to the other large neutral amino acids (all p<.001). There were no effects on our measures of willingness to pay for food or liking. However, in the TYR/PHE-free condition, participants reported significantly lower levels of hunger following a fixed-test meal relative to the BAL condition. In conclusion, we found no evidence for compensatory eating following ATPD. Our results also provide support for the role of dopamine in motivational components of eating.

  4. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  5. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). Postpizza meal BG AUC was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type. PMID:21957874

  6. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  7. Orlistat inhibition of intestinal lipase acutely increases appetite and attenuates postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide-1, cholecystokinin, and peptide YY concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellrichmann, Mark; Kapelle, Mario; Ritter, Peter R;

    2008-01-01

    .0001), whereas appetite and prospective food consumption increased (P alters gastric and gallbladder emptying and reduces...... of Orlistat or placebo. Gastric emptying, gallbladder volume and the plasma levels of CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin were determined and appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was accelerated by Orlistat administration (P emptying...... whether Orlistat alters the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin as well as postprandial appetite sensations. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy human volunteers were examined with a solid-liquid test meal after the oral administration...

  8. Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children123

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, Tanja VE; Whiteford, Linda M; Heo, Moonseong; FAITH, MYLES S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional data indicate an inverse relation between breakfast consumption and child weight. It has been suggested that skipping breakfast may adversely affect appetite in children, which could lead to overeating later in the day.

  9. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnouris...

  10. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.;

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  11. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/- weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/- mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/- mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  12. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum;

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary...... and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix...... fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...

  13. The role of ACTH and adrenal glucocorticoids in the salt appetite of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, E H; Covelli, M D; Denton, D A; Nelson, J F; Shulkes, A A

    1975-10-01

    The selective appetites of wild rabbits for 500 mEq/1 solutions of NaC1, KC1, MgC1(2), and CaC1(2) were studied in intact and adrenalectomized rabbits during daily treatment with either 4 IU long acting ACTH, 1.0 or 2.5 mg cortisol acetate, or 2.5 mg corticosterone. The animals were individually caged and external sodium balances performed. In intact rabbits, cortisol or corticosterone produced a significant stimulation of NaC1 appetite. The response to concurrent dosage of cortisol and corticosterone was less than half of that obtained with ACTH which produced a comparable alteration of blood glucocorticoid levels but a 10-fold increase in NaC1 intake. CaC1(2) intake was increased in intact rabbits by cortisol treatment but not by corticosterone or ACTH. Adrenalectomized rabbits maintained on daily steroid replacement therapy of 0.1 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate and 0.75 mg cortisone acetate showed a normal pattern of electolyte, food, and water intake. Under these conditions ACTH produced a 4-fold increase in NaC1 intake. Further addition of cortisol and corticosterone to steroid replacement therapy produced an increase in NaC1 intake comparable to their effect on normal rabbits. Thereupon supplementation with ACTH resulted in an increase to a level at least as great as that found in ACTH treated, normal rabbits. The effects of ACTH and glucocorticoids on NaC1 appetite were synergistic. Sodium balance showed that increases in NaC1 intake were not the result of the treatment initially producing a body sodium deficit, which was then corrected by increased intake. The results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that NaC1 appetite may be hormonally regulated, and demonstrate that ACTH is capable of stimulating NaC1 intake by a previously unsuspected non-adrenal pathway.

  14. Memory Elicited by Courtship Conditioning Requires Mushroom Body Neuronal Subsets Similar to Those Utilized in Appetitive Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Shelby A.; Baker, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    An animal’s ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female. As such, courtship conditioning is not clearly categorized as either appetitive or aversive conditioning. The mushroom body (MB) region in the fruit fly brain is important for several types of memory; however, the precise subsets of intrinsic and extrinsic MB neurons necessary for courtship conditioning are unknown. Here, we disrupted synaptic signaling by driving a shibirets effector in precise subsets of MB neurons, defined by a collection of split-GAL4 drivers. Out of 75 lines tested, 32 showed defects in courtship conditioning memory. Surprisingly, we did not have any hits in the γ lobe Kenyon cells, a region previously implicated in courtship conditioning memory. We did find that several γ lobe extrinsic neurons were necessary for courtship conditioning memory. Overall, our memory hits in the dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and the mushroom body output neurons were more consistent with results from appetitive memory assays than aversive memory assays. For example, protocerebral anterior medial DANs were necessary for courtship memory, similar to appetitive memory, while protocerebral posterior lateral 1 (PPL1) DANs, important for aversive memory, were not needed. Overall, our results indicate that the MB circuits necessary for courtship conditioning memory coincide with circuits necessary for appetitive memory. PMID

  15. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Li; Armstrong, Cheryl L.H.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER)...

  16. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  17. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A. Brown

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB, a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO, or a water control (H2O. Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H2O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: −2.28, −0.20 MJ, but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ, with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H2O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively. In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008 but not to H2O (p = 0.074. The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage.

  18. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Green, Benjamin P; James, Lewis J; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H₂O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H₂O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: -2.28, -0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H₂O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H₂O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  19. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  20. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad.Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Elham Ranjar; Seyed. Mohammad-Ali Kooshesh; Seyed-Ali Keshavarz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: on...

  1. Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura R.R.; Olivares E.L.; Passos Junior D.B.; Ramalho M.J.; Antunes-Rodrigues J.; Reis L.C.

    2001-01-01

    Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the exp...

  2. Evaluation of the role of physical activity levels on the release of appetite-related hormones after preloads with a different energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhler, Linn

    2014-01-01

    Background:Previous research has shown that regular exercisers are able to adjust their energy intake after preloads of different energy content, while inactive individuals are not. However, the mechanisms responsible for the better short-term appetite control in active individuals remain unknown. Purpose: The aim of this study was to look at differences in the release of the appetite hormones in response to preloads of different energy content betwe...

  3. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari; Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani; Mitra Basiratnia; Abbas Rezaianzadeh; Shiva Faghih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods...

  4. Plasma Cortisol Levels in Response to a Cold Pressor Test Did Not Predict Appetite or Ad Libitum Test Meal Intake in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D.; Hernandez, Dominica B.; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E.

    2012-01-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2 min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng...

  5. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L. H.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  6. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  7. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

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    Caroline Giezenaar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years. We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2 than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2 adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64. Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD: −17 (−22 to −13 mm to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9 mm lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.

  8. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-02-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  9. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

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    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (Pneuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  10. Leptin promoter gene polymorphism on -2549 position decreases plasma leptin and increases appetite in normal weight volunteers

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    Sandra Bragança Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigate whether polymorphism in the promoter region encoding leptin and leptin receptor gene, in normal weight individuals, affects hormonal and appetite responses to peanuts.Materials and methods: Appetite, anthropometric indices, body composition, physical activity, dietary intake and leptin, ghrelin and insulin levels were monitored. Polymorphism analyses were also carried out.Results: None of the treatments led to statistical differences in the analyzed hormones. No polymorphism was found for leptin receptor gene, while for leptin gene, 50% of the volunteers presented one polymorphic allele and 13% presented both polymorphic alleles. These last ones presented lower body fat mass, leptin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, and fullness rates. They also presented higher hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat sweet and salty foods.Conclusions: Peanut did not affect appetite and presented no different hormonal responses, compared to other foods studied. Polymorphic allele carriers in both alleles presented higher probability to develop obesity. However, the magnitude of this probability could not be measured.

  11. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

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    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  12. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

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    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  13. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

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    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  14. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  15. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

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    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste. PMID:26791832

  16. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

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    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  17. Ghrelin and the brain-gut axis as a pharmacological target for appetite control.

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    Seim, Inge; El-Salhy, Magdy; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; Chopin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Appetite regulation is highly complex and involves a large number of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptide hormones. These are small, processed, secreted peptides derived from larger prepropeptide precursors. These peptides are important targets for the development of therapeutics for obesity, a global health epidemic. As a case study, we consider the ghrelin axis. The ghrelin axis is likely to be a particularly useful drug target, as it also plays a role in energy homeostasis, adipogenesis, insulin regulation and reward associated with food intake. Ghrelin is the only known circulating gut orexigenic peptide hormone. As it appears to play a role in diet-induced obesity, blocking the action of ghrelin is likely to be effective for treating and preventing obesity. The ghrelin peptide has been targeted using a number of approaches, with ghrelin mirror-image oligonucleotides (Spiegelmers) and immunotherapy showing some promise. The ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, may also provide a useful target and a number of antagonists and inverse agonists have been developed. A particularly promising new target is the enzyme which octanoylates ghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), and drugs that inhibit GOAT are likely to circumvent pharmacological issues associated with approaches that directly target ghrelin or its receptor.

  18. The ghrelin axis--does it have an appetite for cancer progression?

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    Chopin, Lisa K; Seim, Inge; Walpole, Carina M; Herington, Adrian C

    2012-12-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is a peptide hormone with diverse physiological roles. Ghrelin regulates GH release, appetite and feeding, gut motility, and energy balance and also has roles in the cardiovascular, immune, and reproductive systems. Ghrelin and the GHSR are expressed in a wide range of normal and tumor tissues, and a fluorescein-labeled, truncated form of ghrelin is showing promise as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Plasma ghrelin levels are generally inversely related to body mass index and are unlikely to be useful as a biomarker for cancer, but may be useful as a marker for cancer cachexia. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ghrelin and GHSR genes have shown associations with cancer risk; however, larger studies are required. Ghrelin regulates processes associated with cancer, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration, cell invasion, inflammation, and angiogenesis; however, the role of ghrelin in cancer is currently unclear. Ghrelin has predominantly antiinflammatory effects and may play a role in protecting against cancer-related inflammation. Ghrelin and its analogs show promise as treatments for cancer-related cachexia. Further studies using in vivo models are required to determine whether ghrelin has a role in cancer progression.

  19. Reward signal in a recurrent circuit drives appetitive long-term memory formation.

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    Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Abe, Ayako; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-11-17

    Dopamine signals reward in animal brains. A single presentation of a sugar reward to Drosophila activates distinct subsets of dopamine neurons that independently induce short- and long-term olfactory memories (STM and LTM, respectively). In this study, we show that a recurrent reward circuit underlies the formation and consolidation of LTM. This feedback circuit is composed of a single class of reward-signaling dopamine neurons (PAM-α1) projecting to a restricted region of the mushroom body (MB), and a specific MB output cell type, MBON-α1, whose dendrites arborize that same MB compartment. Both MBON-α1 and PAM-α1 neurons are required during the acquisition and consolidation of appetitive LTM. MBON-α1 additionally mediates the retrieval of LTM, which is dependent on the dopamine receptor signaling in the MB α/β neurons. Our results suggest that a reward signal transforms a nascent memory trace into a stable LTM using a feedback circuit at the cost of memory specificity.

  20. Cloning and tissue distribution of appetite-regulating peptides in pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, H

    2015-10-01

    Pirapitinga (or red-bellied pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, Characiforme, Serrasalmidae) is an economically important South American fish for which the endocrine mechanism of the regulation of feeding has never been examined. To better understand these mechanisms, cDNAs encoding the appetite-regulating peptides orexin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), apelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), leptin and ghrelin were isolated in pirapitinga and their mRNA distributions examined in peripheral tissues and brain. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to those of other Characiforme fish (i.e. Mexican cavefish) and Siluriformes (catfish) as well as Cypriniformes (i.e. goldfish, zebrafish). All peptides were widely expressed within the brain. With the exception of CART, which was only expressed in brain, the mRNAs of all peptides were present in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and gills. The widespread and peptide-specific distributions suggest that each peptide might have distinct physiological actions in the brain and on peripheral tissues, in particular on the gastrointestinal tract, which include feeding regulation. This preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulation of feeding in Serrasalmidae fish, including pirapitinga. PMID:25846408

  1. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

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    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  2. [Change of peripheral blood appetite regulation factor of anorexia children and infect of child anorexia granule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hui-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhong; Fang, Guo-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.

  3. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A.; Rogers, Peter J.; Etchells, Katie A.; Houstoun, Katie V. E.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N = 60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered. PMID:24025548

  4. The L-cell in nutritional sensing and the regulation of appetite

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    Eleanor eSpreckley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract senses the ingestion of food and responds by signalling to the brain to promote satiation and satiety. Representing an important part of the gut-brain axis, enteroendocrine Lcells secrete the anorectic peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY in response to the ingestion of food. The release of GLP-1 has multiple effects, including the secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells, decreased gastric emptying and increased satiation. PYY also slows gastrointestinal motility and reduces food intake. At least part of the gut-brain response seems to be due to direct sensing of macronutrients by L-cells, by mechanisms including specific nutrient-sensing receptors. Such receptors may represent possible pathways to target to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure. Designing drugs or functional foods to exploit the machinery of these nutrient-sensing mechanisms may offer a potential approach for agents to treat obesity and metabolic disease.

  5. Synergistic relationship between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the satiating effect of cholecystokinin.

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    Smith, Gerard P

    2013-12-01

    Synergism between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the research program of Smith and Gibbs on the satiating effect of cholecystokinin during the past 40 years is described. The Seminar was synergistic with the research program in five ways. First, the steady parade of speakers gave us a window on the varied and interesting work going on in the field. Second, the Seminar was the kind of audience for presentations of the work-in-progress on CCK that scientists hope for and rarely find. Criticism by members of the Seminar was relentless and constructive, and ideas for further experiments or new ways to tackle problematic data poured forth. Third, members of the Seminar did experiments that facilitated the experimental success of the research program. Fourth, members of the Seminar tutored us on topics that we wanted to import into the research program on CCK. Fifth, and probably most important, members of the Seminar gave us the encouragement, good humor, and friendship so necessary for coping with the struggles of the scientific life.

  6. Oleoylethanolamide: A Novel Potential Pharmacological Alternative to Cannabinoid Antagonists for the Control of Appetite

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    Adele Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial pharmaceutical interest for the endocannabinoid system as a target for antiobesity therapies has been restricted by the severe adverse effects of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant. This study points at oleoylethanolamide (OEA, a monounsaturated analogue, and functional antagonist of anandamide, as a potential and safer antiobesity alternative to CB1 antagonism. Mice treated with equal doses (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. of OEA or rimonabant were analyzed for the progressive expression of spontaneous behaviors (eating, grooming, rearing, locomotion, and resting occurring during the development of satiety, according to the paradigm called behavioral satiety sequence (BSS. Both drugs reduced food (wet mash intake to a similar extent. OEA treatment decreased eating activity within the first 30 min and caused a temporary increase of resting time that was not accompanied by any decline of horizontal, vertical and total motor activity. Besides decreasing eating activity, rimonabant caused a marked increase of the time spent grooming and decreased horizontal motor activity, alterations that might be indicative of aversive nonmotivational effects on feeding. These results support the idea that OEA suppresses appetite by stimulating satiety and that its profile of action might be predictive of safer effects in humans as a novel antiobesity treatment.

  7. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren’s anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial

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    Alkarimi Heba A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of treating dental caries on various aspects of children’s health. This study was conducted to assess the impact of dental treatment of severe dental caries on children’s weight, height and subjective health related outcomes, namely dental pain, satisfaction with teeth and smile, dental sepsis and child’s appetite. Methods The study was a community-based, randomized, controlled trial in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years with untreated dental caries. Participants were randomly assigned to early (test or regular (control dental treatment. The primary outcome was Weight-for-age Z-score. Secondary outcomes were Height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores, dental pain, dental sepsis, satisfaction with teeth and child’s appetite. Results 86 children were randomly assigned to test (42 children and control (44 groups. Mean duration of follow-up was 34.8 (±1.1 weeks. There were insignificant improvements in anthropometric outcomes between the groups after treatment of caries. However, treated children had significantly less pain experience (P = 0.006 (OR 0.09, [0.01-0.51] and higher satisfaction with teeth (P = 0.001 (OR 9.91, [2.68-36.51] compared to controls. Controls had significantly poorer appetites (P = 0.01 (OR 2.9, [1.24-6.82] compared to treated children. All treated children were free of clinical dental sepsis whereas 20% (9 of 44 of controls who were free of sepsis at baseline had sepsis at follow-up. Conclusions Although dental treatment did not significantly improve the anthropometric outcomes, it significantly improved the dental outcomes and children’s satisfaction with teeth, smile and appetite. This is the first study to provide evidence that treatment of severe dental caries can improve children’s appetite. Trial registration Effect of Dental Treatment on Children's Growth. Clinical Trial Gov ID# NCT01243866

  8. Involvement of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and its interaction with haloperidol in goldfish.

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    Medalha, Carla Christina; Mattioli, Rosana

    2007-05-17

    This study investigated the actions of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and memory, and its interaction with the dopaminergic system in goldfish. It consisted of nine sessions, in which fish were tested in a four-arm tank. On day 1, the animals were habituated for 10 min. On day 2, they were placed in one arm and had to find food at the left or the right arm. Time to begin feeding was recorded, and the procedure repeated for more 3 days (training phase). On training day 4, seven groups were injected with saline, seven with haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg) and one with DMSO solution before training and after feeding, three groups received saline, six chlorpheniramine (CPA) (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg), and six l-histidine (LH) (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg). Saline groups were considered as control of CPA and LH treated groups and DMSO as control of haloperidol. A non-injected group was also included. Testing occurred after 24 h. A reversal procedure was conducted 24h after testing and repeated for 3 days. The groups receiving CPA at 1.0 and 8.0 mg/kg and LH at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg differed between Test and Reversal day 1. Pre-treatment with haloperidol plus 8.0 mg/kg of CPA and 25 and 50 mg/kg of LH reverted the treatment effect. However, in the groups treated with 1.0 mg/kg of CPA and 100 mg/kg of LH, the difference remained. This study confirmed the interaction between the histaminergic and the dopaminergic systems on memory process in goldfish.

  9. Central lead administration inhibits water intake and sodium appetite in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. De-Castro-e-Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that acute third ventricle injections of lead acetate (PbAc exert a powerful antidipsogenic effect and induce a significant increase in renal sodium excretion. In the present study we confirm the antidipsogenic effect of lead and demonstrate that central administration of this metal, in minute amounts, significantly reduces salt intake both during dehydration and after central angiotensinergic stimulation. Adult male Wistar rats had the third ventricle cannulated seven days before the experiments. During this period they had free access to distilled water and hypertonic saline solution (1.5%. After a 24-h period of fluid deprivation, experimental animals received third ventricle injections of PbAc (0.3, N = 8 and 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 14 while controls received sodium acetate (NaAc; 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 10. Rats treated with PbAc at the highest dose showed a significant reduction (P<0.05 both in water and hypertonic saline intake when compared to controls. When the effect of lead administration on angiotensin II-induced water and salt intake was studied, normohydrated animals received third ventricle injections of angiotensin II (9.6 nmol/rat after pretreatment with 3.0 nmol/rat of PbAc (experimental group, N = 10 or NaAc (controls, N = 8. The group pretreated with PbAc presented a significant reduction (P<0.05 in both water and salt intake compared to controls. Thus, this study confirms the antidipsogenic effect of central lead injections and demonstrates that the presence of lead in the brain exerts a significant inhibition of sodium appetite.

  10. Intertrial intervals and contextual conditioning in appetitive pavlovian learning: effects over the ABA renewal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Jasso, Rodrigo; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Nieto, Javier; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia

    2014-09-01

    Three experiments using rats in an appetitive conditioning procedure analyzed the effect of short and long (50s vs. 1440s) intertrial intervals (ITI) over the acquisition of conditioned stimulus (CS), context (Ctxt), and unconditioned stimulus (US) associations, as well as the effect on the extinction and renewal of the conditioned response to the CS. Experiment 1 revealed more contextual conditioned responses in groups trained with the short ITIs, however the renewal effect was not observed during test phase with either ITI condition. When subjects were pre-exposed to the contexts before the acquisition phase (Experiment 2) renewal of the conditioned response (CR) was only observed in long ITI group. However, when the acquisition context was extinguished (Experiment 3) the renewal effect observed in the Experiment 2 was weakened. In all three experiments subjects showed a similar number of responses to the tone predicting food, however they showed a clear contextual conditioning effect only for the groups trained with short ITIs. It is noteworthy that the acquisition context showed high levels of the CR in the renewal test only for groups trained with short ITIs (Experiment 2) but these responses were absent if additional contextual extinction was imposed before such test (Experiment 3). In general, all groups showed similar acquisition curves for the CS but only Short groups had an increase in the CR during the pre-CS. Also, context conditioning does not interfere with the conditioning of the CS and context pre-exposure prior to acquisition is essential in order to observe the renewal effect when long ITIs are used.

  11. Meal Replacement: Calming the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle ePaolini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to hot states which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A that exists after a brief period of food restraint followed either by the consumption of a meal replacement (MR or water. Fourteen overweight/obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they consumed a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 hours prior to an MRI scan. On one visit, they consumed a meal replacement (MR liquid meal after this period of food restriction; on the other visit they consumed an equal amount of water. After these manipulations, the participants underwent a resting fMRI scan. Our first study aim employed an exploratory, data-driven approach to identify hubs relevant to the HBN-A. Using data from the water condition, five regions were found to be the hubs or nodes of the HBN-A: insula, anterior cingulated cortex, the superior temporal pole, the amygdala, and the hippocampus. We then demonstrated that the consumption of a liquid MR dampened interconnectivity between the nodes of the HBN-A as compared to water. Importantly and consistent with these network data, the consumption of a MR beverage also lowered state cravings and hunger.

  12. Appetite-related hormone levels in obese women with and without binge eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paraguassú Brandão

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of appetite-related hormones (peptide YY3-36, total ghrelin, leptin and insulin before and after consumption of a meal in obese women with and without binge eating episodes and normal weight women. METHODS: Twenty-five women aged 32-50 years were invited to participate in this study, including 9 normal weight women without binge eating episodes (20-25kg/m², group 1, 9 obese women with binge eating episodes (³30kg/m², group 2, and 7 obese women without binge eating episodes (group 3. Four blood samples were collected from each participant, one being 60 minutes before and three being 15, 45 and 90 minutes after a meal. The composition of the meal was 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein and 30% lipids. RESULTS: Group 3 presented increased HOMA-IR (M=2.5, SD=1.04 when compared with group 1 (M=1.5, SD=0.53 and group 2 (M=1.8, SD=0.58, p=0.04. Body mass index (p<0.0001, leptin (p<0.0001 and insulin (p=0.01 were higher in group 3 than in the other groups before and after the meal. Additionally, total ghrelin (p=0.003 and PYY3-36 (p=0.02 levels were lower in group 2 than in the other groups before and after the meal. After adjustment for body mass index, only the lower PYY3-36 level of group 2 remained statistically different from the other groups (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that lower levels of PYY 3-36 are associated with binge eating in obese women.

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  14. Role of neuropeptides in appetite regulation and obesity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sarika; Anubhuti

    2006-12-01

    Obesity represents the most prevalent nutritional problem worldwide which in the long run predisposes to development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, endometrial carcinoma, osteoarthritis, gall stones and cardiovascular diseases. Despite significant reductions in dietary fat consumption, the prevalence of obesity is on a rise and is taking on pandemic proportions. Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. Recently, a close evolutionary relationship between the peripheral and hypothalamic neuropeptides has become apparent. The hypothalamus being the central feeding organ mediates regulation of short-term and long-term dietary intake via synthesis of various orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptides. The structure and function of many hypothalamic peptides (neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortins, agouti-related peptide (AGRP), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), orexins have been characterized in rodent models The peripheral neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY3-36), amylin, bombesin regulate important gastrointestinal functions such as motility, secretion, absorption, provide feedback to the central nervous system on availability of nutrients and may play a part in regulating food intake. The pharmacological potential of several endogenous peripheral peptides released prior to, during and/or after feeding are being explored. Long-term regulation is provided by the main circulating hormones leptin and insulin. These systems implicated in hypothalamic appetite regulation provide potential targets for treatment of obesity which could potentially pass into clinical development in the next 5 years. This review summarizes various effects and interrelationship of these central and peripheral neuropeptides in metabolism, obesity and their potential role as targets for treatment of obesity.

  15. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  16. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  17. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  18. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M Egan

    Full Text Available The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0 were fed either T1 basal diet or T2 basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001, had lower intake per visit (P<0.001, spent less time eating per day (P<0.001, had a lower eating rate (P<0.01 and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001 compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05 and time effect (P<0.05 on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01, neuromedin B (P<0.05, neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05 in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05 in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  19. Field Study of Dairy Cows with Reduced Appetite in Early Lactation: Clinical Examinations, Blood and Rumen Fluid Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 125 cows with reduced appetite and with clinical signs interpreted by the owner as indicating bovine ketosis 6 to 75 days postpartum. Almost all of the cows were given concentrates 2 to 3 times daily. With a practitioners view to treatment and prophylaxis the cows were divided into 5 diagnostic groups on the basis of thorough clinical examination, milk ketotest, decreased protozoal activity and concentrations, increased methylene blue reduction time, and increased liver parameters: ketosis (n = 32, indigestion (n = 26, combined ketosis and indigestion (n = 29, liver disease combined with ketosis, indigestion, or both (n = 15, and no specific diagnosis (n = 17. Three cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and 3 with abomasal displacement were not grouped. Nonparametric methods were used when groups were compared. Aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were elevated in the group with liver disease. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in cows with ketosis, compared with cows with indigestion. Activity and concentrations of large and small protozoas were reduced, and methylene blue reduction time was increased in cows with indigestion. The rumen fluid pH was the same for groups of cows with and without indigestion. Prolonged reduced appetite before examination could have led to misclassification. Without careful interpretation of the milk ketotest, many cases with additional diagnoses would have been reported as primary ketosis. Thorough clinical examination together with feasible rumen fluid examination and economically reasonable blood biochemistry did not uncover the reason(s for reduced appetite in 14% of the cows. More powerful diagnostic methods are needed.

  20. Effect of short-duration physical activity and ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term energy intake in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Thomas, Scott G; Goode, Robert C; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (1) to examine the role of low- to moderate-intensity, short-duration physical activity on subjective appetite and (2) to identify the role of and associations between ventilation threshold (VeT) and energy intake at a pizza lunch 30 min after glucose and whey protein drinks in normal weight boys. In 14 boys (age: 12.5+/-0.4 years) subjective appetite was measured before and after a 12 min walking protocol designed to determine physical fitness based on the VeT. On a separate occasion food intake (FI) and subjective appetite were measured in response to sweetened preloads of either a SPLENDA Sucralose control, glucose or whey protein made up to 250 ml with water, given in random order to each boy, 2h after a standardized breakfast. Subjective average appetite and prospective food consumption scores increased after physical activity. VeT was positively associated with FI at a pizza lunch consumed 30 min after glucose and whey protein drinks. Glucose and whey protein reduced FI similarly at lunch compared with control. In conclusion, appetite is increased by low- to moderate-intensity, short-duration physical activity and FI following glucose and protein preloads is positively associated with fitness levels in boys. PMID:17537539

  1. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThin™ on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrold Joanne A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Certain free fatty acids have been shown to have potent effects on food intake and self-reported changes in appetite; effects associated with increases in the release of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1. In the current study, the effects of a Korean pine nut oil product, PinnoThin™, at doses 2 g, 4 g and 6 g triglyceride (TG and 2 g free fatty acid (FFA, on food intake and appetite were examined in a cross-over double-blind placebo-controlled randomised counter-balanced design in 42 overweight female volunteers. 2 g FFA PinnoThin™, given 30 minutes prior to an ad-libitum buffet test lunch, significantly reduced food intake (gram by 9% (F(4,164 = 2.637, p = 0.036 compared to olive oil control. No significant effect of PinnoThin™ on macronutrient intake or ratings of appetite were observed. Given the recent data showing that the TG form of PinnoThin™ may also reduce appetite by increasing CCK release, the lack of any effect of the TG form found in this study could be attributed to the timing of the dosing regime. Collectively, these data suggest that PinnoThin™ may exert satiating effects consistent with its known action on CCK and GLP-1 release, and previously observed effects on self-reported appetite ratings.

  2. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. DESIGN: The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol...... meals, or energy intake were different on the two occasions. Glucose, GLP-1, insulin, and GIP responses were also unaffected by the infusion, whereas glucagon levels were higher during the GLP-2 treatment (Pphysiological concentrations does not seem to play...

  3. The use of X-Radiography for the return of appetite measurements in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792)

    OpenAIRE

    Tekinay, Ahmet Adem

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Quantification of return of appetite in fish is considerably important with respect to the estimation of optimum feeding protocols, Therefore, 30 adult female rainbow trout (0. mykiss) (205.6 ± 2.2 g) in a fresh water recirculation system were fed the control diet containing 42.6% of digestible protein and 19.7 MJ kg'' of digestible energy until all fish were satiated. The fish were re-fed at different time intervals (t= 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours) with the test diet containi...

  4. Selective associations produced solely with appetitive contingencies: the stimulus-reinforcer interaction revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V; Schindler, C W

    1993-03-01

    which a reinforcer is presented, rather than (or as well as) its physical properties, can generate the selective associations previously attributed to "stimulus-reinforcer interactions." This could mean that regardless of the class of reinforcer that ultimately maintains responding (appetitive or aversive), the contingency-generated hedonic value of the compound stimulus may influence the dominant modality of stimulus control.

  5. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Eleanor; Smith, Stephen P; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs. Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management. Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test-retest reliability. Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test-retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food), four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken) and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health). Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation) and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise) were associated with obesity. Owners of

  6. Selective associations produced solely with appetitive contingencies: the stimulus-reinforcer interaction revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V; Schindler, C W

    1993-03-01

    which a reinforcer is presented, rather than (or as well as) its physical properties, can generate the selective associations previously attributed to "stimulus-reinforcer interactions." This could mean that regardless of the class of reinforcer that ultimately maintains responding (appetitive or aversive), the contingency-generated hedonic value of the compound stimulus may influence the dominant modality of stimulus control. PMID:8454957

  7. Anti-ghrelin antibodies in appetite suppression: recent advances in obesity pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altabas V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Velimir Altabas, Vanja Zjačić-Rotkvić Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, “Mladen Sekso”, Clinic for Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center “Sestre milosrdnice”, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: Obesity is a medical condition caused by accumulated excess body fat with negative impact on patients' health, including decreased life expectancy. It has become a major health problem in most developed and developing countries, since the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled during the last 30 years. Consequently, novel treatments focusing on obesity are being investigated. Potential targets include several pathophysiological mechanisms involved in appetite control affecting multiple organ systems, like adipose tissue; some cell types in the stomach and gut; pancreas; thyroid gland; several hypothalamic areas; and centers located in the brainstem. One of the most important orexigenic neuropeptides is ghrelin, which is produced and secreted primarily by ghrelin cells located in the stomach and duodenum. In humans, plasma ghrelin levels rise when the stomach is empty and fall shortly after meal ingestion. In fat tissue, ghrelin increases fat storage. In the brain, it exerts its orexigenic action through activation of NPY/AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus. From the pharmacological point of view, it seems that opposing ghrelin activity could be used as a therapeutic principle in treating obesity. The principal idea of antiobesity drugs is to augment anorexigenic and lipolytic signaling, or to block orexigenic and lipogenic mediators. Recent studies have shown that therapeutic vaccines could be a new approach in the development of antiobesity medications. A vaccine should provoke an immune response to a specific causal factor for a particular disease. Several types of anti-ghrelin vaccines have been developed so far, with significant immune response in terms of rising anti-ghrelin antibodies. However, in the

  8. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Møller, P.; Smeets, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  9. Regulación del peso corporal y del apetito Body Weight and Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Vásquez-Machado

    2010-06-01

    capacidad reguladora del sistema de balance energético. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos reguladores del peso corporal y el apetito, los cuales han ampliado la visión de la fisiopatología de la obesidad, al tiempo que ofrecen diversas perspectivas para su tratamiento.Due to the fact that the obesity epidemic shows no signs of diminishing, a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has become necessary. During this process energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time, in such a way that body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant despite daily fluctuations in caloric intake. The system that controls energy balance possesses 2 components: a short and a long-term. The short-term system is in charge of appetite regulation or the initiation and termination of individual meals. It responds basically to gut hormones or satiety signals that accumulate during eating and ultimately contribute to meal termination. Adiposity factors are circulating signals generated in proportion to the body energy storages, such as insulin and leptin, levels of which are involved in the regulation of energy balance over long intervals thereby promoting body weight stability. The central melanocortin pathway represents a crucial integration point for these signals. Melanocortin receptor ligands are synthesized by discrete neuronal populations within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and exert actions in both components of the energy balance equation. In addition to hormones, the brain also responds directly to the nutrient circulating levels. Two fuel-sensing protein kinases functioning as main regulators of body weight and food intake in the hypothalamus have been identified: mTOR and AMPK. Besides these basic homeostatic circuits, the hedonic mechanisms of feeding are important in the regulation of energy intake since they can override the energy balance

  10. A prospective cohort study of the effects of adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy on taste function, food liking, appetite and associated nutritional outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boltong

    Full Text Available 'Taste' changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status.This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n = 52 prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food liking at six time points to measure change from baseline. Associations between taste and hedonic changes and nutritional outcomes were examined.Taste function was significantly reduced early in chemotherapy cycles (p<0.05 but showed recovery by late in the cycle. Ability to correctly identify salty, sour and umami tastants was reduced. Liking of sweet food decreased early and mid-cycle (p<0.01 but not late cycle. Liking of savory food was not significantly affected. Appetite decreased early in the cycle (p<0.001. Reduced taste function was associated with lowest kilojoule intake (r = 0.31; p = 0.008 as was appetite loss with reduced kilojoule (r = 0.34; p = 0.002 and protein intake (r = 0.36; p = 0.001 early in the third chemotherapy cycle. Decreased appetite early in the third and final chemotherapy cycles was associated with a decline in BMI (p = <0.0005 over the study period. Resolution of taste function, food liking and appetite was observed 8 weeks after chemotherapy completion. There was no association between taste change and dry mouth, oral mucositis or nausea.The results reveal, for the first time, the cyclical yet transient effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on taste function and the link between taste and hedonic changes, dietary intake and nutritional outcomes. The results should be used to inform reliable pre-chemotherapy education.

  11. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men.

  12. Inactivating the infralimbic but not prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex facilitates the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning in Long-Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, J; Sanio, C; Chaudhri, N

    2015-02-01

    The infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL) has been posited as a common node in distinct neural circuits that mediate the extinction of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, appetitive extinction is typically assessed using instrumental conditioning procedures, whereas the extinction of aversive conditioning is customarily studied using Pavlovian assays. The role of the IL in the extinction of appetitive Pavlovian conditioning remains underexplored. We investigated the involvement of the IL and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PrL) in appetitive extinction in Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning assays in male, Long-Evans rats. Following acquisition, a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist solution (0.03 nmol muscimol; 0.3 nmol baclofen; 0.3 μl/side) was bilaterally microinfused into the IL or PrL to pharmacologically inactivate each region before the first extinction session. Compared to saline, PrL inactivation did not affect the acquisition of extinction or the recall of extinction memory 24-h later. IL inactivation caused a more rapid extinction of Pavlovian conditioning, but had no effect on the extinction of instrumental conditioning or extinction recall. IL inactivation during a Pavlovian conditioning session in which conditioned stimulus (CS) trials were paired with sucrose did not affect CS-elicited behaviour, but increased responding during intervals that did not contain the CS. The same manipulation did not impact lever pressing for sucrose. These findings suggest that the IL may normally maintain Pavlovian conditioned responding when an anticipated appetitive CS is unexpectedly withheld, and that this region has distinct roles in the expression of Pavlovian conditioning when an appetitive unconditioned stimulus is either presented or omitted.

  13. The medial orbitofrontal cortex encodes a general unsigned value signal during anticipation of both appetitive and aversive events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metereau, Elise; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been proposed to signal the expected value of rewards when learning stimuli-rewards associations. Yet, it is still unclear whether identical or distinct orbitofrontal cortex regions encode expected rewards and punishments at the time of the cue during appetitive and aversive classical conditioning. Moreover, it is unknown whether anticipation of different types of positive and negative reinforcers differentially influence specific orbitofrontal cortex regions. To answer these questions, this study investigated whether the human mOFC/vmPFC region encodes a general unsigned anticipatory value signal for different types of rewards and punishments (responding in a positive fashion in anticipation of both appetitive and aversive events) or a signed expected value signal (responding positively in anticipation of rewards and negatively in anticipation of punishments) when learning cue-outcomes associations. Using a model-based fMRI approach implementing a reinforcement learning model to compute the expected values of two types of rewards (pleasant juice, monetary gain) and two types of punishments (aversive juice, aversive picture), we found that mOFC/vmPFC activity correlated positively with the expected value of the cues, in anticipation of both rewards and punishments. This finding indicates that the mOFC/vmPFC encodes a general unsigned anticipatory value signal, regardless of reinforcers valence (positive/negative) and types (gustatory, visual). PMID:25243988

  14. The biology of appetite control: Do resting metabolic rate and fat-free mass drive energy intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, J E; Finlayson, G; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Hopkins, M

    2015-12-01

    The prevailing model of homeostatic appetite control envisages two major inputs; signals from adipose tissue and from peptide hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. This model is based on the presumed major influence of adipose tissue on food intake. However, recent studies have indicated that in obese people fat-free mass (FFM) is strongly positively associated with daily energy intake and with meal size. This effect has been replicated in several independent groups varying in cultural and ethnic backgrounds, and appears to be a robust phenomenon. In contrast fat mass (FM) is weakly, or mildly negatively associated with food intake in obese people. In addition resting metabolic rate (RMR), a major component of total daily energy expenditure, is also associated with food intake. This effect has been replicated in different groups and is robust. This action is consistent with the proposal that energy requirements — reflected in RMR (and other aspects of energy expenditure) constitute a biological drive to eat. Consistent with its storage function, FM has a strong inhibitory effect on food intake in lean subjects, but this effect appears to weaken dramatically as adipose tissue increases. This formulation can account for several features of the development and maintenance of obesity and provides an alternative, and transparent, approach to the biology of appetite control. PMID:26037633

  15. The Appetitive Aggression Scale—development of an instrument for the assessment of human's attraction to violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background : Several instruments, notably Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire, have been developed for the assessment of aggressive behavior. However, in these instruments, the focus has been on reactive rather than instrumental forms of aggression, even though men in particular may find aggressive behavior attractive. A questionnaire or structured interview for the systematic assessment of the attraction to violence is not yet available. Objective : We, therefore, developed a freely available short form for the assessment of a person's attraction to violent and planned forms of aggression based on reports of former combatants on the attraction to violence and the characteristics of instrumental aggression described in the literature. Method : The Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS was administered to nine samples drawn from different populations, with a total of 1,632 former combatants and participants from war-affected regions (1,193 male and 439 female respondents. Results : From the initial set of 31 items, a selection of 15 items was extracted to improve the scale's psychometric properties and assess the construct of appetitive aggression validly with respect to content. Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.85 was appropriate. All items loaded significantly on a single factor accounting for 32% of the total variance. Further analysis revealed that the scale measures a specific construct that can be distinguished from other concepts of human aggression. Conclusions : With the AAS, we present an easily administrable tool for the assessment of the attraction to violence.

  16. Gemini: a UK twin birth cohort with a focus on early childhood weight trajectories, appetite and the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Johnson, Laura; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane

    2010-02-01

    Gemini is a cohort study of young twins in the United Kingdom designed to assess genetic and environmental influences on early childhood weight trajectories with a focus on infant appetite and the family environment. A total of 2402 families with twins born in England and Wales between March and December 2007 agreed to participate and returned completed baseline questionnaires. The sample includes 1586 same-sex and 816 opposite-sex twins. The study is currently funded for 5 years of follow-up, but is planned to continue into early adolescence and beyond, pending funding. With current funding of the study, families will be followed up when twins are: 8 months old (baseline), and then at 15, 20, 24, 36 and 48 months of age. Gemini is in its early stages, with baseline and first follow-up data collection completed. This is the first twin cohort to focus on childhood weight gain with detailed and repeated measures of children's appetite, food preferences, activity behavior and parental feeding styles, alongside detailed and repeated collection of anthropometrics. This article reviews the rationale for the Gemini study, its representativeness and the main measures.

  17. The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in addictions and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaro, Antonio; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Appetitive motivation and incentive states are essential functions sustained by a common emotional brain process, the SEEKING disposition, which drives explorative and approach behaviors, sustains goal-directed activity, promotes anticipatory cognitions, and evokes feelings of positive excitement which control reward-learning. All such functions are orchestrated by the same "archetypical" neural processes, activated in ancient subcortical areas and transported to the forebrain by the mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system. In mammals, the neurophysiology of the SEEKING urge is expressed by DA-promoted high-frequency oscillations, in the form of transient and synchronized gamma waves (>30Hz) emerging in limbic forebrain and diffusing throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BG-T-C) circuits. These patterns may be considered basic "SEEKING neurodynamic impulses" which represent the primary-process exploratory disposition getting integrated with information relative to the external and the internal environment. Abnormal manifestation of SEEKING and its neural substrates are evident in clinical depression and addiction. Specifically, depression is characterized by reduced recruitment of SEEKING, while addictions reflect re-organizations of the SEEKING disposition around ultra-specific appetitive memories and compulsive activities.

  18. The hippocampus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: effects of excitotoxic hippocampal lesions on conditioned locomotor activity and autoshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Rutsuko; Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2005-01-01

    The hippocampus (HPC) is known to be critically involved in the formation of associations between contextual/spatial stimuli and behaviorally significant events, playing a pivotal role in learning and memory. However, increasing evidence indicates that the HPC is also essential for more basic motivational processes. The amygdala, by contrast, is important for learning about the motivational significance of discrete cues. This study investigated the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat HPC and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on the acquisition of a number of appetitive behaviors known to be dependent on the formation of Pavlovian associations between a reward (food) and discrete stimuli or contexts: (1) conditioned/anticipatory locomotor activity to food delivered in a specific context and (2) autoshaping, where rats learn to show conditioned discriminated approach to a discrete visual CS+. While BLA lesions had minimal effects on conditioned locomotor activity, hippocampal lesions facilitated the development of both conditioned activity to food and autoshaping behavior, suggesting that hippocampal lesions may have increased the incentive motivational properties of food and associated conditioned stimuli, consistent with the hypothesis that the HPC is involved in inhibitory processes in appetitive conditioning.

  19. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  20. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort. PMID:16157416

  1. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.;

    2010-01-01

    based oil wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP......) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and El measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly...

  2. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p  0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance over longer periods of time warrant further investigation.

  3. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  4. Appetitive Cue-Evoked ERK Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires NMDA and D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation and Regulates CREB Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschmann, Erin K. Z.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Willis, Cory M.; Foster, Rebecca L.; Chipman, Amanda M.; Thiels, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP…

  5. Quantification of appetite suppressing steroid glycosides from Hoodia gordonii in dried plant material, purified extracts and food products using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-G. Janssen; C. Swindells; P. Gunning; W. Wang; C. Grün; K. Mahabir; V.J. Maharaj; P.J. Apps

    2008-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV and HPLC-Mass Spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for the quantitative analysis of the family of Hoodia gordonii steroid glycosides with appetite suppressing properties in dried plant material, in purified and enriched extracts and in various pro

  6. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allerg ies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...

  8. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory. PMID:26521965

  9. Do Lactation-Induced Changes in Ghrelin, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1, and Peptide YY Influence Appetite and Body Weight Regulation during the First Postpartum Year?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Enette Larson-Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fasting and meal-induced appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with body weight retention after childbearing, we studied 24 exclusively breastfeeding women (BMI = 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2 at 4-5 weeks postpartum and 20 never-pregnant controls (BMI = 24.0 ± 3.1 kg/m2. Ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, and appetite ratings were measured before/and 150 minutes after a standardized breakfast and 60 minutes after an ad libitum lunch. Body weight/composition were measured at 6 and 12 months. Fasting and area under-the-curve responses for appetite-regulating hormones did not differ between lactating and control groups; ghrelinacyl, however, tended to track higher after the standardized breakfast in lactating women and was higher (p6.0 kg. The retainers had greater (p<0.05 postmeal ghrelin rebound responses following breakfast. Overall these studies do not support the hypothesis that appetite-regulating hormones are altered during lactation and associated with postpartum weight retention. Altered ghrelin responses, however, deserve further exploration.

  10. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-11-02

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory.

  11. An appetitive experience after fear memory destabilization attenuates fear retention: involvement GluN2B-NMDA receptors in the Basolateral Amygdala Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Monti, Roque I; Giachero, Marcelo; Alfei, Joaquín M; Bueno, Adrián M; Cuadra, Gabriel; Molina, Victor A

    2016-09-01

    It is known that a consolidated memory can return to a labile state and become transiently malleable following reactivation. This instability is followed by a restabilization phase termed reconsolidation. In this work, we explored whether an unrelated appetitive experience (voluntary consumption of diluted sucrose) can affect a contextual fear memory in rats during the reactivation-induced destabilization phase. Our findings show that exposure to an appetitive experience following reactivation can diminish fear retention. This effect persisted after 1 wk. Importantly, it was achieved only under conditions that induced fear memory destabilization. This result could not be explained as a potentiated extinction, because sucrose was unable to promote extinction. Since GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) have been implicated in triggering fear memory destabilization, we decided to block pharmacologically these receptors to explore the neurobiological bases of the observed effect. Intra-BLA infusion with ifenprodil, a GluN2B-NMDA antagonist, prevented the fear reduction caused by the appetitive experience. In sum, these results suggest that the expression of a fear memory can be dampened by an unrelated appetitive experience, as long as memory destabilization is achieved during reactivation. Possible mechanisms behind this effect and its clinical implications are discussed.

  12. Effects of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, glucose and fat metabolism in obese and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Holst, Jens Juul; Flint, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY)(3-36) has been shown to produce dramatic reductions in energy intake (EI), but no human data exist regarding energy expenditure (EE), glucose and fat metabolism. Nothing is known regarding PYY1-36. To compare effects of PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36) on appetite, EI, EE, insulin, glucos...

  13. Effects of concentrated arabinoxylan and β-glucan compared with refined wheat and whole grain rye on glucose and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Gregersen, S; Lærke, H N;

    2014-01-01

    grain on glucose, hormone responses and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over intervention study. The test breads provided 50 g of digestible carbohydrate: wheat bread with concentrated...

  14. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Veasey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05. In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR. Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h, immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40, though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37 and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038. Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43. These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  15. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behaviora...

  16. Expression of regulatory neuropeptides in the hypothalamus of red deer (Cervus elaphus) reveals anomalous relationships in the seasonal control of appetite and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrell, G K; Ridgway, M J; Wellby, M; Pereira, A; Henry, B A; Clarke, I J

    2016-04-01

    Red deer are seasonal with respect to reproduction and food intake, so we tested the hypothesis that their brains would show seasonal changes in numbers of cells containing hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate these functions. We examined the brains of male and female deer in non-breeding and breeding seasons to quantify the production of kisspeptin, gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (γ-MSH - an index of pro-opiomelanocortin production), using immunohistochemistry. These neuropeptides are likely to be involved in the regulation of reproductive function and appetite. During the annual breeding season there were more cells producing kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus than during the non-breeding season in males and females whereas there was no seasonal difference in the expression of GnIH. There were more cells producing the appetite stimulating peptide, NPY, in the arcuate/median eminence regions of the hypothalamus of females during the non-breeding season whereas the levels of an appetite suppressing peptide, γ-MSH, were highest in the breeding season. Male deer brains exhibited the converse, with NPY cell numbers highest in the breeding season and γ-MSH levels highest in the non-breeding season. These results support a role for kisspeptin as an important stimulatory regulator of seasonal breeding in deer, as in other species, but suggest a lack of involvement of GnIH in the seasonality of reproduction in deer. In the case of appetite regulation, the pattern exhibited by females for NPY and γ-MSH was as expected for the breeding and non-breeding seasons, based on previous studies of these peptides in sheep and the seasonal cycle of appetite reported for various species of deer. An inverse result in male deer most probably reflects the response of appetite regulating cells to negative energy balance during the mating season. Differences between the sexes in the seasonal

  17. On the differentiation of N2 components in an appetitive choice task: evidence for the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2009-11-01

    Task- and personality-related modulations of the N2 were probed within the framework of the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). Using an appetitive choice task, we investigated 58 students with extreme scores on the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales. The baseline-to-peak N2 amplitude was sensitive to the strength of decision conflict and demonstrated RST-related personality differences. In addition to the baseline N2 amplitude, temporal PCA results suggested two N2 components accounting for a laterality effect and capturing different N2 patterns for BIS/BAS groups with increasing conflict level. Evidence for RST-related personality differences was obtained for baseline-to-peak N2 and tPCA components in the present task. The results support the RST prediction that BAS sensitivity modulates conflict processing and confirm the cognitive-motivational conflict concept of RST. PMID:19674394

  18. On the differentiation of N2 components in an appetitive choice task: evidence for the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Chavanon, Mira-Lynn; Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2009-11-01

    Task- and personality-related modulations of the N2 were probed within the framework of the revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). Using an appetitive choice task, we investigated 58 students with extreme scores on the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral approach system (BIS/BAS) scales. The baseline-to-peak N2 amplitude was sensitive to the strength of decision conflict and demonstrated RST-related personality differences. In addition to the baseline N2 amplitude, temporal PCA results suggested two N2 components accounting for a laterality effect and capturing different N2 patterns for BIS/BAS groups with increasing conflict level. Evidence for RST-related personality differences was obtained for baseline-to-peak N2 and tPCA components in the present task. The results support the RST prediction that BAS sensitivity modulates conflict processing and confirm the cognitive-motivational conflict concept of RST.

  19. The effect of oilseed consumption on appetite and on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Neves Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM has rapidly increased worldwide. Excess body fat is an important risk factor for the disease. Strategies have been indicated for the prevention and treatment of DM. Recent studies have associated the consumption of oilseeds resulting in a lower risk of developing obesity and diabetes. It is believed that this effect is associated with low glycemic index and the high fiber content, the unsaturated fatty acids and the magnesium oilseeds. However, the mechanisms involved in appetite and type 2 diabetes control have not been fully elucidated among researchers yet. Thus, the objective of the present article was to critically analyze the articles published on this subject aiming at identifying strategies which may be used in the dietary treatment of diabetes.

  20. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael;

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.......Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could...

  1. The feedback-related negativity reflects ‘more or less’ prediction error in appetitive and aversive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans make predictions and use feedback to update their subsequent predictions. The feedback-related negativity (FRN has been found to be sensitive to negative feedback as well as negative prediction error, such that the FRN is larger for outcomes that are worse than expected. The present study examined prediction errors in both appetitive and aversive conditions. We found that the FRN was more negative for reward omission versus wins and for loss omission versus losses, suggesting that the FRN might classify outcomes in a more-or-less than expected fashion rather than in the better-or-worse than expected dimension. Our findings challenge the previous notion that the FRN only encodes negative feedback and ‘worse than expected’ negative prediction error.

  2. Effect of Oxyntomodulin, Glucagon, GLP-1 and Combined Glucagon +GLP-1 Infusion on Food Intake, Appetite and Resting Energy Expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    ], and glucagon+GLP-1 688 [606, 769]). Oxygen uptake did not change significantly from baseline in response to any peptide infusion compared with saline. Conclusions: Oxyntomodulin, GLP-1, and glucagon decreased food intake but with no additional effect of combining GLP-1 and glucagon. - See more at: http......Context: The gut hormone, oxyntomodulin, is a proglucagon product with body weight-lowering potential. It binds to both the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor and the glucagon receptor; however, the mechanism behind the body weight-lowering effect remains elusive. Objective: We wanted.......86 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), oxyntomodulin (3 pmol × kg−1 × min−1), or glucagon+GLP-1 (same doses). Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated resting energy expenditure (measured as oxygen uptake, gastric emptying (GE), composite appetite scores (CAS), and food intake. Results: Oxyntomodulin, GLP-1, and GLP-1...

  3. Differential effects of fructose versus glucose on brain and appetitive responses to food cues and decisions for food rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shan; Monterosso, John R; Sarpelleh, Kayan; Page, Kathleen A

    2015-05-19

    Prior studies suggest that fructose compared with glucose may be a weaker suppressor of appetite, and neuroimaging research shows that food cues trigger greater brain reward responses in a fasted relative to a fed state. We sought to determine the effects of ingesting fructose versus glucose on brain, hormone, and appetitive responses to food cues and food-approach behavior. Twenty-four healthy volunteers underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions with ingestion of either fructose or glucose in a double-blinded, random-order cross-over design. fMRI was performed while participants viewed images of high-calorie foods and nonfood items using a block design. After each block, participants rated hunger and desire for food. Participants also performed a decision task in which they chose between immediate food rewards and delayed monetary bonuses. Hormones were measured at baseline and 30 and 60 min after drink ingestion. Ingestion of fructose relative to glucose resulted in smaller increases in plasma insulin levels and greater brain reactivity to food cues in the visual cortex (in whole-brain analysis) and left orbital frontal cortex (in region-of-interest analysis). Parallel to the neuroimaging findings, fructose versus glucose led to greater hunger and desire for food and a greater willingness to give up long-term monetary rewards to obtain immediate high-calorie foods. These findings suggest that ingestion of fructose relative to glucose results in greater activation of brain regions involved in attention and reward processing and may promote feeding behavior. PMID:25941364

  4. Coincident activation of NMDA and dopamine D1 receptors within the nucleus accumbens core is required for appetitive instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Roe, S L; Kelley, A E

    2000-10-15

    The nucleus accumbens, a brain structure ideally situated to act as an interface between corticolimbic information-processing regions and motor output systems, is well known to subserve behaviors governed by natural reinforcers. In the accumbens core, glutamatergic input from its corticolimbic afferents and dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area converge onto common dendrites of the medium spiny neurons that populate the accumbens. We have previously found that blockade of NMDA receptors in the core with the antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 5 nmol) abolishes acquisition but not performance of an appetitive instrumental learning task (Kelley et al., 1997). Because it is currently hypothesized that concurrent dopamine D(1) and glutamate receptor activation is required for long-term changes associated with plasticity, we wished to examine whether the dopamine system in the accumbens core modulates learning via NMDA receptors. Co-infusion of low doses of the D(1) receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (0.3 nmol) and AP-5 (0.5 nmol) into the accumbens core strongly impaired acquisition of instrumental learning (lever pressing for food), whereas when infused separately, these low doses had no effect. Infusion of the combined low doses had no effect on indices of feeding and motor activity, suggesting a specific effect on learning. We hypothesize that co-activation of NMDA and D(1) receptors in the nucleus accumbens core is a key process for acquisition of appetitive instrumental learning. Such an interaction is likely to promote intracellular events and gene regulation necessary for synaptic plasticity and is supported by a number of cellular models.

  5. Impact of short-term refeeding on appetite and meal experiences in new onset adolescent eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Claire M; Tissot, Abbigail M; Matthews, Abigail; Hillman, Jennifer B; Peugh, James L; Rawers, Emily; Tong, Jenny; Mitan, Laurie

    2016-10-01

    Restrictive eating disorders (ED) are increasing and represent a serious risk to the health of adolescent females. Restrictive ED in youth are often treated through aggressive short-term refeeding. Although evidence supports that this intervention is the "gold standard" for improving ED outcomes in youth, little research has specifically probed appetite and meal-related responses to this type of intensive, short-term refeeding in newly diagnosed individuals. Information about appetite and meal-related dysfunction could provide valuable insights regarding treatment-interfering features of ED in both acute inpatient and longer-term outpatient treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hunger, fullness, olfactory, and gustatory responses of adolescents with newly-diagnosed restrictive ED and to probe how and when these responses are altered by refeeding. Using a quasi-experimental ecologically valid methodology, this study described and compared profiles of hunger, fullness, olfactory, and gustatory responses in adolescent females (n = 15) with newly diagnosed restrictive ED at hospital admission (i.e., severe malnutrition) and after medical refeeding, in comparison to healthy controls (n = 15). Results showed that newly diagnosed (i.e., malnourished) adolescents with ED showed significantly different meal-related experiences than controls. Refeeding improved some of these differences, but not all. Following refeeding, females with ED continued to show lower hunger, greater fullness, and lower pleasantness of smell ratings compared to controls. Unpleasantness of taste ratings maladaptively increased, such that females who were re-fed reported more aversive scents than pre-treatment. Profiles of meal-related responses were also identified and compared between groups. The applicability of these findings are discussed within the context of critical periods of change during refeeding treatment and potentially promising intervention targets that might

  6. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. M. Wijlens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2 participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1 oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF for 1 or 8 min; and (2 energy content of gastric load (GL by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001. All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.002; fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02. In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  7. D1 and D2 antagonists reverse the effects of appetite suppressants on weight loss, food intake, locomotion, and rebalance spiking inhibition in the rat NAc shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanasundar, B; Perez, Claudia I; Luna, Alvaro; Solorio, Jessica; Moreno, Mario G; Elias, David; Simon, Sidney A; Gutierrez, Ranier

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem that has reached epidemic proportions. To ameliorate this problem, one approach is the use of appetite suppressants. These compounds are frequently amphetamine congeners such as diethylpropion (DEP), phentermine (PHEN), and bupropion (BUP), whose effects are mediated through serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopaminergic pathways. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell receives dopaminergic inputs and is involved in feeding and motor activity. However, little is known about how appetite suppressants modulate its activity. Therefore, we characterized behavioral and neuronal NAc shell responses to short-term treatments of DEP, PHEN, and BUP. These compounds caused a transient decrease in weight and food intake while increasing locomotion, stereotypy, and insomnia. They evoked a large inhibitory imbalance in NAc shell spiking activity that correlated with the onset of locomotion and stereotypy. Analysis of the local field potentials (LFPs) showed that all three drugs modulated beta, theta, and delta oscillations. These oscillations do not reflect an aversive-malaise brain state, as ascertained from taste aversion experiments, but tracked both the initial decrease in weight and food intake and the subsequent tolerance to these drugs. Importantly, the appetite suppressant-induced weight loss and locomotion were markedly reduced by intragastric (and intra-NAc shell) infusions of dopamine antagonists SCH-23390 (D1 receptor) or raclopride (D2 receptor). Furthermore, both antagonists attenuated appetite suppressant-induced LFP oscillations and partially restored the imbalance in NAc shell activity. These data reveal that appetite suppressant-induced behavioral and neuronal activity recorded in the NAc shell depend, to various extents, on dopaminergic activation and thus point to an important role for D1/D2-like receptors (in the NAc shell) in the mechanism of action for these anorexic compounds. PMID:25972577

  8. Thermic effect of a meal and appetite in adults: an individual participant data meta-analysis of meal-test trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ravn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermic effect of a meal (TEF has previously been suggested to influence appetite. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether there is an association between appetite and TEF. Second, to examine whether protein intake is associated with TEF or appetite. Design: Individual participant data (IPD meta-analysis on studies were performed at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Five randomized meal-test studies, with 111 participants, were included. The included studies measured energy expenditure (EE in respiration chambers and pre- and postprandial appetite sensations using Visual Analog Scales (VAS. The primary meta-analysis was based on a generic-inverse variance random-effects model, pooling individual study Spearman's correlation coefficients, resulting in a combined r-value with 95% confidence interval (95% CI. The I2 value quantifies the proportion (% of the variation in point estimates due to among-study differences. Results: The IPD meta-analysis found no association between satiety and TEF expressed as the incremental area under the curve (TEFiAUC (r=0.06 [95% CI −0.16 to 0.28], P=0.58; I2=15.8%. Similarly, Composite Appetite Score (CAS was not associated with TEFiAUC (r=0.08 [95% CI −0.12 to 0.28], P = 0.45; I2=0%. Posthoc analyses showed no association between satiety or CAS and TEF expressed as a percentage of energy intake (EI (P>0.49 or TEF expressed as a percentage of baseline EE (P>0.17. When adjusting for covariates, TEFiAUC was associated with protein intake (P=0.0085. Conclusions: This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence supporting an association between satiety or CAS and TEF at protein intakes ∼15 E% (range 11–30 E%.

  9. Social change and access to a palatable diet produces differences in reward neurochemistry and appetite in female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Wilson, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure. Social subordination in macaques is a well-established animal model of a chronic psychogenic stressor that results in stress axis dysregulation, attenuated striatal D2R levels, and stress-induced hyperphagia in complex dietary environment. However, it remains unclear how these phenotypes emerge as the stressor becomes chronic during the formation of new social groups. Thus, the goal of the current study was to assess how the imposition of social subordination over a four-month period would affect food intake, socioemotional behavior, and D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) in female rhesus monkeys maintained on a typical laboratory chow diet (LCD) compared with those having a choice between a LCD and a CDD. Results showed that access to a CDD leads to increased total caloric intake and preference for a CDD over a LCD. For the dietary choice condition, females directing less aggression towards group mates during the four-month period, a characteristic of lower social status, consumed progressively more calories over the four-month period than more aggressive females. This relation between agonistic behavior and appetite was not observed for females in LCD-only condition. Finally, decreased D2R-BP in the orbitofrontal cortex was predictive of increased overall caloric intake in all females regardless of dietary environment, suggesting that reduced availability of D2R within the prefrontal cortex is associated with unrestrained eating. Studies are

  10. Social change and access to a palatable diet produces differences in reward neurochemistry and appetite in female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Wilson, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to the etiology of obesity is critical for minimizing the effects of obesity-related adverse physical health outcomes. Emotional eating or the inability to control intake of calorically dense diets (CDD) under conditions of psychosocial stress exposure is a potential risk factor for the development of obesity in people. Decreases in dopamine 2 receptors (D2R) availability have been documented in substance abuse and obesity in humans, as well as animal models of chronic stressor exposure. Social subordination in macaques is a well-established animal model of a chronic psychogenic stressor that results in stress axis dysregulation, attenuated striatal D2R levels, and stress-induced hyperphagia in complex dietary environment. However, it remains unclear how these phenotypes emerge as the stressor becomes chronic during the formation of new social groups. Thus, the goal of the current study was to assess how the imposition of social subordination over a four-month period would affect food intake, socioemotional behavior, and D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) in female rhesus monkeys maintained on a typical laboratory chow diet (LCD) compared with those having a choice between a LCD and a CDD. Results showed that access to a CDD leads to increased total caloric intake and preference for a CDD over a LCD. For the dietary choice condition, females directing less aggression towards group mates during the four-month period, a characteristic of lower social status, consumed progressively more calories over the four-month period than more aggressive females. This relation between agonistic behavior and appetite was not observed for females in LCD-only condition. Finally, decreased D2R-BP in the orbitofrontal cortex was predictive of increased overall caloric intake in all females regardless of dietary environment, suggesting that reduced availability of D2R within the prefrontal cortex is associated with unrestrained eating. Studies are

  11. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods: Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA method. Results: Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l, leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048, Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045, Body Cell Mass (BCM (P=0.021, Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033 and Body Mass Index (P=0.029 compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03 and fat free mass index (FFMI (r=-0.40, P=0.029 in patients. Conclusion: It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.

  12. Effects of Two Dietary Fibers as Part of Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC Breakfasts on Perceived Appetite and Gut Hormones in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Lafond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an enzyme-hydrolyzed arabinoxylan from wheat (AXOS versus an intact arabinoxylan from flax (FLAX added to a ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC on the postprandial appetitive, hormonal, and metabolic responses in overweight women (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 were evaluated. Subsequent meal energy intake was also assessed. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover design studies were completed. For trial 1, the participants consumed the following RTEC breakfast, matched for total weight and varied in energy content: low-fiber (LF, 4 g; high-fiber (HF, 15 g as either AXOS or FLAX. For trial 2, the participants consumed LF, HF-AXOS, and HF-FLAX RTECs but also consumed another LF breakfast that was isocaloric (LF-iso to that of the HF breakfasts. Perceived appetite and blood samples (trial 2 only were assessed before and after breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was offered 4 h post-breakfast. No differences in postprandial appetite responses were observed among any breakfasts in either trial. The HF-AXOS and HF-FLAX led to increased postprandial GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY concentrations vs. LF-iso. No differences were observed in lunch meal energy intake among breakfast meals in either trial. Collectively, these data suggest that 15 g of low molecular weight fiber added to RTECs did not affect perceived appetite or subsequent energy intake despite differences in satiety hormone signaling in overweight females.

  13. Changes in Mood, Cognitive Performance and Appetite in the Late Luteal and Follicular Phases of the Menstrual Cycle in Women With and Without PMDD (Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder)

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2008-01-01

    Although it’s been reported that women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) have increased negative mood, appetite (food cravings and food intake), alcohol intake and cognitive deficits premenstrually, few studies have examined these changes concurrently within the same group of women or compared to women without PMDD. Thus, to date, there is not a clear understanding of the full range of PMDD symptoms. The present study concurrently assessed mood and performance tasks in 29 normally c...

  14. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite. PMID:26619790

  15. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig

    OpenAIRE

    Bidanel, Jean Pierre; Billon, Yvon; Lagant, Herve; Guillouet, Philippe; Sellier, Pierre; NOBLET, Jean; Hermesch,

    2012-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for so...

  16. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  17. Eight-day consumption of inulin added to a yogurt breakfast lowers postprandial appetite ratings but not energy intakes in young healthy females: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sarah; Ingram, Jessica; Law, Marron; Tucker, Amy J; Wright, Amanda J

    2016-01-28

    Increasing feelings of satiety may reduce appetite and energy intake. The role of inulin consumption in impacting satiety is unclear. A randomised double-blind controlled crossover trial aimed to determine the effects of inulin+yogurt on satiety after 1 and 8-d consumption. The preload breakfast included 100 g vanilla yogurt with (yogurt-inulin (YI)) and without (yogurt-control (YC)) 6 g inulin. A total of nineteen healthy females (22·8 (sd 2·7) years) with non-restrained eating behaviour and taking hormonal contraceptives participated in the study. Day 1 and 8 visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings of Hunger, Fullness, Desire to Eat and Prospective Food Consumption (PFC) were collected at fasting and every 30 min for 180 min. Energy intake was calculated from a weighed ad libitum lunch and remainder of day food records. Total AUC was calculated for each VAS. Day 1 (VAS only) and 8 (VAS and energy intakes) data were compared between YI and YC using ANCOVA, and ANOVA was used to compare energy intakes on Day 1. There were no significant differences between Day 1 YI and YC AUC appetite ratings or energy intakes. However, 8-d consumption of YI v. YC was associated with lower Desire to Eat and PFC ratings but similar lunch and total day energy intakes. Therefore, the addition of 6 g inulin to a commercially available yogurt affected feelings of appetite, but not energy intake, after repeated consumption. These results suggest that inulin may be a suitable ingredient to increase dietary fibre consumption, with potential to impact appetite.

  18. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Awata; Takahito Watanabe; Yoshitaka Hamanaka; Taro Mito; Sumihare Noji; Makoto Mizunami

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Do...

  19. 胰高血糖素样肽-1与下丘脑食欲调节%Glucagon-like peptide-1 and appetite regulation in the hypothalamus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶; 郗光霞

    2012-01-01

    Hypothalamus is the center of neuroendocrine and appetite-regulation.Glucagons-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin which is expressed in the hypothalamus,and regulates the appetite center.GLP-1 is considered as an anorexia-peptide and reduces food intake via negative feedback signal within the hypothalamus.The important pathways of controlling appetite are corticotrophin-releasing hormone ( CRH ),histamine,neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein ( NPY/AgRP),pro-opiomelanocortin/cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (POMC/CART) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK).Research on the mechanism of GLP-1 appetite-regulation may provide evidences on the treatment and prevention of obesity,insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.%下丘脑是神经内分泌中枢,也是食欲调节中枢.胰高血糖素样肽-1(GLP-1)是一种胃肠道激素,能够在下丘脑表达并对食欲中枢有调节作用.GLP-1作为一种厌食信号肽,通过促肾上腺皮质激素释放激素(CRH)通路、组胺神经元通路、神经肽和刺鼠相关蛋白(NPY/AgRP)以及前阿片黑皮质素原和可卡因-苯丙胺调节转录肽(POMC/CART)通路及AMP活化蛋白激酶(AMPK)介导的摄食负反馈信号通路参与调节摄食活动.针对GLP-1调节摄食作用机制的研究对肥胖、胰岛素抵抗和2型糖尿病的防治有重要的理论意义.

  20. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriks Henk FJ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA and triglycerides (TG work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8 secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 μM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day. CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

  1. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals. PMID:27149948

  2. The assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer: cut-off values for the FAACT–A/CS and the VAS for appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S.; Ruijgrok, C.; Ostelo, R. W.; de Vet, H. C. W.; Verheul, H.M.W.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.; Langius, J. A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anorexia is a frequently observed symptom in patients with cancer and is associated with limited food intake and decreased quality of life. Diagnostic instruments such as the Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale (A/CS) of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire and the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite have been recommended in the assessment of anorexia, but validated cut-off values are lacking. This study aimed to obtain cut-off values of these instrum...

  3. Food cravings, appetite, and snack-food consumption in response to a psychomotor stimulant drug: the moderating effect of “food-addiction”

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline eDavis; Levitan, Robert D.; Kaplan, Allan S.; Kennedy, James L.; Carter, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating resemble an addiction disorder. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-ba...

  4. Glycemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomized Control Trial in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Gonzalez-Anton; Rico, Maria C.; Estefania Sanchez-Rodriguez; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D.; Angel Gil; Maria D. Mesa

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulinemic index (InI), appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-...

  5. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating. PMID:27149410

  6. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihisa eMatsumoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies.

  7. Transient inactivation of the pigeon hippocampus or the nidopallium caudolaterale during extinction learning impairs extinction retrieval in an appetitive conditioning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengersdorf, Daniel; Stüttgen, Maik C; Uengoer, Metin; Güntürkün, Onur

    2014-05-15

    The majority of experiments exploring context-dependent extinction learning employ Pavlovian fear conditioning in rodents. Since mechanisms of appetitive and aversive learning are known to differ at the neuronal level, we sought to investigate extinction learning in an appetitive setting. Working with pigeons, we established a within-subject ABA renewal paradigm based on Rescorla (Q J Exp Psychol 61:1793) and combined it with pharmacological interventions during extinction. From the fear conditioning literature, it is known that both prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus are core structures for context-specific extinction learning. Accordingly, we transiently inactivated the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL, a functional analogue of mammalian prefrontal cortex) and the hippocampus in separate experiments by intracranial infusion of the sodium-channel blocker tetrodotoxin immediately before extinction training. We find that TTX in both structures non-specifically suppresses conditioned responding, as revealed by a reduction of response rate to both the extinguished conditioned stimulus and a control stimulus which remained reinforced throughout the experiment. Furthermore, TTX during extinction training impaired later extinction retrieval assessed under drug-free conditions. This was true when responding to the extinguished stimulus was assessed in the context of extinction but not when tested in the context of acquisition, although both contexts were matched with respect to their history of conditioning. These results indicate that both NCL and hippocampus are involved in extinction learning under appetitive conditions or, more specifically, in the consolidation of extinction memory, and that their contribution to extinction is context-specific.

  8. Roles of octopamine and dopamine in appetitive and aversive memory acquisition studied in olfactory conditioning of maxillary palpi extension response in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro-Sato; Wakuda, Ryo; Ichihara, Saori; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of reinforcing mechanisms for associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. Based on results of our previous pharmacological studies in crickets, we suggested that octopamine and dopamine mediate reward and punishment signals, respectively, in associative learning. In fruit-flies, however, it was concluded that dopamine mediates both appetitive and aversive reinforcement, which differs from our suggestion in crickets. In our previous studies, the effect of conditioning was tested at 30 min after training or later, due to limitations of our experimental procedures, and thus the possibility that octopamine and dopamine were not needed for initial acquisition of learning was not ruled out. In this study we first established a conditioning procedure to enable us to evaluate acquisition performance in crickets. Crickets extended their maxillary palpi and vigorously swung them when they perceived some odors, and we found that crickets that received pairing of an odor with water reward or sodium chloride punishment exhibited an increase or decrease in percentages of maxillary palpi extension responses to the odor. Using this procedure, we found that octopamine and dopamine receptor antagonists impair acquisition of appetitive and aversive learning, respectively. This finding suggests that neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement differ in crickets and fruit-flies. PMID:26388749

  9. Effects of the Non-Nutritive Sweeteners on Glucose Metabolism and Appetite Regulating Hormones: Systematic Review of Observational Prospective Studies and Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Romo, Alonso; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Brito-Córdova, Griselda X.; Gómez Díaz, Rita A.; Vilchis Valentín, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones are not clear. There is an ongoing debate concerning NNS use and deleterious changes in metabolism. Objectives The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific available evidence regarding the effects of NNS on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones. Data Sources and Study Eligibility Criteria We identified human observational studies evaluating the relation between NNS consumption and obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, in addition to clinical trials evaluating the effects of NNS in glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones. Results Fourteen observational studies evaluating the association between NNS consumption and the development of metabolic diseases and twenty-eight clinical trials studying the effects of NNS on metabolism were included. Finally, two meta-analyses evaluating the association between the consumption of NNS-containing beverages and the development of type 2 diabetes were identified. Conclusions Some observational studies suggest an association between NNS consumption and development of metabolic diseases; however, adiposity is a confounder frequently found in observational studies. The effects of the NNS on glucose metabolism are not clear. The results of the identified clinical trials are contradictory and are not comparable because of the major existing differences between them. Studies evaluating specific NNS, with an adequate sample size, including a homogeneous study group, identifying significant comorbidities, with an appropriate control group, with an appropriate exposure time, and considering adjustment for confounder variables such as adiposity are needed. PMID:27537496

  10. Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Virginia V W; Jordan, Jennifer; Carter, Janet D; Frampton, Christopher M A; McKenzie, Janice M; Latner, Janet D; Joyce, Peter R

    2016-06-30

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating.

  11. Acute effects of violent video-game playing on blood pressure and appetite perception in normal-weight young men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-12-01

    Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV. PMID:24084510

  12. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Riboldi, Giancarlo; Petronio, Michela; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2010-02-01

    Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 young adults was conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals based on wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and EI measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly lower glucose responses. Only RWP had a lower glycemic index compared to RWB. WWB, but not WWP, resulted in increased satiety and reduced hunger compared to RWB. Ad libitum EI did not differ. In conclusion, the results show that wholemeal breads increased satiety measures compared to their refined counterparts; however no significant effect on subsequent EI was observed.

  13. Adolescent rats discriminate a mild state of ethanol intoxication likely to act as an appetitive unconditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vidal, Juan M; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2003-05-01

    Practically no information is available in relation to the capability of the adolescent animal in terms of discriminating postabsorptive effects of ethanol. Three experiments were conducted to analyze whether young, genetically heterogeneous rats discriminate different stages of the process of intoxication exerted by a low dose (0.5 g/kg) of ethanol. An ethanol pharmacokinetic profile was first examined to select two stages within the process of ethanol intoxication that, as a function of the corresponding blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), could represent two potentially discriminable drug states. In a second experiment, sucrose was available when the BECs of rats peaked or were of a lesser magnitude (5 and 30 min postadministration time, respectively). When animals were tested under similar or different drug states relative to the training procedure, no behavioral evidence indicative of differential sucrose expectancy was obtained. In Experiment 3, rats discriminated each of the previously defined ethanol states from a non-drug state. Unexpectedly, it was also found that the pharmacological effects of the 0.5-g/kg dose of ethanol are likely to support appetitive associative learning that involves the taste of sucrose as a conditioned stimulus. The apparent positive affective components of the state of ethanol intoxication have rarely been observed in genetically heterogeneous rats with rather brief experiences with the drug's effects. PMID:12878274

  14. The effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Haghshenas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Consumption of high-fat foods is one of the major causes of obesity. Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks endurance training and high-fat diet (HFD on appetite-regulating hormones in rat plasma. Materials and Methods:Twenty eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group with standard diet (CSD, endurance training with a standard diet (ESD, control group with high-fat diet (CHFD and endurance training with high-fat diet (EHFD. Twenty-four hr after the last training session, the blood samples were obtained and analyzed for hormones levels. Results: The significant increased weight gain and food intake and decreased plasma nesfatin-1 and PYY3-36 levels were observed in CHFD group, while exercise under the HFD antagonized these effects. There were no significant changes in ghrelin, insulin and leptin levels in different groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that exercise can prevent fattening effect of HFD. Probably, performing exercise makes a reduction of food intake and weight gain in rat via the increase in nesfatin-1 and PYY levels. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this field.

  15. Feeding behavior and gene expression of appetite-related neuropeptides in mice lacking for neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor subclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Higuchi; Takeshi Nild; Tomohiro Shiiya

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent neurotransmitter for feeding. Besides NPY, orexigenic neuropeptides such as agouti-related protein (AgRP), and anorexi-genic neuropeptides such as a-melatonin stimulating hormone (MSH) and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) are also involved in central feeding regulation. During fasting, NPY and AgRP gene expres-sions are up-regulated and POMC and CART gene ex-pressions are down-regulated in hypothalamus. Based on the network of peptidergic neurons, the former are involved in positive feeding regulation, and the latter are involved in negative feeding, which exert these feeding-regulated peptides especially in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). To clarify the compensatory mecha-nism of knock-out of NPY system on feeding, change in gene expressions of appetite-related neuropeptides and the feeding behavior was studied in NPY Y5-KO mice. Food intake was increased in Y5-KO mice. Fast-ing increased the amounts of food and water intake in the KO mice more profoundly. These data indicated the compensatory phenomenon of feeding behavior in YS-KO mice. RT-PCR and [SH suggested that the compensation of feeding is due to change in gene ex-pressions of AgRP, CART and POMC in hypothalamus. Thus, these findings indicated that the compensatory mechanism involves change in POMC/CART gene ex-pression in arcuate nucleus (ARC). The POMC/CART gene expression is important for central compensatory regulation in feeding behavior.

  16. Why does the giant panda eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes among mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The giant panda has an interesting bamboo diet unlike the other species in the order of Carnivora. The umami taste receptor gene T1R1 has been identified as a pseudogene during its genome sequencing project and confirmed using a different giant panda sample. The estimated mutation time for this gene is about 4.2 Myr. Such mutation coincided with the giant panda's dietary change and also reinforced its herbivorous life style. However, as this gene is preserved in herbivores such as cow and horse, we need to look for other reasons behind the giant panda's diet switch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since taste is part of the reward properties of food related to its energy and nutrition contents, we did a systematic analysis on those genes involved in the appetite-reward system for the giant panda. We extracted the giant panda sequence information for those genes and compared with the human sequence first and then with seven other species including chimpanzee, mouse, rat, dog, cat, horse, and cow. Orthologs in panda were further analyzed based on the coding region, Kozak consensus sequence, and potential microRNA binding of those genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results revealed an interesting dopamine metabolic involvement in the panda's food choice. This finding suggests a new direction for molecular evolution studies behind the panda's dietary switch.

  17. Experienced Poor Lighting Contributes to the Seasonal Fluctuations in Weight and Appetite That Relate to the Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested which environmental, social, lifestyle, and health related factors of the individual contribute to the seasonal variations in mood and behavior and whether these influence the risks of the metabolic syndrome and major depressive disorder, both conditions having a high prevalence in industrialized populations. 5480 individuals, representative of the general population aged 30 and over in Finland, were assessed for metabolic syndrome using the ATP-III criteria, gave a self-report of seasonal variations in mood and behavior, and were interviewed for mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders using the DSM-IV criteria. The seasonal variations in mood and behavior have a metabolic factor composed of weight and appetite, and greater loadings on this factor increased the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio of 1.18, 95% confidence interval of 1.10 to 1.26). Self-reports of lighting experienced as poor at home contributed to scores on the metabolic factor (t=4.20,P<.0001). Lighting conditions and their dynamics may serve as a measure for intervention in order to influence the seasonal metabolic signals and in the end to prevent the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna C Sandberg

    Full Text Available Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF. The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal.Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings.With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05. The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, P<0.001, GLP-1 (0-90 min, P<0.05 and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05, compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0-120 min, P = 0.001, serum insulin response (0-120 min, P<0.05 and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05. Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05, and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001, indicating increased colonic fermentation activity.The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could

  19. Effect of Polydextrose on Subjective Feelings of Appetite during the Satiation and Satiety Periods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Ibarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis. Methods: A methodology to express VAS results as incremental areas under the curve (iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods is proposed using polydextrose as a case study. Further, a systematic review and meta-analysis on subjective feelings of appetite was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. Meta-analyses were expressed as Standardized Mean Difference (SMD. Results: Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were important differences in the methods used to analyze appetite ratings amongst these studies. The separate subjective feelings of appetite reported were Hunger, Satisfaction, Fullness, Prospective Food Consumption, and the Desire to Eat. The method proposed here allowed the results of the different studies to be homogenized. The meta-analysis showed that Desire to Eat during the Satiation period favors polydextrose for the reduction of this subjective feeling of appetite (SMD = 0.24, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.018; this effect was also significant in the sub-analysis by sex for the male population (SMD = 0.35, I2 < 0.01, p = 0.015. There were no other significant results. Conclusion: It is possible to compare VAS results from separate studies. The assessment of iAUC for both the Satiation and Satiety periods generates results of homogeneous magnitudes. This case study demonstrates, for the first time, that polydextrose reduces the Desire to Eat during the Satiation period. This may explain, at least in part, the observed

  20. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: one received melatonin (3 or 6 mg based on weight combined with ritalin (1mg/kg and the other took placebo combined with ritalin (1mg/kg in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Three-day food record, and standard weight and height of children were evaluated prior to the treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment. Children’s appetite and sleep were evaluated in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. Hypotheses were then analyzed using SPSS17.Results: Paired sample t-test showed significant changes in sleep latency (23.15±15.25 vs. 17.96±11.66; p=0.047 and total sleep disturbance score (48.84±13.42 vs. 41.30±9.67; p=0.000 before and after melatonin administration, respectively. However, appetite and food intake did not change significantly during the study. Sleep duration and appetite were significantly correlated in melatonin group (Pearson r=0.971, p=0.029. Mean height (138.28±16.24 vs. 141.35±16.78; P=0.000 and weight (36.73±17.82 vs. 38.97±17.93; P=0.005 were significantly increased in melatonin treated children before and after the trial.Conclusion: Administration of melatonin along with ritalin improves height and weight growth of children. These effects may be attributed to circadian cycle modification, increasing sleep duration and the consequent more growth hormone release during sleep.

  1. Maternal nutrient restriction between early-to-mid gestation and its impact upon appetite regulation following juvenile obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sébert, S.P.; Hyatt, M.A.; Chan, L.L.Y.; Patel, N.; Bell, R. C.; Keisler, D.; Stephenson, T.; Budge, H.; Symonds, M.E.; Gardner, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of maternal nutrient restriction during early-to-mid gestation, a period coinciding with early fetal brain development, on appetite regulation and energy balance in the offspring following juvenile obesity was examined. Pregnant sheep were either fed to fully meet their nutritional requirements throughout gestation or 50% of this amount between 30-80 days gestation. Following weaning, offspring were either made obese through exposure to a sedentary obesogenic environment or remained lean. Maternal nutrient restriction had no effect on birth weight or subsequent growth. At one week of age, only, gene expression for neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus was reduced in nutrient restricted offspring. By 1 year of age, all obese animals had raised plasma leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and insulin, with the latter effect amplified in nutrient restricted offspring. Fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and cortisol were unaffected by obesity. The entrained reduction in physical activity that led to obesity persisted when all animals were maintained within individual pens. Obese nutrient restricted offspring, however, exhibited reduced daily food intake and were, therefore, no longer in positive “energy balance”. This adaptation was accompanied by elevated hypothalamic gene expression for the melanocortin-4 and insulin receptors, AMP-activated kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase α. In conclusion, nutrient restriction specifically targeted over the period of early fetal brain development, contributes to a profoundly different adaptation in energy balance following juvenile obesity. The extent to which this adaptive response may benefit the offspring or result in an exacerbated risk for type II diabetes remains to be established. PMID:18818297

  2. Zinc as an appetite stimulator - the possible role of zinc in the progression of diseases such as cachexia and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Jiang B; Tsai, Minglun; Amitani, Haruka; Ohinata, Kousaku; Komai, Michio; Inui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Zinc is required by humans and animals for many physiological functions, such as growth, immune function, and reproduction. Zinc deficiency induces a number of physiological problems, including anorexia, growth retardation, dermatitis, taste disorder, and hypogonadism. Although it is clear that zinc deficiency produces specific and profound anorexia in experimental animals, the connection between zinc deficiency and anorexia is less certain. We were the first to show that orally, but not intraperitoneally, administered zinc rapidly stimulates food intake through orexigenic peptides coupled to the afferent vagus nerve using rats during early-stage zinc deficiency without decreased zinc concentrations in plasma and tissues. We confirmed that a zinc-sufficient diet containing zinc chloride acutely stimulated food intake after short-term zinc deprivation. We also found that orally administered zinc sulfate increased the expression of NPY and orexin mRNA after administration. Using vagotomized rats, we tested whether the increase in food intake after oral administration of zinc was mediated by the vagus nerve. In sham-operated rats, the oral administration of zinc stimulated food intake, whereas zinc and saline administrations did not exhibit differing effects in vagotomized rats. We conclude that zinc stimulates food intake in short-term zinc-deficient rats through the afferent vagus nerve with subsequent effects on hypothalamic peptides associated with food intake regulation. In this review, we describe recent research investigating the roles of zinc as an appetite stimulator in food intake regulation, along with research about hypothalamus, ghrelin, leptin and zinc receptor, and clinical application about anorexia nervosa, cachexia and sarcopenia. The article also presents some promising patents on zinc. PMID:21846317

  3. Determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e apetite Physiological determinants of weight and appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleika S. C. Halpern

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública da atualidade, apresentando etiologia multifatorial. Entre os determinantes fisiológicos do controle do peso e do apetite, estão fatores neuronais, endócrinos, adipocitários e intestinais. A leptina e a insulina são hormônios secretados em proporção à massa adiposa e atuam perifericamente, estimulando o catabolismo. No sistema nervoso central, a insulina e a leptina interagem com receptores hipotalâmicos, favorecendo a saciedade. Indivíduos obesos têm maiores concentrações séricas destes hormônios e apresentam resistência à sua ação. Os peptídeos intestinais, combinados a outros sinais, podem estimular (grelina e orexina ou inibir (CCK, leptina e oximodulina a ingestão alimentar. Todos atuam nos centros hipotalâmicos, que são os grandes responsáveis pelo comportamento alimentar.Obesity is currently one of the main problems of public health, presenting multifactorial etiology. The main involved factors in the control of weight and appetite are neuronal, endocrine, adipocity and intestinal. Leptine and insuline are hormones produced proportionally to adipose mass and act stimulating the catabolism. In the central nervous system, insuline and leptine interact with hypothalamic receivers favoring the satiety. Individuals with obesity have high seric concentrations of these hormones and present resistance to their action. The intestinal peptides, associated with other signals, can stimulate (greline and orexine or inhibit (CKK, leptine and oxymodulin the food intake. All act in the hypothalamic centers, that are the major responsible for the nutrititional behavior.

  4. The effects of galactooligosaccharide on systemic and mucosal immune response, growth performance and appetite related gene transcript in goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Farvardin, Shoeib; Shabani, Ali; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Ramezanpour, Seyyede Sanaz

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effects of supplementation of goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio) diet with galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on serum immune response, mucosal immune parameters as well as appetite-related (Ghrelin) and immune-related (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression. One hundred and eighty fish with an average weight of 4.88 ± 0.28 g were stocked in twelve 500-L fiberglass tank assigned to four treatments repeated in triplicates. Fish were fed on experimental diets contain 0.5, 1 and 2% GOS for 6 weeks. Supplementation of diet with GOS had no remarkable effect on goldfish growth performance (P > 0.05). Evaluation of serum innate immune parameters revealed that supplementation of diet with GOS significantly elevated total protein, Albumin, Globulins, Lysozyme and Alkaline phosphatase activity as well as agglutination compared to control group in a dose dependent manner (P diet showed increased skin mucus immune response (total protein and lysozyme activity) compared other groups (P < 0.0.5); except in case of ALP activity. Molecular studies on appetite (ghrelin) and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-1α and TNF-2α) genes expression revealed remarkably decrease and increase, respectively in GOS fed fish (P < 0.0.5). These results showed immunomodulatory effects of dietary GOS on serum and skin mucus response as well as expression of inflammatory cytokines in goldfish, though this supplement decreased appetite gene expression and had no effect on growth performance. PMID:27311434

  5. Foods with added fiber improve stool frequency in individuals with chronic kidney disease with no impact on appetite or overall quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Salmean, Younis A.; Zello, Gordon A; Dahl, Wendy J

    2013-01-01

    Background Fiber intake may be low in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to diet restriction and/or poor appetite associated with uremic symptoms, contributing to constipation and reduced quality of life. This report describes the effects of foods with added fiber on gastrointestinal function and symptoms, clinical markers, and quality of life in CKD patients. Findings Adults with CKD (n = 15; 9 F, 6 M; 66 ± 15 y) were provided with cereal, cookies and snack bars without added ...

  6. Appetite, energy intake, and PYY3-36 responses to energy-matched continuous exercise and submaximal high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Karra, Efthimia; Batterham, Rachel Louise; Stensel, David John

    2013-09-01

    High-intensity intermittent exercise induces physiological adaptations similar to energy-matched continuous exercise, but the comparative appetite and energy balance responses are unknown. Twelve healthy males (mean ± SD: age, 22 ± 3 years; body mass index, 23.7 ± 3.0 kg·m(-2); maximum oxygen uptake, 52.4 ± 7.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials (control, steady-state exercise (SSE), high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE)) separated by 1 week. Trials commenced upon completion of a standardized breakfast. Exercise was performed from hour 2 to hour 3. In SSE, 60 min of cycling at 59.5% ± 1.6% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed. In HIIE, ten 4-min cycling intervals were completed at 85.8% ± 4.0% of maximum oxygen uptake, with a 2-min rest between each interval. A standardized lunch and an ad libitum afternoon meal were provided at hours 3.75 and 7, respectively. Appetite ratings and peptide YY3-36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. Appetite was acutely suppressed during exercise, but more so during HIIE (p < 0.05). Peptide YY3-36 concentrations increased significantly upon cessation of exercise in SSE (p = 0.002), but were highest in the hours after exercise in HIIE (p = 0.05). Exercise energy expenditure was not different between HIIE and SSE (p = 0.649), but perceived exertion was higher in HIIE (p < 0.0005). Ad libitum energy intake did not differ between trials (p = 0.833). Therefore, relative energy intake (energy intake minus the net energy expenditure of exercise) was lower in the SSE and HIIE trials than in the control trial (control, 4759 ± 1268 kJ; SSE, 2362 ± 1224 kJ; HIIE, 2523 ± 1402 kJ; p < 0.0005). An acute bout of energy-matched continuous exercise and HIIE were equally effective at inducing an energy deficit without stimulating compensatory increases in appetite. PMID:23905660

  7. Global Integration of the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite Predicts Short Term Weight Loss in Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle M Paolini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE. The present work is a sub-study (n = 56 of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, superior temporal pole, amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis. After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of

  8. Global integration of the hot-state brain network of appetite predicts short term weight loss in older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Brielle M; Laurienti, Paul J; Simpson, Sean L; Burdette, Jonathan H; Lyday, Robert G; Rejeski, W Jack

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health crisis in North America. While lifestyle interventions for weight loss (WL) remain popular, the rate of success is highly variable. Clearly, self-regulation of eating behavior is a challenge and patterns of activity across the brain may be an important determinant of success. The current study prospectively examined whether integration across the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) predicts WL after 6-months of treatment in older adults. Our metric for network integration was global efficiency (GE). The present work is a sub-study (n = 56) of an ongoing randomized clinical trial involving WL. Imaging involved a baseline food-cue visualization functional MRI (fMRI) scan following an overnight fast. Using graph theory to build functional brain networks, we demonstrated that regions of the HBN-A (insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), superior temporal pole (STP), amygdala and the parahippocampal gyrus) were highly integrated as evidenced by the results of a principal component analysis (PCA). After accounting for known correlates of WL (baseline weight, age, sex, and self-regulatory efficacy) and treatment condition, which together contributed 36.9% of the variance in WL, greater GE in the HBN-A was associated with an additional 19% of the variance. The ACC of the HBN-A was the primary driver of this effect, accounting for 14.5% of the variance in WL when entered in a stepwise regression following the covariates, p = 0.0001. The HBN-A is comprised of limbic regions important in the processing of emotions and visceral sensations and the ACC is key for translating such processing into behavioral consequences. The improved integration of these regions may enhance awareness of body and emotional states leading to more successful self-regulation and to greater WL. This is the first study among older adults to prospectively demonstrate that, following an overnight fast, GE of the HBN-A during a food visualization task is predictive of

  9. The effect of a high-MUFA, low-glycaemic index diet and a low-fat diet on appetite and glucose metabolism during a 6-month weight maintenance period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Due, Anette Pia; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to test the effects of three different weight maintenance diets on appetite, glucose and fat metabolism following an initial low-energy diet (LED) induced body weight loss. Following an 8-week LED and a 2-3-week refeeding period, 131 subjects were randomized to three diets for 6 months...... with respect to glucose metabolism, whereas the CTR diet resembling the typical Western diet, high in SFA, sugar and high glycaemic carbohydrates, indicated associations to lowering of insulin sensitivity. Lower levels of appetite regulatory peptides along with increased appetite scores following an 8-week LED......: MUFA, moderate-fat (35-45 energy percentage (E%) fat), high in MUFA with low glycaemic index; LF, low fat (20-30 E% fat) or CTR, control (35 E% fat). A meal test study was performed in a subgroup, before and after the 6-month dietary intervention, with forty-two subjects completing both meal tests...

  10. Combining operant-baseline-derived conditioned excitors and inhibitors from the same and different incentive classes: an investigation of appetitive-aversive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S J; Thomas, D A; Weissman, R D

    1996-11-01

    The dynamics of appetitive-aversive interaction theory were assayed in an experiment where excitors and inhibitors from the same and different incentive classes were compounded. Excitatory and inhibitory incentive properties acquired by the discriminative stimuli resulted from the reinforcement differences between components of four-component multiple training schedules, with the influence of competing peripheral responses factored into the design. Rats' barpressing was maintained in tone and in click by food or free-operant shock avoidance; extinction was programmed in click-plus-light and in the simultaneous absence of tone, click, and light. In Test 1, an excitor that occasioned operant responding and an inhibitor that occasioned response cessation were compounded. Here, compounding an inhibitor with an excitor from the same incentive class reduced responding significantly more than did compounding an inhibitor with an excitor from the other incentive class. In Test 2, the compounds consisted of elements that individually occasioned operant responding. Here, compounding stimuli that were excitors from different incentive classes appeared to create reciprocal inhibition that counteracted the additive effects produced when these stimuli were excitors from the same incentive class. Predictions from appetitive-aversive interaction theory and Weiss' two-factor model of stimulus control were confirmed within this experimental design, where all conditioning was a by-product of the behavioural contingencies programmed on the operant baselines. PMID:8962540

  11. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary. PMID:26549651

  12. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control. PMID:25302637

  13. The effect of yellow pea protein and fibre on short-term food intake, subjective appetite and glycaemic response in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E; Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2012-08-01

    Pulses are low-glycaemic foods rich in protein (20-25 %), resistant starch and fibre that suppress appetite and glycaemia. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the component(s) of yellow peas responsible for these benefits and assess their efficacy as value-added food ingredients. We investigated the effects of 10 or 20 g of isolated yellow pea protein (P10 and P20) or fibre (F10 and F20) on food intake (FI) at an ad libitum pizza meal served at 30 min (Expt 1, n 19) or 120 min (Expt 2, n 20) and blood glucose (BG) and appetite in young, healthy males (20-30 years). In Expt 1, P20 led to lower FI than control (4937 (sem 502) v. 5632 (sem 464) kJ (1180 (sem 120) v. 1346 (sem 111) kcal)) and all other treatments (P yellow peas in the regulation of glycaemia and FI, but its second-meal effects disappear by 2 h post-consumption. PMID:22916818

  14. Acute effects of pea protein and hull fibre alone and combined on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake in healthy young men--a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Smith, Christopher; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-12-01

    Whether pulse components can be used as value-added ingredients in foods formulated for blood glucose (BG) and food intake (FI) control requires investigation. The objective of this study was to examine of the effects of pea components on FI at an ad libitum meal, as well as appetite and BG responses before and after the meal. In a repeated-measures crossover trial, men (n = 15) randomly consumed (i) pea hull fibre (7 g), (ii) pea protein (10 g), (iii) pea protein (10 g) plus hull fibre (7 g), (iv) yellow peas (406 g), and (v) control. Pea hull fibre and protein were served with tomato sauce and noodles, while yellow peas were served with tomato sauce. Control was noodles and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal (135 min). Appetite and BG were measured pre-pizza (0-135 min) and post-pizza (155-215 min). Protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower pre-pizza BG area under the curve compared with fibre and control. At 30 min, BG was lower after protein plus fibre and yellow peas compared with fibre and control, whereas at 45 and 75 min, protein plus fibre and yellow peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p peas led to lower BG compared with fibre (p pea components as value-added ingredients in foods designed to improve glycemic control.

  15. Acute effects of different dietary polysaccharides added in milk on food intake, postprandial appetite and glycemic responses in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Ishtiaq, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Imran, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In the present study we compared the postprandial glycemic and satiety responses of different dietary polysaccharides when added in milk (2% M.F.). The objective of this study was to evaluate different polysaccharides against postprandial glucose, appetite responses and food intake at subsequent meal. In a repeated measures design, 30 females (18-30 years) consumed 250 ml milk 2% M.F. (control), or milk with carrageenan (2.5 g), guar gum (2.5 g) and alginate (2.5 g), followed by an ad libitum pizza meal after 120 min. Alginate and guar gum addition resulted in lower caloric intake at subsequent pizza meal. The post-treatment (0-120 min) glucose and average appetite were suppressed by alginate and guar gum (p < 0.0001), with more pronounced effect of guar gum. However, alginate resulted in lower blood glucose (p < 0.0001) compared with control and carrageenan during post-treatment. Alginate and guar gum added beverages would be beneficial in short-term regulation of postprandial glycemia and satiety. PMID:27352777

  16. Adaptive changes in the appetite, growth and feeding behaviour of pony mares offered ad libitum access to a complete diet in either a pelleted or chaff-based form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argo, C.M.; Cox, J.E.; Lockyer, C.;

    2002-01-01

    Seven, 3-year-old pony mares (similar to230 kg) were used in a cross-over study to compare the appetite, energy and nutrient digestibilities, growth rate and feeding behaviour, when a complete diet was offered ad libitum in either the original loose-chaff mix (C), or as a more convenient, milled....... Following transfer from pellets to chaff, DEI decreased (P end of period 2. In contrast, DEI of animals which progressed from chaff to pellets remained relatively constant between periods. Oestrous behaviour caused no detectable change in the appetite...

  17. Food Cravings, Appetite, and Snack-Food Consumption in Response to a Psychomotor Stimulant Drug: The Moderating Effect of ‘Food Addiction’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating are behavioral addictions. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-based study of overeating in healthy adults who were predominately overweight and obese (aged 25-50 years, 136 participants completed the YFAS, of whom 23 met the diagnostic criteria for food addiction. They took part in a 2-day, double-blind, cross-over, single-dose drug challenge using a psychomotor stimulant (methylphenidate and placebo. Participants were first assessed on ratings of appetite and food cravings after holding and tasting their favorite snack food, after which they were able to eat all or part of the snack, as they wished. Three separate repeated-measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA procedures were carried out, each with 2 between-subjects factors (Diagnosis: food addiction vs non-food addiction and (Sex: male vs female and 1 within-subjects factor (Days: drug vs placebo. As anticipated, for all three dependent variables, there was a significant main effect for Days with a response decrease from placebo to the drug condition. With respect to food cravings and appetite ratings, results indicated that the food-addiction group had significantly higher scores on both variables (p<0.0001. For food consumption, there was a significant Days x Diagnosis interaction (p=0.018 whereby the food-addiction group showed no food-intake suppression across days compared to the non-food-addiction group who demonstrated a significant decrease in snack-food consumption with methylphenidate. The finding that the food-addiction group was resistant to the food

  18. Effects of interleukin-1 beta injections into the subfornical organ and median preoptic nucleus on sodium appetite, blood pressure and body temperature of sodium-depleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Diana R; Ferreira, Hilda S; Moiteiro, Andrei L B B; Fregoneze, Josmara B

    2016-09-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) appears to be the mediator of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the immune system. IL-1β has been shown to modulate homeostatic functions including fever, feeding, drinking and cardiovascular control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IL-1β injections directly into the subfornical organ (SFO) and the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) on salt appetite, hedonic response, locomotion, body temperature and blood pressure in sodium-depleted rats. IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO at the doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6ng/0.2μl promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of salt intake in sodium-depleted rats. Results of the "dessert" test and the "open field" test suggested that the inhibition of salt appetite is not due to any changes in the hedonic aspect of ingestive behavior or to changes in locomotor activity. As expected, IL-1β injections into the SFO and MnPO promoted an increase in body temperature. However, the fever induced by IL-1β injected into the SFO was slower than the increase in body temperature obtained following IL-1β injection into the MnPO. Furthermore, IL-1β at a dose of 1.6ng/0.2μl directly injected into the MnPO led to a significant increase in blood pressure, while injection of the same concentration of IL-1β into the SFO caused no significant change in blood pressure or heart rate. The action of pro-inflammatory cytokines may interfere with the normal control of body temperature, blood pressure and fluid homeostasis, producing the adjustment required to cope with infection and inflammation. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms involved in fever, blood pressure increase and inhibition of sodium appetite induced by injections of IL-1β into the SFO and MnPO in sodium-depleted rats. PMID:27163523

  19. Lunch-time food choices in preschoolers: Relationships between absolute and relative intakes of different food categories, and appetitive characteristics and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Pryor, K; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S; Benson, L; Cheng, R

    2016-08-01

    Children's appetitive characteristics measured by parent-report questionnaires are reliably associated with body weight, as well as behavioral tests of appetite, but relatively little is known about relationships with food choice. As part of a larger preloading study, we served 4-5year olds from primary school classes five school lunches at which they were presented with the same standardized multi-item meal. Parents completed Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) sub-scales assessing satiety responsiveness (CEBQ-SR), food responsiveness (CEBQ-FR) and enjoyment of food (CEBQ-EF), and children were weighed and measured. Despite differing preload conditions, children showed remarkable consistency of intake patterns across all five meals with day-to-day intra-class correlations in absolute and percentage intake of each food category ranging from 0.78 to 0.91. Higher CEBQ-SR was associated with lower mean intake of all food categories across all five meals, with the weakest association apparent for snack foods. Higher CEBQ-FR was associated with higher intake of white bread and fruits and vegetables, and higher CEBQ-EF was associated with greater intake of all categories, with the strongest association apparent for white bread. Analyses of intake of each food group as a percentage of total intake, treated here as an index of the child's choice to consume relatively more or relatively less of each different food category when composing their total lunch-time meal, further suggested that children who were higher in CEBQ-SR ate relatively more snack foods and relatively less fruits and vegetables, while children with higher CEBQ-EF ate relatively less snack foods and relatively more white bread. Higher absolute intakes of white bread and snack foods were associated with higher BMI z score. CEBQ sub-scale associations with food intake variables were largely unchanged by controlling for daily metabolic needs. However, descriptive comparisons of lunch intakes with

  20. Odor Preference Learning and Memory Modify GluA1 Phosphorylation and GluA1 Distribution in the Neonate Rat Olfactory Bulb: Testing the AMPA Receptor Hypothesis in an Appetitive Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wen; Darby-King, Andrea; Grimes, Matthew T.; Howland, John G.; Wang, Yu Tian; McLean, John H.; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in synaptic AMPA receptors is hypothesized to mediate learning and memory. AMPA receptor increases have been reported in aversive learning models, although it is not clear if they are seen with memory maintenance. Here we examine AMPA receptor changes in a cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent appetitive learning model: odor preference learning in…

  1. 中国上市商业银行高管风险偏好与商业银行风险%Executives' Risk Appetite and China's On-listed Commercial Banks ' Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志洋; 刘佳

    2015-01-01

    Financial institutions are operated by people, so the risk of financial institutions are determined by the people's risk appetite who operate it. This paper studies whether the chairman, CEO and CRO's risk appetite impact China's on-listed commercial banks' risk. The conclusion is the chairman's risk appetite has significant impact on banks' total risk and unsystematic risk; CEO' s compensation has significant impact on banks' risk; CRO's risk appetite significantly impact banks' unsystematic risk.%金融机构是"人"在运作的金融机构,因此金融机构风险归根结底由运作金融机构的"人"的风险偏好来决定. 本文研究中国上市商业银行董事长、行长和首席风险官的个人风险偏好对商业银行风险的影响,结论表明董事长风险偏好特征对银行整体风险和非系统风险影响较为显著;行长的薪酬对银行经营的风险影响较大;首席风险官风险偏好对银行非系统风险的影响较大.

  2. Tesofensine induces appetite suppression and weight loss with reversal of low forebrain dopamine levels in the diet-induced obese rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Jensen, Majbrit M; Overgaard, Agnete;

    2013-01-01

    Tesofensine is a triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor which inhibits noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine reuptake. Tesofensine is currently in clinical development for the treatment of obesity, however, the pharmacological basis for its strong and sustained effects in obesity management...... is not clarified. Tesofensine effectively induces appetite suppression in the diet-induced obese (DIO) rat partially being ascribed to an indirect stimulation of central dopamine receptor function subsequent to blocked dopamine transporter activity. This is interesting, as obese patients have reduced central......, tesofensine produces weight loss together with reversal of lowered forebrain dopamine levels in DIO rats, suggesting that tesofensine's anti-obesity effects, at least in part, are associated with positive modulation of central dopaminergic activity....

  3. Twenty-four-week effects of liraglutide on body composition, adherence to appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondanelli M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mariangela Rondanelli,1 Simone Perna,1 Paolo Astrone,2 Annalisa Grugnetti,2 Sebastiano Bruno Solerte,2 Davide Guido3,4 1Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Section of Human Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Medical and Genomics Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Liraglutide has well-known effects on glucose patterns. However, its several other metabolic properties are still controversial. Given this background, the aims of the present study are to evaluate the effects of 24-week liraglutide treatment on body composition, appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods: A cohort study was carried out on overweight and obese T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c equal to 6% (42 mmol/mol-10% (86 mmol/mol, under a 3-month treatment (at least with maximal dose of metformin as stable regime, by adding liraglutide at doses up to 3 mg/d. Body composition markers were measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was monitored by glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment. Finally, the appetite sensation and plasma lipids were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-eight subjects (male/female: 16/12, mean age: 58.75±9.33 years, body mass index: 34.13±5.46 kg/m2 were evaluated. Accounting for the adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, we noted significant

  4. The effect of 6 days of sodium phosphate supplementation on appetite, energy intake, and aerobic capacity in trained men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jessica S; Ayton, Tom; Wallman, Karen E; Guelfi, Kym J

    2012-12-01

    Ingestion of an acute dose of phosphate has been shown to attenuate energy intake in the subsequent meal. This raises the question of whether the practice of phosphate supplementation over a number of days by athletes to enhance performance also influences energy intake. This study investigated the effect of 6 d of phosphate supplementation on appetite and energy intake, as well as aerobic capacity, in trained individuals. Twenty participants completed two 6-d phases of supplementation with either sodium phosphate (50 mg/kg of fat-free mass per day) or a placebo in a double-blinded, counterbalanced design. On Days 1, 2, and 6 of supplementation, a laboratory meal was provided to assess appetite and ad libitum energy intake. All other food and drink consumed during each supplementation phase were recorded in a food diary. After the 6 d of supplementation, peak aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) was assessed. There was no difference in energy intake at the laboratory meal after an acute dose (i.e., on Day 1; placebo 2,471 ± 919 kJ, phosphate 2,353 ± 987 kJ; p = .385) or prolonged supplementation with sodium phosphate (p = .581) compared with placebo. Likewise, there was no difference in VO(2peak) with phosphate supplementation (placebo 52.6 ± 5.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), phosphate 53.3 ± 6.1 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = .483). In summary, 6 d of sodium phosphate supplementation does not appear to influence energy intake. Therefore, athletes supplementing with sodium phosphate can do so without hindering their nutritional status. However, given that phosphate supplementation failed to improve aerobic capacity, the ergogenic benefit of this supplement remains questionable.

  5. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, D S; Thanuthong, T; Senadheera, S P S D; Paolucci, M; Coccia, E; De Silva, S S; Turchini, G M

    2014-04-01

    Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to 'spare' the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species. PMID:24078221

  6. Upper gastrointestinal sensitivity to meal-related signals in adult humans - relevance to appetite regulation and gut symptoms in health, obesity and functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Both the stomach and small intestine play important roles in sensing the arrival of a meal, and its physico-chemical characteristics, in the gastrointestinal lumen. The presence of a meal in the stomach provides a distension stimulus, and, as the meal empties into the small intestine, nutrients interact with small intestinal receptors, initiating the release of gut hormones, associated with feedback regulation of gastrointestinal functions, including gut motility, and signaling to the central nervous system, modulating eating behaviours, including energy intake. Lipid appears to have particularly potent effects, also in close interaction with, and modulating the effects of, gastric distension, and involving the action of gut hormones, particularly cholecystokinin (CCK). These findings have not only provided important, and novel, insights into how gastrointestinal signals interact to modulate subjective appetite perceptions, including fullness, but also laid the foundation for an increasing appreciation of the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities, e.g. as a consequence of excess dietary intake in obesity, or underlying the induction of gastrointestinal symptoms in functional dyspepsia (a condition characterized by symptoms, including bloating, nausea and early fullness, amongst others, after meals, particularly those high in fat, in the absence of any structural or functional abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract). This paper will review the effects of dietary nutrients, particularly lipid, on gastrointestinal function, and associated effects on appetite perceptions and energy intake, effects of interactions of gastrointestinal stimuli, as well as the role of altered gastrointestinal sensitivities (exaggerated, or reduced) in eating-related disorders, particularly obesity and functional dyspepsia. PMID:27013098

  7. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Dixon

    Full Text Available Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R, and twice (2R or three times (3R this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R. This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  8. Measuring motivation for appetitive behaviour: food-restricted broiler breeder chickens cross a water barrier to forage in an area of wood shavings without food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura M; Brocklehurst, Sarah; Sandilands, Vicky; Bateson, Melissa; Tolkamp, Bert J; D'Eath, Rick B

    2014-01-01

    Broiler breeders (parents of meat chickens) are selected for fast growth and become obese if fed ad libitum. To avoid this and maintain good health and reproductive ability, they are feed restricted to about 1/3 of what they would eat ad libitum. As a result, they experience chronic hunger and exhibit abnormal behaviour patterns that may indicate stress and frustration. One approach to measuring hunger is to observe how much birds will work, such as pecking a key, for access to more or different types of food. However, the sight, smell, and feedback from consumption of the feed reward changes the context and may artificially raise feeding motivation. To avoid this, we tested broiler breeders in an apparatus in which they could work for access to a wooden platform covered in wood shavings by crossing a water runway which increased in length and depth in 8 successive tests. In the wood shavings area, they could perform exploratory and foraging behaviour (the appetitive phase of feeding) but were never rewarded with feed. Sixty birds were divided into three feed quantity treatments: commercial restriction (R), and twice (2R) or three times (3R) this amount. Overall, birds fed R worked harder to reach the wood shavings area (reached it in a larger number of tests) than 2R and 3R birds (P2R>3R). This indicates that restricted-fed birds were hungry and willing to work for the opportunity to forage even though food was never provided, suggesting that their motivation to perform the appetitive component of feeding behaviour (foraging/food searching) was sufficient to sustain their response. Thus food restriction in broiler breeders is a welfare concern. However these methods could be used to test alternative feeding regimes to attempt to find ways of alleviating hunger while still maintaining healthy growth and reproduction in these birds.

  9. Short-term effects of liraglutide on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, and food preference: a pilot study of obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Kana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogue, on visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study subjects were 20 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with liraglutide [age; 61.2 ± 14.0 years, duration of diabetes; 16.9 ± 6.6 years, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; 9.1 ± 1.2%, body mass index (BMI; 28.3 ± 5.2 kg/m2, mean ± SD]. After improvement in glycemic control by insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents, patients were switched to liraglutide. We assessed the estimated visceral fat area (eVFA by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis, glycemic control by the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and eating behavior by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity questionnaire. Results Treatment with liraglutide (dose range: 0.3 to 0.9 mg/day for 20.0 ± 6.4 days significantly reduced waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, eVFA. It also significantly improved the scores of eating behavior, food preference and the urge for fat intake and tended to reduce scores for sense of hunger. Liraglutide increased serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and disposition index. Conclusions Short-term treatment with liraglutide improved visceral fat adiposity, appetite, food preference and the urge for fat intake in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Striberny

    Full Text Available The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2, Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART, Agouti related Peptide (AgRP, Neuropeptide Y (NPY and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2 and Leptin Receptor (LepR genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38'N and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May, feeding charr (July, and non-feeding charr (January. Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July. In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr.

  11. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  12. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod.

  13. Corn Gluten Hydrolysate Affects the Time-Course of Metabolic Changes Through Appetite Control in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyojung; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    This study first investigated the effects of corn gluten hydrolysate (CGH) (1.5 g/day) administration for 7 days on appetite-responsive genes in lean Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In a second set of experiments, the metabolic changes occurring at multiple time points over 8 weeks in response to CGH (35.33% wt/wt) were observed in high-fat (HF, 60% of energy as fat) diet-fed SD rats. In lean rats, the hypothalamus neuropeptide-Y and proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels of the CGH group were significantly changed in response to CGH administration. In the second part of the study, CGH treatment was found to reduce body weight and perirenal and epididymal fat weight. CGH also prevented an increase in food intake at 2 weeks and lowered plasma leptin and insulin levels in comparison with the HF group. This reduction in the plasma and hepatic lipid levels was followed by improved insulin resistance, and the beneficial metabolic effects of CGH were also partly related to increases in plasma adiponectin levels. The Homeostasis Model of Assessment - Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), an index of insulin resistance, was markedly improved in the HF-CGH group compared with the HF group at 6 weeks. According to the microarray results, adipose tissue mRNA expression related to G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway and sensory perception was significantly improved after 8 weeks of CGH administration. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that dietary CGH may be effective for improving hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats as well as appetite control in lean rats. PMID:26549503

  14. Glycemic responses, appetite ratings and gastrointestinal hormone responses of most common breads consumed in Spain. A randomized control trial in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Anton, Carolina; Rico, Maria C; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Ruiz-Lopez, Maria D; Gil, Angel; Mesa, Maria D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), insulinemic index (InI), appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-flour, Alfacar whites and Wholemeal. All breads portions were calculated to supply 50 g of available carbohydrates. In addition, 50 g of glucose was used as a reference. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare data calculated for all breads with glucose load. The GI value varied from 61 for the Wholemeal, to Alfacar 68, Ordinary 76, and 78 and 86 for the Precooked-Frozen and Candeal-flour breads, respectively. Wholemeal and Alfacar had lower GI than glucose. All tested breads had a lower GL (ranged 9 to 18) compared with glucose. Wholemeal GL was similar to Alfacar, but lower than the other white breads. InI were significantly lower for all breads (ranged 68 to 73) compared with glucose, and similar among them. The intake of the Wholemeal bread led to a higher release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide compared with the Ordinary and Precooked breads and to a higher release of pancreatic polypeptide compared with the Precooked-Frozen bread. All breads affected appetite ratings similarly. In conclusion, based on GL, the Wholemeal bread would be expected to exert a favorable glycemic response.

  15. Glycemic Responses, Appetite Ratings and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses of Most Common Breads Consumed in Spain. A Randomized Control Trial in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gonzalez-Anton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, insulinemic index (InI, appetite ratings and postprandial plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones related to the control of food intake after the ingestion of the five most common breads consumed in Spain with different compositions and manufacturing processes. Twenty-two healthy adults participated in a randomized crossover study. The breads tested were Ordinary, Precooked-Frozen, Candeal-flour, Alfacar whites and Wholemeal. All breads portions were calculated to supply 50 g of available carbohydrates. In addition, 50 g of glucose was used as a reference. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare data calculated for all breads with glucose load. The GI value varied from 61 for the Wholemeal, to Alfacar 68, Ordinary 76, and 78 and 86 for the Precooked-Frozen and Candeal-flour breads, respectively. Wholemeal and Alfacar had lower GI than glucose. All tested breads had a lower GL (ranged 9 to 18 compared with glucose. Wholemeal GL was similar to Alfacar, but lower than the other white breads. InI were significantly lower for all breads (ranged 68 to 73 compared with glucose, and similar among them. The intake of the Wholemeal bread led to a higher release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide compared with the Ordinary and Precooked breads and to a higher release of pancreatic polypeptide compared with the Precooked-Frozen bread. All breads affected appetite ratings similarly. In conclusion, based on GL, the Wholemeal bread would be expected to exert a favorable glycemic response.

  16. Selective serotonin receptor stimulation of the medial nucleus accumbens differentially affects appetitive motivation for food on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E; Schall, Megan A; Choi, Eugene

    2012-03-01

    Previously, we reported that stimulation of selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes in the nucleus accumbens shell differentially affected consumption of freely available food. Specifically, activation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake, while the stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptor subtypes decreased feeding [34]. The current experiments tested whether similar pharmacological activation of nucleus accumbens serotonin receptors would also affect appetitive motivation, as measured by the amount of effort non-deprived rats exerted to earn sugar reinforcement. Rats were trained to lever press for sugar pellets on a progressive ratio 2 schedule of reinforcement. Across multiple treatment days, three separate groups (N=8-10) received bilateral infusions of the 5-HT(6) agonist EMD 386088 (at 0.0, 1.0 and 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), the 5-HT(1/7) agonist 5-CT (at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 4.0 μg/0.5 μl/side), or the 5-HT(2C) agonist RO 60-0175 fumarate (at 0, 2.0, or 5.0 μg/0.5 μl/side) into the anterior medial nucleus accumbens prior to a 1-h progressive ratio session. Stimulation of 5-HT(6) receptors caused a dose-dependent increase in motivation as assessed by break point, reinforcers earned, and total active lever presses. Stimulation of 5-HT(1/7) receptors increased lever pressing at the 0.5 μg dose of 5-CT, but inhibited lever presses and break point at 4.0 μg/side. Injection of the 5-HT(2C) agonist had no effect on motivation within the task. Collectively, these experiments suggest that, in addition to their role in modulating food consumption, nucleus accumbens 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(1/7) receptors also differentially regulate the appetitive components of food-directed motivation.

  17. 动物食欲调节的中枢信号通路%Central Appetite-Regulating Signaling Pathways in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 宋志刚

    2012-01-01

    Hypothalamus is the center of appetite regulation in animals, which integrates the peripheral and central signals to generate satiety or hunger. 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase( AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are the signals found recently in the network of food or feed intake regulation in the hypothalamus. The pathways of AMPK-ACC-CPT1, UCP2-FOXOl-pCREB, PBK-Akt-mTOR and mTOR-4EBPl/p70S6K-NPY/AgRP are the most important ones. AMPK and mTOR might cross talk in the way of AMPK-TSC-mTOR, the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) and the activity of UNC-51-like kinase (Ulkl). These signaling pathways respond to the signal transmission of nutrients and hormones to the hypothalamus, and regulate the expression of the anorexic or orexigenic peptides, and finally regulate the animal appetite. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24(2) :226-231]%下丘脑是动物食欲调节的中枢,外周食欲信号在下丘脑中经食欲调节网络整合,产生饱感或饥饿.其中,以5’-磷酸腺苷激活的蛋白激酶(AMPK)调控位点上的AMPK-ACC-CPT1和UCP2-FOXO1 -pCREB信号通路以及雷帕霉素靶蛋白(mTOR)调控位点上的PI3 K-Akt-mTOR和mTOR-4 EBP1/p70S6K-NPY/AgRP信号通路尤为重要.AMPK和mTOR在AMPK-TSC-mTOR通路、固醇类调节因子绑定蛋白(SREBP)基因表达和吞噬启动激酶(Ulk1)活性通路上存在互作.外周营养和能量信号传输到下丘脑后,经过这些网络的传输和分析,作用于下丘脑中的食欲相关肽,最终调控动物的采食行为.

  18. Judith Farquar, Appetites: Food and Sex in Postsocialist China (Body, Commodity, Text, Studies of Objectifying Practice), series directed by Arjun Appadurai, Jean Comaroff and Judith Farquar, Durham & London, Duke University Press, 2002, xii + 341 p

    OpenAIRE

    Lévy, André

    2006-01-01

    A Professor of Anthropology at the University of North Carolina, Judith Farquar has up to now focused mainly on research into medical thinking and practice in contemporary China. Her first publication, in 1987, was entitled Problems of Knowledge in Contemporary Chinese Medical Discourse, and one of the most recent, Market Magic: Getting Rich and Getting Personal in Medecine after Mao. Appetites follows on in the same area of interest. It is a study, not of Chinese diet or cuisine, nor of the ...

  19. The effects of the combination of egg and fiber on appetite, glycemic response and food intake in normal weight adults - a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnema, Angela L; Altschwager, Deena K; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated appetite and glycemic effects of egg-based breakfasts, containing high and moderate protein (30 g protein and 20 g protein +7 g fiber, respectively) compared to a low-protein cereal breakfast (10 g protein) examined in healthy adults (N = 48; age 24 ± 1 yr; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2); mean ± SE). Meals provided 390 kcal/serving and equal fat content. Food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch meal and blood glucose response was measured. Visual analog scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and prospective food intake. The egg-based breakfast meal with high protein produced greater overall satiety (p < 0.0001), and both high protein and moderate protein with fiber egg-based breakfasts reduced postprandial glycemic response (p < 0.005) and food intake (p < 0.05) at subsequent meal (by 135 kcal and 69 kcal; effect sizes 0.44 and 0.23, respectively) compared to a cereal-based breakfast with low protein and fiber. PMID:27306734

  20. The effect of metformin on neuronal activity in the appetite-regulating brain regions of mice fed a high-fat diet during an anorectic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jin, Bo-Yeong; Oh, Mi-Jeong; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Choi, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Metformin reduces body weight by decreasing food intake in humans and animals. However, the brain regions involved in metformin-induced anorexia remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated c-Fos expression (FOS), a marker of neuronal activity, in the appetite-regulating brain regions after oral administration of metformin (PO, 300mg/kg daily for 1 or 3days) or vehicle. The body weight and food intake decreased in mice treated with metformin for 3days (RM group) and mice that had the same amount of food as the RM group (Pair-fed group; PF) compared to the control group. FOS expression levels increased in the paraventricular nucleus, area postrema, and central amygdala of mice administered an acute single dose of metformin (SM group) compared to the control mice. In the nucleus tractus solitarius, the FOS expression levels increased in both the SM and RM groups compared to the control group. The FOS expression levels also increased in the nucleus accumbens of the RM group compared to other groups. The FOS expression levels decreased in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus in the PF group, but not the RM group, compared to the control group, suggesting a potential hypothalamic area involvement for metformin-induced anorexia. These results suggest that both the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic regions are associated with metformin-induced anorexia, which is dependent on metformin treatment duration.

  1. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  2. Excitotoxic lesions of the infralimbic, but not prelimbic cortex facilitate reversal of appetitive discriminative context conditioning: the role of the infralimbic cortex in context generalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eAshwell

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are important components of the limbic cortico-striatal circuit, receiving converging projections from the hippocampus (HPC and amygdala. Mounting evidence points to these regions having opposing roles in the regulation of the expression of contextual fear and context-induced cocaine-seeking. To investigate this functional differentiation in motivated behaviour further, this study employed a novel radial maze task previously shown to be dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its functional connection to the nucleus accumbens shell, to investigate the effects of selective excitotoxic lesions of the PL and IL upon the spatial contextual control over reward learning. To this end, rats were trained to develop discriminative responding towards a reward-associated discrete cue presented in three out of six spatial locations (3 arms out of 6 radial maze arms, and to avoid the same discrete cue presented in the other 3 spatial locations. Once acquired, the reward contingencies of the spatial locations were reversed, such that responding to the cue presented in a previously rewarded location is no longer rewarded. Furthermore, the acquisition of spatial learning was probed separately using conditioned place preference and the monitoring of arm selection at the beginning of each training session. Lesions of the PL transiently attenuated the acquisition of the initial cue approach training and spatial learning, while leaving reversal learning intact. In contrast, IL lesions led to a significantly superior performance of spatial context-dependent discriminative cue approach and reversal learning, in the absence of a significant preference for the new reward-associated spatial locations. These results indicate that the PL and IL have functionally dissociative, and potentially opposite roles in the regulation of spatial contextual control over appetitive learning.

  3. Effects of insulin detemir and NPH insulin on body weight and appetite-regulating brain regions in human type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa W van Golen

    Full Text Available Studies in rodents have demonstrated that insulin in the central nervous system induces satiety. In humans, these effects are less well established. Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog that causes less weight gain than other basal insulin formulations, including the current standard intermediate-long acting Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin. Due to its structural modifications, which render the molecule more lipophilic, it was proposed that insulin detemir enters the brain more readily than other insulins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether insulin detemir treatment differentially modifies brain activation in response to food stimuli as compared to NPH insulin. In addition, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF insulin levels were measured after both treatments. Brain responses to viewing food and non-food pictures were measured using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in 32 type 1 diabetic patients, after each of two 12-week treatment periods with insulin detemir and NPH insulin, respectively, both combined with prandial insulin aspart. CSF insulin levels were determined in a subgroup. Insulin detemir decreased body weight by 0.8 kg and NPH insulin increased weight by 0.5 kg (p = 0.02 for difference, while both treatments resulted in similar glycemic control. After treatment with insulin detemir, as compared to NPH insulin, brain activation was significantly lower in bilateral insula in response to visual food stimuli, compared to NPH (p = 0.02 for right and p = 0.05 for left insula. Also, CSF insulin levels were higher compared to those with NPH insulin treatment (p = 0.003. Our findings support the hypothesis that in type 1 diabetic patients, the weight sparing effect of insulin detemir may be mediated by its enhanced action on the central nervous system, resulting in blunted activation in bilateral insula, an appetite-regulating brain region, in response to food stimuli.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00626080.

  4. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Billon, Y; Lagant, H; Guillouet, P; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Hermesch, S

    2012-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for sow lifetime performance. The aims of our study were to derive equations for sow RFI during lactation (SRFI) and to evaluate the effect of selection for RFI during growth on sow traits during lactation. Data were obtained on 2 divergent lines selected for 7 generations for low and high RFI during growth in purebred Large Whites. The RFI was measured on candidates for selection (1,065 pigs), and sow performance data were available for 480 sows having from 1 to 3 parities (1,071 parities). Traits measured were sow daily feed intake (SDFI); sow BW and body composition before farrowing and at weaning (28.4 ± 1.7d); number of piglets born total, born alive, and surviving at weaning; and litter weight, average piglet BW, and within-litter SD of piglet BW at birth, 21 d of age (when creep feeding was available), and weaning. Sow RFI was defined as the difference between observed SDFI and SDFI predicted for sow maintenance and production. Daily production requirements were quantified by litter size and daily litter BW gain as well as daily changes in sow body reserves. The SRFI represented 24% of the phenotypic variability of SDFI. Heritability estimates for RFI and SRFI were both 0.14. The genetic correlation between RFI and SRFI was 0.29 ± 0.23. Genetic correlations of RFI with sow traits were low to moderate, consistent with responses to selection; selection for low RFI during growth reduced SDFI and increased number of piglets and litter growth, but also increased mobilization of

  5. Candidate Genes from Molecular Pathways Related to Appetite Regulatory Neural Network and Adipocyte Homeostasis and Obesity: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Yechiel; Li, Guo; Fornage, Myriam; Williams, O. Dale; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela; Pletcher, Mark J.; Enquobahrie, Daniel; Williams, Michelle; Siscovick, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Appetite regulatory neural network and adipocyte homeostasis molecular pathways are critical to long-term weight maintenance. Genetic variation in these pathways may explain variability of obesity in the general population. Aims The associations of four genes in these pathways (leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R) and peptide YY (PYY)) with obesity-related phenotypes were examined among participants in the CARDIA Study. Participants were 18-30 years old upon recruitment (1985-86). Weight, BMI and waist circumference were measured at baseline and at years 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Genotyping was conducted using tag SNPs that characterize the common pattern of genetic variation in these genes. Race-specific linear regression models were used to examine associations of the various SNPs with obesity-related measurements, controlling for sex and age. The overall association based on the 7 repeated anthropometric measurements was tested with GEE. False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple testing. Results In African-Americans, SNPs across the LEP gene demonstrated significant overall associations with obesity-related phenotypes. The associations between rs17151919 in LEP gene with weight tended to increase with time (SNP × time interaction p=0.0193). The difference in weight levels associated with each additional minor allele ranged from 2.6 kg at entry to 4.8 kg at year 20. Among African-American men, the global tests indicated that SNPs across the NPY2R gene were also associated with waist circumference measurements (p=0.0462). In Caucasians, SNPs across the LEP gene also tended to be associated with weight measurements (p=0.0471) and rs11684664 in PYY gene was associated with obesity-related phenotypes (p= 0.010-0.026) in women only. Conclusions Several SNPs in the LEP, NPY2R and PYY but not the LEPR genes were associated with obesity-related phenotypes in young adults. The associations were more prominent for the

  6. A Growing Appetite for Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese as well as international buyers are showing great interest in collecting There was no sign of economic depression at Sotheby’s auction,"Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art",held in New York in March.The 1692 masterpiece,Two Mynas on

  7. Appetite for the Selfish Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iztok Ostan, I.; Borut Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developed countries, where the majority of the population has enough income to afford healthy diets, a large number of the inhabitants nevertheless choose unhealthy nutrition. WHO and FAO strategies to overcome this problem are mostly based on educational means. Implicitly, this approach is based

  8. Effect of Megestrol Acetate on appetite in patients with advanced malignant tumor%醋酸甲地孕酮对恶性肿瘤晚期患者食欲的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨醋酸甲地孕酮对恶性肿瘤晚期患者食欲的影响。方法以42例恶性肿瘤晚期化疗患者为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组各21例,两组均按照相应的化疗方案进行治疗,观察组在化疗基础上给予醋酸甲地孕酮分散片,观察两组食欲、体重以及 KPs 评分的变化情况。结果治疗后,两组患者食欲、体重以及 KPs 评分均有变化,观察组患者中食欲增加(71.4%)、体重保持或者增加(90.5%)、KPs 分值稳定或增加(90.5%)者比例明显较高,和对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(p<0.05)。结论将醋酸甲地孕酮分散片用于癌症晚期化疗患者,能有效改善患者食欲,防止患者体重下降,有利于提高肿瘤患者的生活质量。%Objective to investigate the effect of Megestrol acetate(Ma) on appetite in patients with advanced cancer. Methods 42 cases of advanced malignant tumor patients under chemotherapy as the research object were randomly divided into observation group and control group with 21 cases respectively, given the corresponding chemotherapy treatment in accordance with different cancers, and the observation group was given Ma dispersible tablets on the basis of chemotherapy, then, the change of appetite, body weight and KPs between two groups were observed. Results after treatment, the appetite, weight and KPs score of two groups were changed. in observation group, the proportion of patients with appetite improved(71.4%), weight maintain or increase(90.5%), the score of KPs in stable or increasing (90.5%)were higher, and compared with the control group, the difference were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Using Megestrol acetate dispersible tablets in advanced cancer patients with chemotherapy, it can effectively improve the patient's appetite, prevent the patient weight loss, and conducive to improve the quality of life of cancer patients.

  9. Evidências advindas do consumo de medicamentos moduladores do apetite no Brasil: um estudo farmacoeconométrico Evidence for the use of appetite suppressant drugs in Brazil: a pharmacoeconometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marques Mota

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o consumo de moduladores do apetite (CMA no Brasil em 2009, condicionado às características dos usuários, do sistema de saúde e de outros medicamentos. MÉTODOS: Estudo farmacoeconométrico com dados em corte transversal para analisar as relações entre o CMA (mg/per capita e as variáveis independentes selecionadas (gênero, raça/cor, faixa etária, escolaridade, renda, cobertura de planos de saúde e consumo de fluoxetina e clordiazepóxido, mediante análise de regressão linear múltipla. Este estudo utilizou-se dessas variáveis em nível de agregação por estados para 2009. As análises foram realizadas no software Gretl. RESULTADOS: Destacamos que São Paulo registrou o maior CMA, com 97,3 mg/per capita, seguido de Goiás, com 94,8 mg/per capita. O menor consumo foi verificado no Ceará (3,8 mg/per capita. Os maiores consumidores de fluoxetina foram o Rio Grande do Sul, com 58,0 mg/per capita, e Goiás, com 51,5 mg/per capita. O Ceará (2,3 mg/per capita registrou o menor con-sumo. Para o clordiazepóxido, os maiores valores foram verificados em Minas Gerais (7,5 mg/per capita e Rio de Janeiro (4,8 mg/per capita, enquanto que o Amazonas (0,08 mg/per capita obteve o menor consumo. Da análise de regressão destacamos: 1 o CMA está relacionado com renda, escolaridade e consumo de fluoxetina; e 2 raça/cor, gênero, idade, cobertura de plano de saúde e consumo de clordiazepóxido, porém revelaram-se não relacionados com CMA. CONCLUSÃO: Essas evidências podem contribuir para o aprimoramento das ações de regulação, vigilância sanitária e de conduta ética, principalmente, no que tange o consumo "casado" de moduladores do apetite com fluoxetina, o qual é vedado pelo Conselho Federal de Medicina, e, também, pela Anvisa.OBJECTIVE: Analyze the use of appetite suppressants in Brazil in 2009, according to the characteristics of users, healthcare system, and other drugs. METHODS: Pharmaconeconometric study of

  10. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern1 At the time of the study, Anne Flint was employed at the Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Flint

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS, and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS.To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI, smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings.We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98 and men (80, aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour.Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.19 and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R 2=0.15. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001 and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01. Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p < 005 and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005. Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings.Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern

  11. Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine reuptake inhibitor, induces appetite suppression by indirect stimulation of alpha1 adrenoceptor and dopamine D1 receptor pathways in the diet-induced obese rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H

    2010-01-01

    Tesofensine is a novel monoamine reuptake inhibitor that inhibits both norepinephrine, 5-HT, and dopamine (DA) reuptake function. Tesofensine is currently in clinical development for the treatment of obesity, however, the pharmacological basis for its strong effect in obesity management...... is not clarified. Using a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO), we characterized the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the appetite suppressive effect of tesofensine. DIO rats treated with tesofensine (2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) for 16 days showed significantly lower body weights than vehicle-treated DIO rats, being...... antagonist), or ritanserin (0.03 mg/kg, 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist). Hence, the mechanism underlying the suppression of feeding by tesofensine in the obese rat is dependent on the drug's ability to indirectly stimulate alpha(1) adrenoceptor and DA D(1) receptor function....

  12. Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Westerterp, Klaas R; van Vught, Anneke J A H; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-11-01

    Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22·0 (sd 1·9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.

  13. Effects of unfermented and fermented whole grain rye crisp breads served as part of a standardized breakfast, on appetite and postprandial glucose and insulin responses: a randomized cross-over trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Johansson

    Full Text Available Whole grain rye products have been shown to increase satiety and elicit lower postprandial insulin response without a corresponding change in glucose response compared with soft refined wheat bread. The underlying mechanisms for these effects have not been fully determined The primary aim of the study was to investigate if whole grain rye crisp bread compared to refined wheat crisp bread, elected beneficial effects on appetite and postprandial insulin response, similarly as for other rye products.In a randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy volunteers, aged 27-70 years, BMI 18-31.4 kg/m2, were served a standardized breakfast with unfermented whole grain rye crisp bread (uRCB, fermented whole grain rye crisp bread (RCB or refined wheat crisp bread (WCB, Appetite was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS until 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured at 0-230 min. Breads were chemically characterized including macronutrients, energy, dietary fiber components, and amino acid composition, and microstructure was characterized with light microscopy.Reported fullness was 16% higher (P<0.001, and hunger 11% and 12% lower (P<0.05 after ingestion of uRCB and RCB, respectively, compared with WCB. Postprandial glucose response did not differ significantly between treatments. Postprandial insulin was 10% lower (P<0.007 between 0-120 min but not significantly lower between 0-230 min for RCB compared with WCB. uRCB induced 13% (P<0.002 and 17% (P<0.001 lower postprandial insulin response between 0-230 min compared with RCB and WCB respectively.Whole grain rye crisp bread induces higher satiety and lower insulin response compared with refined wheat crisp bread. Microstructural characteristics, dietary fiber content and composition are probable contributors to the increased satiety after ingestion of rye crisp breads. Higher insulin secretion after ingestion of RCB and WCB compared with uRCB may be due to differences in fiber

  14. Assessment Model of Supply Chain Risk Based on Risk Appetite of Supply Chain Members%基于成员企业偏好的供应链风险评估模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾玉磊; 张圣忠; 吴群琪

    2013-01-01

    将风险偏好因子作为影响因素引入模型,构建考虑成员企业风险偏好的多元供应链风险评估模型,进而计算某一时期内成员企业的风险变化值和整个供应链面临的综合风险变化值.算例计算结果表明,该评估模型能够准确度量供应链成员企业风险和多元供应链风险,具有可行性和易操作性.%On the base of model, the paper builds up a mixed supply chain risk assessment model which takes the risk appetite of supply chain members as an important factor, and gets the risk level of supply chain members and the whole supply chain in a given period. The results of the case study show that the new model is feasible and accurate.

  15. Acupuntura e apetite de trabalhadores obesos de um hospital universitário Acupuntura y apetito de trabajadores obesos de un hospital universitario Acupuncture and appetite in obese employees of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lourenço Haddad

    2011-01-01

    estudio pueden contribuir a la formación del cuerpo de conocimientos de la acupuntura volcada a la salud del trabajador, sobre todo en los aspectos relacionados a la obesidad, sus comorbidades y factores desencadenantes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the behavior of the sensation of hunger of the subjects before, during and after the intervention of acupuncture. METHODS: A descriptive exploratory study. Data collection occurred in a university hospital in Maringá - PR, between July and October 2009, with 37 obese workers, who received eight weekly sessions of acupuncture. For measuring appetite, we used visual analogue scales. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that the behavior of appetite in relation to satiety, fullness, desire for sweet and palatable food changed during the intervention. There was no reduction in weight or body mass index of subjects, however there was significant reduction in waist-hip ratio (p = 0.02 and control of the habit of using comfort food. CONCLUSION: The study findings contribute to the formation of the body of knowledge of acupuncture directed toward workers' health, especially in aspects related to obesity, its comorbidities, and trigger factors.

  16. Curative effect of combined therapy on child anorexia and the influence on appetite regulation factors%联合用药对儿童厌食症疗效及对食欲调节因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童欣

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨双歧杆菌三联活菌散联合四磨汤治疗儿童厌食症患者疗效及对食欲调节因子的影响。方法选择收治儿童厌食症患者78例,随机分为联合组( n=39例)和对照组( n=39例)。两组患儿均予以调整饮食及纠正不良饮食习惯等基础治疗。联合组患儿加用双歧杆菌三联活菌散(双歧杆菌三联活菌散1.0g/次,3次/d,温开水冲服)联合四磨汤(10mL/次,3次/d,温服)治疗,对照组患儿单纯加用四磨汤(10mL/次,3次/d,温服)治疗,疗程均为8周。检测并比较两组患儿治疗前后血清胃动素( MTL)和P物质( SP)水平,并评估其临床疗效。结果治疗8周后,两组患儿血清MTL和SP水平较前明显上升(联合组t值分别为2.92、3.25,对照组t值分别为2.29、2.42,均P<0.05),且联合组治疗后血清MTL和SP水平较对照组更高(t值分别2.33、2.41,P<0.05);同时临床总有效率方面联合组患儿(94.87%)优于对照组(79.49%),差异具有统计学意义(χ2=4.13,P<0.05)。结论双歧杆菌三联活菌散联合四磨汤治疗儿童厌食症患者疗效明显优于单用四磨汤治疗,能明显改善患儿的厌食症状,其机制可能与其能升高血清食欲调节因子MTL和SP水平,提高患儿食欲密切相关。%Objective To discuss the curative effect of live combined bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus powder combining decoction of four-drug juice on anorexic children and its influence on appetite regulation factors.Methods Totally 78 cases of anorexic children were selected and randomly divided into combined group ( n=39 ) and control group ( n=39 ) .Two groups were given basic medical treatment, such as diet adjustment, correction of poor eating habits.The combined group was additionally given live combined bifidobacterium, lactobacillus and enterococcus powder (1.0g

  17. On Features and Functions of Lexical Cohesive Chains in Text--A Sample Analysis of the Essay Appetite%语篇中词汇衔接链的特征及其功能 --散文《欲念》文本分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴格奇

    2005-01-01

    侯易(Hoey)的词汇重复理论认为语篇中词项重复三次或三次以上即构成词汇衔接链,对语篇的连贯起重要的纽带作用.本文以劳里·李(Laurie Lee)的散文(Appetite)为文本,分析词汇衔接链在语篇中的特征及功能,说明词汇衔接链对作者构建语篇以及读者理解语篇起到的重要作用.

  18. Order Models for Call Option of Retailers Based on Risk Appetite%基于风险偏好的零售商买入期权订购模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亮; 宋国防; 王建

    2012-01-01

    传统供应链研究以假设双方为风险中性为主,但实践中不同管理者对风险有不同需求.以嵌入式期权为基础,应用条件风险值(Conditional Value at Risk,CVaR)的方法反映风险偏好,构建随机需求下的单个零售商和单个供应商组成的两级供应链期权契约模型,分析推导出零售商的最优期权购买量,反映了零售商的风险偏好对买入期权的最优购买量和收益都有重要影响.风险规避程度越高,购买量和收益就越小.最后,通过算例进一步验证研究结果.%Option tools create a new model of supply chain collaboration which enables suppliers and retailers jointly to be liable for the risks of market uncertainty. Traditional supply chain researches assume that both parties are mainly risk neutral. However, different managers have different needs for risk in practice. Application of Conditional Value at Risk ( CVaR) can weigh the scale of risk and reflect the risk appetite. The decision-making objective function is modified on the basis of the approach and a model of option contract in a two-level supply chain. The chain consisting of a single retailer and a single supplier is build under stochastic demands. Obtaining the optimal amount of the retailers option by analyzing the models, the paper reveals that the risk attitude has a significant impact on the optimal amount of call options and revenue, that is, the higher degree of risk aversion, the smaller order volume and revenue. A numerical example is provided to verify the conclusions drawn in this paper.

  19. The Macronutrients, Appetite, and Energy Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Higgins, Kelly A; Jacobs, Ashley G; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-07-17

    Each of the macronutrients-carbohydrate, protein, and fat-has a unique set of properties that influences health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, thinking has progressed regarding the mechanisms by which each macronutrient may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this period, metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency) were emphasized. This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain, where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (e.g., contribute to disordered eating). At this point, the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited.

  20. Bon appetite! / Mari-Liis Rebane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rebane, Mari-Liis

    2009-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde 13. filmifestivali alafestivali Animated Dreams täispikki animafilme: Austraalia "Mary ja Max" (režissöör Elliot, Adam), Rootsi-Taani-Norra "Metropia" (režissöör Tarik Saleh), Iisraeli-Austraalia "9,99 dollarit" (režissöör Tatia Rosenthal)

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Appetite Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals and snacks Sweets ••Cream soups ••Soups with lentils or beans (such as black, kidney, pinto, or ... breakfast drinks ••Milkshakes ••Fruit smoothies ••Whole milk ••Chicken ••Lentils or beans (such as black, kidney, pinto, or ...

  2. Investigating satiety for healthy weight : Appetite control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgering, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Modulating feelings of hunger and satiety could be a promising approach in weight management. TNO Food & Nutrition offers advanced assessment tools to support the development of food products that help address issues of overweight and underweight. This can reduce time, cost, and time-to-market.

  3. Cocaine, Appetitive Memory and Neural Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Suchismita

    2012-01-01

    This review examines existing cognitive experimental and brain imaging research related to cocaine addiction. In section 1, previous studies that have examined cognitive processes, such as implicit and explicit memory processes in cocaine users are reported. Next, in section 2, brain imaging studies are reported that have used chronic users of cocaine as study participants. In section 3, several conclusions are drawn. They are: (a) in cognitive experimental literature, no study has examined b...

  4. Episodic memory and appetite regulation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Brunstrom

    Full Text Available Psychological and neurobiological evidence implicates hippocampal-dependent memory processes in the control of hunger and food intake. In humans, these have been revealed in the hyperphagia that is associated with amnesia. However, it remains unclear whether 'memory for recent eating' plays a significant role in neurologically intact humans. In this study we isolated the extent to which memory for a recently consumed meal influences hunger and fullness over a three-hour period. Before lunch, half of our volunteers were shown 300 ml of soup and half were shown 500 ml. Orthogonal to this, half consumed 300 ml and half consumed 500 ml. This process yielded four separate groups (25 volunteers in each. Independent manipulation of the 'actual' and 'perceived' soup portion was achieved using a computer-controlled peristaltic pump. This was designed to either refill or draw soup from a soup bowl in a covert manner. Immediately after lunch, self-reported hunger was influenced by the actual and not the perceived amount of soup consumed. However, two and three hours after meal termination this pattern was reversed - hunger was predicted by the perceived amount and not the actual amount. Participants who thought they had consumed the larger 500-ml portion reported significantly less hunger. This was also associated with an increase in the 'expected satiation' of the soup 24-hours later. For the first time, this manipulation exposes the independent and important contribution of memory processes to satiety. Opportunities exist to capitalise on this finding to reduce energy intake in humans.

  5. Appetite Control: worm’s-eye-view

    OpenAIRE

    You, Young-jai; Avery, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Food is important to any animal, and a large part of the behavioral repertoire is concerned with ensuring adequate nutrition. Two main nutritional sensations, hunger and satiety, produce opposite behaviors. Hungry animals seek food, increase exploratory behavior and continue feeding once they encounter food. Satiated animals decrease exploratory behavior, take rest, and stop feeding. The signals of hunger or satiety and their effects on physiology and behavior will depend not only on the anim...

  6. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Jacobs, Ashley G; Higgins, Kelly A; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Each of the macronutrients, carbohydrate, protein and fat, has a unique set of properties that influence health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, there has been a progression of thinking regarding the mechanisms by which each may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this time period, the emphasis was on metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency). This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (i.e., contribute to disordered eating). At this point the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited. PMID:27431364

  7. Primary market derivatives: satisfying investor appetites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBuhn, J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses various financing techniques utilized by municipal entities in their debt structures. These financing structures include inverse floaters, embedded swaps, embedded caps, and synthetic fixed-rate debt. The article explores the advantages and disadvantages of each structure to both the borrower and the investor and its mechanics.

  8. Volume de iogurte light e sensações subjetivas do apetite de homens eutróficos e com excesso de peso Volume of light yogurt and subjective appetite sensations in normal-weight and overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Neri Nobre

    2006-10-01

    hunger score was obtained after the 300ml intake, followed by 450 and 600ml (p<0.01. The desire for sweet, salty and fatty foods and snacks was not influenced by time and yogurt volume in either studied group. Energy intake between the days which yogurt was consumed and yogurt was not consumed was not statistically different (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the volume of light yogurt, regardless of other factors, may influence appetite and satiety.

  9. Unraveling Risk Appetite: applications of decision theory in the evaluation of organizational risk appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. de Wild (Arie)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn our current era of major global challenges and worldwide crises the human race is continuously searching for solutions to the fundamental economic problem of how to determine which aims should be pursued and how limited resources ought to be allocated. Economics as the science that st

  10. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven Beneficios de los inhibidores de apetito en la salud a largo plazo permanecen sin comprobación Benefícios dos inibidores de apetite à saúde a longo prazo permanecem sem comprovação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.El aumento de la prevalencia de la obesidad ha convertido la prevención y tratamiento del sobrepeso importante desafío para la Salud Pública. Aunado a la dieta y ejercicio, los medicamentos son necesarios para pacientes que no logran perder peso con los cambios de comportamiento. El objetivo del artículo fue englobar las preocupaciones actuales con la seguridad y la efectividad de medicamentos inhibidores del apetito. Varios anorexígenos fueron eliminados por razones de seguridad. En 2010, la sibutramina fue retirada del mercado porque un estudio de larga duración demostró que ésta aumentaba el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares. Hasta ahora ningún estudio con número considerable de pacientes demostró que anorexígenos reducen la morbi-mortalidad asociada al sobrepeso. La retirada de sibutramina del mercado muestra que directrices para evaluación de medicamentos anorexígenos deben ser más rigurosas, y que estudios de larga duración sobre los beneficios para la salud deben ser realizados antes de la comercialización.O aumento

  11. Avaliação da taxa de sudorese de atletas de judô e sua associação com escores subjetivos de fome e apetite Evaluation of water Loss in judo training and its relationship with subjective hunger and appetite scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O judô, assim como outros esportes que envolvem categorias de pesos, é uma modalidade em que os atletas apresentam grande risco de hipo-hidratação devido aos processos de desidratação involuntária e/ou voluntária. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de sudorese (ml/min de judocas em um dia de treino e associar o grau de desidratação com alterações subjetivas de fome e apetite. A amostra foi composta por 14 atletas (nove homens e cinco mulheres, com idade média de 19,6 ± 5,9 anos. Para a realização do estudo, foram mensuradas a massa corporal e as taxas subjetivas de fome, apetite e esforço, expressas em uma escala de zero a 10, antes e logo após o treino. A massa corporal foi significantemente menor após o treino (68,8 ± 18,1kg versus 66,9 ± 17,3kg; p Judo, as well as other types of sports involving weight categories, is a modality in which athletes have high risk of hypohydration due to involuntary /voluntary dehydration. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluate the sweating rate (ml/min of judokas in a training day and verify the impact of the dehydration degree upon subjective hunger and appetite rates. The sample was composed of 14 athletes (nine men and five women with mean age of 19.6 ± 5.9 years. Body mass and subjective rates of hunger, appetite and effort were measured in a scale ranging from zero to 10, before and after training. Body mass was significantly lower after training (68.8 ± 18.1kg versus 66.9 ± 17.3kg; p < 0,01, with reduction of 2.6 ± 1.1%. Hunger and effort rates were significantly higher after exercise (2.1 ± 2.2 versus 4.8 ± 3.6, p = 0.02 and 0 versus 7.2 ± 1.3; p < 0,01, likewise craving for fruit rate (4.3 ± 3.8 versus 8.0 ± 2.8; p = 0.01. Positive correlations were obtained between: 1 effort scale and post-training craving for dairy products (r = 0.63; p < 0.05; 2 percentage of body mass reduction and hunger rate the in post-training period (r = 0.55, p < 0

  12. The MC4 receptor and control of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R A H; Tiesjema, B; Hillebrand, J.J.G.; la Fleur, S E; Kas, M. J. H.; Krom, M. de

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the human melanocortin (MC)4 receptor have been associated with obesity, which underscores the relevance of this receptor as a drug target to treat obesity. Infusion of MC4R agonists decreases food intake, whereas inhibition of MC receptor activity by infusion of an MC receptor antagonist or with the inverse agonist AgRP results in increased food intake. This review addresses the role of the MC system in different aspects of feeding behaviour. MC4R activity affects meal size and ...

  13. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake.

  14. French City Calais Shows Great Appetite for Chinese Stone Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ A French government delegation headed by the President of the Municipal Planning & Design Bureau of Calais City and Mr. Han Guogang, President of France China International Development Institution investigated Chinese stone materials market during April 28 to April 29, they showed great interest in some stone materials in good quality such as "China Black".

  15. Effects of Gum Chewing on Appetite and Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Null Hypothesis is That Food Rheology Will Have no Effect on These Indices.; The Alternate Hypothesis is That Increased Mechanical Stimulation Will Result in Stronger Satiation/Satiety and Reduced Energy Intake.; Further, it is Hypothesized That the Effects of Mastication Will be Less Evident in Obese Compared to Lean Individuals.

  16. Low-back pain, lassitude and loss of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Schattner, Ami; Adi, Meital; Ben-Galim, Peleg

    2014-01-01

    Lesson White blood cells, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are sensitive tools to discover rare, but potentially serious pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, a disease whose incidence is increasing.

  17. Ghrelin's second life: From appetite stimulator to glucose regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pieter-Jan Verhulst; Inge Depoortere

    2012-01-01

    Ghrelin,a 28 amino acid peptide hormone produced by the stomach,was the first orexigenic hormone to be discovered from the periphery.The octanoyl modification at Ser3,mediated by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT),is essential for ghrelin's biological activity.Ghrelin stimulates food intake through binding to its receptor (GRLN-R) on neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.Ghrelin is widely expressed throughout the body; accordingly,it is implicated in several other physiological functions,which include growth hormone release,gastric emptying,and body weight regulation.Ghrelin and GRLN-R expression are also found in the pancreas,suggesting a local physiological role.Accordingly,several recent studies now point towards an important role for ghrelin and its receptor in the regulation of blood glucose homeostasis,which is the main focus of this review.Several mechanisms of this regulation by ghrelin have been proposed,and one possibility is through the regulation of insulin secretion.Despite some controversy,most studies suggest that ghrelin exerts an inhibitory effect on insulin secretion,resulting in increased circulating glucose levels.Ghrelin may thus be a diabetogenic factor.Obesity-related type 2 diabetes has become an increasingly important health problem,almost reaching epidemic proportions in the world; therefore,antagonists of the ghrelin-GOAT signaling pathway,which will tackle both energy-and glucose homeostasis,may be considered as promising new therapies for this disease.

  18. Amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness and aversiveness of mixed gambles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard;

    2015-01-01

    People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...

  19. The MC4 receptor and control of appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adan, R A H; Tiesjema, B; Hillebrand, J J G; la Fleur, S E; Kas, M J H; de Krom, M

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the human melanocortin (MC)4 receptor have been associated with obesity, which underscores the relevance of this receptor as a drug target to treat obesity. Infusion of MC4R agonists decreases food intake, whereas inhibition of MC receptor activity by infusion of an MC receptor antagoni

  20. A killer appetite: metabolic consequences of carnivory in marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T M; Haun, J; Davis, R W; Fuiman, L A; Kohin, S

    2001-07-01

    Among terrestrial mammals, the morphology of the gastrointestinal tract reflects the metabolic demands of the animal and individual requirements for processing, distributing, and absorbing nutrients. To determine if gastrointestinal tract morphology is similarly correlated with metabolic requirements in marine mammals, we examined the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and small intestinal length in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Oxygen consumption was measured for resting bottlenose dolphins and Weddell seals, and the results combined with data for four additional species of carnivorous marine mammal. Data for small intestinal length were obtained from previously published reports. Similar analyses were conducted for five species of carnivorous terrestrial mammal, for which BMR and intestinal length were known. The results indicate that the BMRs of Weddell seals and dolphins resting on the water surface are 1.6 and 2.3 times the predicted levels for similarly sized domestic terrestrial mammals, respectively. Small intestinal lengths for carnivorous marine mammals depend on body size and are comparatively longer than those of terrestrial carnivores. The relationship between basal metabolic rate (kcal day(-1)) and small intestinal length (m) for both marine and terrestrial carnivores was, BMR=142.5 intestinal length(1.20) (r(2)=0.83). We suggest that elevated metabolic rates among marine mammal carnivores are associated with comparatively large alimentary tracts that are presumably required for supporting the energetic demands of an aquatic lifestyle and for feeding on vertebrate and invertebrate prey. PMID:11440865

  1. Effects of sugar solutions on hypothalamic appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Danielle L; Castonguay, Thomas W

    2015-02-01

    Several hypotheses for the causes of the obesity epidemic in the US have been proposed. One such hypothesis is that dietary intake patterns have significantly shifted to include unprecedented amounts of refined sugar. We set out to determine if different sugars might promote changes in the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake by measuring several hypothalamic peptides subsequent to overnight access to dilute glucose, sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, or fructose solutions. Rats were given access to food, water and a sugar solution for 24h, after which blood and tissues were collected. Fructose access (as opposed to other sugars that were tested) resulted in a doubling of circulating triglycerides. Glucose consumption resulted in upregulation of 7 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides whereas changes in gene expression were mixed for remaining sugars. Also, following multiple verification assays, 6 satiety related peptides were verified as being affected by sugar intake. These data provide evidence that not all sugars are equally effective in affecting the control of intake. PMID:25449399

  2. Oral versus postingestive origin of polysaccharide appetite in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that rats consume substantial amounts of polysaccharide solutions, even if the solutions are made bitter with the addition of sucrose octa acetate (SOA). The present experiment used the gastric sham-feeding preparation to determine if it is the orosensory or postingestive properties of polysaccharides that motivate rats to consume polysaccharide (Polycose) solutions. In Experiment 1, food deprived rats sham fed less of a 0.05% SOA + 32% Polycose solution than they did of a 32% glucose solution, but their SOA-Polycose intake was still considerable (44 ml/hr). The same rats refused to sham feed SOA-gum and SOA-sugar solutions that were similar to the SOA-Polycose solution in bitter taste, viscosity and free sugar content. In Experiment 2, rats sham fed as much of a 32% Polycose solution as they did of a 32% sucrose solution. Despite the gastric fistula, some of the ingested Polycose was absorbed as evidenced by an increase in the rats' blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits polysaccharide digestion, to the Polycose solution blocked the increase in blood glucose, but did not reduce the rats' sham feeding of the solution. These findings indicate that it is the orosensory (presumably taste) properties of polysaccharide solutions, not their postingestive effects, that initially attract rats to the solutions. The results question the assumption that polysaccharides are "tasteless" to animals.

  3. Foetal proglucagon processing in relation to adult appetite control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P B; Larsen, P J; Karlsen, C;

    2011-01-01

    neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels in the nucleus arcuatus. We now show that circulating levels of bioactive glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (7-36amide) start to increase above control levels exactly at the time of onset of anorexia. At this time-point, bioactive glucagon as well as total glucagon precursors...

  4. Whole-grain rye foods: effects on appetite and metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Overweight, obesity and associated diet-related chronic diseases are increasing worldwide. Diet constitutes a modifiable risk factor for these conditions. Whole-grain consumption has been associated with health benefits, e.g. decreased risk of weight gain, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, whole-grain rye foods, rich in dietary fibres, have upon consumption shown increased satiety and lower postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia compared with refined wheat. The overall...

  5. Conditioning of appetitive behavior in the Hymenopteran parasitoid Microplitis croceipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.; Bonifay, C.; Lewis, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Work on insect learning has made ample use of conditioned behaviors in single learning tasks. Parasitic wasps are particularly suited to study more complex learning processes, as they alternate between host searching and foraging for sugar sources. We here describe a set of behaviors that unambiguou

  6. Role of sleep duration in the regulation of glucose metabolism and appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Morselli, Lisa; Leproult, Rachel; Balbo, Marcella; Spiegel, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Sleep curtailment has become a common behavior in modern society. This review summarizes the current laboratory evidence indicating that sleep loss may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and obesity. Experimentally-induced sleep loss in healthy volunteers decreases insulin sensitivity without adequate compensation in beta-cell function, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance and increased diabetes risk. Lack of sleep also down-regulates the satiety hormone leptin, up-regu...

  7. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eBlechert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc. and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc. are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g, energy density (kcal, and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity are provided. The food-pics image data base is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior.

  8. Selective associations produced solely with appetitive contingencies: the stimulus-reinforcer interaction revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V; Schindler, C W

    1993-01-01

    In studies reporting stimulus-reinforcer interactions in traditional conditioning paradigms, when a tone-light compound was associated with food the light gained stimulus control, but when the compound was paired with shock avoidance the tone gained control. However, the physical nature of the reinforcer-related events (food vs. shock) presented in the presence of the tone-light compound was always confounded with the conditioned hedonic value of the compound's presence relative to its absenc...

  9. Role of non-neuronal cells in body weight and appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eArgente-Arizón

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain is composed of neurons and non-neuronal cells, with the latter encompassing glial, ependymal and endothelial cells, as well as pericytes and progenitor cells. Studies aimed at understanding how the brain operates have traditionally focused on neurons, but the importance of non-neuronal cells has become increasingly evident. Once relegated to supporting roles, it is now indubitable that these diverse cell types are fundamental for brain development and function, including that of metabolic circuits and they may play a significant role in obesity onset and complications. They participate in processes of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity of metabolic circuits both during development and in adulthood. Some glial cells, such as tanycytes and astrocytes, transport circulating nutrients and metabolic factors that are fundamental for neuronal viability and activity into and within the hypothalamus. All of these cell types express receptors for a variety of metabolic factors and hormones, suggesting that they participate in metabolic function. They are the first line of defense against any assault to neurons. Indeed, microglia and astrocytes participate in the hypothalamic inflammatory response to high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, with this process contributing to inflammatory related insulin and leptin resistance. Moreover, HFD-induced obesity and hyperleptinemia modify hypothalamic astroglial morphology, which is associated with changes in the synaptic inputs to neuronal metabolic circuits. Astrocytic contact with the microvasculature is increased by HFD intake and this could modify nutrient/hormonal uptake into the brain. In addition, progenitor cells in the hypothalamus are now known to have the capacity to renew metabolic circuits and this can be affected by HFD intake and obesity. Here we discuss our current understanding of how non-neuronal cells participate in physiological and physiopathological metabolic control.

  10. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p amaranth (p amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  11. Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup;

    2013-01-01

    of proteins exert different metabolic effects. In the Western world, dairy protein, which consists of 80% casein and 20% whey, is a large contributor to our daily protein intake. Casein and whey differ in absorption and digestion rates, with casein being a "slow" protein and whey being a "fast" protein...

  12. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance generally correlated positively with pcpB abundance. Sphingomonad and pcpB ranges in the same sample were comparable regardless of differences in sphingomonad community composition between different groundwater wells. These first cultivation-independent results of pcpB abundance and diversity at contaminated sites indicate that pcpB confers competitive advantage in environments contaminated with the priority pollutant PCP and may be related to its degradation in situ; its relative abundance amongst bacteria reflected PCP concentration, and it seemed to be widely shared among various sphingomonad genera. Interestingly, decades under contamination pressure have led to no diversification of pcpB gene at these sites, suggesting constrained distribution and evolution of genetic potential for PCP degradation. It remains open whether the present form of the gene or pathway is the single most efficient one in these environments, or whether inoculation with diverse degrader strains isolated elsewhere could further enhance PCP bioremediation.

  13. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA) questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Raffan, E.; SMITH, S.P.; O'Rahilly, S.; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs. Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-mo...

  14. Evidence of Garcinia cambogia as a fat burning and appetite suppressing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nur Asyiken Wan Ab Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Results: Consumers in Malaysia most likely tend to have a fast method in losing the weight. When the product is advertised inappropriately without any strong evidence based, the Malaysian society is solely at risk in buying the product that does not have a confirmed effectiveness and efficacy. The doubts in using G. cambogia are because the marketed product is there is no single formulation that contains only G. Cambogia.

  15. Food-pics: an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Busch, Niko A; Ohla, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food image sets vary considerably across laboratories and image characteristics (contrast, brightness, etc.) and food composition (calories, macronutrients, etc.) are often unspecified. These factors might have contributed to some of the inconsistencies of this research. To remedy this, we developed food-pics, a picture database comprising 568 food images and 315 non-food images along with detailed meta-data. A total of N = 1988 individuals with large variance in age and weight from German speaking countries and North America provided normative ratings of valence, arousal, palatability, desire to eat, recognizability and visual complexity. Furthermore, data on macronutrients (g), energy density (kcal), and physical image characteristics (color composition, contrast, brightness, size, complexity) are provided. The food-pics image database is freely available under the creative commons license with the hope that the set will facilitate standardization and comparability across studies and advance experimental research on the determinants of eating behavior. PMID:25009514

  16. Food-pics : an image database for experimental research on eating and appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Jens eBlechert; Adrian eMeule; Busch, Niko A.; Kathrin eOhla

    2014-01-01

    Our current environment is characterized by the omnipresence of food cues. The sight and smell of real foods, but also graphically depictions of appetizing foods, can guide our eating behavior, for example, by eliciting food craving and influencing food choice. The relevance of visual food cues on human information processing has been demonstrated by a growing body of studies employing food images across the disciplines of psychology, medicine, and neuroscience. However, currently used food i...

  17. Social recipes for appetite: Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform to others. The research described in this dissertation aims to advance the understanding of the impact of one’s consumption behavior on young people’s food choice and intake. Social modeling studi...

  18. Social recipes for appetite: Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform

  19. Effect of Information Security Management in Automotive Supply Chains to Reduce appetite Boosting Orders

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Teimori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of supply chain management, information security, Iran's auto industry is doing hide Strengthen accountability orders. With these two issues in the study of literature, various factors were identified with the help of factor analysis, factors were determined in the automotive industry. Furthermore, the correlation analysis, how the ISMS impact on supply chains has been Strengthen accountability orders. Studies of the impact of various aspec...

  20. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON AYURVEDIC CONCEPT OF AGNIMANDYA (LOSS OF APPETITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human beings, in order to adjust themselves in the modest era, have been compelled to become fast and mechanical. This is the reason why they can’t give proper attention to daily and seasonal regimes, exercise and diet. This change in lifestyle is responsible for replacement of Shad-rasatmak Ahara by preserved and fast foods, bakery products, shift duties (i.e.Ratree jagran, stress. All these factors making them more and more susceptible for diseases generated by Agnimandya. According to them Mandagni is root cause of every disease. Due to this Mandagni Ahara-Pachan Kriya gets affected leading to production of Sama Ahara-Rasa which ultimately causes the Rasa Dhatwagni Mandya and Uttarottar Dhatu remains malnourished. Agni plays the key role in the process of bio-transformation. This is the reason why Ayurvedic Samhitas has given a lot of importance to Agni. The Ayu, Varna, Bala, Swasthya, Utsah, Buddhi, Kanti, Oja, Teja and Prana of human beings mainly depend on the status of Agni, because of this Agni should be kept in its Prakut state.

  1. Bone Appetit: The Role of Food and Nutrition in Building and Maintaining Strong Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone is a living, dynamic, metabolically active tissue. It under goes a process of constant renewal throughout life, through a process called bone turnover in which cells called osteoclasts remove old or damaged bone, and cells called osteoblasts make new bone to replace it. A healthy, balanced di...

  2. Starvation promotes concerted modulation of appetitive olfactory behavior via parallel neuromodulatory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kang I; Root, Cory M; Lindsay, Scott A; Zaninovich, Orel A; Shepherd, Andrew K; Wasserman, Steven A; Kim, Susy M; Wang, Jing W

    2015-01-01

    The internal state of an organism influences its perception of attractive or aversive stimuli and thus promotes adaptive behaviors that increase its likelihood of survival. The mechanisms underlying these perceptual shifts are critical to our understanding of how neural circuits support animal cognition and behavior. Starved flies exhibit enhanced sensitivity to attractive odors and reduced sensitivity to aversive odors. Here, we show that a functional remodeling of the olfactory map is mediated by two parallel neuromodulatory systems that act in opposing directions on olfactory attraction and aversion at the level of the first synapse. Short neuropeptide F sensitizes an antennal lobe glomerulus wired for attraction, while tachykinin (DTK) suppresses activity of a glomerulus wired for aversion. Thus we show parallel neuromodulatory systems functionally reconfigure early olfactory processing to optimize detection of nutrients at the risk of ignoring potentially toxic food resources. PMID:26208339

  3. Breakfast Frequency and Quality May Affect Glycemia and Appetite in Adults and Children1234

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mark A.; Erickson, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Schrankler, Karilyn; Raatz, Susan K.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2010-01-01

    Observational studies of breakfast frequency in children and adults suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. More prospective studies with stronger designs are needed, as are experimental studies on this topic. In addition, above and beyond breakfast frequency, the roles of dietary quality and composition need to be studied in the context of eating or skipping breakfast. Experim...

  4. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence relates increased sex hormone concentrations with increased breast cancer risk. Varying omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) intake may lead to alterations in eicosanoid balance and subsequent changes in circulating sex hormones that reduce risk. To clarify effects of dietary fat and n-3 i...

  5. Exercise reward induces appetitive 50-kHz calls in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Natalie C; Brenes, Juan C; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2015-08-01

    Rats express affective states by visible behaviors (like approach or flight) and through different kinds of ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). 50-kHz calls are thought to reflect positive affective states since they occur during rewarding situations like social play or palatable food. However, the effects of voluntary exercise on USV have not been investigated yet, although such exercise can serve as reward. To this aim, we gave young adult rats restricted daily access to a runway maze, where they could interact with either a movable (experimental group) or locked wheel (sedentary group) for 14days and we tested USV in anticipation of and during subsequent running. We also studied inter-individual differences in running, and relationships with USV, and rat-typical trait measures. The results showed that the experimental rats had to be separated into "runners" and "pseudorunners" since only runners performed true running, whereas pseudorunners hardly entered the wheel and turned it only with their forelimbs. This outcome seems to be related to subject-dependent differences in responding to novelty and in reward sensitivity, as indicated by pertinent screening tests, which we had performed prior to the 14days of wheel access. In the runway, our experimental and control groups did not differ in visible anticipatory behavior, like approach. Yet, only runners and sedentary rats displayed an increasing but similar amount of anticipatory USV, which is suggestive of a state of incentive anticipation of the coming wheel access. During exercise, only runners increased USV, probably indicating a highly positive emotional state. To conclude, voluntary exercise provides a promising tool to induce 50-kHz USV during and in anticipation of exercise. When performing such studies, possible individual differences between subjects have to be taken into account, and the actual wheel performance should carefully be controlled. PMID:25872156

  6. Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying appetitive learning: links to drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Rudolf N; Everitt, Barry J

    2004-04-01

    The complexity of drug addiction mirrors the complexity of the psychological processes that motivate animals to work for any reinforcer, be it a natural reward or a drug. Here, we review the role of the nucleus accumbens, together with its dopaminergic and cortical innervation, in responding to reinforcement. One important contribution made by the nucleus accumbens is to the process through which neutral stimuli, once paired with a reinforcer such as a drug, have the capacity to motivate behaviour. This process may be one of several contributing to addiction, and it may be amenable to pharmacological intervention.

  7. Opposite Actions of Dopamine on Aversive and Appetitive Memories in the Crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klappenbach, Martin; Maldonado, Hector; Locatelli, Fernando; Kaczer, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of how the reinforcement is represented in the central nervous system during memory formation is a current issue in neurobiology. Several studies in insects provide evidence of the instructive role of biogenic amines during the learning and memory process. In insects it was widely accepted that dopamine (DA) mediates aversive…

  8. Broadening the definition of resilience and "reappraising" the use of appetitive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenke, Melissa; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Greenberg, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Kalisch et al.'s PASTOR model synthesizes current knowledge of resilience, focusing on mechanisms as a common pathway to outcomes and highlighting neuroscience as a method for exploring this. We propose the model broaden its definition of resiliency to include positive indices of recovery, include positive affect as a mechanism, and approach motivation as distinct from overcoming aversive motivation. PMID:26785906

  9. On the rewarding nature of appetitive feeding behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa): Do domesticated pigs contrafreeload?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de F.H.; Tilly, S.L.; Baars, A.M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Contrafreeloading is the phenomenon that animals prefer to work for food even though free food is available nearby. In this study, we investigated whether pigs express contrafreeloading in a test situation where the searching. finding and consuming of food items resembles a natural foraging Situatio

  10. Satisfying giant appetites : mechanisms of small scale foraging by large African herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretorius, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in body mass allows for resource partitioning and co-existence of different species. Body mass is also seen as the main factor governing nutrient requirements in herbivores as metabolic rate and requirements have often been found to scale to ¾ power of body mass. Although the consequences

  11. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty. PMID:26396423

  12. Lesions of Rat Infralimbic Cortex Enhance Recovery and Reinstatement of an Appetitive Pavlovian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sarah E. V.; Kilcross, Simon

    2004-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has a well-established role in the inhibition of inappropriate responding, and evidence suggests that the infralimbic (IL) region of the rat medial PFC (MPFC) may be involved in some aspects of extinction of conditioned fear. MPFC lesions including, but not those sparing the IL cortex increase spontaneous recovery of…

  13. Dopamine Appetite and Cognitive Impairment in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Williams; Eric Taylor

    2004-01-01

    The underlying defects in ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) are not yet clear. The current paper tests three existing theories: State Regulation, Cognitive Deficit, and Temporal Difference (TD) learning. We present computational simulations of the Matching Familiar Figures Task and compare these with the experimental results reported by Sonuga- Barke (2002). The TD model contains four parameters: the learning rate, discounting for future rewards, br...

  14. The effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet induced thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne; Frederiksen, Rikke; Hoppe, Camilla;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence to support that a high-protein diet may promote weight loss and prevent weight (re)gain better than a low-protein diet, and that the effect is due to higher diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and increased satiety. However, data on the effect...... for baseline values. There was no significant difference in effect on EE, protein oxidation or carbohydrate oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Milk reduced subsequent EI more than isocaloric drinks containing only whey or casein. A small but significant increase in lipid oxidation was seen after casein compared with whey....

  15. Chronic central administration of Ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism independent of appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a critical role in the central regulation of bone mass. Ghrelin counteracts leptin. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin on bone mass in Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5 μg/day for 21 days. Rats were divided into control, ghrelin ad libitum-fed (ghrelin ad lib-fed, and ghrelin pair-fed groups. Ghrelin intracerebroventricular infusion significantly increased body weight in ghrelin ad lib-fed rats but not in ghrelin pair-fed rats, as compared with control rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased bone mass in the ghrelin pair-fed group compared with control as indicated by increased bone volume percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and volumetric bone mineral density in tibia trabecular bone. There was no significant difference in trabecular bone mass between the control group and the ghrelin ad-lib fed group. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased the mineral apposition rate in the ghrelin pair-fed group as compared with control. In conclusion, chronic central administration of ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism that is independent of body weight, suggesting that ghrelin may have a bone anabolic effect through the central nervous system.

  16. Sating a Voracious Appetite: The Tidal Interaction of Close-in Planets with their Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh

    2015-12-01

    Transit observations of the apparent angle between the stellar spin and the vector normal to the planetary orbital plane suggest that cool stars are preferably aligned systems even as hot stars exhibit a large range of obliquities. In addition, as was demonstrated recently by Mazeh et al., the distribution of planet periods as a function of mass exhibits a dearth of sub-Jupiter--mass planets at stranded near the inner edge of a primordially misaligned protoplanetary disk and subsequently (on a timescale mass planets at short periods by considering the tidal evolution of planets that arrive on highly eccentric orbits at later (> 1 Gyr) times and become circularized at radii of a few times the Roche limit.

  17. Effects of High-Fructose Diets on Central Appetite Signaling and Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Lowette, Katrien; Roosen, Lina; Tack, Jan; Vanden Berghe, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins, and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source ...

  18. Appetite of an epiphyte: Quantitative monitoring of bacterial sugar consumption in the phyllosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Leveau, Johan H. J.; Lindow, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    We report here the construction, characterization, and application of a bacterial bioreporter for fructose and sucrose that was designed to monitor the availability of these sugars to microbial colonizers of the phyllosphere. Plasmid pPfruB-gfp[AAV] carries the Escherichia coli fruB promoter upstream from the gfp[AAV] allele that codes for an unstable variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP). In Erwinia herbicola, this plasmid brings about the accumulation of GFP...

  19. Appetite of an epiphyte: quantitative monitoring of bacterial sugar consumption in the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveau, J H; Lindow, S E

    2001-03-13

    We report here the construction, characterization, and application of a bacterial bioreporter for fructose and sucrose that was designed to monitor the availability of these sugars to microbial colonizers of the phyllosphere. Plasmid pP(fruB)-gfp[AAV] carries the Escherichia coli fruB promoter upstream from the gfp[AAV] allele that codes for an unstable variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP). In Erwinia herbicola, this plasmid brings about the accumulation of GFP fluorescence in response to both fructose and sucrose. Cells of E. herbicola (pP(fruB)-gfp[AAV]) were sprayed onto bean plants, recovered from leaves at various time intervals after inoculation, and analyzed individually for GFP content by quantitative analysis of digital microscope images. We observed a positive correlation between single-cell GFP accumulation and ribosomal content as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, indicating that foliar growth of E. herbicola occurred at the expense of fructose and/or sucrose. One hour after inoculation, nearly all bioreporter cells appeared to be actively engaged in fructose consumption. This fraction dropped to approximately 11% after 7 h and to approximately 1% a day after inoculation. This pattern suggests a highly heterogeneous availability of fructose to individual E. herbicola cells as they colonize the phyllosphere. We estimated that individual cells were exposed to local initial fructose abundances ranging from less than 0.15 pg fructose to more than 4.6 pg. PMID:11248098

  20. Neural Activities Underlying the Feedback Express Salience Prediction Errors for Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Hu, Xueping; Pan, Weigang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Lijun; Li, Yiyuan; Chen, Antao

    2016-01-01

    Feedback information is essential for us to adapt appropriately to the environment. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral negative deflection after the delivery of feedback, has been found to be larger for outcomes that are worse than expected, and it reflects a reward prediction error derived from the midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as stated in reinforcement learning theory. In contrast, the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model claims that the neural activity in the mediofrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the ACC, is sensitive to the violation of expectancy, irrespective of the valence of feedback. Additionally, increasing evidence has demonstrated significant activities in the striatum, anterior insula and occipital lobe for unexpected outcomes independently of their valence. Thus, the neural mechanism of the feedback remains under dispute. Here, we investigated the feedback with monetary reward and electrical pain shock in one task via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results revealed significant prediction-error-related activities in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and left cingulate gyrus for both money and pain. This implies that some regions underlying the feedback may signal a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. PMID:27694920