Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate
Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted…
Cole, David A; Cho, Sun-Joo; Martin, Nina C; Youngstrom, Eric A; March, John S; Findling, Robert L; Compas, Bruce E; Goodyer, Ian M; Rohde, Paul; Weissman, Myrna; Essex, Marilyn J; Hyde, Janet S; Curry, John F; Forehand, Rex; Slattery, Marcia J; Felton, Julia W; Maxwell, Melissa A
During childhood and adolescence, physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes strongly promote weight gain and increased appetite while also inhibiting weight loss and decreased appetite. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) treats both weight-gain/increased-appetite and weight-loss/decreased-appetite as symptoms of major depression during these developmental periods, despite the fact that one complements typical development and the other opposes it. To disentangle the developmental versus pathological correlates of weight and appetite disturbance in younger age groups, the current study examined symptoms of depression in an aggregated sample of 2307 children and adolescents, 47.25% of whom met criteria for major depressive disorder. A multigroup, multidimensional item response theory model generated three key results. First, weight loss and decreased appetite loaded strongly onto a general depression dimension; in contrast, weight gain and increased appetite did not. Instead, weight gain and increased appetite loaded onto a separate dimension that did not correlate strongly with general depression. Second, inclusion or exclusion of weight gain and increased appetite affected neither the nature of the general depression dimension nor the fidelity of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Third, the general depression dimension and the weight-gain/increased-appetite dimension showed different patterns across age and gender. In child and adolescent populations, these results call into question the utility of weight gain and increased appetite as indicators of depression. This has serious implications for the diagnostic criteria of depression in children and adolescents. These findings inform a revision of the DSM, with implications for the diagnosis of depression in this age group and for research on depression.
Cole, David A.; Cho, Sun-Joo; Martin, Nina C.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; March, John S.; Findling, Robert L.; Compas, Bruce E.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Rohde, Paul; Weissman, Myrna; Marilyn J. Essex; Hyde, Janet S.; Curry, John F.; Forehand, Rex; Marcia J. Slattery
During childhood and adolescence, physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes strongly promote weight gain and increased appetite while also inhibiting weight loss and decreased appetite. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM–IV) treats both weight-gain/increased-appetite and weight-loss/decreased-appetite as symptoms of major depression during these developmental periods, despite the fact that one complements typical development and the other opposes it. To disentangle the...
Alcaro, Antonio; Panksepp, Jaak
Appetitive motivation and incentive states are essential functions sustained by a common emotional brain process, the SEEKING disposition, which drives explorative and approach behaviors, sustains goal-directed activity, promotes anticipatory cognitions, and evokes feelings of positive excitement which control reward-learning. All such functions are orchestrated by the same "archetypical" neural processes, activated in ancient subcortical areas and transported to the forebrain by the mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system. In mammals, the neurophysiology of the SEEKING urge is expressed by DA-promoted high-frequency oscillations, in the form of transient and synchronized gamma waves (>30Hz) emerging in limbic forebrain and diffusing throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BG-T-C) circuits. These patterns may be considered basic "SEEKING neurodynamic impulses" which represent the primary-process exploratory disposition getting integrated with information relative to the external and the internal environment. Abnormal manifestation of SEEKING and its neural substrates are evident in clinical depression and addiction. Specifically, depression is characterized by reduced recruitment of SEEKING, while addictions reflect re-organizations of the SEEKING disposition around ultra-specific appetitive memories and compulsive activities.
Some elderly patients on chronic lithium therapy for bipolar disorder and their doctors may be faced with a therapeutic dilemma over whether or not to continue prescribing/taking lithium given their increased risk of reduced renal function. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who discontinued lithium therapy due to increased risk factors for renal injury. After discontinuation, she experienced markedly decreased appetite secondary to a depressive episode, and developed acute renal failure, which subsequently progressed to a more advanced stage of chronic kidney disease. This case suggests that extreme care must be taken to prevent the recurrence of depression in elderly patients with bipolar disorder who discontinue lithium therapy, even when they had been emotionally stable for a long time while receiving lithium. Medications other than lithium for bipolar disorder may be needed at the time lithium therapy is discontinued.
Appetite is defined as ‘a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food’. The counterpart of appetite is satiety, which is the state of satisfaction that follows after the need for food is fulfilled. However, palatable food can be appetizing in the absence of hunger and people may eng
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depressants KidsHealth > For Teens > Depressants A A A What's ... How Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Depressants What Are Depressants? Depressants are drugs that calm nerves and relax ...
Makoundou, V; Golay, A
The control of the appetite by drugs (sensation of hunger, satiation and satiety) is crucial in the management of obesity. Numerous drugs in this domain were forbidden these last years because of serious side effects. New researches allow the development of new substances presenting fewer side effects either by better specificity on receptors (locarserin), or by new mechanism of action (GLP-1, leptin, anti Ghrelin). The appetite is settled by a complex neurohormonal mechanism. To act on some systems at the same time, the development of products "polypill" combining naltroxone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate or amylin-leptine give encouraging results. However the dominant mechanism of the appetite dysregulation needs to be better understood.
... overview URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003213.htm Depression - overview To use the sharing features on this ... older adults Major depression Persistent depressive disorder Postpartum depression Premenstrual ... Review Date 1/4/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...
Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.
Bjerg, Anne Toksvig
resistance and blood lipid profile among others. Probiotics which are health promoting bacteria can potentially be used to affect the GM and thereby change metabolic outcomes of the host. Animal studies have shown associations between intake of probiotics and appetite regulation, but currently no human...... studies have investigated this effect. Supplementation with different probiotic strains have been shown to have an effect on blood lipid profiles in both animals and humans and the mechanisms behind have been studied in vitro and in rodents. The aim of the present thesis was to examine in an ex vivo...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human...
Austin Juliana; Marks Daniel
Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger a...
Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued...
Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann
The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...
... Health (NIMH)’s website ( www.nimh.nih.gov ). What causes depression? Scientists at NIMH and across the country are studying the causes of depression. Research suggests that a combination of genetic, biological, ...
Grace Sherry L
Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in men. The highest rates of depression are seen among women of reproductive age. Predictive factors for depression include previous depression, feeling out of control or overwhelmed, chronic health problems, traumatic events in childhood or young adulthood, lack of emotional support, lone parenthood, and low sense of mastery. Although depression is treatable, only 43% of depressed women had consulted a health professional in 1998/99 and only 32.4% were taking antidepressant medication. People with lower education, inadequate income, and fewer contacts with a health professional were less likely to receive depression treatment. Data Gaps and Recommendations A better understanding of factors that increase vulnerability and resilience to depression is needed. There is also a need for the collection and analysis of data pertaining to: prevalence of clinical anxiety; the prevalence of depression band 12 months after childbirth factors contributing to suicide contemplation and attempts among adolescent girls, current treatments for depression and their efficacy in depressed women at different life stages; interprovincial variation in depression rates and hospitalizations and the impact and costs of depression on work, family, individuals, and society.
Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P
Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....
There is ample evidence that depression is000 a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...
Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M
The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced
Halford, Jason C. G.; Harrold, Joanne A.
The regulation of appetite relies on the integration of numerous episodic (meal) and tonic (energy storage) generated signals in energy regulatory centres within the central nervous system (CNS). These centers provide the pharmacological potential to modify human appetite (hunger and satiety) to increase or decrease caloric intake, or to normalize…
... child’s appetite changes. Children do not grow as fast in their preschool years. That is why your child may have a smaller appetite now. That is normal. If he or she is not hungry or does not finish a meal, relax. Take the food away. Your child probably is eating enough if ...
Johansen, Jon O. J.
Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...
Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…
Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.
Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.
... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women’s Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...
McCarron, Robert M; Vanderlip, Erik R; Rado, Jeffrey
This issue provides a clinical overview of depression, focusing on screening, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.
Appetite is a conscious desire for food and it is regulated mainly by the gastrointestinal system, pancreas and adrenal glands. Poor appetite is a common problem in childhood. For assessment, history of development, nutrition and family are important. Poor appetite may also be a symptom of feeding disorders. Even though the etiology of feeding disorders may be classified as organic or functional, it indeed reflects the complex interaction of biological, behavioral and social factors. Personal...
Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian
We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....
Full Text Available Appetite is a conscious desire for food and it is regulated mainly by the gastrointestinal system, pancreas and adrenal glands. Poor appetite is a common problem in childhood. For assessment, history of development, nutrition and family are important. Poor appetite may also be a symptom of feeding disorders. Even though the etiology of feeding disorders may be classified as organic or functional, it indeed reflects the complex interaction of biological, behavioral and social factors. Personal, familial, economic and sociocultural factors may affect appetite. In this review, approaches to a child with low appetite who presents a difficult problem for his/her family and doctor are discussed in the light of recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 79-84
. In the long run, regular wholegrain intake may also reduce body weight due to reoccurring short- and long-term effects on appetite. Aim: This PhD thesis investigates the effects of selected wholegrain products on appetite after a second meal, as well as the effects of sustained wholegrain intake on overall...... appetite sensation with special attention to the role of colonic fermentation. Further, the impact of regular wholegrain intake on body weight is investigated. Methods: In a second meal study we studied the effects of two coarse wholegrain rye evening meals on subjective appetite after a standardized...... breakfast and on ad libitum energy intake at lunch at the subsequent day compared to white wheat bread. In a human intervention study we investigated the effects of 8-week ad libitum consumption of a mixed wholegrain diet on appetite after a standardized, non-wholegrain breakfast, on ad libitum energy...
Ji Hee Yu
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has been rapidly increasing worldwide over the last several decades and has become a major health problem in developed countries. The brain, especially the hypothalamus, plays a key role in the control of food intake by sensing metabolic signals from peripheral organs and modulating feeding behaviors. To accomplish these important roles, the hypothalamus communicates with other brain areas such as the brainstem and reward-related limbic pathways. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and pancreatic β-cell-derived insulin inform adiposity to the hypothalamus. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and oxyntomodulin transfer satiety signals to the brain and ghrelin relays hunger signals. The endocannabinoid system and nutrients are also involved in the physiological regulation of food intake. In this article, we briefly review physiological mechanisms of appetite regulation.
Croker, H; Cooke, L; Wardle, J
Associations between appetite and adiposity have not been examined in clinical samples of obese children. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to compare appetite in community (n=406) and clinical (n=66) samples. Clear graded patterns were seen for food responsiveness and emotional overeating; levels increased with increasing BMI SDS and the clinical sample scored highest. The reverse was seen for satiety responsiveness/slowness in eating. Differences were not solely explained by weight differences, suggesting that the clinical sample had more pronounced 'obesogenic' appetitive traits. This could make adherence to dietary guidance difficult.
Chinese as well as international buyers are showing great interest in collecting There was no sign of economic depression at Sotheby’s auction,"Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art",held in New York in March.The 1692 masterpiece,Two Mynas on
van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman;
is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes’ PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight...
Teresa Cardoso Delgado
Full Text Available Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms.Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the
Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning
Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...
Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina
Obesity is often attributed to a Western lifestyle, a high-fat diet and decreased activity. While these factors certainly contribute to adult obesity, compelling data from our laboratory and others indicate that this explanation is oversimplified. Recent studies strongly argue that maternal/fetal under- or overnutrition predisposes the offspring to become hyperphagic and increases the risk of later obesity. Both infants small for gestational age (SGA) or infants born to obese mothers who consume a high-fat diet are at a markedly increased risk of adult obesity. Specific alterations in the fetal metabolic/energy environment directly influence the development of appetite regulatory pathways. Specifically, SGA infants demonstrate (1) impaired satiety and anorexigenic cell signaling, (2) enhanced cellular orexigenic responses, (3) programmed dysfunction of neuroprogenitor cell proliferation/differentiation, and (4) increased expression of appetite (NPY) versus satiety (POMC) neurons. In both hypothalamic tissue and ex vivo culture, SGA newborns exhibit increased levels of the nutrient sensor SIRT1, signifying reduced energy, whereas maternal high-fat-exposed newborns exhibit reduced levels of pAMPK, signifying energy excess. Via downstream regulation of bHLH neuroproliferation (Hes1) and neurodifferentiation factors (Mash1, Ngn3), neurogenesis is biased toward orexigenic and away from anorexigenic neurons, resulting in excess appetite, reduced satiety and development of obesity. Despite the developmental programming of appetite neurogenesis, the potential for neuronal remodeling raises the opportunity for novel interventions.
... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... interest. However, major depression can occur with ADHD. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...
Full Text Available Former members of armed groups in eastern DRCongo had typically witnessed, experienced and perpetrated extreme forms of violence. Enhanced trauma-related symptoms had been shown in prior research. But also lashing out in self-defense is a familiar response to threat defined as reactive aggression. Another potential response is appetitive aggression, in which the perpetration of excessive violence is perceived as pleasurable (combat high. What roles do these forms of aggressive behavior play in modern warfare and how are they related to posttraumatic stress symptoms? To answer the question, we sought to determine predictors for appetitive aggressive and trauma-related mental illness, and investigated the frequency of psychopathological symptoms for high- and low-intensity conflict demobilization settings. To this end, we interviewed 213 former members of (paramilitary groups in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in regard to their combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, appetitive aggression, depression, suicidality, and drug dependence. Random forest regression embedded in a conditional inference framework revealed that perpetrated violent acts are not necessarily stressful. In fact, the experience of violent acts that typically implicated salient cues of hunting (e.g., blood, suffering of the victim, etc. had the strongest association with an appetite for aggression. Furthermore, the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts was the most important predictor of appetitive aggression. However, the number of perpetrated violent acts did not significantly affect the posttraumatic stress. Greater intensity of conflict was associated with more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address appetitive aggression in addition to trauma-related mental illness, including drug dependence, therefore seem indispensible for a successful reintegration of those who fought in the current civil wars.
Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.
Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann
in the prevalence of obesity is unknown but it is most probably due to two lifestyle factors: an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and increased availability of palatable foods with high energy density. Even small changes in energy intake, leading to a positive energy balance can lead to weight gain over time......Summary Worldwide, the number of overweight and obese individuals has more than doubled since 1980: there were more than 1.4 billion overweight adults in 2008. Of these, more than 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were classified as obese. The cause for the worldwide increase...... on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher...
Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O
Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH.
Mecawi, Andre S; Macchione, Ana F; Nuñez, Paula; Perillan, Carmen; Reis, Luis C; Vivas, Laura; Arguelles, Juan
Thirst and sodium appetite are the sensations responsible for the motivated behaviors of water and salt intake, respectively, and both are essential responses for the maintenance of hydromineral homeostasis in animals. These sensations and their related behaviors develop very early in the postnatal period in animals. Many studies have demonstrated several pre- and postnatal stimuli that are responsible for the developmental programing of thirst and sodium appetite and, consequently, the pattern of water and salt intake in adulthood in need-free or need-induced conditions. The literature systematically reports the involvement of dietary changes, hydromineral and cardiovascular challenges, renin-angiotensin system and steroid hormone disturbances, and lifestyle in these developmental factors. Therefore, this review will address how pre- and postnatal challenges can program lifelong thirst and sodium appetite in animals and humans, as well as which neuroendocrine substrates are involved. In addition, the possible epigenetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the developmental programing of drinking behavior, the clinical implications of hydromineral disturbances during pre- and postnatal periods, and the developmental origins of adult hydromineral behavior will be discussed.
Parker, Jennifer A; Bloom, Stephen R
Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extrasynaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators: altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central control of Food Intake'.
Alison Sally Poulton
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilisation of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.
Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A
This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.
Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.
Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules
Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.
Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress, …. but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe 1 the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, 2 how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH
Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie
Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis.
Aging is often accompanied by anorexia of aging, described as a decline in appetite, a lower dietary intake and followed by unexplained weight loss. The present thesis described research on anorexia of aging. Focus was given to social and physiological determinants of appetite and the relationship w
Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro
Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required.
Nasser, Helen M; McNally, Gavan P
The existence of value coding and salience coding neurons in the mammalian brain, including in habenula and ventral tegmental area, has sparked considerable interest in the interactions that occur between Pavlovian appetitive and aversive conditioning. Here we studied these appetitive-aversive interactions at the behavioral level by assessing the learning that occurs when a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus (conditional stimulus, CS) serves as a CS for shock in Pavlovian fear conditioning. A Pavlovian appetitive CS was retarded in the rate at which it could be transformed into a fear CS (counterconditioning), but the presence of the appetitive CS augmented fear learning to a concurrently presented neutral CS (superconditioning). Retardation of fear learning was not alleviated by manipulations designed to restore the associability of the appetitive CS before fear conditioning but was alleviated by manipulations designed to increase the aversive quality of the shock unconditioned stimulus (US). These findings are consistent with opponent interactions between the appetitive and aversive motivational systems and provide a behavioral approach for assessing the neural correlates of these appetitive-aversive interactions.
Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.
The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…
Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.
OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch
S. Both; E. Laan; M. Spiering; T. Nilsson; S. Oomens; W. Everaerd
INTRODUCTION: There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. AIM: The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of sex
Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte
Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...
Crista L. Barberini
Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.
Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...
Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Rohwedder, Astrid; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Thum, Andreas S
In the following we describe the methodological details of appetitive associative olfactory learning in Drosophila larvae. The setup, in combination with genetic interference, provides a handle to analyze the neuronal and molecular fundamentals of specifically associative learning in a simple larval brain. Organisms can use past experience to adjust present behavior. Such acquisition of behavioral potential can be defined as learning, and the physical bases of these potentials as memory traces. Neuroscientists try to understand how these processes are organized in terms of molecular and neuronal changes in the brain by using a variety of methods in model organisms ranging from insects to vertebrates. For such endeavors it is helpful to use model systems that are simple and experimentally accessible. The Drosophila larva has turned out to satisfy these demands based on the availability of robust behavioral assays, the existence of a variety of transgenic techniques and the elementary organization of the nervous system comprising only about 10,000 neurons (albeit with some concessions: cognitive limitations, few behavioral options, and richness of experience questionable). Drosophila larvae can form associations between odors and appetitive gustatory reinforcement like sugar. In a standard assay, established in the lab of B. Gerber, animals receive a two-odor reciprocal training: A first group of larvae is exposed to an odor A together with a gustatory reinforcer (sugar reward) and is subsequently exposed to an odor B without reinforcement. Meanwhile a second group of larvae receives reciprocal training while experiencing odor A without reinforcement and subsequently being exposed to odor B with reinforcement (sugar reward). In the following both groups are tested for their preference between the two odors. Relatively higher preferences for the rewarded odor reflect associative learning--presented as a performance index (PI). The conclusion regarding the associative
Davis, Mellar P; Dreicer, Robert; Walsh, Declan; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan B
Appetite is governed by peripheral hormones and central neurotransmitters that act on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and nucleus tactus solitarius of the brainstem. Cancer anorexia appears to be the result of an imbalance between neuropeptide-Y and pro-opiomelanocortin signals favoring pro-opiomelanocortin. Many of the appetite stimulants redress this imbalance. Most of our understanding of appetite neurophysiology and tumor-associated anorexia is derived from animals and has not been verified in humans. There have been few clinical trials and very little translational research on anorexia despite its prevalence in cancer.
Bech, Per; Paykel, Eugene; Sireling, Lester
within major depressive disorder. The CID was compared to the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17). METHODS: 146 patients from a previous study in general practice with the CID were investigated. The item response theory model established by Rasch was used to investigate the scalability (a scale......׳s psychometric adequacy) of the subscales, and principal component analysis was used to identify subsyndromes with the symptoms of major depression according to DSM-5 or ICD-10. RESULTS: Whereas the HAM-D17 was found not to have an acceptable scalability, the three brief CID subscales for depression (six items......), anxiety (five items), and apathy (five items) all had an acceptable scalability. Within the major depressive symptoms, principal component analysis identified the CID items of hypersomnia, increased appetite or weight gain as defining the subsyndrome of atypical depression. In total 29 patients...
... News Releases Media Advisory Friday, October 14, 2016 Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite Study with ... changes in caloric expenditure that typically accompany weight loss — and weight loss plateau. Findings from the analyses suggest that ...
of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...
Bautista, C J; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; Zambrano, E
Appetite is the desire to satisfy the need to consume food, felt as hunger. It is regulated by the balance of food intake and energy expenditure via signals between the brain, the digestive tract and the adipose tissue. Males and females vary in terms of eating behavior as well as the way the body fat is stored. Energy balance and body fat distribution are part of the sexual dimorphism in many mammalian species including human beings. These sex dissimilarities could be related to the different sex steroid hormone profile in each sex. Gonadal steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Human epidemiological and experimental animal studies have shown that estradiol has a key role in the control of food intake and energy balance. Estradiol has long been known to inhibit feeding in animals. There are important changes in food intake patterns during the estrous cycle, with a reduction of food intake around the time of ovulation, when estradiol presents its highest levels. Men have less total fat and more central fat distribution which carries a much greater risk for metabolic disorders while women have more total fat and more gluteal/femoral subcutaneous fat distribution. Men and postmenopausal women accumulate more fat in the intraabdominal depot. This review is focused on the mechanism by which sex steroids affect feeding behavior and fat distribution.
Mikrouli, Elli; Wörtwein, Gitta; Soylu, Rana
The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat is a genetic animal model of depression that displays characteristics similar to those of depressed patients including lower body weight, decreased appetite and reduced REM sleep latency. Hypothalamic neuropeptides such as orexin/hypocretin, melanin-concentra......The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat is a genetic animal model of depression that displays characteristics similar to those of depressed patients including lower body weight, decreased appetite and reduced REM sleep latency. Hypothalamic neuropeptides such as orexin/hypocretin, melanin...... of the FSL phenotype with both depressive like behavior, metabolic abnormalities and sleep disturbances. In this study, we first confirmed that the FSL rats displayed increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test compared to their control strain, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), which is indicative...... the view that orexin may be involved in depression and strengthen the notion that the "depressed" brain responds differently to pharmacological interventions than the normal brain....
H.J. Luijendijk (Hendrika)
textabstractDepression is characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, rumination, feelings of guilt and shame, suicidal ideation, disturbed sleep and loss of appetite (1). It is associated with limitations in physical and social functioning and places a severe burden on patients and relatives
Diseases and Conditions Atypical depression By Mayo Clinic Staff Any type of depression can make you feel sad and keep you from enjoying life. However, atypical depression — also called depression with atypical features — means that ...
... depression. Alternative Names Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions References American Psychiatric Association. Depressive disorders. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American ...
van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman;
In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect...... is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes’ PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight...... and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite...
Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin
Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning.
@@ Depressive syndrome is a common complication in cerebral vascular accidents (CVA), which accounts for 70% of the complications. A mild case of the syndrome is marked by grief, sleeping disturbance, weakened mental activities, worry, loss of interest, and irritability. A severe case may have worse symptoms and signs, except the above mentioned ones, such as anxiety, reduced appetite, hallucination, delusion, desperation, etc. The author has adopted acupuncture to treat depressive syndromes after CVA with good therapeutic result as reported in the following.
Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record
Brown, Amanda Joelle; Smith, Lucy T; Craighead, Linda W
Difficulties identifying appetite signals and emotions have been implicated in the development and maintenance of disordered eating. The current study evaluated the mediating roles of appetite awareness and emotional awareness in a brief eating disorders prevention program designed to help participants identify and respond to internal appetite signals. A series of regression analyses was carried out to test the mediator effects of appetite and emotional awareness. Appetite awareness, but not emotional awareness, mediated improvements in binge eating symptoms as well as eating- and weight-control self-efficacy. Appetite awareness appears to be an effective target for eating disorders prevention programs.
Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M
Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030. CONCLUSIONS: Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.
Full Text Available Falling among older adults is a well-known public health problem but the association between falling and appetite is seldom studied although poor nutritional status is accepted as a risk factor for falls. On this background the aim of this study was to understand how older adults, who have fallen several times within a year, related their experiences of appetite as a phenomenon in everyday life. In narrative in-depth interviews, eight women and four men contributed with their stories. Using interpretative phenomenology the thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: appetite for food; appetite for social relations and appetite for influence. Eating was not trivial everyday routine and required self-regimentation. Meals were not an object of desire, but of discipline out of the wish to survive. Feelings, reflections and ambivalence were bound to the lack of appetite on food. The participants were oriented towards the forbidden, the delicious and to everyday food as a strengthener and as medicine. In their dependency on help, home was the framework for establishing social relations as means of social support. As well as family and neighbours, the significant others were persons on whom the participants were dependent. Personal relationships and mutual dependencies may ensure social security in lives characterised by contingency and maintain influence in daily life. Falling is both a dramatic and a trivial incident where life and death could be at stake. From this perspective, connectedness was prominent in all fall stories. The quest for influence and a sense of social connectedness was the incentive to re-enter local community arenas and to express solidarity. In health-care practice multi-factorial fall-prevention should be complemented with a multi-dimensional approach in order to balance the medical approach with humanistic and societal approaches towards fall-prevention.
Juan Carlos Senar
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since carotenoids have physiological functions necessary for maintaining health, individuals should be selected to actively seek and develop a specific appetite for these compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Great tits Parus major in a diet choice experiment, both in captivity and the field, preferred carotenoid-enriched diets to control diets. The food items did not differ in any other aspects measured besides carotenoid content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific appetite for carotenoids is here demonstrated for the first time, placing these compounds on a par with essential nutrients as sodium or calcium.
... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard and can lead to feelings ...
... starts about 1–3 weeks after childbirth. What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression probably is caused by a combination ... better. Can antidepressants cause side effects? Antidepressants can ... If your depression worsens soon after starting medication or if you ...
Andreae, Christina; Strömberg, Anna; Årestedt, Kristofer
Aims and objectivesTo explore the prevalence of decreased appetite and factors associated with appetite among patients with stable heart failure. BackgroundDecreased appetite is an important factor for the development of undernutrition among patients with heart failure, but there are knowledge gaps about prevalence and the factors related to appetite in this patient group. DesignObservational, cross-sectional study. MethodsA total of 186 patients with mild to severe heart failure were consecu...
Full Text Available It is now recognised that appropriate regulation of reproduction, energy intake and energy expenditure, and thus maintenance of body weight and fertility, relies on complex hypothalamic neuro-circuitry. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. During times of under nourishment and falling body fat the reproductive axis is down regulated. Circulating factors and hypothalamic circuits co-ordinate these responses. Leptin has been described to be an important peripheral signal that indicates body fat stores to the hypothalamus and thus links nutrition and reproduction. Leptin acts by altering neuropeptide circuits in the hypothalamus, which alter gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH release and food intake. The importance of key neuropeptide systems identified in rodents is now being established in man. Notably mutations in the melanocortin MC4 receptor are found in up to 4 % of the morbidly obese whilst in a proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa mutations have been identified in the agoutirelated peptide (AgRP gene, which codes for an endogenous antagonist of this receptor. Intranasal administration of a melanocortin fragment known to activate the MC4 receptor decreases adiposity in humans. The melanocortin system has been shown to influence the reproductive axis in rodents. However, the role of the melanocortin system in the control of reproduction in humans remains to be established. Since the discovery of leptin, attention has also been focused on peripheral signals that regulate reproduction, food intake and energy expenditure, either directly or via feedback on hypothalamic circuits. Notable new discoveries in this area include the gastric hormone ghrelin. Circulating ghrelin stimulates food intake in rodents and humans although an influence on the reproductive axis is yet to be reported. Neuropeptidregulation von Appetit und Reproduktion. Mittlerweile gilt es als anerkannt, daß eine entsprechende Regulation der
Full Text Available Dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET, a benign, rare tumor of the brain, commonly presents with generalized or partial epilepsy, post-epilepsy sequelae of psychotic, depressive or anxiety symptoms or disorders, or is usually asymptomatic. We report the first case in scientific literature of temporal lobe DNET presenting with only major depressive disorder, without epilepsy. A 24-year-old single male, presented with pervasive sadness, easy fatigability, loss of interest in his daily activities, decreasing appetite associated with poor of quality sleep, poor attention and concentration, pessimism about the future, and headaches. He was diagnosed with severe depression, without psychotic symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a lobulated hyperintense temporal lobe mass of 2.7 × 2.2 mm in the hippocampus region suggestive of a DNET. Electroencephalography, thyroid function tests, blood sugar, and electrocardiogram were normal. The depression responded well to tablet Escitalopram 10 mg once daily initially, with no adverse effects reported.
Leung, Hiu T.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick
Four experiments used between- and within-subject designs to examine appetitive-aversive interactions in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of an excitatory appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) on acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, a CS shocked in a compound with an appetitive excitor (i.e., a stimulus…
Borer, Katarina T
Ghrelin and leptin, putative controllers of human appetite, have no effect on human meal-to-meal appetite but respond to variations in energy availability. Nonhomeostatic characteristics of appetite and spontaneous activity stem from inhibition by leptin and ghrelin of brain reward circuit that is responsive to energy deficit, but refractory in obesity, and from the operation of a meal-timing circadian clock.
Sternson, Scott M; Atasoy, Deniz; Betley, J Nicholas; Henry, Fredrick E; Xu, Shengjin
Advances in neuro-technology for mapping, manipulating, and monitoring molecularly defined cell types are rapidly advancing insight into neural circuits that regulate appetite. Here, we review these important tools and their applications in circuits that control food seeking and consumption. Technical capabilities provided by these tools establish a rigorous experimental framework for research into the neurobiology of hunger.
Jager, G.; Witkamp, R.F.
Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the
Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi
In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…
Full Text Available Violent behaviour can be intrinsically rewarding; especially combatants fighting in current civil wars present with elevated traits of appetitive aggression. The majority of these fighters were recruited as children or adolescents. In the present study we test whether there is a developmental period where combatants are sensitive for developing a robust trait of appetitive aggression.We investigated 95 combatants in their demobilization process that were recruited at different ages in the Kivu regions of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Using random forest with conditional inference trees, we identified recruitment at the ages from 16 and 17 years as being predictive of the level of appetitive aggression; the number of lifetime, perpetrated acts was the most important predictor. We conclude that high levels of appetitive aggression develop in ex-combatants, especially in those recruited during their middle to late teenage, which is a developmental period marked by a natural inclination to exercise physical force. Consequently, ex-combatants may remain vulnerable for aggressive behaviour patterns and re-recruitment unless they are provided alternative strategies for dealing with their aggression.
Wang, J; Yuen, V G; McNeill, J H
Vanadium, a potent nonselective inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, has been shown to mimic many of the metabolic actions of insulin both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism(s) of the effect of vanadium on the decrease in appetite and body weight in Zucker fa/fa rats, an insulin-resistant model, is still unclear. Because insulin may inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is known to be related to appetite, and increase leptin secretion in adipose tissue, we studied the possibility that the changes in appetite produced by vanadium may be linked to altered NPY levels in the hypothalamus. We also examined effects of vanadium on leptin. Zucker lean and fatty rats were chronically treated with bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), an organic vanadium compound, in the drinking water. Plasma and adipose tissue leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting, respectively. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA and peptide levels were measured using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. BMOV treatment significantly reduced food intake, body fat, body weight, plasma insulin levels, and glucose levels in fatty Zucker rats. Fifteen minutes after insulin injection (5 U/kg, intravenous [IV]), circulating leptin levels (+100%) and adipose leptin levels (+60%) were elevated in BMOV-treated fatty rats, although these effects were not observed in untreated fatty rats. NPY mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) (-29%), NPY peptide levels in ARC (-31%), as well as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (-37%) were decreased with BMOV treatment in these fatty rats. These data indicate that BMOV may increase insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and decrease appetite and body fat by decreasing NPY levels in the hypothalamus. BMOV-induced reduction in appetite and weight gain along with normalized insulin levels in models of obesity, suggest its possible use as a therapeutic agent in obesity.
Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J
In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in south of Benin. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements (VITALIA-tablets) contain 11 vitamins and 8 minerals. Stunted children (Ht/Age Z score appetite were assessed once a week for the three weeks preceding and the three weeks following the six-week intervention period. Growth was additionally assessed 4 months after intervention. Each appetite test day, morbidity data and mother's report on child's appetite throughout the preceding day were recorded. Reported appetite, intake of test food and knee-heel length increased after supplementation in both groups (p appetite and growth of stunted young children.
Salmeto, Amy L; Hymel, Kristen A; Carpenter, Erika C; Brilot, Ben O; Bateson, Melissa; Sufka, Kenneth J
Cognitive bias is a phenomenon that presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals tend to adopt a more pessimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli whereas depressed individuals tend to adopt a less optimistic-like interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. To further validate the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation we sought to quantify this cognitive endophenotype. Chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5m to induce an anxiety-like or 60 m to induce a depressive-like state were then tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. In non-isolated controls, runway start and goal latencies generally increased as a function of greater amounts of aversive characteristics in the cues. In chicks in the anxiety-like state, runway latencies were increased to aversive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like behavior. In chicks in the depression-like state, runway latencies were increased to both aversive and appetitive ambiguous cues, reflecting more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like behavior, respectively.
Zijlstra, Nicolien; Mars, Monica; de Wijk, René A
/m(2)) participated in this cross-over study. Subjects received a fixed amount of a chocolate flavored milk-based liquid or semi-solid product similar in energy density and macronutrient composition. Before intake and 15, 30, 60 and 90 min thereafter, appetite was rated and blood was drawn to determine...... glucose, CCK-8, active ghrelin, desacyl ghrelin and GLP-1 concentrations. After the last blood withdrawal, subjects were offered a chocolate cake meal to consume ad libitum. In the appetite ratings we observed a small effect showing that the semi-solid product is apparently considered as more satisfying...... product effect (p 0.004). Concentrations were consistently higher after intake of the semi-solid product. Ad libitum intake of the chocolate cake was 102+/-55 g after the liquid and 96+/-46 g after the semi-solid product (ns). The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro...
Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Petit, A; Triki, R; Caulin, C; Segrestaa, J M
The correlation between ultrasonographic gastric emptying and appetite was studied. Echographic evaluation of gastric emptying by measurement of the antral vertical diameter and assessment of sensations of hunger and satiety using analogue visual scales were performed simultaneously in 12 healthy volunteers. Measurements were carried out after the intake of 10.8 g psyllium or placebo in a randomised, crossover, double blind trial. The correlation between echographic gastric emptying and sensations of hunger and satiety was excellent (p < 0.001) after the intake of either psyllium or placebo. Psyllium significantly delayed gastric emptying from the third hour after a meal. It increased the sensation of satiety and decreased hunger at the sixth hour after the meal. The association between echographic measurement and visual scales is a simple method of evaluating the relationship between the stomach and appetite. The pharmacodynamic effect of psyllium should be confirmed by longterm therapeutic trials. PMID:1398229
Mazen R. Harb
Full Text Available Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that i the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; ii higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and iii mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate. Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in
Jager, Gerry; Witkamp, Renger F
Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the functioning of the ECS, the present review specifically addresses its role in the modulation of hedonic eating. Humans possess strong motivational systems triggered by rewarding aspects of food. Food reward is comprised of two components: one appetitive (orienting towards food); the other consummatory (hedonic evaluation), also referred to as 'wanting' and 'liking', respectively. Endocannabinoid tone seems to influence both the motivation to feed and the hedonic value of foods, probably by modifying palatability. Human physiology underlying hedonic eating is still not fully understood. A better understanding of the role of the ECS in the rewarding value of specific foods or diets could offer new possibilities to optimise the balance between energy and nutrient intake for different target groups. These groups include the obese and overweight, and potentially individuals suffering from malnutrition. Examples for the latter group are patients with disease-related anorexia, as well as the growing population of frail elderly suffering from persistent loss of food enjoyment and appetite resulting in malnutrition and involuntary weight loss. It has become clear that the psychobiology of food hedonics is extremely complex and the clinical failure of CB1 inverse agonists including rimonabant (Accomplia®) has shown that 'quick wins' in this field are unlikely.
Yuan, Dengyue; Wei, Rongbin; Wang, Tao; Wu, Yuanbing; Lin, Fangjun; Chen, Hu; Liu, Ju; Gao, Yundi; Zhou, Chaowei; Chen, Defang; Li, Zhiqiong
In recent years, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has received much attention as mediators of appetite regulation in mammals. However, the involvement of CART in the feeding behavior of teleosts has not been well understood. In this study, three distinct CARTs were cloned from the Schizothorax prenanti (S. prenanti). Real-time quantitative PCR were applied to characterize the tissue distribution and appetite regulatory effects of CARTs in S. prenanti. The S. prenanti CART-1, CART-2 and CART-3 full-length cDNA sequences were 597 bp, 694 bp and 749 bp in length, encoding the peptides of 125, 120 and 104 amino acid residues, respectively. All the S. prenanti CARTs consisted of three exons and two introns. Tissue distribution analysis showed that the high mRNA levels of S. prenanti CART-1 were observed in the telencephalon and eye, followed by the hypothalamus, myelencephalon, and mesencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-2 mRNA was mainly found in the mesencephalon, hypothalamus, telencephalon and myelencephalon. The S. prenanti CART-3 mRNA was widely distributed among the tissues, with the high levels in the hypothalamus and foregut. In the periprandial experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus were highly elevated after a meal, suggesting that CARTs are postprandial satiety signals. In the fasting experiment, all three CARTs mRNA expressions decreased after fasting and increased after refeeding, suggesting that CARTs might be involved in regulation of appetite in the S. prenanti.
Rachel C. Brown
Full Text Available An alternative approach in determining cause, treatment, and prevention of obesity is to study those who appear resistant to the obesogenic environment. We examined appetite responses in 33 obesity resistant individuals (ORI versus 28 obesity susceptible individuals (OSI. Fingerprick blood samples to measure ghrelin, total peptide YY (PYY, leptin, glucose, and insulin along with appetite ratings were collected at baseline and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min following consumption of a standardized meal. Fasting, area under the curve (AUC, peak/nadir, and time to peak/nadir were compared. Participants completed the three factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ. No significant differences were observed for ghrelin or PYY. Higher leptin concentrations in the OSI disappeared after controlling for percent body fat (%BF. Significant differences in appetite ratings included a lower hunger nadir among OSI compared with ORI (P=0.017. Dietary restraint (P<0.001 and disinhibition (P<0.001 were lower in ORI compared with OSI, with and without adjustment for %BF. Given the differential body weight of the study groups, similar observed ghrelin concentrations were unexpected, perhaps indicating OSI and ORI respond differently to the same ghrelin concentration. Also ORI response to hunger appears different as they exhibit lower levels of dietary restraint and disinhibition compared with OSI.
Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.
Barucci, M; Cossio, M
Several subjects who tell their depression and play a part of it in front of the doctor without being really depressed are reported. Some of them try to hide the symptoms (irritability or erethism, ceremonials of obsessive neurosis, shunning of phobia) which, in their opinion, might be detrimental to their reputation. Others neglect to describe some of the symptoms of their polymorphous clinical picture only underlining the depressive signs. Some others play a part of depression because they have believed to recognize themselves in persons presented by mass media, because it seems to them a duty to show an adequate depression in case of mournful event, or because they "convert" their problem into a depression. Some others use depression as a blackmail, or to obtain an advantage from doctor's conviction about their illness. The reason for the high frequency of similar cases in the present time are examined: the scientific divulgation and the acceptance of depression by the modern society are among the most important ones. The peculiar semantic vicissitudes of the word depression are also reviewed. A widening of the boundaries of depression has contributed to an increase in the number of the cases. Finally, in addition to patients who are depressed without being aware of it, the authors focus the inverse possibility: patients who believed or try to make their doctor believe (playing the part of depression in front of them) that they are depressed.
Full Text Available Α 25-year old patient was referred to the casualty department of the Community Mental Health Center of Central Sector of Thessaloniki from the emergency department of the Psychiatric Hospital of Thessaloniki, in order to manage symptoms of depression as long as her life- threating loss of weight. A. appeared to have depressive feelings, lack of appetite, lack of interest, withdrawal, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, low self-esteem and ideas of guilt. There were held 27 conferences. In the beginning there were supportive intervations in order to improve the depressive symptoms and to gain weight. Moreover we applied medication (SSRI's that after 6 months was stopped gradually, without any setback. There was an increase of weight, about 10 kg, which remained until the follow up one year later.
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Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs
This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders.
Raymond L Ownby1, Robin J Jacobs1, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde2, Felicia Gould21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Depression is among the most common neuropsychiatric disturbances seen in individuals with HIV infection. Associated with sad mood, disturbed sleep and appetite, and low ener...
The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.
Gibson, A A; Seimon, R V; Lee, C M Y; Ayre, J; Franklin, J; Markovic, T P; Caterson, I D; Sainsbury, A
Very-low-energy diets (VLEDs) and ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets (KLCDs) are two dietary strategies that have been associated with a suppression of appetite. However, the results of clinical trials investigating the effect of ketogenic diets on appetite are inconsistent. To evaluate quantitatively the effect of ketogenic diets on subjective appetite ratings, we conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analysis of studies that assessed appetite with visual analogue scales before (in energy balance) and during (while in ketosis) adherence to VLED or KLCD. Individuals were less hungry and exhibited greater fullness/satiety while adhering to VLED, and individuals adhering to KLCD were less hungry and had a reduced desire to eat. Although these absolute changes in appetite were small, they occurred within the context of energy restriction, which is known to increase appetite in obese people. Thus, the clinical benefit of a ketogenic diet is in preventing an increase in appetite, despite weight loss, although individuals may indeed feel slightly less hungry (or more full or satisfied). Ketosis appears to provide a plausible explanation for this suppression of appetite. Future studies should investigate the minimum level of ketosis required to achieve appetite suppression during ketogenic weight loss diets, as this could enable inclusion of a greater variety of healthy carbohydrate-containing foods into the diet.
Nisimura, Tomoyosi; Seto, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kyoko; Miyama, Mayumi; Nagao, Takashi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko
In humans, appetite is affected by food experiences and food flavors. In the blowfly Phormia regina, we found that feeding threshold to sugar increased in the presence of the odor of D-limonene and decreased in the presence of the odor of dithiothreitol (DTT). Using these odors as representative nonappetitive and appetitive flavors, we demonstrated the role played by tyramine (TA) in appetite regulation by experiences of food flavors. When fed with sucrose flavored with D-limonene for 5 d after emergence, flies showed subsequent decreased appetite to plain sucrose, whereas when they were fed with sucrose flavored by DTT they showed increased appetite. However, mushroom body (MB)-ablated flies did not show these patterns. This suggests that MB, one of the primary memory centers of the insect brain, is necessary for the flies to apply previous experiences of food flavors to appetitive learning behaviors. In addition, flies' previously acquired decreased or increased appetites showed parallel changes with both octopamine (OA) and tyramine levels in the brain. However, injection experiments with OA, TA, or their agonist and antagonist indicated that TA more directly mediates feeding threshold determination, which was affected by acquired memories of food flavors.
Hymel, Kristen A; Sufka, Kenneth J
Cognitive bias presents in clinical populations where anxious individuals adopt a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and depressed individuals adopt both a more pessimistic interpretation of ambiguous aversive stimuli and a less optimistic interpretation of ambiguous appetitive stimuli. These biases have been reversed by anxiolytics and antidepressants. In the current study, chicks exposed to an isolation stressor of 5-min to induce an anxiety-like state or 60-min to induce a depressive-like state were tested in a straight alley maze to a series of morphed ambiguous appetitive (chick silhouette) to aversive (owl silhouette) cues. Chicks in the depression-like state displayed more pessimistic-like and less optimistic-like approach behavior to ambiguous aversive and appetitive cues, respectively. Both forms of cognitive bias were reversed by 15.0 mg/kg imipramine. Chicks in anxiety-like state displayed more pessimistic-like approach behavior under the ambiguous aversive stimulus cues. However, 0.10 mg/kg clonidine produced modest sedation and thus, was ineffective at reversing this bias. The observation that cognitive biases of more pessimism and less optimism can be reversed in the depression-like phase by imipramine adds to the validity of the chick anxiety-depression model as a neuropsychiatric simulation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.
Blundell, J E; Gibbons, C; Caudwell, P; Finlayson, G; Hopkins, M
Exercise is widely regarded as one of the most valuable components of behaviour that can influence body weight and therefore help in the prevention and management of obesity. Indeed, long-term controlled trials show a clear dose-related effect of exercise on body weight. However, there is a suspicion, particularly fuelled by media reports, that exercise serves to increase hunger and drive up food intake thereby nullifying the energy expended through activity. Not everyone performing regular exercise will lose weight and several investigations have demonstrated a huge individual variability in the response to exercise regimes. What accounts for this heterogeneous response? First, exercise (or physical activity) through the expenditure of energy will influence the energy balance equation with the potential to generate an energy deficit. However, energy expenditure also influences the control of appetite (i.e. the physiological and psychological regulatory processes underpinning feeding) and energy intake. This dynamic interaction means that the prediction of a resultant shift in energy balance, and therefore weight change, will be complicated. In changing energy intake, exercise will impact on the biological mechanisms controlling appetite. It is becoming recognized that the major influences on the expression of appetite arise from fat-free mass and fat mass, resting metabolic rate, gastric adjustment to ingested food, changes in episodic peptides including insulin, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and tyrosine-tyrosine, as well as tonic peptides such as leptin. Moreover, there is evidence that exercise will influence all of these components that, in turn, will influence the drive to eat through the modulation of hunger (a conscious sensation reflecting a mental urge to eat) and adjustments in postprandial satiety via an interaction with food composition. The specific actions of exercise on each physiological component will vary in strength from
Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture;
the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized......Objectives: Increased energy expenditure (EE) has been proposed an important mechanism for weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, this has never been investigated in a controlled setting independent of changes in energy balance. Likewise, only few studies have investigated...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. METHODS: Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. RESULTS: Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. CONCLUSIONS: Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.
Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Kalali, Amir H; Kennedy, Sidney H; Engelhardt, Nina; Frey, Benicio N; Greist, John H; Kobak, Kenneth A; Lam, Raymond W; MacQueen, Glenda; Milev, Roumen; Placenza, Franca M; Ravindran, Arun V; Sheehan, David V; Sills, Terrence; Williams, Janet B W
The Depression Inventory Development project is an initiative of the International Society for CNS Drug Development whose goal is to develop a comprehensive and psychometrically sound measurement tool to be utilized as a primary endpoint in clinical trials for major depressive disorder. Using an iterative process between field testing and psychometric analysis and drawing upon expertise of international researchers in depression, the Depression Inventory Development team has established an empirically driven and collaborative protocol for the creation of items to assess symptoms in major depressive disorder. Depression-relevant symptom clusters were identified based on expert clinical and patient input. In addition, as an aid for symptom identification and item construction, the psychometric properties of existing clinical scales (assessing depression and related indications) were evaluated using blinded datasets from pharmaceutical antidepressant drug trials. A series of field tests in patients with major depressive disorder provided the team with data to inform the iterative process of scale development. We report here an overview of the Depression Inventory Development initiative, including results of the third iteration of items assessing symptoms related to anhedonia, cognition, fatigue, general malaise, motivation, anxiety, negative thinking, pain and appetite. The strategies adopted from the Depression Inventory Development program, as an empirically driven and collaborative process for scale development, have provided the foundation to develop and validate measurement tools in other therapeutic areas as well.
Full Text Available The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce atypical depression as a clinical entity in the structure of Bipolar affective disorder II type are represented, the views of other authors on the structure of atypical depression are considered. The analysis of national concept of non-circular depression is carried out. Questions of atypical affective conditions acquire special significance due to preparation of International Classification of Diseases of the 11th revision, because inclusion in it of Bipolar affective disorder II type, a manifestation of which is considered to be atypical depressions, is under discussion.
Luís C. Reis
Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas
Chen, Z.; Veling, H.P.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Holland, R.W.
In a series of 6 experiments (5 preregistered), we examined how not responding to appetitive stimuli causes devaluation. To examine this question, a go/no-go task was employed in which appetitive stimuli were consistently associated with cues to respond (go stimuli), or with cues to not respond (eit
Lemieux, Andrine M.; Li, Bingshuo; al’Absi, Mustafa
Ethnopharmacological relevance To understand the role of khat (Catha edulis) use on the aberrations in appetite and weight which are common comorbidities for khat and other amphetamine users. Materials and methods We provide a comprehensive overview and conceptual summary of the historical cultural use of khat as a natural stimulant and describe the similarities and differences between cathinone (the main psychoactive constituent of khat) and amphetamine highlighting the limited literature on the neurophysiology of appetite and subsequent weight effects of khat. Results Animal and some human studies indicate that khat produces appetite suppression, although little is known about mechanisms of this effect. Both direct and indirect effects of khat stem from multiple factors including behavioral, chemical and neurophysiological effects on appetite and metabolism. Classic and newly identified appetite hormones have not been explored sufficiently in the study of appetite and khat use. Unique methodological challenges and opportunities are encountered when examining effects of khat and cathinone including khat-specific medical comorbidities, unique route of administration, differential patterns of behavioral effects relative to amphetamines and the nascent state of our understanding of the neurobiology of this drug. Conclusion A considerable amount of work remains in the study of the appetite effects of khat chewing and outline a program of research that could inform our understanding of this natural amphetamine’s appetite effects and help prepare health care workers for the unique health effects of this drug. PMID:25435289
Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;
eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...
Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.
Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,
Nasser, Helen M.; McNally, Gavan P.
We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in rats to identify the neural mechanisms for appetitive-aversive motivational interactions. In Stage I, rats were trained on conditioned stimulus (CS)-food (unconditioned stimulus [US]) pairings. In Stage II, this appetitive CS was transformed into a fear CS via pairings with footshock. The development of…
Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe
In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…
Fildes, A.; Mallan, K.M.; Cooke, L.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; Daniels, L.
BACKGROUND: Appetitive traits and food preferences are key determinants of children's eating patterns but it is unclear how these behaviours relate to one another. This study explores relationships between appetitive traits and preferences for fruits and vegetables, and energy dense, nutrient poor (
Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18–30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad li
Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in
Bueter, Marco; le Roux, Carel W
The obesity epidemic and its associated morbidity and mortality have led to major research efforts to identify mechanisms that regulate appetite. Gut hormones have recently been found to be an important element in appetite regulation as a result of the signals from the periphery to the brain. Candidate hormones include ghrelin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, all of which are currently being investigated as potential obesity treatments. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective therapy for substantial and sustained weight loss. Understanding how levels of gut hormones are modulated by such procedures has greatly contributed to the comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of appetite and obesity. The present paper is a review of how appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones are altered after bariatric surgery. Basic principles of common bariatric procedures and potential mechanisms for appetite regulation by gut hormones are also addressed.
... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...
O'Connor, Eoin C; Stephens, David N; Crombag, Hans S
In appetitive Pavlovian associative learning, a stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) that has been associated with the delivery of a reinforcing event (unconditioned stimulus, US; e.g., food) can subsequently elicit or modulate goal-directed instrumental behaviors. For example, a Pavlovian CS can serve to reinforce (novel) instrumental behavior (conditioned reinforcement or CRf), or it can energize and potentiate ongoing instrumental responses when presented non-contingently (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer or PIT). Notably, these different effects of a Pavlovian CS on instrumental behavior are mediated by dissociable psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. Given the critical role that Pavlovian-instrumental interactions play in regulating motivated behavior and maladaptive manifestations of motivation such as eating disorders and addictions, understanding the underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms will be important. This unit describes behavioral protocols that produce robust and reliable PIT and CRf in mice and that open the door for future studies using transgenic approaches into the molecular mechanisms underlying associative learning and motivation.
Full Text Available The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s. However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions1,2. In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART’s role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.
Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert
The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.
Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert
The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s). However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions (Rogge et al., 2008; Subhedar et al., 2014). In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART's role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans. PMID:25352770
Segal, M; Disterhoft, J F; Olds, J
Rats were trained with a tone being followed by either food or electric shock, on alternate days. Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from the dorsal hippocampus. The results indicate differentiation of the hippocampal system. Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. The hippocampus proper responds by augmentation in both situations. The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. These data cast light on the functions of the dorsal dentate-hippocampal connections and the hippocampus proper during aversive and appetitive conditioning.
Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I
To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.
Contreras, Marco; Riveros, María E; Quispe, Maricel; Sánchez, Cristián; Perdomo, Guayec; Torrealba, Fernando; Valdés, José L
The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.
Topaloglu, A K; Hallioglu, O; Canim, A; Duzovali, O; Yilgor, E
A negative correlation between leptin and appetite or food intake has been shown in healthy individuals. However, the role of leptin in clinical conditions characterized by anorexia has not been established. One of the well-known clinical features of iron-deficiency anemia is poor appetite. We examined the changes in plasma leptin levels in relation to expected improvement in appetite with iron treatment in children with iron deficiency. In 24 infants and small children (mean age +/- standard deviation = 19.6 +/- 7.7 months) with iron deficiency, we studied plasma leptin levels before and after iron therapy. After 15.0 +/- 2.4 wk of iron treatment, serum ferritin levels improved significantly, with accompanying increases in their subjective appetite scores and food intakes. However, as their mean age and plasma leptin levels adjusted their body mass indexes were unchanged. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with appetite score (r = 0.680, P appetite in iron-deficient children treated with iron suggests a leptin-independent mechanism for the observed increase in appetite.
Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm
This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.
Thivel, David; Chaput, Jean-Philippe
The effect of physical activity on energy balance is not restricted to its induced energy expenditure but also affects the control of energy intake and appetite. Although it is now clear that physical exercise affects subsequent energy intake and appetite, the mechanisms involved remain uncertain. Most previous studies have assessed both post-exercise energy intake and appetite but mainly focussed their analyses on food consumption, and it remains unclear whether changes in appetite provide an accurate reflection of changes in energy intake. This brief review aims to analyse conjointly the effective energy intake and appetite sensation responses to acute exercise in children and adolescents to examine whether or not these responses to exercise are coupled. After an overview of the available literature, we conclude that acute exercise has an uncoupling effect on energy intake and appetite sensations in both lean and overweight/obese youth. Although methodological issues between studies can be highlighted, lack of consideration of inter-individual variability in terms of energy intake and appetite could be one of the main explanations for such a conclusion. It now appears necessary to further consider the impact of acute exercise and then chronic physical activity on an individual basis in the regulation of energy balance to prescribe successful weight loss programmes.
Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.
Full Text Available Background: During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion: We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression.
Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L
The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life
Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...
Kessel, Ellen M; Kujawa, Autumn; Dougherty, Lea R; Hajcak, Greg; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N
Research on emotion-processing biases in offspring of depressed parents has produced a variety of findings. Child persistent irritability may be a useful clinical feature that demarcates subgroups of offspring with distinct patterns of emotion processing. The present study examined whether early persistent irritability moderated the relationship between maternal lifetime history of a depressive disorder and appetitive- and aversive-emotion processing in 338 never-depressed pre-adolescent children (43.8% female). When children were 3, mothers were interviewed about children's persistent irritability. Six years later, EEG was recorded while children completed a task in which the late positive potential (LPP), a neural index of emotional reactivity, was measured in response to appetitive, aversive, and neutral images. At both assessments, mothers were interviewed about their own psychopathology. Among offspring of depressed mothers, children characterized by high levels of early persistent irritability showed an enhanced LPP to appetitive and aversive compared to neutral images (i.e., ΔLPP), whereas children with low levels of early irritability showed attenuated ΔLPPs. In offspring of mothers with no history of depression, there was no association between irritability and emotion processing. Findings suggest that persistent irritability influences the pattern of emotion-processing aberrations in offspring of depressed mothers.
Ramaekers, Mariëlle G.; Luning, Pieternel A.; Lakemond, Catriona M. M.; van Boekel, Martinus A.J.S.; Gerrit Gort; Sanne Boesveldt
Background Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown. Objective Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products. Design Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2) intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour) in a w...
Clecilene Gomes Carvalho
Full Text Available The Brazilian population leads the world in consumption of appetite suppressants/ anorectics. Prolonged use of appetite suppressants can cause pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, a chronic and disabling. Taking into consideration the large intake of appetite suppressants in Brazil and the fact that these are, according to the WHO, among the conditions related to the incidence of pulmonary hypertension and given the seriousness of this condition tothe carrier, saw the need to conduct a literature review on the adverse effects of these drugs, and know what are the risks of imminent health and also seek information about the HAP, with the aim of adding knowledge to nursing professionals to enable the health education regarding the conscious use of appetite suppressants and stimulate the search for information about a serious illness and so little known in nursing as PAH.
Gurbuz, Fatih; Gurbuz, Berrak Bilginer; Celik, Gonca Gul; Yildirim, Veli; Ucakturk, Seyit Ahmet; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Ucakturk, Eda Mengen; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal; Yuksel, Bilgin
The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of leptin, ghrelin, and nesfatin-1 to elucidate the causes of poor appetite and growth retardation in patients receiving methylphenidate therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The study was performed on 89 male subjects; 48 patients and 41 healthy controls, aged 7-14 years. Following treatment, patients' leptin levels increased and ghrelin levels decreased while no significant change was found in nesfatin-1 levels. Of the 48 patients, 34 developed lack of appetite. In patients who developed lack of appetite, body weight SDS, body mass index (BMI), and BMI SDS were statistically significantly reduced; moreover, height SDS was reduced, though not to a statistically significant extent. This study attempted to elucidate the mechanisms that mediate the association between methylphenidate and appetite and growth, for which no studies have yet to be published.
Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F
Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...... eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...
Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.
Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham
cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese......, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even......PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous...
Lawson, R P; Nord, C L; Seymour, B; Thomas, D L; Dayan, P; Pilling, S; Roiser, J P
The habenula is a small, evolutionarily conserved brain structure that plays a central role in aversive processing and is hypothesised to be hyperactive in depression, contributing to the generation of symptoms such as anhedonia. However, habenula responses during aversive processing have yet to be reported in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Unmedicated and currently depressed MDD patients (N=25, aged 18–52 years) and healthy volunteers (N=25, aged 19–52 years) completed a passive (Pavlovian) conditioning task with appetitive (monetary gain) and aversive (monetary loss and electric shock) outcomes during high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging; data were analysed using computational modelling. Arterial spin labelling was used to index resting-state perfusion and high-resolution anatomical images were used to assess habenula volume. In healthy volunteers, habenula activation increased as conditioned stimuli (CSs) became more strongly associated with electric shocks. This pattern was significantly different in MDD subjects, for whom habenula activation decreased significantly with increasing association between CSs and electric shocks. Individual differences in habenula volume were negatively associated with symptoms of anhedonia across both groups. MDD subjects exhibited abnormal negative task-related (phasic) habenula responses during primary aversive conditioning. The direction of this effect is opposite to that predicted by contemporary theoretical accounts of depression based on findings in animal models. We speculate that the negative habenula responses we observed may result in the loss of the capacity to actively avoid negative cues in MDD, which could lead to excessive negative focus. PMID:27240528
Richard D Mattes; Hendrickson, Sara J
Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...
McCabe, Ciara; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa
Background Dysfunctional neural responses to appetitive and aversive stimuli have been investigated as possible biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. However it is not clear to what degree these are separate processes across the brain or in fact overlapping systems. To help clarify this issue we used Gaussian process classifier (GPC) analysis to examine appetitive and aversive processing in the brain. Method 25 healthy controls underwent functional MRI whilst seeing pictures and receiving tastes of pleasant and unpleasant food. We applied GPCs to discriminate between the appetitive and aversive sights and tastes using functional activity patterns. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for the accuracy to discriminate appetitive taste from neutral condition was 86.5% (specificity = 81%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001). If a participant experienced neutral taste stimuli the probability of correct classification was 92. The accuracy to discriminate aversive from neutral taste stimuli was 82.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001) and appetitive from aversive taste stimuli was 73% (specificity = 77%, sensitivity = 69%, p = 0.001). In the sight modality, the accuracy to discriminate appetitive from neutral condition was 88.5% (specificity = 85%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), to discriminate aversive from neutral sight stimuli was 92% (specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 92%, p = 0.001), and to discriminate aversive from appetitive sight stimuli was 63.5% (specificity = 73%, sensitivity = 54%, p = 0.009). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neurofunctional data in discriminating emotional and neutral networks of activity in the healthy human brain. It would be of interest to use pattern recognition techniques and fMRI to examine network dysfunction in the processing of appetitive, aversive and neutral stimuli in psychiatric disorders. Especially where problems with reward and punishment processing have been implicated in the
Arzu Yazal Erdem; Suna Emir; Hacı Ahmet Demir; Bahattin Tunç
Introduction: Malnutrition is frequently seen in pediatric cancer patients. It is very important to evaluate the nutritional status at diagnosis in these patients. The preferable method to treat cancer associated malnutrition in children is to increase their oral food intake with the help of stimulating their appetite. There are some studies supporting the use of appetite stimulants in patients with chronic illness. In this report, our aim is to share our experience with cyproheptadine as an ...
Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.
Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.
Arzu Yazal Erdem
Full Text Available Introduction: Malnutrition is frequently seen in pediatric cancer patients. It is very important to evaluate the nutritional status at diagnosis in these patients. The preferable method to treat cancer associated malnutrition in children is to increase their oral food intake with the help of stimulating their appetite. There are some studies supporting the use of appetite stimulants in patients with chronic illness. In this report, our aim is to share our experience with cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant in children with cancer. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 14 children who were used cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant were retrospectively evaluated. Their weight, height, body mass index, weight for age Z-score, appetite status and side effects were recorded at baseline, 4th week and 8th week. Results: Cyproheptadine was used in fourteen patients with a median age of 4.5 (range:2.25-16.5 years. Eleven of them demonstrated a response to cyproheptadine (average weight gain was 1.44 kg Mean weight-for-age z-score was increased from -2.22 to -1.56 (p<0.05. No serious adverse events due to cyproheptadine were reported. Conclusions: It seems that cyproheptadine is a safe and effective agent to stimulate appetite and weight gain in children with cancer, particularly in short term usage.
Geneviève Painchaud Guérard
Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.
Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia
Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885
Kirkham, T C; Tucci, S A
Research into the endocannabinoid 'system' has grown exponentially in recent years, with the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, such as anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Important advances have been made in our understanding of endocannabinoid transduction mechanisms, their metabolic pathways, and of the biological processes in which they are implicated. A decade of endocannabinoid studies has promoted new insights into neural regulation and mammalian physiology that are as revolutionary as those arising from the discovery of the endogenous opioid peptides in the 1970s. Thus, endocannabinoids have been found to act as retrograde signals: released by postsynaptic neurons, they bind to presynaptic heteroceptors to modulate the release of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters through multiple G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-linked effector mechanisms. The metabolic pathways of anandamide and 2-AG have now been been characterised in great detail, and we can anticipate that these pathways -- together with endocannabinoid uptake mechanisms -- will complement cannabinoid receptors as targets for the pharmacological analysis of the physiological functions of these substances. Specific insights into the potential role of endocannabinoid-CB1 receptor systems in central appetite control, peripheral metabolism and body weight regulation herald the clinical application of CB1 receptor antagonists in the management of obesity and its associated disorders.
Himmerich, Hubertus; Schönknecht, Peter; Heitmann, Sabine; Sheldrick, Abigail J
Anorexia nervosa (AN) has serious negative effects on multiple organs and systems of the human body. As patients often do not make their eating disorder the subject of discussion, the physician is forced to rely on the physical examination and laboratory parameters as diagnostic hints. Obvious signs of AN are a body mass index (BMI) below 17.5 kg/m, dry and scaly skin, lanugo, edema, acrocyanosis, petechias, dental problems, and low blood pressure. However, because the often complex laboratory alterations can be difficult for the general psychiatrist to interpret, this article presents some useful guidelines. The plasma of patients with AN often shows alterations in laboratory parameters and appetite regulators, including electrolytes, liver enzymes, leukocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), triiodothyronine (T3), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and cortisol. Medical problems secondary to AN or due to the treatment itself may lead to further laboratory abnormalities. To date, despite these associated laboratory alterations, the diagnosis of anorexia is a clinical one, based on weight and specific psychopathology.
Epigenetic influences on the fetus's genotype have been shown to occur during intrauterine life. Experimentally imposed extracellular dehydration in pregnant rats (a model for human hyponatremia caused by gravidic vomiting) brings about a dramatic enhancement of salt appetite not only in the dam, but also in offspring when they reach adulthood. This phenomenon has been verified in human newborn infants and adults whose mothers experienced nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy enhances its palatability for the offspring. Ingestion of olfactory test substances like anise or carrot by the mother during pregnancy gives rise to a preference for the same testants in the offspring. Under- or overnutrition in the pregnant mother appears to play a role in reprogramming the postnatal regulation of both feeding and fat reserves in offspring. Both maternal under- and overnutrition during pregnancy predispose the offspring to later development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A careful examination of the systems concerned with the regulation of food intake, and the neurosubstances involved in such regulation, reveals some of the mechanisms by which maternal nutritional status can affect the offspring and their food-related behaviors.
Gelskov, Sofie V.; Henningsson, Susanne; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard
People are more sensitive to losses than to equivalent gains when making financial decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to illuminate how the amygdala contributes to loss aversion. The blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the amygdala was mapped while healthy...... with individual differences in loss aversion. Together, the results show that the amygdala signals subjective appetitiveness or aversiveness of gain-loss ratios at the time of choice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... individuals were responding to 50/50 gambles with varying potential gain and loss amounts. Overall, subjects demanded twice as high potential gain as loss to accept a gamble. The individual level of loss aversion was expressed by the decision boundary, i.e., the gain-loss ratio at which subjects accepted...... and rejected gambles with equal probability. Amygdala activity increased the more the gain-loss ratio deviated from the individual decision boundary showing that the amygdala codes action value. This response pattern was more strongly expressed in loss aversive individuals, linking amygdala activity...
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Edgar A. Vares
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation. Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.
Pashapu Dharma Reddy
Full Text Available Globally, the solution-focused brief therapy is practiced in persons with depression. In India, fewer studies have documented about the treatment outcome of solution-focused therapy among persons with depression. The current study was carried out with a 19-year-old girl, studying SSLC (10 th Standard was diagnosed with moderate depression. She had difficulty in attention, concentration, memory, irritability and sad mood, poor academic performance, guilt feelings, lethargic, anhedonia, decreased sleep, and decreased appetite. The case worker has chosen provided 6 sessions of solution focused therapy for depression. There was considerable improvement in her symptoms and in scholastic performance. The current study supports the effectiveness of solution-focused therapy in persons with depression.
Stephanie M. Howe
Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.
Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M
In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.
Full Text Available The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.
Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John
This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.
Rayner, Lauren; Lee, William; Price, Annabel; Monroe, Barbara; Sykes, Nigel; Hansford, Penny; Higginson, Irene J; Hotopf, Matthew
This cross-sectional survey aimed to determine the prevalence and remission of depression in patients receiving palliative care and to ascertain the predictive value of somatic symptoms in making the diagnosis. Three hundred consecutive patients were interviewed within one week of their initial assessment by a specialist nurse at a palliative care service with in-patient and homecare facilities in south London, UK. Depression was assessed using the PRIME-MD PHQ-9. Presence of somatic symptoms (fatigue, sleep disturbance, poor appetite) was determined using the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality of life questionnaire. Fifty-eight (19.3% [15.3 to 23.3]) patients met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder; 109 (36.3% [32.3 to 40.3]) met criteria for 'Any depressive syndrome'. Patients with Major Depressive Disorder were more likely to be male, and to have non-malignant disease, pain, poor performance status and desire for an early death. Of those patients with Major Depressive Disorder at baseline, 69% (27/39) had remitted four weeks later. Of those not depressed at baseline, 11% (19/174) met criteria for depression at follow-up. The positive predictive values of sleep disturbance, poor appetite and fatigue were low (values of these symptoms were high (>89%). The high prevalence of depression in palliative care attests to the need for psychological assessment and support. Depression in patients receiving palliative care is unstable, suggesting that symptoms should be carefully monitored.
Cheng, Mary Huey-Yu; Bushnell, Darcy; Cannon, Daniel T; Kern, Mark
This study assessed the effect of exercise timing relative to meal consumption on appetite and its hormonal regulators (i.e., PYY(3-36), ghrelin and leptin) in moderately active young men. Twelve men performed three trials in a random order: (1) meal consumption, (2) exercise 2h after a meal, (3) exercise 1h before a meal. The test meal provided 16.5 kcal kg(-1) with 70% fat, 26% carbohydrate and 4% protein. Exercise was performed at a work rate eliciting 60% of VO(2max) for 50 min. Hunger ratings and plasma leptin concentrations were measured at baseline and hours 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-meal, and plasma concentrations of ghrelin and PYY(3-36) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, and 7h after meal consumption. Exercise performed 2h after meal consumption extended the appetite suppressing effect of food intake. Furthermore, plasma PYY(3-36) concentration tended to be elevated by exercise after meal consumption. Exercise prior to food intake decreased appetite and increased plasma ghrelin concentrations. No response to timing of exercise relative to food intake on plasma leptin concentration was detected. These data indicated the timing of exercise to meal consumption may influence appetite and its hormonal regulators. Post-meal exercise may extend the suppressive effects of meal consumption on appetite.
Rosenkilde, Mads; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Auerbach, Pernille; Toräng, Signe; Gram, Anne Sofie; Ploug, Thorkil; Holst, Jens Juul; Sjödin, Anders; Stallknecht, Bente
Weight loss induced by endurance exercise is often disappointing, possibly due to an increase in energy intake mediated through greater appetite. The aim of this study was to evaluate fasting, postprandial, and postexercise appetite regulation after an intervention prescribing two amounts of endurance exercise. Sixty-four sedentary, overweight, healthy young men were randomized to control (CON), moderate-dose (MOD: ≈ 30 min/day), or high-dose (HIGH: ≈ 60 min/day) endurance exercise for 12 wk. Along with subjective appetite ratings, plasma ghrelin, glucagon, insulin, peptide YY3-36, glucose, free fatty acids, and glycerol were measured during fasting and in relation to a breakfast meal and an acute bout of exercise, both at baseline and at follow-up. Ad libitum lunch energy intake was evaluated 3 h after the breakfast meal. Despite different amounts of endurance exercise, the subjects lost similar amounts of fat mass (MOD: 4.2 ± 0.5 kg; HIGH: 3.7 ± 0.5 kg). Fasting and postprandial insulin decreased ≈ 20% in both exercise groups (P Appetite measurements were not upregulated in the fasting and postprandial states. On the contrary, fasting and postprandial ratings of fullness and postprandial PYY3-36 increased in HIGH (P appetite, but a high dose of exercise was associated with an increase in fasting and meal-related ratings of fullness and satiety.
Yadav, Vijay K; Oury, Franck; Tanaka, Kenji F; Tanaka, Kenji; Thomas, Tiffany; Wang, Ying; Cremers, Serge; Hen, Rene; Krust, Andree; Chambon, Pierre; Karsenty, Gerard
Recent evidence indicates that leptin regulates appetite and energy expenditure, at least in part by inhibiting serotonin synthesis and release from brainstem neurons. To demonstrate that this pathway works postnatally, we used a conditional, brainstem-specific mouse CreER(T2) driver to show that leptin signals in brainstem neurons after birth to decrease appetite by inhibiting serotonin synthesis. Cell-specific gene deletion experiments and intracerebroventricular leptin infusions reveal that serotonin signals in arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus through the Htr1a receptor to favor food intake and that this serotonin function requires the expression of Creb, which regulates the expression of several genes affecting appetite. Accordingly, a specific antagonist of the Htr1a receptor decreases food intake in leptin-deficient but not in Htr1a(-/-) mice. Collectively, these results establish that leptin inhibition of serotonin is necessary to inhibit appetite postnatally and provide a proof of principle that selective inhibition of this pathway may be a viable option to treat appetite disorders.
Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M
The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal.
Full Text Available Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrallymediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry.
Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa
We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight.
Akila De Silva
Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has provided the opportunity to safely investigate the workings of the human brain. This paper focuses on its use in the field of human appetitive behaviour and its impact in obesity research. In the present absence of any safe or effective centrally acting appetite suppressants, a better understanding of how appetite is controlled is vital for the development of new antiobesity pharmacotherapies. Early functional imaging techniques revealed an attenuation of brain reward area activity in response to visual food stimuli when humans are fed—in other words, the physiological state of hunger somehow increases the appeal value of food. Later studies have investigated the action of appetite modulating hormones on the fMRI signal, showing how the attenuation of brain reward region activity that follows feeding can be recreated in the fasted state by the administration of anorectic gut hormones. Furthermore, differences in brain activity between obese and lean individuals have provided clues about the possible aetiology of overeating. The hypothalamus acts as a central gateway modulating homeostatic and nonhomeostatic drives to eat. As fMRI techniques constantly improve, functional data regarding the role of this small but hugely important structure in appetite control is emerging.
Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.
Howick, Ken; Griffin, Brendan T.; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët
Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging. This is due to many factors, ranging from the complexity of the ghrelin receptor (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor, GHSR-1a) internalisation and heterodimerization, to biased ligand interactions and compensatory neuroendocrine outputs. Not least is the ubiquitous expression of the GHSR-1a, which makes it impossible to modulate centrally-mediated appetite regulation without encroaching on the various peripheral functions attributable to ghrelin. It is becoming clear that ghrelin’s central signalling is critical for its effects on appetite, body weight regulation and incentive salience of food. Improving the ability of ghrelin ligands to penetrate the blood brain barrier would enhance central delivery to GHSR-1a expressing brain regions, particularly within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. PMID:28134808
Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...
Full Text Available Individual differences in appetitive learning have long been reported, and generally divide into two classes of responses: cue- vs. reward-directed. The influence of cue- vs. reward-directed phenotypes on aversive cue processing, is less well understood. In the current study, we first categorized rats based on their predominant cue-directed orienting responses during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. Then, we investigated the effect of phenotype on the latency to exit a familiar dark environment and enter an unfamiliar illuminated open field. Next, we examined whether the two phenotypes responded differently to a reconsolidation updating manipulation (retrieval+extinction after fear conditioning. We report that the rats with a cue-directed (orienting phenotype differentially respond to the open field, and also to fear conditioning, depending on US-intensity. In addition, our findings suggest that, regardless of appetitive phenotype or shock intensity, extinction within the reconsolidation window prevents spontaneous recovery of fear.
Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K
measurement precision. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Here, we report on the development of the lack of appetite CAT. METHODS: The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases: literature search, operationalization, pre......-testing, and field testing. Phases 1-3 are described in this paper. First, a list of items was retrieved from the literature. This was refined, deleting redundant and irrelevant items. Next, new items fitting the "QLQ-C30 item style" were created. These were evaluated by international samples of experts and cancer...... to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...
Assogna, Francesca; Fagioli, Sabrina; Cravello, Luca; Meco, Giuseppe; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Imperiale, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pontieri, Francesco E; Spalletta, Gianfranco
Background Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with that of control subjects (CS) suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses. Methods One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MIND), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered to measure depression severity. Results When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP), comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of depression in MDD PD, with no differences in MIND. However, the severity of individual symptom frequency of depression was not different between PD and CS in MDD, MIND, and NODEP groups. Conclusion Although MDD and MIND phenomenology in PD may be very similar to that of CS with non-neurological medical illnesses, neurological symptoms of PD may worsen (or confound) depression severity in patients with no formal/structured DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis of depressive mood disorders. Thus, a thorough assessment of depression in PD should take into consideration the different impacts of neurological manifestations on MDD, MIND, and NODEP. PMID
Chen, Zhang; Veling, Harm; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Holland, Rob W
In a series of 6 experiments (5 preregistered), we examined how not responding to appetitive stimuli causes devaluation. To examine this question, a go/no-go task was employed in which appetitive stimuli were consistently associated with cues to respond (go stimuli), or with cues to not respond (either no-go cues or the absence of cues; no-go stimuli). Change in evaluations of no-go stimuli was compared to change in evaluations of both go stimuli and of stimuli not presented in the task (untrained stimuli). Experiments 1 to 3 show that not responding to appetitive stimuli in a go/no-go task causes devaluation of these stimuli regardless of the presence of an explicit no-go cue. Experiments 4a and 4b show that the devaluation effect of appetitive stimuli is contingent on the percentage of no-go trials; devaluation appears when no-go trials are rare, but disappears when no-go trials are frequent. Experiment 5 shows that simply observing the go/no-go task does not lead to devaluation. Experiment 6 shows that not responding to neutral stimuli does not cause devaluation. Together, these results suggest that devaluation of appetitive stimuli by not responding to them is the result of response inhibition. By employing both go stimuli and untrained stimuli as baselines, alternative explanations are ruled out, and apparent inconsistencies in the literature are resolved. These experiments provide new theoretical insight into the relation between not responding and evaluation, and can be applied to design motor response training procedures aimed at changing people's behavior toward appetitive stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record
Spetter, Maartje S; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M
The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6±3.8y, BMI 22.3±1.6kg/m(2)) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/0kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (Pdecreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned associations between sensory characteristics and associated metabolic consequences serve to adapt hormone responses to nutrient content. These findings underscore the importance of oral stimulation in the regulation of food intake.
Full Text Available Introduction Anorexia and cachexia are the most common symptoms in cancer patients. They increase morbidity and mortality among cancer patients as well as complications of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The most common drugs for treatment of cancer cachexia are corticosteroids and megestrol acetate. Material and Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dexamethasone on appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Group A (30 patients was treated with cisplatin, etoposide and standard supportive therapy, while group B (30 patients received, in addition to this treatment, dexamethasone in the dose of 8 mg intravenously per day (1-3 day of chemotherapy. Results There was a statistically significant difference in appetite loss between two groups after the second chemotherapy cycle favoring group A. The analysis of weight loss showed a statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles, once again in favor of group A. Concerning the improvement of appetite and weight gain, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles. Discussion Many double-blind randomized controlled studies showed beneficial symptomatic effect of corticosteroids in cancer cachexia, especially on the improvement of appetite, food intake and performance status. In most of the studies the weight gain was not recorded. The most effective type of corticosteroids, dose and route of administration have not been established. Conclusion Dexamethasone significantly decreases appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, while it has no influence on appetite improvement and weight gain.
Tae Jung Oh
Full Text Available Chemosignals from human body fluids may modulate biological functions in humans. The objective of this study was to examine whether chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma modulate appetite. We obtained fasting and postprandial plasma from male participants and sad tears and saline, which was trickled below the eyelids, from female volunteers. These samples were then randomly distributed to male participants to sniff with a band-aid containing 100 µl of each fluid on four consecutive days in a double-blind fashion. We checked appetite by a visual analogue scale (VAS and food intake by measuring the consumption of a test meal. In addition, the serum levels of total testosterone and LH were measured. Twenty men (mean age 26.3±4.6 years were enrolled in this study. They could not discriminate between the smell of fasting and postprandial plasma and the smell of sad tears and trickled saline. Appetite and the amount of food intake were not different between the groups. Although the VAS ratings of appetite correlated with the food intake upon sniffing fasting plasma, postprandial plasma, and trickled saline, there was no such correlation upon sniffing sad tears. In addition, the decrease in serum testosterone levels from the baseline was greater with sad tears than with the trickled saline (-28.6±3.3% vs. -14.0±5.2%; P = 0.019. These data suggest that chemosignals from human sad tears and postprandial plasma do not appear to reduce appetite and food intake. However, further studies are necessary to examine whether sad tears may alter the appetite-eating behavior relation.
Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony
Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.
Juan José Hernández-Morante
Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays dietary treatment for obesity is not effective in most cases, probably because it is designed taking into account patient's total energy expenditure while other important circumstances such as hunger/satiety daily rhythms are usually not considered. New electronic devices may help in this regard. Objective: The objective of the present work was to develop an accurate and reliable smartphone application to analyze subjective appetite variables. Methods: Subjective appetite sensations were evaluated in 15 healthy volunteers by two different methods: paper and pen (P-P and a new Android and iOS application. Appetite scores were completed every 30 minutes for 4 hours in two conditions: high-carbohydrate (HC or high-fat (HF breakfast. Secondly, subjects completed the new application every 30 minutes in free-living conditions. Results: Our repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences regarding method (P-P or new application or meal (HC or HF (p > 0.05 in all cases for hunger, desire to eat or fullness scores. Correlation coefficients showed a high agreement between both methods (R² from 0.94-0.98. In addition, Bland-Altman test also revealed a high concordance between both methods. The application was also able to measure daily variation of subjective sensations under free-living conditions. Conclusion: The smartphone application was able to accurately determine subjective appetite scores in both laboratory and free-living conditions. The application was able to detect the effect of meal and recovery of appetite during two different conditions, following HC or HF breakfasts, which confirm the suitability of this application to future studies conducted to evaluate appetite regulation in humans.
Howe, Stephanie M; Taryn M. Hand; D. Enette Larson-Meyer; Kathleen J. Austin; Alexander, Brenda M.; Melinda M. Manore
In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity ...
Gregory B Bissonette
Full Text Available Decision-making is motivated by the possibility of obtaining reward and/or avoiding punishment. Though many have investigated behavior associated with appetitive or aversive outcomes, few have examined behaviors that rely on both. Fewer still have addressed questions related to how anticipated appetitive and aversive outcomes interact to alter neural signals related to expected value, motivation, and salience. Here we review recent rodent, monkey, and human research that address these issues. Further development of this area will be fundamental to understanding the etiology behind human psychiatric diseases and cultivating more effective treatments.
Mariëlle G Ramaekers
Full Text Available Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown.Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products.Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2 intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour in a within-subject design with four combinations: no-odour/banana, no-odour/meat, meat/banana and banana/meat. Participants received one combination per test day. In each combination, two cups with different fillings were smelled for five minutes after each other. Treatment order was balanced as much as possible. The effects of previous exposure and current odour on the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, and odour pleasantness were analysed. A change from meat to banana odour or banana to meat odour was referred to as switch, whereas a change from no-odour to meat odour or no-odour to banana odour was no-switch.The current odour (P<0.001, as opposed to the previous exposure (P = 0.71, determined the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, already one minute after a switch between sweet and savoury odours. The pleasantness of the odour decreased during odour exposure (P = 0.005.After a switch, the appetite for specific products quickly adjusted to the new odour and followed the typical pattern as found during odour exposure in previous studies. Interestingly, the appetite for the smelled food remained elevated during odour exposure, known as sensory-specific appetite, whereas the pleasantness of the odour decreased over time, previously termed olfactory sensory-specific satiety. This seeming contradiction may result from different mechanisms underlying the odour-induced anticipation of food intake versus the decrease in hedonic value during prolonged sensory
Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.;
flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded......: Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a doubleblind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from...
Pedersen, Camilla; Lefevre, Solenne; Peters, Véronique; Patterson, Michael; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Morgan, Linda M; Frost, Gary S
Prevention of weight gain in adults is a major public health target. Animal experiments have consistently demonstrated a relationship between fermentable carbohydrate intake, such as oligofructose, anorectic gut hormones, and appetite suppression and body weight control. This study was designed to determine the dose of oligofructose which would augment the release of anorectic gut hormones and reduce appetite consistently in non-obese humans. Twelve non-obese participants were recruited for a 5-week dose-escalation study. Following a 9-14-day run-in, participants increased their daily oligofructose intake every week from 15, 25, 35, 45, to 55 g daily. Subjective appetite and side effects were monitored daily. Three-day food diaries were completed every week. Appetite study sessions explored the acute effects of 0, 15, 35, and 55 g oligofructose on appetite-related hormones, glycaemia, subjective appetite, and energy intake. In the home environment, oligofructose suppressed hunger, but did not affect energy intake. Oligofructose dose-dependently increased peptide YY, decreased pancreatic polypeptide and tended to decrease ghrelin, but did not significantly affect appetite profile, energy intake, glucose, insulin, or glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations during appetite study sessions. In conclusion, oligofructose supplementation at ≥ 35 g/day increased peptide YY and suppressed pancreatic polypeptide and hunger; however, energy intake did not change significantly.
Reyes, Fredy D.; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.
In a recently developed in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding in "Aplysia," the unconditioned stimulus (US) was electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve (En). This nerve is rich in dopamine (DA)-containing processes, which suggests that DA mediates reinforcement during appetitive conditioning. To test this…
Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
In developing countries, low food intake is often reported in children < 5 y old. Reduced appetite may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether a combination of a multivitamin-multimineral supplement and additional iron treatment improved appetite and growth of 18- to 30-mo-old stunted and
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Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann
The diagnosis of depression is defined by psychiatrists, and guidelines for treatment of patients with depression are created in psychiatry. However, most patients with depression are treated exclusively in general practice. Psychiatrists point out that general practitioners' (GPs') treatment of ...
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The mutually reinforcing dyad of depressive symptoms and erectile dysfunction is scientifically established. The cure of depression improves sexual dysfunction (SD) and the treatment of SD induces improvement of depression. Most of anti-depressants induce negative sexual side effects that lead to non-compliance of these treatments. The knowledge of interrelation between depression, anti-depressants and sexuality is of great importance in clinical practice.
The current subtyping of depression is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) categorical division of bipolar and depressive disorders. Current evidence, however, supports a dimensional approach to depression, as a continuum/spectrum of overlapping disorders, ranging from bipolar I depression to major depressive disorder. Types of depression which have recently been the focus of most research will be reviewed ; bipolar II depressi...
Edgar Arrua Vares
Full Text Available Several studies have recognized that depression is a multidimensional construct, although the scales that are currently available have been shown to be limited in terms of the ability to investigate the multidimensionality of depression. The objective of this study is to integrate information from instruments that measure depression from different perspectives-a self-report symptomatic scale, a clinician-rated scale, and a clinician-rated scale of depressive signs-in order to investigate the multiple dimensions underlying the depressive construct.A sample of 399 patients from a mood disorders outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS, and the Core Assessment of Psychomotor Change (CORE. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were used to investigate underlying dimensions of depression, including item level analysis with factor loadings and item thresholds.A solution of six depression dimensions has shown good-fit to the data, with no cross-loading items, and good interpretability. Item-level analysis revealed that the multidimensional depressive construct might be organized into a continuum of severity in the following ascending order: sexual, cognitive, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/motor retardation, and agitation.An integration of both signs and symptoms, as well as the perspectives of clinicians and patients, might be a good clinical and research alternative for the investigation of multidimensional issues within the depressive syndrome. As predicted by theoretical models of depression, the melancholic aspects of depression (non-interactiveness/motor retardation and agitation lie at the severe end of the depressive continuum.
Tolmunen, Tommi; Voutilainen, Sari; Hintikka, Jukka; Rissanen, Tiina; Tanskanen, Antti; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kaplan, George A; Salonen, Jukka T
Several cross-sectional studies have focused on the low blood folate levels of depressed patients. However, no published studies have examined the association between dietary folate and current symptoms of depression in a general population. We investigated the association between dietary folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine and riboflavin and current symptoms of depression in a cross-sectional general population study. We recruited 2682 men aged between 42 and 60 y from eastern Finland. Those who had a previous history of psychiatric disorder were excluded (n = 146, 5.6% of the cohort). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 18-item Human Population Laboratory Depression Scale. Those who scored 5 or more at baseline were considered to have elevated depressive symptoms (n = 228, 9.3% of the cohort). The participants were grouped into thirds according to their dietary folate intake. Those in the lowest third of energy-adjusted folate intake had a higher risk of being depressed [odds ratio (OR) 1.67, 95% CI = 1.19-2.35, P = 0.003] than those in the highest folate intake third. This increased risk remained significant after adjustment for smoking habits, alcohol consumption, appetite, BMI, marital status, education, adulthood socioeconomic status and total fat consumption (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.01-2.12, P = 0.044). There were no associations between the intake of cobalamin, pyridoxine or riboflavin, and depression. These results indicate that nutrition may have a role in the prevention of depression.
Spetter, M.S.; Mars, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.
The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrel
Despite the overwhelming evidence linking alcohol to the development of disease, the contribution of alcohol toxicity to ill health remains controversial. One of the major problems facing researchers is the fact that alcoholic beverages, which contribute little to the nutritional requirements of the body, are often substituted for food and nutritional deficiency alone can promote cell damage. Long-term alcohol intake can decrease the total amount of food consumed when food is freely available and the alcoholic individual is often held accountable for their irregular eating behaviour. Assessment of meal composition has highlighted that appetite for food-containing carbohydrate (in particular) is altered in moderate-heavy drinkers but at present there is insufficient biochemical evidence to confirm or deny this observation. The biochemical processes associated with appetite are many and it would be impossible to address all of these events in a single paper. Therefore, the aim of this review will be to focus on one of the major biochemical markers of appetite for carbohydrate in order to put forward the suggestion that a decreased appetite for food could be a physiological consequence of consuming some forms of alcohol.
Alkahtani, Shaea A; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil A
This study investigated the influence of two different intensities of acute interval exercise on food preferences and appetite sensations in overweight and obese men. Twelve overweight/obese males (age=29.0±4.1 years; BMI =29.1±2.4 kg/m2) completed three exercise sessions: an initial graded exercise test, and two interval cycling sessions: moderate-(MIIT) and high-intensity (HIIT) interval exercise sessions on separate days in a counterbalanced order. The MIIT session involved cycling for 5-minute repetitions of alternate workloads 20% below and 20% above maximal fat oxidation. The HIIT session consisted of cycling for alternate bouts of 15 seconds at 85% VO2max and 15 seconds unloaded recovery. Appetite sensations and food preferences were measured immediately before and after the exercise sessions using the Visual Analogue Scale and the Liking & Wanting experimental procedure. Results indicated that liking significantly increased and wanting significantly decreased in all food categories after both MIIT and HIIT. There were no differences between MIIT and HIIT on the effect on appetite sensations and Liking & Wanting. In conclusion, manipulating the intensity of acute interval exercise did not affect appetite and nutrient preferences.
Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.
Background: Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1–3¿min), but become satiating over time (circa 10–20¿min). Objective: To investigate the effect of odor exposu
Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W
Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance.
James Kenneth Moran
Full Text Available Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated ‘appetitive’ aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N=50 presented with an imaginative listening task involving a murderer describing a kill. We manipulated motivational context in a between-subjects design to evoke appetitive or reactive aggression, against a neutral control, measuring activity with Magnetoencephalography (MEG. Results show differences in left frontal regions in delta (2-5 Hz and alpha band (8-12 Hz for aggressive conditions and right parietal delta activity differentiating appetitive and reactive aggression. These results validate the distinction of reward-driven appetitive aggression from reactive aggression in ordinary populations at the level of functional neural brain circuitry.
Full Text Available In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response (PER conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate (IPA, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.
Urlacher, Elodie; Francés, Bernard; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc
In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular, and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones) affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP) which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24 h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.
Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Auerbach, Pernille
of endurance exercise. Sixty-four sedentary, overweight, healthy young men were randomized to control (CON), moderate-dose (MOD: ≈ 30 min/day), or high-dose (HIGH: ≈ 60 min/day) endurance exercise for 12 wk. Along with subjective appetite ratings, plasma ghrelin, glucagon, insulin, peptide YY3-36, glucose...
Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen
The discovery of taste and nutrient receptors (chemosensors) in the gut has led to intensive research on their functions. Whereas oral sugar, fat, and umami taste receptors stimulate nutrient appetite, these and other chemosensors in the gut have been linked to digestive, metabolic, and satiating effects that influence nutrient utilization and inhibit appetite. Gut chemosensors may have an additional function as well: to provide positive feedback signals that condition food preferences and stimulate appetite. The postoral stimulatory actions of nutrients are documented by flavor preference conditioning and appetite stimulation produced by gastric and intestinal infusions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Recent findings suggest an upper intestinal site of action, although postabsorptive nutrient actions may contribute to flavor preference learning. The gut chemosensors that generate nutrient conditioning signals remain to be identified; some have been excluded, including sweet (T1R3) and fatty acid (CD36) sensors. The gut-brain signaling pathways (neural, hormonal) are incompletely understood, although vagal afferents are implicated in glutamate conditioning but not carbohydrate or fat conditioning. Brain dopamine reward systems are involved in postoral carbohydrate and fat conditioning but less is known about the reward systems mediating protein/glutamate conditioning. Continued research on the postoral stimulatory actions of nutrients may enhance our understanding of human food preference learning.
Asking patients to rate their appetite on a five point scale appears to be an effective way to screen for malnutrition in the haemodialysis population. In centres with limited dietitian support, this may be preferable to screening with albumin due to the reduced number of inappropriate referrals and therefore enabling the priority to lie with the patients with malnutrition.
Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R
Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues.
Weight loss is a well-recognized complication in subjects undergoing hemodialysis for impaired kidney function. This pilot study explored whether plasma levels of compounds known to mediate appetite, the endocannabinoids (EC) and EC-like compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ar...
Reichelt, Amy C.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.
Despite extensive evidence that appetitive memories undergo reconsolidation, two notable failures to observe reconsolidation have been reported: instrumental responding and goal-tracking. However, these studies do not provide conclusive evidence for a lack of memory reconsolidation due to the numerous boundary conditions that dictate whether a…
Full Text Available We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI, Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD and Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI have revealed Mn2+accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks, becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable.
G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)
textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provid
Rebranding and positioning a school district has become critical to satisfy the "customer's" appetite, enhance public relations, and advance consumer perceptions. A service design model provides a district with the framework to advance its position by identifying attributes and prompts to satisfy customer needs and increase student enrollment. A…
Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.R.M.; Kok, F.J.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritiona
Lizarbe, Blanca; Benitez, Ania; Peláez Brioso, Gerardo A.; Sánchez-Montañés, Manuel; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián
We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main MRI and MRS strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast (BOLD), and Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) have revealed Mn2+ accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions, and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable. PMID:23781199
Rebranding and positioning a school district has become critical to satisfy the "customer's" appetite, enhance public relations, and advance consumer perceptions. A service design model provides a district with the framework to advance its position by identifying attributes and prompts to satisfy customer needs and increase student…
Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio
In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.
Brunger, Louise; Smith, Adam; Re, Roberta; Wickham, Martin; Philippides, Andrew; Watten, Phil; Yeomans, Martin R
The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77 kcal) and high energy (HE: 274 kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data.
F.S. ten Velden; B. Beersma; C.K.W. de Dreu
Competitive motivation is prevalent in negotiation but systematic insight into its effects is missing. We introduce the distinction between appetitive competition, in which negotiators seek relative gain, and aversive competition, in which negotiators seek to prevent relative loss. Two experiments t
Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.
CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…
Dossa, R A M; Ategbo, E A D; van Raaij, J M A; de Graaf, C; Hautvast, J G A J
Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18-30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad libitum intakes of the foods served after an overnight fast according to a standardized offering procedure were measured on 3 days. The children's habitual intakes were measured during 3 consecutive days not overlapping with the days when the test meals were provided. Energy intake from the test foods was comparable to breakfast energy intake which was 0.8-1.0 MJ, representing 21% of total daily energy intake. Energy intake from aklui was significantly correlated with daily intake (r=0.41, n=38, pappetite test as calculated from the triplicate measurements was 40% for aklui and 25% for riz-au-gras. This reproducibility is better than that of the habitual breakfast intake (43-45%). In conclusion, the appetite test used in our studies can be considered as an appropriate tool in appetite evaluations.
Quijada, Mariana Martínez; Gutiérrez, María Luisa Alvarez
Malnutrition is conditioned by a series of factors, among them the dietary factors, which include appetite, eating behaviors and habits. In order to assess these factors, the following objective was pursued: describe the dietary factors and their relation to appetite in children under two years of age with mild malnutrition. A correlational study was conducted. The sample consisted of all children under two years of age (n = 168) diagnosed with primary (mild) malnutrition, who attended consultation at the Centro de Atención Nutricional Infantil Antímano, CANIA, during the period 2000-2008. The results showed intake of energy and macronutrients was lower than the individual requirement; iron intake children showed rebellious behavior and caregivers were permissive. Protein adequacy, vegetable and whole milk consumption frequency, preparation type, identification of refusals and preferences, place and duration of meals, and child-caregiver interaction at mealtimes were significantly associated with appetite; if we consider this last one as a guide and we try to modify inadequate eating behaviors and habits, we will generate an impact over the child appetite that could improve the food consumption and prevent malnutrition.
Michael P Greenwood
Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.
Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; MacIntyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritional status of HIV-infected children with that of uninfected children. A cross-sectional study was performed on children (2-24 months) admitted with diarrhoea or pneumonia to the university hospital. Children were tested for HIV, and the duration of hospitalization was noted for 189 children. Follow-up for blood analysis (n=154) and appetite measurement (n=48) was performed 4-8 weeks after discharge. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial infant cereal using highly standardized procedures. Hospitalization (in days) was significantly longer in HIV-infected children; among children admitted with diarrhoea (5.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.8 ± 1.5) (mean ± standard deviation) and with pneumonia (9.0 ± 2.5 vs. 5.9 ± 1.9). Serum zinc, iron and transferrin concentrations, and haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected children compared with uninfected children. Appetites [amounts eaten (g) per kg body weight] of HIV-infected children were significantly poorer than those of HIV-uninfected children (18.6 ± 5.8 vs. 25.2 ± 7.4). The eating rates (g min(-1) ) of HIV-infected children were also slower (17.6 ± 6.2 vs. 10.1 ± 3.7) Mean Z-scores for length-for-age were significantly lower among HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Weight-for-length Z-scores were not significantly different. In summary, HIV-infected children had a 55% longer duration of hospitalization and a 21% lower appetite.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.
Giebel, Gilda; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas
Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier´s experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the "warrior" was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness.
Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J
In a longitudinal birth cohort maternal ratings of children's appetite made at 6 weeks, 12 months and 5-6 years were correlated with one another and with subscales from the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 5-6 years, and body mass index (BMI) at 6-8 years. Statistically significant correlations were found between the children's appetite ratings. Appetite ratings in infancy were also correlated with the CEBQ subscale scores at 5-6 years to a limited extent, but not with the BMI at 6-8 years. The appetite rating at 5-6 years and three of the CEBQ subscales were independently associated with BMI. Children with higher levels of Emotional Over-Eating and Desire to Drink had higher BMIs, and children with higher levels of Satiety Responsiveness had lower BMIs. These results provide further evidence that there are concurrent associations between appetite ratings in childhood and BMI but suggest that appetite ratings in infancy are related only weakly to later appetite measures and do not predict later BMI.
van der Meij, Barbara S; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; Finlayson, Graham S; Oosten, Babette S H; Visser, Marjolein
A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65-101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Self-reported appetite in the past week was classified as 'good' or 'poor' using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetite were analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent undernutrition.
Lee, Kayoung; Song, Yun-Mi
This study sought to examine the association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and the child's weight status after 2 years. The design was a 2-year prospective study. A total of 531 Korean children aged 11 to 12 years were followed up for change in weight status (persistent overweight, persistent nonoverweight, recently overweight, recently nonoverweight) between 2001 and 2003 after the measurement of their appetite (low, moderate, and high) using a questionnaire administered to their parents in 2001. Weight status of each child was determined based on the criteria of body mass index (BMI) recommended by the International Obesity Task Force reference. The statistical analyses performed were multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for parental factors (parents' weight and height, education level, and income) and the child's characteristics (baseline BMI, physical activity, and television viewing). Main outcome measures were child's mean BMI and weight status, and the proportions of overweight children at the baseline and at the end of the follow-up were greater among those children whose parents reported that they had high appetites (Pchildren with a low appetite, the odds ratio for overweight at the end of follow-up was 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 11.7) in children with a high appetite. Subgroup analysis of overweight children at baseline showed that the risk of being persistently overweight over the 2-year follow-up was 5.5 times (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 27.5) higher in children with a high appetite than in those with a low appetite. There was a strong association between the parent-reported appetite of a child and being overweight after 2 years. Identifying children with higher appetites and targeting them for lifestyle modification may provide an effective way of reducing the incidence of childhood overweight.
Fernández, Francisco Alonso
This paper describes four nosological categories of depressive disorder according to the fundamental or prime cause: endogen depression, situative depression, psychogen depression and somatogen (also pharmacogen or addictive) depression. Recent advances in neurobiology provide the commun pathogenic mechanism distribuited in neurochemical, neuroendocrine and neuroinmune factors, with at the end a cellular and molecular sequence beyond the synapse. There is an increased risk of depression multiplied by three or four in the elderly, obese, unemployed and inmigrant and it is very frequent in terminally ill patients with a pervasive desire for death. Finally, eight personalized preventive guidelines enable to decrease the individual risk of depression in more than a fifty per cent.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenic patients has been associated with a risk of weight gain. Similarly, recovery from depression is often followed by improved appetite, greater food intake and potential increase in weight. Case presentation A Caucasian 33-year-old schizophrenic female patient was being treated with 6 mg/day of risperidone and 15 mg/day of clorazepate. She developed depressive symptomatology and 40 mg/day of fluoxetine was gradually added to her treatment regimen for about 9 months. After the remission of depression, and the discontinuation of fluoxetine, she experienced an increase in appetite and subsequently excessive weight gain of 52 kg. Re-administration of fluoxetine did not reverse the situation. The patient developed diabetes mellitus, which was successfully controlled with metformin 1700 mg/day. The addition at first of orlistat 360 mg/day and later of topiramate 200 mg/day has helped her to lose a significant part of the weight gained (30 kg. Conclusion The case suggests a probable association between the remission of depressive symptomatology and weight gain in a schizophrenic patient.
Full Text Available In der Behandlung einer Depression wird ein Nichtansprechen auf zwei adäquate Antidepressivatherapien während je 68 Wochen als Therapieresistenz bezeichnet. Da häufig zu geringe Dosierungen oder eine zu kurze Behandlungsdauer die Ursache für ein Nichtansprechen sind, sollte in einem ersten Schritt die medikamentöse Therapie hinsichtlich Dauer und Dosierung, eventuell unter Einbezug von Plasmaspiegelbestimmungen, überprüft und optimiert werden. Als pharmakologische Maßnahmen werden zunächst ein Wechsel des Antidepressivums und danach eine Kombination von verschiedenen Antidepressiva mit unterschiedlichem biochemischem Wirkungsansatz empfohlen. Zeigen beide nicht den gewünschten Erfolg, so sollte zusätzlich zur bestehenden Antidepressivabehandlung eine Augmentationstherapie, primär mit Lithium und/oder dem Schilddrüsenhormon T3, durchgeführt werden. Ein neuer, vielversprechender Behandlungsansatz ist eine Augmentationstherapie mit atypischen Neuroleptika. Als akut wirkende nichtpharmakologische Zusatzmaßnahme hat sich der partielle Schlafentzug bewährt. Weitere nichtpharmakologische Strategien umfassen Psychotherapie, Elektrokrampftherapie und Vagusnervstimulationsbehandlung.
Increase Ibukun Adeosun
Full Text Available The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD, because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n=129 and NMD (n=117 using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.
Niwano, Yoshimi; Adachi, Takashi; Kashimura, Jun; Sakata, Takashi; Sasaki, Hajime; Sekine, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yonekubo, Akie; Kimura, Shuichi
This review assesses the feasibility of using glycemic index (GI) as a predictor of appetite, hunger and satiety by surveying published human intervention studies. We also discuss the relationship between GI and two appetite/satiety control hormones, leptin and ghrelin. Ingestion of high-GI food increased hunger and lowered satiety in short-term human intervention studies. This effect may be attributed to the rapid decline in blood glucose level following a hyperinsulinemic response caused by a sharp and transient increase in blood glucose level that occurs after the ingestion of high-GI food, which is defined as the glucostatic theory. However, appetite, hunger and satiety after the ingestion of foods with varying GI were inconsistent among long-term human intervention studies. From the few relevant long-term studies available, we selected two recent well-designed examples for analysis, but they failed to elicit clear differences in glycemic and insulinemic responses between high- and low-GI meals (consisting of a combination of different foods or key carbohydrate-rich foods incorporated into habitual diets). One of the reasons that these studies could not predict glycemic response to mixed meals is presumably that the GI of each particular food was not reflected in that of the mixed meals as a whole. Thus, it is difficult to conclude that the GI values of foods or mixed meals are a valid long-term predictor for appetite, hunger and satiety. Both insulin and insulin-mediated glucose uptake and metabolism in adipose tissue affect blood leptin concentration and its diurnal pattern. Circulating ghrelin level is suppressed by carbohydrate-rich meals, presumably via glycemia and insulinemia. Accordingly, low-GI foods may not necessarily increase satiety or suppress appetite and/or hunger because of the lack of insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression. However, insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression per se is not consistent among
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. METHODS: Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003% either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2 or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2. A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre and after the confinement (Post to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. RESULTS: While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01 following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01. At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01 and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03. Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01 at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01. No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does
Reyes, Fredy D; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H
In a recently developed in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding in Aplysia, the unconditioned stimulus (US) was electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve (En). This nerve is rich in dopamine (DA)-containing processes, which suggests that DA mediates reinforcement during appetitive conditioning. To test this possibility, methylergonovine was used to antagonize DA receptors. Methylergonovine (1 nM) blocked the pairing-specific increase in fictive feeding that is usually induced by in vitro classical conditioning. The present results and previous observation that methylergonovine also blocks the effects of contingent reinforcement in an in vitro analog of appetitive operant conditioning suggest that DA mediates reinforcement for appetitive associative conditioning of feeding in Aplysia.
Full Text Available One of the challenges facing memory research is to combine network- and cellular-level descriptions of memory encoding. In this context, Drosophila offers the opportunity to decipher, down to single-cell resolution, memory-relevant circuits in connection with the mushroom bodies (MBs, prominent structures for olfactory learning and memory. Although the MB-afferent circuits involved in appetitive learning were recently described, the circuits underlying appetitive memory retrieval remain unknown. We identified two pairs of cholinergic neurons efferent from the MB α vertical lobes, named MB-V3, that are necessary for the retrieval of appetitive long-term memory (LTM. Furthermore, LTM retrieval was correlated to an enhanced response to the rewarded odor in these neurons. Strikingly, though, silencing the MB-V3 neurons did not affect short-term memory (STM retrieval. This finding supports a scheme of parallel appetitive STM and LTM processing.
Işeri, E; Kiliç, B G; Senol, S; Karabacak, N I
Appetite suppression is one of the most common side effects of methylphenidate (MPH), which is used for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relation of appetite and leptin is well known but there is no report regarding MPH use and leptin. In this study we compared the baseline leptin levels of ADHD children with the controls and studied the interaction between MPH and leptin-insulin level in ADHD children under MPH treatment. The major finding of this study is that at a total daily dose of 0.6 mg/kg short-acting MPH treatment, one does not observe significant side effects related to appetite suppression and metabolic features as measured via body mass index, insulin and leptin levels. Thus this range seems to be safe in developing ADHD children with minimum side effects regarding appetite for short-term treatment.
Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....
Morishima, Takuma; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige
The present study was conducted to determine change in regional fat accumulation and appetite-related hormonal response following hypoxic training. Twenty sedentary subjects underwent hypoxic (n = 9, HYPO, FiO(2) = 15%) or normoxic training (n = 11, NOR, FiO(2) = 20·9%) during a 4-week period (3 days per week). They performed a 4-week training at 55% of maximal oxygen uptake (V·O(2max)) for each condition. Before and after the training period, V·O(2max), whole body fat mass, abdominal fat area, intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL), fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormonal responses were determined. Both groups showed a significant increase in V·O(2max) following training (Pdecreased in both groups (Pappetite-related hormones.
Bouton, Mark E
The modern world is saturated with highly palatable and highly available food, providing many opportunities to associate food with environmental cues and actions (through Pavlovian and operant or instrumental learning, respectively). Basic learning processes can often increase the tendency to approach and consume food, whereas extinction, in which Pavlovian and operant behaviors decline when the reinforcer is withheld, weakens but does not erase those tendencies. Contemporary research suggests that extinction involves an inhibitory form of new learning that appears fragile because it is highly dependent on the context for expression. These ideas are supported by the phenomena of renewal, spontaneous recovery, resurgence, reinstatement, and rapid reacquisition in appetitive learning, which together may help explain why overeating may be difficult to suppress permanently, and why appetitive behavior may seem so persistent.
Lorenzen, Janne; Frederiksen, Rikke; Hoppe, Camilla
of different types of protein are limited. In the present study we compare the effect of whey, casein and milk on DIT and satiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventeen slightly overweight (29 ± 4 kg/m(2)) male subjects completed the study. The study had a randomized, crossover design, where the effect on 4 h...... postprandial energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and subjective appetite sensation of three isocaloric test meals containing either a whey drink, a casein drink or skim milk was examined. Energy intake (EI) at a subsequent ad libitum lunch was also measured. RESULTS: There was no significant effect...... on subjective appetite sensation, but EI at lunch was lower after the milk test meal than after the casein (9%; P=0.0260) and the whey (9%; P=0.0258) test meals. Postprandial lipid oxidation was significantly higher after the casein test meal compared with the whey test meal (P=0.0147) when adjusted...
Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K
Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n = 240) and non-eating disorder controls (n = 157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in bulimia nervosa.
Fields, Howard L; Hjelmstad, Gregory O; Margolis, Elyssa B; Nicola, Saleem M
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuron firing precedes behaviors elicited by reward-predictive sensory cues and scales with the magnitude and unpredictability of received rewards. These patterns are consistent with roles in the performance of learned appetitive behaviors and in positive reinforcement, respectively. The VTA includes subpopulations of neurons with different afferent connections, neurotransmitter content, and projection targets. Because the VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta are the sole sources of striatal and limbic forebrain dopamine, measurements of dopamine release and manipulations of dopamine function have provided critical evidence supporting a VTA contribution to these functions. However, the VTA also sends GABAergic and glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, VTA-mediated but dopamine-independent positive reinforcement has been demonstrated. Consequently, identifying the neurotransmitter content and projection target of VTA neurons recorded in vivo will be critical for determining their contribution to learned appetitive behaviors.
Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul
Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...... is hardly mediated by any of the hormones studied in this investigation, as the GLP-1 and obestatin levels were unaffected by alcohol, the ghelin level decreased, and leptin - although declining after alcohol - has not previously been found to have short-term inhibitory effect on hunger....
Schmidt, Julie Berg
literature. In the same study, it was explored how PYY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, and ghrelin contribute to postsurgical lterations in appetite. The possibility of GLP-1 and PYY exerting overlapping, additive, or even synergistic effects on energy intake and appetite...... of the hormones and signaling molecules peptide YY (PYY), leptin, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and bile acids in these alterations. This was investigated in a clinical study with subjects randomized to either GBP or to a ‘pair-fed’ control group and was supported by a critical review of the existing...... acutely after GBP, nor does the existing literature provide evidence for such roles. On the contrary, basal metabolic rate and total EE were suppressed more in GBP patients compared to pair-fed control subjects. This suppressive effect was associated with an additional decrease in leptin. Despite...
Okuyaz, Cetin; Kursel, Onur; Komur, Mustafa; Tamer, Lulufer
We investigated the mechanism of topiramate-related appetite loss and exposed its relationship to body weight, body mass index, body fat index, and serum insulin, lipid, leptin, neuropeptide-Y, cortisol, ghrelin, and adiponectin levels. Twenty children with epilepsy were evaluated at baseline and months 3 and 6 of treatment. Their body fat index, leptin, and neuropeptide-Y levels significantly decreased at month 3, whereas significant decreases occurred in body weight, body mass index, body fat index, neuropeptide-Y, cholesterol, and cortisol levels of patients at month 6 compared with baseline. Weight loss during topiramate treatment was attributed to loss of appetite and reduced food intake caused by reductions in neuropeptide-Y. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to describe reductions in neuropeptide-Y with topiramate use in humans.
High intensity, low-energy sweeteners (LES) are used by many consumers in order to limit energy intake and possibly facilitate body weight control. These beneficial effects are often questioned in the scientific and lay media. LES are frequently accused of stimulating and/or maintaining a liking for sweetness which in turn would be deleterious for adequate body weight control. Evidence for the specific effects of LES use on appetite for sweet products will be extracted from observational studies, experimental laboratory studies, randomized controlled trials, and finally brain imaging studies. While many of the existing studies cannot identify any causal links between use of LES and appetite for sweetness, randomized trials in children and adults suggest that use of LES tends to reduce rather than increase the intake of sugar-containing foods and to facilitate, rather than impair, weight loss.
Løkkegaard, Laura E; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare
. They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair......Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...
Pereira, Mark A; Erickson, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Schrankler, Karilyn; Raatz, Susan K; Lytle, Leslie A; Pellegrini, Anthony D
Observational studies of breakfast frequency in children and adults suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. More prospective studies with stronger designs are needed, as are experimental studies on this topic. In addition, above and beyond breakfast frequency, the roles of dietary quality and composition need to be studied in the context of eating or skipping breakfast. Experimental studies are also necessary to rigorously test causality and biological mechanisms. Therefore, we conducted 2 pilot experimental studies to examine some of the effects of breakfast skipping and breakfast composition on blood glucose and appetite in children and adults. Our results suggest that breakfast frequency and quality may be related in causal ways to appetite controls and blood sugar control, supporting the hypothesis that the breakfast meal and its quality may have important causal implications for the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Full Text Available Background and objective Quality of life (QoL is an important end point in cancer patients, and depressive symptoms are significantly more frequent in lung cancer patients. The aim of this study is to observe the impact of chemotherapy on quality of life and emotion among lung cancer patients. Methods Fourty lung cancer patients were assessed with clinical outcomes, the EORTC QLQ-C30, SDS questionnaires before chemotherapy, one week after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, one week after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Results Before chemotherapy, the scores of functioning scales were high, the rate of depression was 65%. After 2 cycles of chemotherapy, effective rate was 42.5%, the scores of cognitive function increase, the scores of role, emotional, social function decrease, the scores of dyspnoea decrease, the scores of pain, appetite loss, insomnia, constipation, diarrhea increase, the scores of Global quality of life decrease; the rate of depression was 70%. After 4 cycles of chemotherapy, effective rate was 23%, the scores of physical, role, emotional, social function decrease, the scores of symptom scales increase, the scores of dyspnoea, nausea and vomiting, appetite loss, financial impact increase, the scores of global quality of life decrease, the rate of depression was 87.5%. Conclusion Some patients have symptoms relieved, but during the chemotherapy, the patients have significant depression, the quality of life decrease. We should evaluate the quality of life and emotions of lung cancer patients, and give positive psychological intervention to improve the quality of life.
Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Chway, Hababu M; Montresor, Antonio; Tielsch, James M; Jape, Jape Khatib; Albonico, Marco; Savioli, Lorenzo
Iron deficiency and helminth infections are two common conditions of children in developing countries. The consequences of helminth infection in young children are not well described, and the efficacy of low dose iron supplementation is not well documented in malaria-endemic settings. A 12-mo randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial of 10 mg daily iron and/or mebendazole (500 mg) every 3 mo was conducted in a community-based sample of 459 Zanzibari children age 6-71 mo with hemoglobin > 70 g/L at baseline. The trial was designed to examine treatment effects on growth, anemia and appetite in two age subgroups. Iron did not affect growth retardation, hemoglobin concentration or mild or moderate anemia (hemoglobin children children children's appetite, according to mothers' report. In this study, iron's effect on anemia was limited, likely constrained by infection, inflammation and perhaps other nutrient deficiencies. Mebendazole treatment caused unexpected and significant reductions in wasting malnutrition and anemia in very young children with light infections. We hypothesize that incident helminth infections may stimulate inflammatory immune responses in young children, with deleterious effects on protein metabolism and erythropoiesis.
Rigaud, A S
Depressive symptoms are frequent during schizophrenia. Depression occurs in the course of a schizo affective psychose or in the course of a schizophrenia (either with acute psychotic symptoms, either without acute psychotic symptoms). Differentiating depression from negative symptoms of schizophrenia or from antipsychotic drug induced side effects can be difficult. The question to know whether depression is intrinsic to the disease process itself whether it is secondary to the schizophrenic process is still a matter of inquiry. Efficacy of antidepressive drugs during depression in schizophrenia remains a matter of controversy. Depression increases the risk for pejorative evolution and for suicide in schizophrenia.
Masanobu Hibi; Chie Kubota; Tomohito Mizuno; Sayaka Aritake; Yuki Mitsui; Mitsuhiro Katashima; Sunao Uchida
The effects of sleep restriction on energy metabolism and appetite remain controversial. We examined the effects of shortened sleep duration on energy metabolism, core body temperature (CBT), and appetite profiles. Nine healthy men were evaluated in a randomised crossover study under two conditions: a 3.5-h sleep duration and a 7-h sleep duration for three consecutive nights followed by one 7-h recovery sleep night. The subjects’ energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilisation, and CBT were co...
Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; MARUYAMA, Keisuke; OKAME, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru
The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation per...
Miquel-Kergoat, S; Azais-Braesco, V; Burton-Freeman, B; Hetherington, MM
Aim: To conduct a systematic review of the effects of chewing on appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and a meta-analysis of the effects of chewing on self-reported hunger. Objectives: To seek insights into the relationship between chewing, appetite, food intake and gut hormones, and to consider potentially useful recommendations to promote benefits of chewing for weight management. Materials and methods: Papers were obtained from two electronic databases (Medline and Cochrane), from searc...
Adolphus, K; Bellissimo, N; Lawton, CL; Ford, NA; Rains, TM; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Dye, L
Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This re...
Mars, M; De Graaf, C.; de Groot, C. P. G. M.; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F.J.
OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. SUBJECTS: A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). MEASUREMENTS: Fasting serum leptin concentrations a...
Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Alexander, Erin; Mars, Monica; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees
Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.
Jia, Zhanjun; Aoyagi, Toshinori; Kohan, Donald E.; Yang, Tianxin
Aldosterone (Aldo) is a major sodium-retaining hormone that reduces renal sodium excretion and also stimulates sodium appetite. In the face of excess Aldo, the sodium-retaining action of this steroid is overridden by an adaptive regulatory mechanism, a phenomenon termed Aldo escape. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon is not well defined but appeared to involve a number of natriuretic factors such prostaglandins (PGs). Here, we investigated the role of microsomal prostaglandin E synth...
Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry
Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.
Sara Baghban Taraghdari
Full Text Available Objectives: weight loss as a consecution of losing appetite in post-operative patients and those suffering from HIV, cancer, cachexia and inflammatory diseases are the main inducements of morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing demand for more efficacious and endurable appetite stimulating treatment for patients with cachexia. Health economics is influenced by the malnutrition which was accounted for 5% of Iranian populations in 2011. Artemisia absinthium is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is available about its orexigenic effect and mechanism. So, the present study evaluated the possible effect on appetite of hydroalcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Vehicle group received 0.5 ml water per day, control group did not receive anything and other 3 groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of Artemisia absinthium for 7 days respectively. The daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 consecutive days. The amount of energy intake for each rat was also calculated for 7 days during the intervention. The difference in energy intake was calculated and compared between groups. Results: The results suggest that there was no significant (p>0.05 differences in energy received before and during intervention between three case groups compared with the control group. The energy intake in 1-2 hours after extract injection in all groups, and energy intake after 24 hours interval in third case group (receiving 150 mg/kg extract is higher compared to other intervals, but it is not significant (p>0.05. So, it can be stated that there was no significant differences between energy intake of 3 case groups and control group. Conclusion: Artemisia absinthium had no positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are needed to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant.
Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine
The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.
Pournaras, D-J; Le Roux, C-W
Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity in the long term. Gut hormones are key players in the metabolic mechanisms causing obesity. Furthermore gut hormones are involved in the signalling process of hunger and satiety which leads to the control of nutrient intake. In this review, the role of these hormones as facilitators of appetite control after bariatric and metabolic surgery will be explored.
Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...
戸井田, 英子; 野池, 裕子; 林, 恵里; 加藤, 麻樹; 村澤, 初子
This study investigates the relationship among young children's breakfast grouping from view point of combination of the menu and lifestyle patterns (schedule, meal partner, television, appetite). A questionnaire survey was conducted with a total of 118 parents of the children aged 3-6 attending 2 nursery schools in Nagano city. The results show that many children have with their mother. Most of them take 30 minutes for starting breakfast after getting up. 56% children took well balanced br...
High intensity, low-energy sweeteners (LES) are used by many consumers in order to limit energy intake and possibly facilitate body weight control. These beneficial effects are often questioned in the scientific and lay media. LES are frequently accused of stimulating and/or maintaining a liking for sweetness which in turn would be deleterious for adequate body weight control. Evidence for the specific effects of LES use on appetite for sweet products will be extracted from observational stud...
Merlo, Emiliano; Ratano, Patrizia; Ilioi, Elena C; Robbins, Miranda A L S; Everitt, Barry J; Milton, Amy L
Disrupting maladaptive memories may provide a novel form of treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders, but little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the induction of lability, or destabilization, of a retrieved consolidated memory. Destabilization has been theoretically linked to the violation of expectations during memory retrieval, which, in turn, has been suggested to correlate with prediction error (PE). It is well-established that PE correlates with dopaminergic signaling in limbic forebrain structures that are critical for emotional learning. The basolateral amygdala is a key neural substrate for the reconsolidation of pavlovian reward-related memories, but the involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in inducing lability of amygdala-dependent memories has not been investigated. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic signaling within the basolateral amygdala is required for the destabilization of appetitive pavlovian memories by investigating the effects dopaminergic and protein synthesis manipulations on appetitive memory reconsolidation in rats. Intra-amygdala administration of either the D1-selective dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or the D2-selective dopamine receptor antagonist raclopride prevented memory destabilization at retrieval, thereby protecting the memory from the effects of an amnestic agent, the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. These data show that dopaminergic transmission within the basolateral amygdala is required for memory labilization during appetitive memory reconsolidation.
Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S
In addition to short sleep duration, reduced sleep quality is also associated with appetite control. The present study examined the effect of sleep fragmentation, independent of sleep duration, on appetite profiles and 24 h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance regulation. A total of twelve healthy male subjects (age 23 (sd 4) years, BMI 24·4 (sd 1·9) kg/m²) completed a 24 h randomised crossover study in which sleep (23.30-07.30 hours) was either fragmented or non-fragmented. Polysomnography was used to determine rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and total sleep time (TST). Blood samples were taken at baseline and continued hourly for the 24 h period to measure glucose, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and melatonin concentrations. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were measured. Visual analogue scales were used to score appetite-related feelings. Sleep fragmentation resulted in reduced REM sleep (69·4 min compared with 83·5 min; Pdecreased in the morning, and increased in the afternoon (Pdecreased. These results may lead to increased food intake and snacking, thus contributing to a positive energy balance.
Byerly, Mardi S; Swanson, Roy D; Semsarzadeh, Nina N; McCulloh, Patrick S; Kwon, Kiwook; Aja, Susan; Moran, Timothy H; Wong, G William; Blackshaw, Seth
Disruption of finely coordinated neuropeptide signals in the hypothalamus can result in altered food intake and body weight. We identified neuron-derived neurotrophic factor (NENF) as a novel secreted protein through a large-scale screen aimed at identifying novel secreted hypothalamic proteins that regulate food intake. We observed robust Nenf expression in hypothalamic nuclei known to regulate food intake, and its expression was altered under the diet-induced obese (DIO) condition relative to the fed state. Hypothalamic Nenf mRNA was regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, itself an important regulator of appetite. Delivery of purified recombinant BDNF into the lateral cerebral ventricle decreased hypothalamic Nenf expression, while pharmacological inhibition of trkB signaling increased Nenf mRNA expression. Furthermore, recombinant NENF administered via an intracerebroventricular cannula decreased food intake and body weight and increased hypothalamic Pomc and Mc4r mRNA expression. Importantly, the appetite-suppressing effect of NENF was abrogated in obese mice fed a high-fat diet, demonstrating a diet-dependent modulation of NENF function. We propose the existence of a regulatory circuit involving BDNF, NENF, and melanocortin signaling. Our study validates the power of using an integrated experimental and bioinformatic approach to identify novel CNS-derived proteins with appetite-modulating function and reveals NENF as an important central modulator of food intake.
Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R
The influence of flavour enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) on satiation and satiety is unclear, and the present study aimed to explore this by examining the effects consumption of soups varying in MSG (1% MSG added or no MSG) and macronutrient content (added carbohydrate, protein or control) had on appetite. 24 non-obese, low-restraint male participants consumed a fixed portion of soup and rated their appetite before, immediately after intake and at 15 minute intervals for 120 min post-ingestion across six sessions. Added MSG significantly increased flavour pleasantness and tended to result in a smaller decrease in hunger immediately after soup ingestion. MSG also reduced rather than enhanced feelings of fullness immediately after ingestion of the high protein soup. As expected, hunger increased, and fullness decreased, over the subsequent 120 min, but the increase in hunger was significantly lower in the MSG than no-MSG conditions with the protein soup between 30 and 60 min post-ingestion. Overall these data suggest that MSG may have a bi-phasic effect on appetite, with reduced satiation mediated by effects on palatability, but potential for enhanced post-ingestive satiety particularly in the context of protein ingestion.
van Bloemendaal, Liselotte; IJzerman, Richard G; Ten Kulve, Jennifer S; Barkhof, Frederik; Konrad, Robert J; Drent, Madeleine L; Veltman, Dick J; Diamant, Michaela
Gut-derived hormones, such as GLP-1, have been proposed to relay information to the brain to regulate appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonists, currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), improve glycemic control and stimulate satiety, leading to decreases in food intake and body weight. We hypothesized that food intake reduction after GLP-1 receptor activation is mediated through appetite- and reward-related brain areas. Obese T2DM patients and normoglycemic obese and lean individuals (n = 48) were studied in a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Using functional MRI, we determined the acute effects of intravenous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide, with or without prior GLP-1 receptor blockade using exendin 9-39, on brain responses to food pictures during a somatostatin pancreatic-pituitary clamp. Obese T2DM patients and normoglycemic obese versus lean subjects showed increased brain responses to food pictures in appetite- and reward-related brain regions (insula and amygdala). Exenatide versus placebo decreased food intake and food-related brain responses in T2DM patients and obese subjects (in insula, amygdala, putamen, and orbitofrontal cortex). These effects were largely blocked by prior GLP-1 receptor blockade using exendin 9-39. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which GLP-1 regulates food intake and how GLP-1 receptor agonists cause weight loss.
Clamp, Louise; Hehir, Anthony P J; Lambert, Estelle V; Beglinger, Christoph; Goedecke, Julia H
This study aimed to characterise lean and obese phenotypes according to diet and body composition, and to compare fasting and postprandial appetite and metabolic profiles following a high-fat test meal. A total of ten lean (BMI40 and 30 kg/m2) high-fat consumers (OHF; >40 % energy from fat) were recruited. Before and following the test meal (4727 kJ (1130 kcal), 77 % fat, 20 % carbohydrate (CHO) and 3 % protein), fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), RER, RMR and subjective appetite ratings (AR) were measured for 6 h. Thereafter, subjects consumed a self-selected portion of a standardised post-test meal (40 % fat, 45 % CHO and 15 % protein) and reported AR. Fasting (P=0·01) and postprandial (Plean groups, fasting and postprandial energy expenditures were significantly higher in OHF compared with LHF (Plean groups showed appropriate changes in plasma ghrelin and PYY following the test meal, whereas the OHF group showed a blunted response. In conclusion, the LHF phenotype had a greater capacity for fat oxidation, which may be protective against weight gain. OHF individuals had a blunted appetite hormone response to the high-fat test meal, which may subsequently increase energy intake, driving further weight gain.
Griggs, Joanne L; Sinnayah, Puspha; Mathai, Michael L
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from a deletion in the expression of the paternally derived alleles in the region of 15q11-q13. PWS has a prevalence rate of 1:10,000-1:30,000 and is characterized by marked endocrine abnormalities including growth hormone deficiency and raised ghrelin levels. The hyperphagic phenotype in PWS is established over a number of phases and is exacerbated by impaired satiety, low energy expenditure and intellectual difficulties including obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or autistic behaviours. Clinical management in PWS typically includes familial/carer restriction and close supervision of food intake. If the supervision of food is left unmanaged, morbid obesity eventuates, central to the risk of cardiorespiratory disorder. None of the current appetite management/intervention strategies for PWS include pharmacological treatment, though recent research shows some promise. We review the established aberrant genetics and the endocrine and neuronal attributes which may determine disturbed regulatory processes in PWS. Focusing on clinical trials for appetite behaviours in PWS, we define the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with a view to initiating and focusing research towards possible targets for modulating appetite in PWS.
Tremblay, Angelo; Doyon, Caroline; Sanchez, Marina
Recent data support the idea that regular yogurt consumption promotes body weight stability. The simplest explanation is that regular consumption of healthful foods such as yogurt results in decreased intake of less healthful foods containing high amounts of fat and/or sugar. There is also evidence to suggest that the high calcium and protein contents of yogurt and other dairy foods influence appetite and energy intake. The existence of a calcium-specific appetite control mechanism has been proposed. Milk proteins differ in terms of absorption rate and post-absorptive responses, which can influence their satiating properties. Studies in humans have shown that consumption of milk and yogurt increases the circulating concentration of the anorectic peptides glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY (PYY). The food matrix can also affect appetite and satiety. Yogurt is a fermented milk that contains bacteria that enrich the microbiota of the host. It appears that lean vs obese humans differ in the composition of their gut microbiota. The available relevant literature suggests that yogurt is a food that facilitates the regulation of energy balance.
Alison M. Zenel
Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.
Exerting self-control in a first task weakens self-control in a second completely unrelated task (ego-depletion). It has been proposed that ego-depletion increases approach motivation which would amplify positive emotions to appetitive cues. Here we investigated the effect of the depletion of cognitive self-control on the subsequent emotional evaluation of appetitive cues. Participants of the depletion group copied a text omitting frequent letters and thereby exerting self-control to inhibit automated writing habits. Participants of the control group just copied the text. In a subsequent task participants had to rate valence and arousal of their responses to neutral vs. positive pictures of humans, animals, food, or sceneries. Ego-depletion caused more positive valence ratings of neutral pictures and lower arousal ratings of positive pictures. The findings do not support the notion that ego-depletion increases approach motivation in general. Rather they suggest that—without a specific motivational context—depletion of cognitive self-control differentially alters the immediate emotional evaluation of appetitive cues. PMID:28141811
Austin, A J; Duka, T
Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable.
Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E
Energy balance is not a simple algebraic sum of energy expenditure and energy intake as often depicted in communications. Energy balance is a dynamic process and there exist reciprocal effects between food intake and energy expenditure. An important distinction is that of metabolic and behavioural components of energy expenditure. These components not only contribute to the energy budget directly, but also by influencing the energy intake side of the equation. It has recently been demonstrated that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potential driver of energy intake, and evidence is accumulating on the influence of physical activity (behavioural energy expenditure) on mechanisms of satiety and appetite control. These effects are associated with changes in leptin and insulin sensitivity, and in the plasma levels of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The influence of fat-free mass on energy expenditure and as a driver of energy intake directs attention to molecules emanating from skeletal tissue as potential appetite signals. Sedentariness (physical inactivity) is positively associated with adiposity and is proposed to be a source of overconsumption and appetite dysregulation. The molecular signals underlying these effects are not known but represent a target for research.
Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.
Sarlo, Michela; Ubel, Sonja; Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne
This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during the exposure to food cues. Thirty-three healthy, normal-weight women viewed images of high-caloric food and non-food items after an overnight fast. The participants were instructed to either passively look at the pictures, or to change (increase, decrease) the appetitive value of the food items. The P300 and the late positive potential (LPP) were higher across all conditions for food relative to non-food pictures. In the 'increase condition' the food images were rated as more appetizing and arousing than during passive viewing which was accompanied by increased amplitudes of the P300 and LPP. In contrast, the 'watch condition' and the 'decrease condition' did not differ with regard to appetite and arousal ratings as well as ERPs. Amplitudes of late positive potentials in the 'decrease condition' were positively correlated with scores on eating disorder scales indicating bulimic tendencies. The ERP data show that the appetitive value of food cues can easily be enhanced via reappraisal but is difficult to reduce, especially in women who display non-clinical forms of purging. The reduced ERP reactivity might constitute a risk factor for bulimia nervosa. Future longitudinal-prospective studies should follow up on this aspect.
Mattar, L; Zeeni, N; Bassil, M
Very little is known about media violence and its effect on appetite and eating behavior. The present study aims at investigating the immediate acute effect of violence in movies on mood, stress, appetite perception and food preferences in a real-life setting. A total of 447 subjects (F = 202; M = 239) completed a validated visual analog scale to record their subjective feelings of hunger, satiety and desire to eat immediately at their way out of any of the three types of movies (horror, romance/comedy and drama/action). There was a significant difference between the three movie categories for the tensed feeling (P = 0.003), anxiety (P = 0.021), the sleepy feeling (P = 0.000) and a preference to eat something sweet (P = 0.019). Horror/violence movie types affected the subject by making him feel more stressed and anxious; however, romance made him feel sleepier and less tensed. Movie types did not seem to affect hunger or appetite directly, but rather triggered some food preferences.
Na, Elisa S; Morris, Michael J; Johnson, Alan Kim
In general terms, sensitization refers to the capacity of a repetitive stimulus of fixed strength to produce a progressive increase in the magnitude of a response with each stimulation. In the addiction literature cross-sensitization is the capacity of an agent with abuse potential to sensitize a behavioral response induced by another stimulus. In the present experiments we examined the effects of morphine pretreatment on furosemide-induced saline intake and conversely sodium appetite induction on morphine-induced locomotion. In an initial experiment rats were pretreated with morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle for 5 days. The rats were then sodium or sham depleted and 24 h later given a sodium appetite test. Sodium depleted rats pretreated with morphine increased saline intake compared to depleted rats initially pretreated with vehicle. In a second experiment rats that were previously depleted and repleted of sodium as compared to sham depleted animals showed enhanced locomotor activity in an open field test when challenged with morphine (1 mg/kg, s.c.). These studies demonstrate that the behavioral responses induced by sodium deficiency and morphine treatment cross-sensitize with one another and suggest that common neural substrates underlie the sensitization of behaviors associated with states induced by morphine and sodium appetite.
Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...
Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...
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... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000790.htm Heart disease and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... a heart attack or heart surgery Signs of Depression It is pretty common to feel down or ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...
The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY
Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.
Liu, Chun-Lin; Ruan, Ke-Feng; Gao, Jun-Wei; Wu, Fei; Zhang, Ji-Quan
Depression is a grievous mental disease with an increasing high morbidity year by year and a serious social harm. The pathogenesises of depression is complicated and involves with multi-mechanisms and multi-organs. Recent studies demondtrate that in the nerval system and endocrine system there are many types of neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as their receptors, involved in depression. This paper reviews the research progress of depression in recent years.
The paper discusses the topical problem of depression in cerebrovascular diseases. It shows its possible causes, mechanisms of occurrence, clinical picture and negative impact on the course of cerebrovascular disease and recovery of neurological functions. There is a bilateral association between stroke and depression: on the one hand, stroke is a risk factor for the development of depression and, on the other, depression is a both direct and indirect risk factor for the development of stroke...
Hume, Megan P; Nicolucci, Alissa C; Reimer, Raylene A
Background: Prebiotics have been shown to improve satiety in adults with overweight and obesity; however, studies in children are limited.Objective: We examined the effects of prebiotic supplementation on appetite control and energy intake in children with overweight and obesity.Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two boys and girls, ages 7-12 y, with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥85th percentile were randomly assigned to 8 g oligofructose-enriched inulin/d or placebo (maltodextrin) for 16 wk. Objective measures of appetite included energy intake at an ad libitum breakfast buffet, 3-d food records, and fasting satiety hormone concentrations. Subjective appetite ratings were obtained from visual analog scales before and after the breakfast. Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaires were also completed by caregivers.Results: Compared with placebo, prebiotic intake resulted in significantly higher feelings of fullness (P = 0.04) and lower prospective food consumption (P = 0.03) at the breakfast buffet at 16 wk compared with baseline. Compared with placebo, prebiotic supplementation significantly reduced energy intake at the week 16 breakfast buffet in 11- and 12-y-olds (P = 0.04) but not in 7- to 10-y-olds. Fasting adiponectin (P = 0.04) and ghrelin (P = 0.03) increased at 16 wk with the prebiotic compared with placebo. In intent-to-treat analysis, there was a trend for prebiotic supplementation to reduce BMI z score to a greater extent than placebo (-3.4%; P = 0.09) and a significant -3.8% reduction in per-protocol analysis (P = 0.043).Conclusions: Independent of other lifestyle changes, prebiotic supplementation in children with overweight and obesity improved subjective appetite ratings. This translated into reduced energy intake in a breakfast buffet in older but not in younger children. This simple dietary change has the potential to help with appetite regulation in children with obesity. This trial was registered at
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...
Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J
Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....
... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Depression KidsHealth > For Teens > Depression Print A A A ... Help Yourself en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...
Hamilton, Marshall, Ed.
Contains four articles related to depression and aging. Compares normal adults with those having a major depressive disorder. Focuses on life satisfaction in the elderly, describing an individualized measure of life satisfaction. Describes similarities and differences between grief and depression. Contains a psychometric analysis of the Zung…
Everyone feels blue now and then. It's a part of life. But if your feelings last more than few days and interfere with your normal daily activities, you may be suffering from depression. On this page: Symptoms of depression Who gets depressed and why?
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression A A A What's ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...
Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.
Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…
Liedtke, Wolfgang B; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J; Hilton, Donald L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Denton, Derek A
Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 and neural plasticity regulator activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) were up-regulated in lateral hypothalamic orexinergic neurons by sodium deficiency. Administration of dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 receptor (raclopride) antagonists reduced gratification of sodium appetite triggered by sodium deficiency. SCH23390 was specific, having no effect on osmotic-induced water drinking, whereas raclopride also reduced water intake. D1 receptor KO mice had normal sodium appetite, indicating compensatory regulation. Appetite was insensitive to SCH23390, confirming the absence of off-target effects. Bilateral microinjection of SCH23390 (100 nM in 200 nL) into rats' lateral hypothalamus greatly reduced sodium appetite. Gene set enrichment analysis in hypothalami of mice with sodium appetite showed significant enrichment of gene sets previously linked to addiction (opiates and cocaine). This finding of concerted gene regulation was attenuated on gratification with perplexingly rapid kinetics of only 10 min, anteceding significant absorption of salt from the gut. Salt appetite and hedonic liking of salt taste have evolved over >100 million y (e.g., being present in Metatheria). Drugs causing pleasure and addiction are comparatively recent and likely reflect usurping of evolutionary ancient systems with high survival value by the gratification of contemporary hedonic indulgences. Our findings outline a molecular logic for instinctive behavior encoded by the brain with
Full Text Available Abstract Background When large scale trials are investigating the effects of interventions on appetite, it is paramount to efficiently monitor large amounts of human data. The original hand-held Electronic Appetite Ratings System (EARS was designed to facilitate the administering and data management of visual analogue scales (VAS of subjective appetite sensations. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel hand-held method (EARS II (HP® iPAQ against the standard Pen and Paper (P&P method and the previously validated EARS. Methods Twelve participants (5 male, 7 female, aged 18-40 were involved in a fully repeated measures design. Participants were randomly assigned in a crossover design, to either high fat (>48% fat or low fat (ad libitum lunch was provided immediately before completing a final set of appetite sensations. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for ratings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. There were no significant differences between P&P compared with either EARS or EARS II (p > 0.05. Correlation coefficients between P&P and EARS II, controlling for age and gender, were performed on Area Under the Curve ratings. R2 for Hunger (0.89, Fullness (0.96 and Desire to Eat (0.95 were statistically significant (p Conclusions EARS II was sensitive to the impact of a meal and recovery of appetite during the postprandial period and is therefore an effective device for monitoring appetite sensations. This study provides evidence and support for further validation of the novel EARS II method for monitoring appetite sensations during large scale studies. The added versatility means that future uses of the system provides the potential to monitor a range of other behavioural and physiological measures often important in clinical and free living trials. This study was registered as a clinical trial by Current Controlled Trials (Registration Number - ISRCTN47291569.
Piber, D; Hinkelmann, K; Gold, S M; Heesen, C; Spitzer, C; Endres, M; Otte, C
In many neurological diseases a depressive syndrome is a characteristic sign of the primary disease or is an important comorbidity. Post-stroke depression, for example, is a common and relevant complication following ischemic brain infarction. Approximately 4 out of every 10 stroke patients develop depressive disorders in the course of the disease which have a disadvantageous effect on the course and the prognosis. On the other hand depression is also a risk factor for certain neurological diseases as was recently demonstrated in a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies which revealed a much higher stroke risk for depressive patients. Furthermore, depression plays an important role in other neurological diseases with respect to the course and quality of life, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. This article gives a review of the most important epidemiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of depressive disorders as a comorbidity of neurological diseases and as a risk factor for neurological diseases.
Marcus, Sheila M
Affective illness is common in women, and the puerperium is a time of particular vulnerability. Gender differences in the expression of affective disorders have been attributed to the impact of hormonal influence, socialization, and genetics. Dramatic fluctuations in gonadal hormones that occur following childbirth, influences the increased incidence of mood disorders during this time. Numerous tools including the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale can be used to screen for depression during pregnancy and postpartum. While screening tools may assist with appropriately identifying women who should be further assessed, their use alone does not significantly increase treatment seeking in women, even when their providers are notified about risk. Many studies demonstrate that only a small number (18%) of women who meet criteria for major depressive disorder seek treatment during pregnancy and postpartum. Additionally, common symptoms of depression (sleep, energy and appetite change) may be misinterpreted as normative experiences of pregnancy.Treatment engagement is important as untreated depression during pregnancy may have unfavorable outcomes for both women and children. Complications of pregnancy associated with depression include: inadequate weight gain,under utilization of prenatal care, increased substance use, and premature birth. Human studies demonstrate that perceived life-event stress, as well as depression and anxiety predicted lower birth weight, decreased Apgar scores, and smaller head circumference, and small for gestational age babies. Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common clinical disorder occurring in 15% of deliveries,making it one of the most frequent conditions to complicate pregnancy. Risk factors include past personal or family history of depression, sing marital status, poor health functioning, lower SES, and alcohol use. Women who have a prior history of postpartum depression, particularly with features of bipolarity or psychosis may be at
Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of
Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yu, Ching-Han; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Tsung-Ta; Kuo, Dong-Yih
Amphetamine (AMPH) treatment can suppress appetite and increase oxidative stress in the brain. AMPH-induced appetite suppression is associated with the regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus. The present study explored whether antioxidants, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GP), were involved in this NPY/CART-mediated appetite control. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days. Changes in food intake and expression levels of hypothalamic NPY, CART, GST, and GP were examined and compared. Results showed that, in AMPH-treated rats, (1) food intake and NPY expression decreased, while CART, GST, and GP expression increased; (2) NPY knockdown in the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and the increases in CART, GST, and GP expression; and (3) central inhibition of reactive oxygen species production decreased GST and GP and modulated AMPH anorexia and the expression levels of NPY and CART. The present results suggest that oxidative stress in the brain participates in regulating NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in AMPH-treated rats. These results may advance the knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of AMPH-evoked or NPY/CART-mediated appetite suppression.
Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey
Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.
Homnick, Douglas N; Marks, John H; Hare, Karyl L; Bonnema, Sally K
Appetite stimulants have been used to help overcome decreased appetite and malnutrition in children and adults with various chronic illnesses, including cystic fibrosis (CF). Stimulants have included megestrol acetate (MA), cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CH), cannabinoids, hydrazine sulfate, anabolic hormones, and growth hormone. Many of these, including MA, have substantial side effects and may not be suitable for prolonged use. We previously studied the effects of CH on weight gain in a short-term (12 week) trial in CF with good results compared to placebo. Side effects were few, and weight gain was significant. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of CH over a longer term in order to assess its suitability for prolonged use. Sixteen CF children and adults enrolled in the original short-term study subsequently entered this study, and 12 completed the 9-month trial. All patients receiving placebo in the original short-term study received CH 4 mg up to four times a day in the long-term study continuation, and those receiving CH in the short-term study continued on the drug. No pill counts were done, and patients were queried at quarterly visits as to their CH use. Anthropometrics and spirometry were also done quarterly, and antibiotic use was quantified. Subjects who had changed from placebo (CH2 group) gained weight significantly over 3-6 months, and those continuing on CH (CH1 group) generally maintained previously gained weight over the duration of the study. Select spirometric measures improved in both groups but not significantly, and side effects were mild. CH appears to be an effective appetite stimulant in CF, and generally maintains its effect over time with an acceptable side-effect profile.
Full Text Available We determined if the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN exerts tonic control of basal and stimulated sodium and water intake. Male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were microinjected with phosphate buffer (PB-DRN, N = 11 or 1 µg/0.2 µl, in a single dose, ibotenic acid (IBO-DRN, N = 9 to 10 through a guide cannula into the DRN and were observed for 21 days in order to measure basal sodium appetite and water intake and in the following situations: furosemide-induced sodium depletion (20 mg/kg, sc, 24 h before the experiment and a low dose of dietary captopril (1 mg/g chow. From the 6th day after ibotenic acid injection IBO-DRN rats showed an increase in sodium appetite (12.0 ± 2.3 to 22.3 ± 4.6 ml 0.3 M NaCl intake whereas PB-DRN did not exceed 2 ml (P < 0.001. Water intake was comparable in both groups. In addition to a higher dipsogenic response, sodium-depleted IBO-DRN animals displayed an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake compared to PB-DRN (37.4 ± 3.8 vs 21.6 ± 3.9 ml 300 min after fluid offer, P < 0.001. Captopril added to chow caused an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake during the first 2 days (IBO-DRN, 33.8 ± 4.3 and 32.5 ± 3.4 ml on day 1 and day 2, respectively, vs 20.2 ± 2.8 ml on day 0, P < 0.001. These data support the view that DRN, probably via ascending serotonergic system, tonically modulates sodium appetite under basal and sodium depletion conditions and/or after an increase in peripheral or brain angiotensin II.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress
Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne A
The current review considers satiety-based approaches to weight management in the context of health claims. Health benefits, defined as beneficial physiological effects, are what the European Food Safety Authority bases their recommendations on for claim approval. The literature demonstrates that foods that target within-meal satiation and post-meal satiety provide a plausible approach to weight management. However, few ingredient types tested produce the sustainable and enduring effects on appetite accompanied by the necessary reductions in energy intake required to claim satiety/reduction in hunger as a health benefit. Proteins, fibre types, novel oils and carbohydrates resistant to digestion all have the potential to produce beneficial short-term changes in appetite (proof-of-concept). The challenge remains to demonstrate their enduring effects on appetite and energy intake, as well as the health and consumer benefits such effects provide in terms of optimising successful weight management. Currently, the benefits of satiety-enhancing ingredients to both consumers and their health are under researched. It is possible that such ingredients help consumers gain control over their eating behaviour and may also help reduce the negative psychological impact of dieting and the physiological consequences of energy restriction that ultimately undermine weight management. In conclusion, industry needs to demonstrate that a satiety-based approach to weight management, based on single-manipulated food items, is sufficient to help consumers resist the situational and personal factors that drive overconsumption. Nonetheless, we possess the methodological tools, which when employed in appropriate designs, are sufficient to support health claims.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Appetite is affected by many factors including the hormones leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Ghrelin stimulates hunger, leptin promotes satiety, and adiponectin affects insulin response. This study was designed to test whether the pre- and postprandial response of key appetite hormones differs in normal weight (NW and severely obese (SO women. Methods Twenty three women ages 25–50 were recruited for this study including 10 NW (BMI = 23.1 ± 1.3 kg/m2 and 13 SO (BMI = 44.5 ± 7.1 kg/m2. The study was conducted in a hospital-based clinical research centre. Following a 12-hour fast, participants had a baseline blood draw, consumed a moderately high carbohydrate meal (60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 20% fat based on body weight. Postprandially, participants had six blood samples drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Primary measures included pre- and post-prandial total ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin and insulin. A repeated measures general linear model was used to evaluate the hormone changes by group and time (significance p ≤ 0.05. Results There were significant differences between the NW and the SO for all hormones in the preprandial fasting state. The postprandial responses between the SO versus NW revealed: higher leptin (p Conclusion This study indicates that significant differences in both pre- and selected post- prandial levels of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and insulin exist between NW and SO women. Improving our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms accounting for these differences in appetite hormones among individuals with varying body size and adiposity should aid in the development of future therapies to prevent and treat obesity.
Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse
Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...
Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea;
isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile....
Dalmolin, Camila; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando
The biological actions of growth hormone (GH) are pleiotropic, including growth promotion, energy mobilization, gonadal development, appetite, and social behavior. The regulatory network for GH is complex and includes many central and peripheral endocrine factors as well as that from the environment. It is known that GH transgenesis results in increased growth, food intake, and consequent metabolic rates in fishes. However, the manner in which GH transgenesis alters the energetic metabolism in fishes has not been well explored. In order to elucidate these consequences, we examined the effect of GH overexpression on appetite control mechanisms in a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. To this, we analyzed feeding behavior and the expression of the main appetite-related genes in two different feeding periods (fed and fasting) in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T) zebrafish as well as glycaemic parameters of them. Our initial results have shown that NT males and females present the same feeding behavior and expression of main appetite-controlling genes; therefore, the data of both sexes were properly grouped. Following grouped data analyses, we compared the same parameters in NT and T animals. Feeding behavior results have shown that T animals eat significantly more and faster than NT siblings. Gene expression results pointed out that gastrointestinal (GT) cholecystokinin has a substantial contribution to the communication between peripheral and central control of food intake. Brain genes expression analyses revealed that T animals have a down-regulation of two strong and opposite peptides related to food intake: the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (npy). The down-regulation of pomc in T when compared with NT is an expected result, since the decrease in an anorexigenic factor might keep the transgenic fish hungry. The down-regulation of npy seemed to be contradictory at first, but if we consider the GH's capacity to
Full Text Available The present study determined the effect of an electrolytic lesion of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN on water intake and sodium appetite. Male Wistar rats weighing 290-320 g with a lesion of the DRN (L-DRN, performed two days before experiments and confirmed by histology at the end of the experiments, presented increased sensitivity to the dehydration induced by fluid deprivation. The cumulative water intake of L-DRN rats reached 23.3 ± 1.9 ml (a 79% increase, N = 9 while sham-lesioned rats (SL-DRN did not exceed 13.0 ± 1.0 ml (N = 11, P < 0.0001 after 5 h. The L-DRN rats treated with isoproterenol (300 µg kg-1 ml-1, sc exhibited an increase in water intake that persisted throughout the experimental period (L-DRN, 15.7 ± 1.47 ml, N = 9 vs SL-DRN, 9.3 ± 1.8 ml, N = 11, P < 0.05. The L-DRN rats also showed an increased spontaneous sodium appetite during the entire period of assessment. The intake of 0.3 M NaCl after 12, 24, 36 and 72 h by the L-DRN rats was always higher than 20.2 ± 4.45 ml (N = 10, while the intake by SL-DRN was always lower than 2.45 ± 0.86 ml (N = 10, P < 0.00001. Sodium- and water-depleted L-DRN rats also exhibited an increased sodium appetite (13.9 ± 2.0 ml, N = 11 compared to SL-DRN (4.6 ± 0.64 ml, N = 11 after 120 min of observation (P < 0.02. The sodium preference of L-DRN rats in both conditions was always higher than that of SL-DRN rats. These results suggest that electrolytic lesion of the DRN overcomes a tonic inhibitory component of sodium appetite.
Martins, Catia Vanessa Garcia; Kulseng, Bard; Rehfeld, Jens F
The effect of exercise on body mass is likely to be partially mediated through changes in appetite control. However, no studies have examined the effect of chronic exercise on obestatin and cholecystokinin (CCK) plasma concentrations or the sensitivity to detect differences in preload energy...... in obese individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on 1) fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of obestatin, CCK, leptin, and glucose insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and 2) the accuracy of energy compensation in response to covert preload manipulation....
N. A. Tyuvina
Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.
Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob
OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...
Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.
This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.
Delamater, Andrew R; Campese, Vincent; Westbrook, R Frederick
Previous research has reported a role for the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the extinction and renewal of conditioned fear. Here, the authors examine whether GABA is involved in the acquisition, extinction, renewal, spontaneous recovery, and latent inhibition of appetitive conditioning. Using Long-Evans rats, systemic injection of the GABA A receptor inverse agonist FG 7142 was shown to eliminate ABA renewal (Experiment 1) and spontaneous recovery (Experiment 4) of appetitive responding by selectively reducing the recovery of extinguished magazine approach. Furthermore, treatment with FG 7142 had no effects on acquisition or single-session extinction (Experiment 3) or on the context-specific expression of latent inhibition (Experiment 2). These data suggest that ABA renewal and spontaneous recovery, but not latent inhibition or responding during acquisition and an initial extinction session, are mediated by GABAergic mechanisms in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. They provide support for the view that renewal and spontaneous recovery share a common psychological mechanism.
Causes may include: Anxiety Certain drugs (such as corticosteroids, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants) Bulimia (most common in women 18 to 30 years old) Diabetes mellitus (including gestational diabetes ) Graves disease ...
Ziegelstein, R C
Depression is an independent risk factor for increased postmyocardial infarction morbidity and mortality, even after controlling for the extent of coronary artery disease, infarct size, and the severity of left ventricular dysfunction. This risk factor takes on added significance when one considers that almost half of patients recovering from a myocardial infarction have major or minor depression and that major depression alone occurs in about one in five of these individuals. Despite the well-documented risk of depression, questions remain about the mechanism of the relationship between mood disturbance and adverse outcome. The link may be explained by an association with lower levels of social support, poor adherence to recommended medical therapy and lifestyle changes intended to reduce the risk of subsequent cardiac events, disturbances in autonomic tone, enhanced platelet activation and aggregation, and systemic immune activation. Unfortunately, questions about the pathophysiologic mechanism of depression in this setting are paralleled by uncertainties about the optimal treatment of depression for patients recovering from a myocardial infarction and by a lack of knowledge about whether treating depression lowers the associated increased mortality risk. Ongoing research studies will help to determine the benefits of psychosocial interventions and of antidepressant therapy for patients soon after myocardial infarction. Although the identification of depression as a risk factor may by itself be a reason to incorporate a comprehensive psychological evaluation into the routine care of patients with myocardial infarction, this practice should certainly become standard if studies show that treating depression reduces the increased mortality risk of these patients.
Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Manit Srisurapanont, Narong Maneeton, Benchalak Maneeton Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Precise estimated risks and benefits of quetiapine for acute bipolar depression are needed for clinical practice. Objective: To systematically review the efficacy and the tolerability of quetiapine, either as monotherapy or combination therapy, for acute bipolar depression. Methods: We included all randomized, controlled trials (RCTs comparing quetiapine with other treatments, including placebo, in patients with acute bipolar depression (bipolar I or II disorder, major depressive episode. Published and unpublished RCTs were identified using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, Web of Knowledge™, CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, the EU Clinical Trials Register database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The primary outcome was the change scores of depression rating scales. Results: Eleven RCTs (n=3,488 were included. Two of them were conducted in children and adolescents. The change in depression scores was significantly greater in the quetiapine group compared with the placebo group (mean difference, [MD] =-4.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.59 to -3.73. The significant difference was observed from week 1. Compared with placebo, quetiapine had higher incidence rates of extrapyramidal side effects, sedation, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, constipation, dry mouth, increased appetite, and weight gain but lower risks of treatment-emergent mania and headache. Quetiapine treatment was associated with significant improvement of clinical global impression, quality of life, sleep quality, anxiety, and functioning. Conclusion: Quetiapine monotherapy is effective for acute bipolar depression and the prevention of mania/hypomania switching. Its common adverse effects are extrapyramidal side effects, sedation, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, constipation, dry mouth
Deighton, Kevin; Frampton, James; Gonzalez, Javier T
Single-course, ad libitum meals are recommended for the assessment of energy intake within appetite research. This study represents the first investigation of the comparative sensitivity of two single-course, ad libitum meals designed to differ in palatability. We conducted two experiments using a preload study design. All protocols were identical except for the energy content of the preloads (Expt 1: 579 and 1776 kJ; Expt 2: 828 and 4188 kJ). During each experiment, ten healthy men completed four experimental trials constituting a low- or high-energy preload beverage, a 60-min intermeal interval and consumption of a pasta-based or a porridge-based, ad libitum meal. Appetite ratings were measured throughout each trial, and palatability was assessed after food consumption. Preload manipulation did not influence appetite (P=0·791) or energy intake (P=0·561) in Expt 1. Palatability and energy intake were higher for the pasta meal than for the porridge meal in both experiments (palatability P≤0·002; energy intake P≤0·001). In Expt 2, consumption of the high-energy preload decreased appetite (P=0·051) and energy intake (P=0·002). Energy compensation was not significantly different between pasta and porridge meals (P=0·172), but was more strongly correlated with preceding changes in appetite at the pasta meal (r -0·758; P=0·011) than the porridge meal (r -0·498; P=0·143). The provision of a highly palatable, pasta-based meal produced energy intakes that were more representative of preceding appetite ratings, but the moderately palatable, porridge-based meal produced more ecologically valid energy intakes. Ad libitum meal selection and design may require a compromise between sensitivity and ecological validity.
Astell, Katie J; Mathai, Michael L; Su, Xiao Q
As obesity has reached epidemic proportions, the management of this global disease is of clinical importance. The availability and popularity of natural dietary supplements for the treatment of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this paper was to review the effect of commonly available over the counter plant-derived supplements used to suppress appetite for obesity control and management. The data were obtained from the electronic databases PubMed, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and MEDLINE with full text (via EBSCOHost) and the databases were accessed during late 2012 - early January 2013. The botanical species discussed in this review include Camellia sinensis, Caralluma fimbriata, Citrus aurantium, Coleus forskohlii, Garcinia cambogia and Phaseolus vulgaris. This review found that many botanical species including crude extracts and isolated compounds from plants have been shown to provide potentially promising therapeutic effects including appetite control and weight loss. However, many of these crude extracts and compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long term safety, and potential side effects.
Full Text Available Human milk (HM appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59 provided milk samples (n = 283 at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008 and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007, and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028 concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively. Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components.
De Luca, Laurival A Jr; Xu, Zhice; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Menani, Jose V.; Johnson, Alan Kim
Adult rats deprived of water for 24-30 h were allowed to rehydrate by ingesting only water for 1-2 h. Rats were then given access to both water and 1.8% NaCl. This procedure induced a sodium appetite defined by the operational criteria of a significant increase in 1.8% NaCl intake (3.8 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h; n = 6). Expression of Fos (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), subfornical organ (SFO), and supraoptic nucleus (SON) after water deprivation. After rehydration with water but before consumption of 1.8% NaCl, Fos expression in the SON disappeared and was partially reduced in the OVLT and MnPO. However, Fos expression did not change in the SFO. Water deprivation also 1) increased plasma renin activity (PRA), osmolality, and plasma Na+; 2) decreased blood volume; and 3) reduced total body Na+; but 4) did not alter arterial blood pressure. Rehydration with water alone caused only plasma osmolality and plasma Na+ concentration to revert to euhydrated levels. The changes in Fos expression and PRA are consistent with a proposed role for ANG II in the control of the sodium appetite produced by water deprivation followed by rehydration with only water.
Fetissov, Sergueï O.; Lucas, Nicolas; Legrand, Romain
Part of circulating ghrelin is bound to immunoglobulins (Ig) protecting it from degradation and preserving its functional activity. This review summarizes the data on ghrelin- and desacyl-ghrelin-reactive IgG in conditions of altered appetite and energy balance. Plasma levels and affinity kinetics of such IgG were compared in patients with obesity and anorexia nervosa (AN) and in animal models of obesity including ob/ob mice, high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and obese Zucker rats as well as in mice after chronic food restriction and activity-based anorexia and in rats with methotrexate-induced anorexia. We show that plasmatic IgG in both obese humans and animals are characterized by increased affinity for ghrelin. In contrast, patients with AN and anorectic rodents all show lower affinity of ghrelin- and desacyl-ghrelin-reactive IgG, respectively, the changes which were not observed in non-anorectic, chronically starved mice. We also show that affinity of ghrelin-reactive IgG correlate with plasma levels of ghrelin. These data point to common mechanisms underlying modifications of affinity kinetics properties of ghrelin-reactive IgG during chronic alterations of energy balance in humans and rodents and support a functional role of such autoantibodies in ghrelin-mediated regulation of appetite. PMID:28191004
Full Text Available The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source of energy, isolated fructose, in processed food products has been associated with several health disorders such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Apart from its metabolic consequences, a growing body of literature suggests that free fructose can also affect neuronal systems. High fructose intake may on the one hand affect central appetite regulation by altering specific components of the endocannabinoid system. On the other hand it appears to impact on cognitive function by affecting phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin. The present report reviews the recent evidence showing a negative effect of free fructose consumption on central appetite control, as well as cognitive function.
Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang
The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers.
Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.
Yau, Hau-Jie; Wang, Dong V; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Billy T; Deisseroth, Karl; Ikemoto, Satoshi; Bonci, Antonello
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA) neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.
Kearns, David N; Tunstall, Brendan J; Marks, Katherine R; Weiss, Stanley J
Previous studies have suggested that the effects of extinction are response-specific. The present study investigated whether an extinction treatment that eliminated goal tracking elicited by an appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) would also eliminate the conditioned reinforcing effects of that CS. Rats were first trained on a goal-tracking procedure in which an auditory CS was paired with a food unconditioned stimulus. Animals learned to approach the location where the food was delivered. In a subsequent phase, rats in one group received extinction training that eliminated the goal-tracking elicited by the CS. Rats in the other group did not experience extinction of the food-paired CS. Then, both groups received a test for conditioned reinforcement in which leverpresses resulted in the brief presentation of the stimulus previously paired with food. This stimulus did not act as a conditioned reinforcer in the group that had been subjected to extinction training, but did serve as a conditioned reinforcer in the group that did not experience extinction. These results indicate that the effects of extinction generalize from the approach-eliciting to the conditioned reinforcing effects of an appetitive CS.
Chu, Shu-Chen; Chen, Pei-Ni; Ho, Ying-Jui; Yu, Ching-Han; Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Kuo, Dong-Yih
Amphetamine (AMPH)-induced appetite suppression has been attributed to its inhibition of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons in the hypothalamus. This study examined whether hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-containing neurons and NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) were involved in the action of AMPH. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days, and changes in feeding behavior and expression levels of NPY, CART, and POMC were assessed and compared. The results showed that both feeding behavior and NPY expression decreased during AMPH treatment, with the biggest reduction occurring on Day 2. By contrast, the expression of CART and melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R), a member of the POMC neurotransmission, increased with the maximum response on Day 2, directly opposite to the NPY expression results. The intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY antisense or Y1R inhibitor both modulated AMPH-induced anorexia and the expression levels of MC3R and CART. The results suggest that in the hypothalamus both POMC- and CART-containing neurons participate in regulating NPY-mediated appetite control during AMPH treatment. These results may advance the knowledge of molecular mechanism of anorectic drugs.
Kugananthan, Sambavi; Gridneva, Zoya; Lai, Ching T.; Hepworth, Anna R.; Mark, Peter J.; Kakulas, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T.
Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59) provided milk samples (n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, total protein and lactose were measured. Maternal %FM was measured using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Higher maternal %FM was associated with higher leptin concentrations in both whole (0.006 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.008) and skim HM (0.005 ± 0.002 ng/mL, p = 0.007), and protein (0.16 ± 0.07 g/L, p = 0.028) concentrations. Adiponectin and lactose concentrations were not associated with %FM (0.01 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.81; 0.08 ± 0.11 g/L, p = 0.48, respectively). Whole milk concentrations of adiponectin and leptin did not differ significantly over the first year of lactation. These findings suggest that the level of maternal adiposity during lactation may influence the early appetite programming of breastfed infants by modulating concentrations of HM components. PMID:28282925
Shafran, Yigal; Wolowelsky, Joel B
The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal.
Charlton, Karen E; Tapsell, Linda C; Batterham, Marijka J; Thorne, Rebecca; O'Shea, Jane; Zhang, Qingsheng; Beck, Eleanor J
The effects of three different meat-containing breakfast meals (pork, beef or chicken) on acute satiety and appetite regulatory hormones were compared using a within-subjects study design. Thirty fasting non-smoking pre-menopausal women attended a research centre on three test days to consume, a meat-containing meal matched in energy (kJ) and protein content, palatability, and appearance. No difference was found between meat groups for either energy intake or macronutrient profile of food consumed at a subsequent ad libitum buffet lunch, or over the rest of the day. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ratings for hunger and satiety over an 180 min period did not differ between test meals. After consumption of the test meals, a significant difference was found in PYY response between pork and chicken meals (P=0.027) but not for levels of CCK, ghrelin, insulin or glucose. This study positions pork, beef, and chicken as equal in their effect on satiety and release of appetite-related intestinal hormones and of insulin.
Roberts, A C; Reekie, Y; Braesicke, K
This paper will review two avenues of our research in marmosets that have focused on the role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in amygdala-dependent appetitive behavior. The first demonstrates the important contribution of both the OFC and the amygdala to conditioned reinforcement (CRF). The second reveals the regulatory effects of the OFC on amygdala-dependent autonomic and behavioral arousal in appetitive conditioning. The process of CRF is one way in which an environmental cue can guide emotional behavior. As a consequence of its previous relationship with reward, a cue can take on affective value and reinforce behavior. Lesion studies in marmosets are described that show that CRF is dependent upon both the amygdala and OFC. The synergistic interactions between these structures that have been shown to underlie other aspects of reward processing are then considered with respect to CRF. The results are contrasted with those that show the importance of the OFC in suppressing positive affective responses elicited by the amygdala in response to a conditioned stimulus (CS). Specifically, it will be shown that the OFC is involved in the rapid suppression of conditioned autonomic arousal upon CS withdrawal and in the co-ordination of conditioned autonomic and behavioral responses when adapting to changing reward contingencies. It will be argued that, overall, the OFC plays a critical role in the context-dependent regulation of positive affective responding governed by external cues, in keeping with a role in executive control.
Colomb, J; Kaiser, L; Chabaud, M-A; Preat, T
Distinct forms of memory can be highlighted using different training protocols. In Drosophila olfactory aversive learning, one conditioning session triggers memory formation independently of protein synthesis, while five spaced conditioning sessions lead to the formation of long-term memory (LTM), a long-lasting memory dependent on de novo protein synthesis. In contrast, one session of odour-sugar association appeared sufficient for the fly to form LTM. We designed and tuned an apparatus that facilitates repeated discriminative conditioning by alternate presentations of two odours, one being associated with sugar, as well as a new paradigm to test sugar responsiveness (SR). Our results show that both SR and short-term memory (STM) scores increase with starvation length before conditioning. The protein dependency of appetitive LTM is independent of the repetition and the spacing of training sessions, on the starvation duration and on the strength of the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast to a recent report, our test measures an abnormal SR of radish mutant flies, which might initiate their STM and LTM phenotypes. In addition, our work shows that crammer and tequila mutants, which are deficient for aversive LTM, present both an SR and an appetitive STM defect. Using the MB247-P[switch] system, we further show that tequila is required in the adult mushroom bodies for normal sugar motivation.
D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Lyons, David J; Cristiano, Claudia; Burke, Luke K; Madara, Joseph C; Campbell, John N; Garcia, Ana Paula; Land, Benjamin B; Lowell, Bradford B; Dileone, Ralph J; Heisler, Lora K
The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a key gateway for meal-related signals entering the brain from the periphery. However, the chemical mediators crucial to this process have not been fully elucidated. We reveal that a subset of NTS neurons containing cholecystokinin (CCK(NTS)) is responsive to nutritional state and that their activation reduces appetite and body weight in mice. Cell-specific anterograde tracing revealed that CCK(NTS) neurons provide a distinctive innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), with fibers and varicosities in close apposition to a subset of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R(PVH)) cells, which are also responsive to CCK. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within the PVH reveal the satiating function of CCK(NTS) neurons to be mediated by a CCK(NTS)→PVH pathway that also encodes positive valence. These data identify the functional significance of CCK(NTS) neurons and reveal a sufficient and discrete NTS to hypothalamus circuit controlling appetite.
Clayton, David J; James, Lewis J
The belief that breakfast is the most important meal of day has been derived from cross-sectional studies that have associated breakfast consumption with a lower BMI. This suggests that breakfast omission either leads to an increase in energy intake or a reduction in energy expenditure over the remainder of the day, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. However, observational studies do not imply causality. A number of intervention studies have been conducted, enabling more precise determination of breakfast manipulation on indices of energy balance. This review will examine the results from these studies in adults, attempting to identify causal links between breakfast and energy balance, as well as determining whether consumption of breakfast influences exercise performance. Despite the associations in the literature, intervention studies have generally found a reduction in total daily energy intake when breakfast is omitted from the daily meal pattern. Moreover, whilst consumption of breakfast supresses appetite during the morning, this effect appears to be transient as the first meal consumed after breakfast seems to offset appetite to a similar extent, independent of breakfast. Whether breakfast affects energy expenditure is less clear. Whilst breakfast does not seem to affect basal metabolism, breakfast omission may reduce free-living physical activity and endurance exercise performance throughout the day. In conclusion, the available research suggests breakfast omission may influence energy expenditure more strongly than energy intake. Longer term intervention studies are required to confirm this relationship, and determine the impact of these variables on weight management.
Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.
Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The
Pasman, W.J.; Heimerikx, J.; Rubingh, C.M.; Berg, R. van den; O'Shea, M.; Gambelli, L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Einerhand, A.W.C.; Scott, C.; Keizer, H.G.; Mennen, L.I.
Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (
Wanders, A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jonathan, M.C.; Schols, H.A.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.
An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber
Undine E. Lang
Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.
Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan
Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.
Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...
... Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet ePublications Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet (PDF, 260 ...
Full Text Available In the field of psychogeriatrics, the differential diagnosis of depression and dementia, as well as the treatment of depression and comorbid dementia, is an important issue. In this paper, the authors present the case of a 72-year-old woman with Cotard’s syndrome and frontotemporal dementia (FTD who was admitted to a psychiatric hospital with delusions of negation accompanied by depressive symptoms. Pharmacotherapy over a 2-year hospitalization was unsuccessful, and she was subsequently transferred to our university hospital. A total of 18 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy released her from psychomotor inhibition, appetite loss, and Cotard’s delusions. The indication for electroconvulsive therapy in patients with dementia is discussed.
Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan
Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…
Veltman, E M; Rhebergen, D; van Exel, E; Stek, M L
Hashimoto encephalitis (he) is an auto-immune disease, with 40-50% of patients developing psychopathology. This could require targeted treatment. HE and prednison could both cloud the identification of a concurrent depressive disorder. We saw a 78-year-old woman with he and a severe depression, and treated her succesfully with ect.
Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.
... the community by APA Topic Information Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. See definition, symptoms, & treatment More Posts Blog Posts Apr 06, 2017 ...
... slowly than in younger adults. To better manage depression at home: Exercise regularly, if the provider says it is OK. Surround yourself with caring, positive people and do fun activities. ... signs of depression, and know how to react if these occur. ...
The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had antidepressan
Larsen, Karen Kjær
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined...... whether the mental burden of MI is so heavy that it increases the risk of suicide. Although post-MI depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognised and under-treated. The development of new strategies to improve the quality of care for people with post-MI depression requires...... thorough understanding of the mechanisms that influence the prognosis as well as knowledge of the present care provided. The purpose of this PhD thesis is accordingly subdivided into four specific aims: 1. To estimate the prevalence of depression in people with MI after three months, and to estimate...
Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...
Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O
The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.
Suicide is a major public health problem and the number of suicide victims has exceeded 30,000 a year since 1998 in Japan. The rates of depression are extremely high in suicide victims. Social and environmental factors, such as the slow recovery of Japanese economy, could have a strong effect on depression and suicide, especially in middle-aged men. To reduce the number of suicide victims, we need to use both population-based and high-risk approaches, targeting individuals with high psychological and socioeconomic risks of suicide, especially depressed patients. On the other hand, the role of antidepressants in suicide prevention is a major question given the high prevalence of both depression and depression-related suicidality. Because treatment and prevention of suicide are complex and encompass many factors, success will need multi-sector collaboration.
Dundon, Edith Emma
Concerns about the adequate assessment and treatment of adolescent depression have been in the forefront of pediatric mental health literature in the recent past. While quantitative studies have provided valuable information, the voice of the adolescent has been lacking in the development of theory and treatment of this prevalent disorder. Using approach, a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies was conducted. This process revealed six themes that outline the course of adolescents who struggle with depression: (a) beyond the blues, (b) spiraling down and within, (c) breaking points, (d) seeing and being seen, (e) seeking solutions, and (f) taking control. Knowledge of the experience of adolescent depression will aid practitioners in recognition and early intervention for the increasing number of adolescents suffering with depression, as well as guide educational initiatives to provide needed information on the symptoms of depression and available resources for getting help.
Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini
Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and
Joanne L Griggs
Full Text Available Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS results from a deletion of the paternal genes in the region of chromosome 15q11-q13. PWS develops hyperphagia, which when left unmanaged, leads to an excessive ingestion of food. To date there is inadequate pharmacological treatment or supplementation for modification of the PWS hyperphagia and/or the associated behaviors. Therefore, the best practice is familial supervision and restriction of diet and environment. Aim: We aimed to determine if the natural supplement of Caralluma fimbriata extract (CFE could attenuate hyperphagia or the associated appetite behaviors in children and adolescents with PWS over the 4-week pilot trial period. Materials and Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized crossover trial over a 10-week period to investigate the effects of CFE on hunger control, in a cohort of children and adolescents with confirmed PWS (n =15, mean age 9.27 ± 3.16 years, body weight 43.98 ± 23.99 kg. Participants from Australia and New Zealand ingested CFE or a placebo of maltodextrin/cabbage leaf over a 4-week period, with a 2-week washout before the crossover to the other treatment. Weekly comparisons in appetite behavior, severity, and drive were recorded by parents, as scaled time-point measures on a hyperphagia questionnaire validated for PWS. Results: CFE administration was found to induce a significant accumulative easing of hyperphagia (P = 0.05, with decreases evident in one-third of the participants. Furthermore due to CFE supplementation, a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05 was recorded in the category of behavior and a decrease in hyperphagia (n = 8, P = 0.009 was observed at the highest dose 1,000 mg/day (recommended adult dose. There were no reported adverse effects at any dose. Conclusion: We demonstrate that an extract of the Indian cactus succulent Caralluma fimbriata eases hyperphagic appetite behavior within a cohort of children and adolescents (n = 15 with
Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.
Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E
Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS.
Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D
The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.
This thesis describes experiments studying the impact of nutritionally modified foods on food acceptance and appetite control. The major outcomes of the studies relate to (1) predictive validity of laboratory sensory tests on food consumption, (2) effects of macronutrient and energy content manipula
Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. DESIGN: The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol...
Yau, Adora M. W.; McLaughlin, John; Gilmore, William; Maughan, Ronald J.; Evans, Gethin H.
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min. Appetite was measured using visual analogue scales (VAS). The ingestion of F and S resulted in a lower GIP incremental area under the curve (iAUC) compared to the ingestion of G (p < 0.05). No differences in the iAUC for GLP-1 or ghrelin were present between the trials, nor for insulin between the sugars. No differences in appetite ratings or hepatic metabolism measures were found, except for lactate, which was greater following the ingestion of F, S, and C, when compared to W and G (p < 0.05). The acute ingestion of typical amounts of fructose, in a variety of forms, results in marked differences in circulating GIP and lactate concentration, but no differences in appetite ratings, triglyceride concentration, indicative lipolysis, or NEFA metabolism, when compared to glucose. PMID:28216550
Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A
The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic ...
Full Text Available Obesity causes a significant negative impact on health of human beings world-wide. The main reason for weight gain, which eventually leads to obesity, is excessive ingestion of energy above the body’s homeostatic needs. Therefore, the elucidation of detailed mechanisms for appetite control is necessary to prevent and treat obesity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor is a post-synaptic glutamate receptor and is important for excitatory neurotransmission. It is expressed throughout the nervous system, and is important for long-term potentiation. It requires both ligand (glutamate and co-agonist (d-serine or glycine for efficient opening of the channel to allow calcium influx. d-serine is contained in fermented foods and marine invertebrates, and brain d-serine level is maintained by synthesis in vivo and supply from food and gut microbiota. Although the NMDA receptor has been reported to take part in the central regulation of appetite, the role of d-serine had not been addressed. We recently reported that exogenous d-serine administration can suppress appetite and alter food preference. In this review, we will discuss how NMDA receptor and its co-agonist d-seine participate in the control of appetite and food preference, and elaborate on how this system could possibly be manipulated to suppress obesity.
Edholm, T; Degerblad, M; Grybäck, P
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are major incretins with important effects on glucoregulatory functions. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of GIP and GLP-1 on gastric emptying and appetite after a mixed meal, and effects on ins...
Larnkjaer, Anni; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian
High infancy weight gain is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR) in later life, but the association with later body composition has not been well explored. Appetite regulatory hormones may be programmed in early life, but data to support this are lacking....
Foltz, Martin; Maljaars, Jeroen; Schuring, Ewoud A. H.; van der Wal, Robert J. P.; Boer, Theo; Duchateau, Guus S. M.; Peters, Harry P. F.; Stellaard, Frans; Masclee, Ad A.
Foltz M, Maljaars J, Schuring EA, van der Wal RJ, Boer T, Duchateau GS, Peters HP, Stellaard F, Masclee AA. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G982-G991,
Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; Macintyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements or placebos for six months. Appetite tests were performed at enrollment and after three and six months. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial cereal test food served after an overnight fast according to standardized procedures. Body weights and total amount of test food eaten were measured. In total, 99 children completed the study (50 on supplements and 49 on placebos). Amounts eaten per kilogram body weight in the supplement group at enrollment and after six months were 36.7+/-17.7 g/kg (mean+/-SD) and 41.3+/-15.0 g/kg respectively, while the amounts in the placebo group were 47.1+/-14.9 g/kg and 45.7+/-13.1g/kg respectively. The change in amount eaten per kilogram body weight over six months was significantly higher in the supplement group (4.7+/-14.7 g/kg) than in the placebo group (-1.4+/-15.1g/kg). Multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months seems to significantly improve the appetite of HIV-infected children.
Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Patel, Barkha P; Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Mollard, Rebecca C; Hamilton, Jill K; Anderson, G Harvey
The effect of beverages commonly consumed by children in-between or with meals on short-term food intake (FI) and glycemic control has received little attention. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted in 9- to 14-year-old children following a randomized repeated-measures design. Experiment 1 (n = 32) compared the effects of water (control) and isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk, chocolate milk, yogurt drink, and fruit punch on subjective appetite and FI. Experiment 2 (n = 20) compared the effects of isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk and fruit punch on subjective appetite, FI, and glycemic and appetite hormone responses. One serving of the beverages was given as a pre-meal drink at baseline (0 min) and a second serving 60 min later with an ad libitum pizza meal. Meal FI in experiment 1 was lower by 14% and 10%, respectively, after chocolate milk and yogurt drink (p children (p = 0.02). Milk led to higher pre-meal glucagon-like peptide-1 and post-meal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) than fruit punch (p appetite, and satiety hormones than a sugar-sweetened beverage, but all caloric beverages result in more cumulative calories than if water is the beverage.
Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.
Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In…
van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco C; Bouton, Mark E; Jansen, Anita
Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in responding that occurs during extinction is slow. After extinction, increases in responding with renewed reinforcement of food cues (reacquisition) might be less rapid after acquisition with partial reinforcement. In humans, it may be that the eating behaviour of some individuals resembles partial reinforcement schedules to a greater extent, possibly affecting dieting success by interacting with extinction and reacquisition. Furthermore, impulsivity has been associated with less successful dieting, and this association might be explained by impulsivity affecting the learning and extinction of appetitive responses. In the present two studies, the effects of different reinforcement schedules and impulsivity on the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition of appetitive responses were investigated in a conditioning paradigm involving food rewards in healthy humans. Overall, the results indicate both partial reinforcement schedules and, possibly, impulsivity to be associated with worse extinction performance. A new model of dieting success is proposed: learning histories and, perhaps, certain personality traits (impulsivity) can interfere with the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses to food cues and they may be causally related to unsuccessful dieting.
A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control. From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients. Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can influence
Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; Kok, F.J.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements
Adolphus, Katie; Bellissimo, Nick; Lawton, Clare L; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Dye, Louise
Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day.
Full Text Available Depression is an etiologically heterogeneous group of brain disorders characterized by a wide range of symptoms that reflect alterations in cognitive, psychomotor and emotional processes. Depression is a common problem affecting about 121 million people world-wide. It occurs in persons of all genders, ages, and back- grounds. The human stress experience contributes to the pathogenesis of depression, and may also play a role in the severity and recurrence of this debilitating illness. Despite its prevalence and social impact, its prognosis and management are often poor, not only due to the heterogeneity of this ailment, but also our lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology underlying depression. Various areas of brain like forebrain, hippocampus, amygdala, limbic system and medial prefrontal cortex appear to be implicated in depression. The two most well accepted international systems are the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM-IV of the American Psychiatric Association and the International Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 of the World Health Organization (WHO. Depression refers to a wide range of mental health problems which is characterized by Depressed mood most of the day, anhedonia, large increase or decrease in appetite, insomnia, psychomotor agitation (evident by, for example, hand wringing or slowness of movement, fatigue or loss of energy, Indecisiveness or diminished ability to think or concentrate, Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Despite our increased understanding of both its pathophysiology and treatment, depression remains highly prevalent, accounting for more disability than any other disorder world wide.
Full Text Available Background: Depressive disorders in children and adolescents are chronic and highly morbid. Few studies are carried out on antidepressant drugs for depressed youths, especially specific noradrenergic agents. Reboxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of reboxetine in childhood and adolescent depression. Methods: Twenty patients of both genders, aged 7-17 years old, with major depressive or dysthymic disorders, as classified by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, participated in an 8-week clinical trial before-after study of reboxetine. Clinical semistructured interviews, based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS, were carried out. Reboxtine was initiated at a dose of 1 mg/day and increased up to 6 mg/day. Patients were assessed for changes in: depressive symptoms using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI and global functioning by the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS. Side effect questionnaire was also administered. Results: There was a significant decrease in the ineffectiveness subscale (C factor of CDI (p=0.006. Although the CDI scores decreased by 32.69%, this change was not significant (p=0.39. No significant change in C-GAS (p=0.2 was observed. Adverse effects were relatively mild to moderate and transient. The most common adverse effects were decreased appetite and sedation. Conclusions: Reboxetine is relatively well tolerated and improves feelings of ineffectiveness among depressed children and adolescents; however it does not improve all depressive symptoms. Double-blind, placebo and active comparator controlled studies and larger sample sizes are indicated.
Jae Seung Chang
Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.
Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K
Ghrelin and leptin are key peripherally secreted appetite-regulating hormones in vertebrates. Here we consider the ghrelin gene (GHRL) of birds (class Aves), where it has been reported that ghrelin inhibits rather than augments feeding. Thirty-one bird species were compared, revealing that most species harbour a functional copy of GHRL and the coding region for its derived peptides ghrelin and obestatin. We provide evidence for loss of GHRL in saker and peregrine falcons, and this is likely to result from the insertion of an ERVK retrotransposon in intron 0. We hypothesise that the loss of anorexigenic ghrelin is a predatory adaptation that results in increased food-seeking behaviour and feeding in falcons.
Brent A Field
Full Text Available Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.
Field, Brent A; Buck, Cara L; McClure, Samuel M; Nystrom, Leigh E; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D
Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects' attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value.
Field, Brent A.; Buck, Cara L.; McClure, Samuel M.; Nystrom, Leigh E.; Kahneman, Daniel; Cohen, Jonathan D.
Studies of subjective well-being have conventionally relied upon self-report, which directs subjects’ attention to their emotional experiences. This method presumes that attention itself does not influence emotional processes, which could bias sampling. We tested whether attention influences experienced utility (the moment-by-moment experience of pleasure) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the activity of brain systems thought to represent hedonic value while manipulating attentional load. Subjects received appetitive or aversive solutions orally while alternatively executing a low or high attentional load task. Brain regions associated with hedonic processing, including the ventral striatum, showed a response to both juice and quinine. This response decreased during the high-load task relative to the low-load task. Thus, attentional allocation may influence experienced utility by modulating (either directly or indirectly) the activity of brain mechanisms thought to represent hedonic value. PMID:26158468
Dham, Shefali; Banerji, Mary A
Obesity is the most common metabolic disease globally. It is increasingly a problem of children and individuals in poor countries characterized by food insecurity. This is of great concern as childhood obesity predicts increased future adult obesity. To curb the epidemic of obesity, it is essential to understand the regulation of appetite. Energy stores and nutrient homeostasis are maintained by hypothalamic regulation of energy balance. The hypothalamus receives neural and endocrine signals from the gut, adipose tissue and pancreas in response to food intake. These are integrated, interpreted and directed to other centers in the brain and peripheral organs to orchestrate energy homeostasis. This brain-gut axis is disrupted in obesity. This review discusses the various hormones involved in the regulation of energy balance both at the level of the gut and in the central nervous system.
Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal
on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence......This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...... on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity...
Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine the role of a novel peptide – nesfatin 1- in appetite control and define its anorectic mechanism in order to reveal whether it can be used in fight against obesity. We reviewed the articles in the literature investigating the structure, mechanism of effect and experimental usefulness of nesfatin-1. We entered the word “nesfatin” to medical databases and reviewed the literature. Administration of nesfatin-1 maintains a significant reduce in food intake. Its effectiveness in rats is proven. More and more, new researches are in progress to determine its exact mechanism of effect. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety agent. However, use of nesfatin-1 as an anti-obesity agent in humans remains an unclarified field and needs further investigations. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 60-64
Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung
Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea.
Berthon, Bronwyn S; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Wood, Lisa G
Obesity is a serious risk factor for chronic disease, and commonly prescribed oral glucocorticoids (OCS) may be contributing to the prevalence of obesity. The objective of this review was to assess the impact of OCS on obesity in humans through effects on body weight (BW), energy intake, appetite, and body composition. An electronic search of English language peer-reviewed studies from 1973 up to March 2012 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Original studies that addressed the effects of OCS on appetite, energy intake, BW, or body composition in adults were considered eligible. Data from 21 studies with objectively measured outcomes were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. The publication year varied from 1986 to 2013, and the sample size, from 6 to 189. Energy intake was measured in 6 studies; BW, in 19 studies; energy expenditure, in 3 studies; body composition, in 6 studies; and appetite was evaluated in 3 studies. Short-term oral glucocorticoid therapy may result in small increases in energy intake but does not appear to result in increased BW, possibly due to an increase in energy expenditure. Long-term therapy may result in clinically significant weight gain. Within-subject variation due to metabolism and physical activity levels confounds the relationship. A dose-response relationship of oral glucocorticoid therapy on energy intake, appetite, BW, or body composition was not found. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized doses of OCS and assess the effects on appetite, energy intake, BW, and composition are strongly justified to confirm the findings of this review.
Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey
Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children.
Makhlouf, Antoine; Kparker, Ashay; Niederberger, Craig S
Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) clearly are associated. Although urologists and psychiatrists have long recognized that antidepressant medications affect erectile function negatively, the interplay between the two conditions remains underappreciated. Psychiatrists may be reluctant to question a patient in detail about ED, and urologists seldom perform a formal assessment of the presence of depression in patients who have ED. This article gives a quick overview of the relationship between these two conditions and provides the clinician with the knowledge required to effectively manage ED with comorbid depression.
Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming; Deleuran, Anette
AIM OF DATABASE: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD) is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. STUDY POPULATION: Inpatients as well as outpatients...... with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. MAIN VARIABLES: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well...
Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack...... of compliance. Regarding treatment, evidence is sparse, but switching to a different antidepressant, and combination or augmentation with another agent, admission and treatment with ECT are the options. The choice of treatment must be based on the characteristics of the depression, the severity of treatment...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' , . The neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether the NK1-receptor system plays a role in the reinforcing properties of sucrose using a novel selective and clinically safe NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant (CJ-11,974, in three animal models of sucrose consumption and seeking. Furthermore, we compared the effect of ezlopitant on ethanol consumption and seeking in rodents. The NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant decreased appetitive responding for sucrose more potently than for ethanol using an operant self-administration protocol without affecting general locomotor activity. To further evaluate the selectivity of the NK1-receptor antagonist in decreasing consumption of sweetened solutions, we compared the effects of ezlopitant on water, saccharin-, and sodium chloride (NaCl solution consumption. Ezlopitant decreased intake of saccharin but had no effect on water or salty solution consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the NK1-receptor may be a part of a common pathway regulating the self-administration, motivational and reinforcing aspects of sweetened solutions, regardless of caloric value, and those of substances of abuse. Additionally, these results indicate that the NK1-receptor system may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity induced by over-consumption of natural reinforcers.
Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Hillemacher, Thomas; Leggio, Lorenzo
A significant challenge for understanding alcoholism lies in discovering why some, but not other individuals, become dependent on alcohol. Genetic, environmental, cultural, developmental, and neurobiological influences are recognized as essential factors underlying a person's risk for becoming alcohol dependent (AD); however, the neurobiological processes that trigger this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Hormones are important in the regulation of many functions and several hormones are strongly associated with alcohol use. While medical consequences are important, the primary focus of this review is on the underlying confluence of appetitive/feeding, reproductive and posterior pituitary hormones associated with distinct phases of alcoholism or assessed by alcohol craving in humans. While these hormones are of diverse origin, the involvement with alcoholism by these hormone systems is unmistakable, and demonstrates the complexity of interactions with alcohol and the difficulty of successfully pursuing effective treatments. Whether alcohol associated changes in the activity of certain hormones are the result of alcohol use or are the result of an underlying predisposition for alcoholism, or a combination of both, is currently of great scientific interest. The evidence we present in this review suggests that appetitive hormones may be markers as they appear involved in alcohol dependence and craving, that reproductive hormones provide an example of the consequences of drinking and are affected by alcohol, and that posterior pituitary hormones have potential for being targets for treatment. A better understanding of the nature of these associations may contribute to diagnosing and more comprehensively treating alcoholism. Pharmacotherapies that take advantage of our new understanding of hormones, their receptors, or their potential relationship to craving may shed light on the treatment of this disorder.
Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A
Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041
Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J
The ingestion of foods is comprised of two distinct phases of behavior: appetitive and consummatory. While most food intake paradigms include both phases, the intraoral intake test emphasizes the stereotyped consummatory-phase by infusing a liquid food directly into the oral cavity. Several hypothalamic peptides have been shown to increase intake of chow in standard food intake paradigms and the current experiments sought to test whether these peptides would increase food intake in the intraoral intake paradigm. NPY, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A were infused into the third ventricle (i3vt) in a counterbalanced latin-square design just prior to rats getting 0.1M sucrose solution infused via indwelling intraoral catheters and compared it to intake on bottle tests with access to the same sucrose solution. On the first day, each peptide increased intraoral intake relative to saline in the between-subjects comparison. Moreover, intake of sucrose following i3vt saline increased as a function of training. By the final day of the experiment, rats receiving saline consumed as much sucrose as rats receiving NPY, MCH, or orexin-A. This finding was conceptually replicated in the second experiment in which rats drank sucrose freely from a bottle on the home cage. A third experiment directly assessed the role of previous exposure in the sucrose intake induced by NPY. Those results confirm that repeated exposure to sucrose increases baseline intake and attenuates the hyperphagic effect of NPY. These results are consistent with two conclusions: (1) NPY, MCH, and orexin-A increase both appetitive and consummatory-phase ingestive behaviors on initial exposures; (2) repeated training interacts with the effects of these orexigenic peptides.
Achat-Mendes, Cindy; Ali, Syed F; Itzhak, Yossef
The abuse of substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/Ecstasy) can result in neurotoxicity, manifested as the depletion of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT; serotonin) axon terminal markers in humans and animal models. Human METH and MDMA users exhibit impairments in memory and executive functions, which may be a direct consequence of the neurotoxic potential of amphetamines. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity on Pavlovian learning. Using mouse models of selective DA neurotoxicity (METH; 5 mg/kg x 3), selective 5-HT neurotoxicity (fenfluramine /FEN; 25 mg/kg x 4) and dual DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity (MDMA; 15 mg/kg x 4), appetitive and aversive conditioning were investigated. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity significantly impaired METH and cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), but had no effect on LiCl-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). In contrast, serotonergic neurotoxicity significantly enhanced CPP, and had no effect on CPA. Dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity had no apparent effect on CPP; however, CPA was significantly attenuated. Postmortem analysis revealed that significantly diminished levels of DA and 5-HT markers persisted in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. These findings suggest that amphetamines-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity exert opposing influences on the affective state produced by subsequent drug reward, while dual dopaminergic/serotonergic neurotoxicity impairs associative learning of aversive conditioning. Furthermore, results revealed that amphetamines-induced DA and 5-HT neurotoxicity modulates appetitive Pavlovian conditioning similar to other DA and 5-HT neurotoxins. Modulation of Pavlovian conditioning by amphetamines-induced neurotoxicity may be relevant to compulsive drug-seeking behavior in METH and MDMA abusers.
Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph
In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose.
Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.
Jani, Rati; Mallan, Kimberley M; Daniels, Lynne
This cross-sectional study examined the association between controlling feeding practices and children's appetite traits. The secondary aim studied the relationship between controlling feeding practices and two proxy indicators of diet quality. Participants were 203 Australian-Indian mothers with children aged 1-5 years. Controlling feeding practices (pressure to eat, restriction, monitoring) and children's appetite traits (food approach traits: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, desire to drink, emotional overeating; food avoidance traits: satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and emotional undereating) were measured using self-reported, previously validated scales/questionnaires. Children's daily frequency of consumption of core and non-core foods was estimated using a 49-item list of foods eaten (yes/no) in the previous 24 hours as an indicator of diet quality. Higher pressure to eat was associated with higher scores for satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, fussiness and lower score for enjoyment of food. Higher restriction was related to higher scores for food responsiveness and emotional overeating. Higher monitoring was inversely associated with fussiness, slowness in eating, food responsiveness and emotional overeating and positively associated with enjoyment of food. Pressure to eat and monitoring were related to lower number of core and non-core foods consumed in the previous 24 hours, respectively. All associations remained significant after adjusting for maternal and child covariates (n = 152 due to missing data). In conclusion, pressure to eat was associated with higher food avoidance traits and lower consumption of core foods. Restrictive feeding practices were associated with higher food approach traits. In contrast, monitoring practices were related to lower food avoidance and food approach traits and lower non-core food consumption.
Hardman, Charlotte A; Herbert, Vanessa M B; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Munafò, Marcus R; Rogers, Peter J
It has been suggested that obese individuals over-eat in order to compensate for deficits in the dopaminergic reward system. The current study used acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) to investigate the effect of reduced dopamine function on appetite and the reward value of food in healthy volunteers. The compensatory-eating hypothesis would predict an increase in the reward value and consumption of food following depletion by this method. In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 17 male participants (mean age=29.2 (SEM=2.7) years; mean body mass index=24.4 (SEM=0.6) kg/m(2)) were administered with a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free; depletion condition) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL; control). Plasma amino acid levels were measured at baseline and peak depletion (300 min). Appetite, willingness to pay for food, liking, desired portion size and ad libitum food intake were also assessed. The TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with significant decreases in tyrosine, phenylalanine, and the ratio of tyrosine+phenylalanine to the other large neutral amino acids (all p<.001). There were no effects on our measures of willingness to pay for food or liking. However, in the TYR/PHE-free condition, participants reported significantly lower levels of hunger following a fixed-test meal relative to the BAL condition. In conclusion, we found no evidence for compensatory eating following ATPD. Our results also provide support for the role of dopamine in motivational components of eating.
Ramaekers, Mariëlle G; Boesveldt, Sanne; Gort, Gerrit; Lakemond, Catriona M M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Luning, Pieternel A
Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The objective of this study was to investigate how actively sniffing banana odors affects general appetite, SSA, and subsequent food intake. In a crossover study, 61 women actively smelled cups containing natural banana, artificial banana odor, or water (no odor) for 10 min. Treatment order was randomly assigned as much as possible. General appetite and SSA were monitored by using 100-mm visual analog scales during the 10 min of active sniffing, followed by ad libitum intake of banana milkshake. Results showed that SSA was consistently high (+12 mm) during actively sniffing natural or artificial banana odors, with no decrease in SSA over time. Sniffing both banana odors increased the appetite for banana (+11 mm) and other sweet products (+4 mm), whereas the appetite for savory products decreased by 7 mm (all P appetite scores (P = 0.06). In conclusion, SSA scores during active sniffing were identical to the SSA found in a similar study that used passive smelling, suggesting that SSA is independent of the manner of sniffing and exposure time. Moreover, sweet/savory categorization may suggest that food odors communicate information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. These data clearly show the appetizing effects of food odors.
... people overcome depression. Talk therapy works by helping people to: understand their emotions, put feelings into words, and feel understood and supported build the confidence to deal with life's struggles work out problems ...
Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.
Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...
Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line
BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...
Leonard, Brian E; Myint, Ayemu
Chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the immune system, acts as a trigger for anxiety and depression. There is experimental and clinical evidence that the rise in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids, which occurs in a chronically stressful situation and also in depression, contribute to the behavioural changes associated with depression. A defect in serotonergic function is associated with these hormonal and immune changes. Neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdalae are the frequent outcome of the changes in the HPA axis and the immune system. Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life.
Hughes-Hammer, C; Martsolf, D S; Zeller, R A
Seven million American women are depressed, and 40 million Americans, primarily women, have been labeled as codependent. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of codependency in women undergoing treatment for depression, examine the relationship between codependency and depression, and determine which of the symptoms of codependency are most highly predictive of depression scores. Depression and codependency were measured in a sample of 105 depressed women by using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Codependency Assessment Tool. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, and multiple regression were used for analysis. Of these depressed women, 36% were moderately to severely codependent. Depression and codependency were strongly related, with the significant gamma = .92 (P codependency subscales, Low Self-Worth and Hiding Self correlate most strongly with depression; Other Focus/Self-Neglect added the least-independent--explanatory power. Thus, future research should be directed toward the relationship of codependency to power, alienation of self, and personality disorders.
Social media has recently emerged as a premier method to disseminate information online. Through these online networks, tens of millions of individuals communicate their thoughts, personal experiences, and social ideals. We therefore explore the potential of social media to predict, even prior to onset, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in online personas. We employ a crowdsourced method to compile a list of Twitter users who profess to being diagnosed with depression. Using up to a year of pri...
Larzelere, Michele M; Wiseman, Pamela
Evidence for alternative treatments for depression, anxiety, and insomnia are reviewed in this article. Treatment of depression with St. John's wort, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, S-adenosylmethionine, dehydroepiandosterone, folate, exercise, acupuncture, and meditation are examined. Evidence for the efficacy of kava kava, exercise, relaxation therapies, and acupuncture in treatment anxiety is reviewed. The use of valerian, melatonin, chamomile, passionflower, exercise, acupuncture, and behavioral therapies (i.e., sleep restriction, stimulus control, relaxation, and sleep hygiene) for insomnia is discussed.
Mezerai, Mustapha; Dahane, Abdelkrim; Tachon, Jean-Paul
Depression is the object of a dense literature, and synthesizing it is more of a utopian ideal rather than a concrete possibility. Several specific risk factors for mental health are found in the workplace: work overloads, defective communications, role conflicts, competitive climate, and tolerance of violence. At the same time, few preventive measures have been implemented against mental disorders at work, nor are many protective factors present. One worker in ten suffers from depression, anxiety, stress, or overwork. To be distinguished from "burnout", depressive symptoms must induce clinically significant suffering with substantial deterioration in functioning at work. For depression to be recognized as a workplace accident, the employee must show that it was triggered by an unforeseen and sudden event (or at least one certainly) due to or at work. The causal link between an event at work and the depression must be shown (in particular by expert medical testimony about stress factors and indicators of vulnerability to depression). Its recognition as an occupational disease can be based on the presence of psychosocial factors described by models of workplace stress and on its description by the occupational physician.
There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression manage...
Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016, decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03, appetite (p = 0.006, and fatigue (p = 0.011. The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042. The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.
Madhoo, Manisha; Levine, Stephen Z
Network analysis is yet to be used to examine patient-reported symptom severity and change during citalopram treatment for major depressive disorder. We aimed to identify: (I) network systems; (II) central symptoms; and (III) network differences, in patient-reported depression for baseline, endpoint and change scores. STAR*D data during citalopram treatment were reanalyzed to examine depression based on the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Network analyses were computed from the QIDS-SR item-level severity scores at baseline and endpoint, and from estimated change scores based on mixed models, adjusted for confounding by dose and baseline severity. Centrality indices for each symptom were computed. Networks were contrasted for connectivity with permutation tests. Network analyses grouped symptoms consistently as: Sleep disturbances, cognitive and physical avolition, Affect and Appetite. Symptom centrality was highest for Energy at baseline, Mood at endpoint, and Mood and Concentration on change scores. Generally, permutation tests showed that the networks all significantly (p<.05) differed. Results demonstrated: (I) a replicable network group of the symptoms of depression that modestly mapped onto well-known mechanisms for depression; (II) symptoms with high centrality that may be future treatment targets (e.g., mood); and (III) that the form of the networks differed across treatment time-points, thereby contributing centrality as a possible mechanism to the initial severity debate. These findings highlight the utility of focusing on symptoms rather than total scores to understand how treatment unfolds, and tentative mechanisms.
Yeh, Shu-Hui; Lin, Li-Wei; Chuang, Yu Kuan; Liu, Cheng-Ling; Tsai, Lu-Jen; Tsuei, Feng-Shiou; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Hsiao, Chiu-Yueh; Yang, Kuender D
A randomized clinical trial was utilized to compare the improvement of depression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between community women with and without music aerobic exercise (MAE) for 12 weeks. The MAE group involved 47 eligible participants, whereas the comparison group had 59 participants. No significant differences were recorded in the demographic characteristics between the participants in the MAE group and the comparison group. Forty-one participants in the MAE group and 26 in the comparison group completed a pre- and posttest. The MAE group displayed significant improvement in depression scores (p = 0.016), decreased depression symptoms in crying (p = 0.03), appetite (p = 0.006), and fatigue (p = 0.011). The BDNF levels of the participants significantly increased after the 12-week MAE (p = 0.042). The parallel comparison group revealed no significant changes in depression scores or BDNF levels. In summary, the 12-week MAE had a significant impact on the enhancement of BDNF levels and improvement of depression symptoms. Middle-aged community women are encouraged to exercise moderately to improve their depression symptoms and BDNF levels.
Sarris, Jerome; O'Neil, Adrienne; Coulson, Carolyn E; Schweitzer, Isaac; Berk, Michael
The prevalence of depression appears to have increased over the past three decades. While this may be an artefact of diagnostic practices, it is likely that there are factors about modernity that are contributing to this rise. There is now compelling evidence that a range of lifestyle factors are involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Many of these factors can potentially be modified, yet they receive little consideration in the contemporary treatment of depression, where medication and psychological intervention remain the first line treatments. "Lifestyle Medicine" provides a nexus between public health promotion and clinical treatments, involving the application of environmental, behavioural, and psychological principles to enhance physical and mental wellbeing. This may also provide opportunities for general health promotion and potential prevention of depression. In this paper we provide a narrative discussion of the major components of Lifestyle Medicine, consisting of the evidence-based adoption of physical activity or exercise, dietary modification, adequate relaxation/sleep and social interaction, use of mindfulness-based meditation techniques, and the reduction of recreational substances such as nicotine, drugs, and alcohol. We also discuss other potential lifestyle factors that have a more nascent evidence base, such as environmental issues (e.g. urbanisation, and exposure to air, water, noise, and chemical pollution), and the increasing human interface with technology. Clinical considerations are also outlined. While data supports that some of these individual elements are modifiers of overall mental health, and in many cases depression, rigorous research needs to address the long-term application of Lifestyle Medicine for depression prevention and management. Critically, studies exploring lifestyle modification involving multiple lifestyle elements are needed. While the judicious use of medication and psychological techniques are still advocated
Full Text Available The diagnosis of depression. Depressive disorder is nowadays diagnosed by the two widely used diagnostic systems - International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization, 10th revision and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria of the American Psychiatric Organisation, 4th edition. The criteria for depressive disorder used in these two systems are almost identical. Poststroke depression. The diagnosis of depression may be difficult to establish in stroke patients, especially in patients with aphasia/dysphasia, anosognosia and other cognitive dysfunction. Major vs. minor poststroke depression, specificity and sensitivity of depressive symptoms: The phenomenology of major poststroke depression has been found to be similar to that of primary depression, and it appears that minor and major are not stages of the same continuum, but rather separate entities. Contrary to common opinion, non specific somatic symptoms do not hinder the diagnosis of poststroke depression and can be highly discriminative and crucial in the evaluation of poststroke depression. Validity of the poststroke depression diagnosis Studies have shown that a valid diagnosis of poststroke depression may be established successfully using structured or semi-structured neuropsychiatric interviews, according to the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria. Conclusion. It appears that no new diagnostic tools specific for major depression in stroke patients are necessary. The existing diagnostic procedures will fail to diagnose or misdiagnose depression only in few stroke patients.
Chen, Shiau-Wei; Wu, Po-Ju; Chiang, Been-Huang
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most important appetite regulator. This study aimed to establish an in vitro NPY mRNA expression model for screening essences to determine if they are an appetite stimulator or inhibitor. We cultured the olfactory nerve cells Rolf B1.T for 2 days and then treated the cells with the known appetite inhibitor limonene and stimulator linalool. It was found that linalool could significantly stimulate NPY mRNA expression in 10 min, and limonene had the opposite effect. Similar results were also found in primary olfactory ensheathing cells isolated from rats. Further clinical trials using human subjects found that, when 10 min of treatment was applied, linalool indeed increased the serum NPY level in human peripheral blood. Limonene, on the other hand, decreased the serum NPY level. Thus, NPY mRNA expression in Rolf B1.T cells could be used as an in vitro model for screening essences that may affect appetite.
Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George;
BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnouris...
Ellrichmann, Mark; Kapelle, Mario; Ritter, Peter R;
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal lipase inhibition using tetrahydrolipstatin (Orlistat) has been widely used in the pharmacotherapy of morbid obesity. However, the effects of Orlistat on the secretion of appetite regulating gastrointestinal hormones and appetite sensations are still debated. We addressed...... whether Orlistat alters the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin as well as postprandial appetite sensations. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy human volunteers were examined with a solid-liquid test meal after the oral administration...... of Orlistat or placebo. Gastric emptying, gallbladder volume and the plasma levels of CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin were determined and appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was accelerated by Orlistat administration (P
Kral, Tanja VE; Whiteford, Linda M; Heo, Moonseong; Faith, Myles S
Background: Cross-sectional data indicate an inverse relation between breakfast consumption and child weight. It has been suggested that skipping breakfast may adversely affect appetite in children, which could lead to overeating later in the day.
Amini, Kourosh; Negarandeh, Reza; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Eftekhar, Mehrdad
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one the most common mental disorders; it affects about 5-10% of the world population. This study explores the experiences of people with major depressive disorder in Zanjan, Iran. In order to identify recurring themes and patterns in individuals' experiences of major depressive disorder, semi-structured interviews with 18 patients were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were then analyzed based on conventional qualitative content analysis. Five main categories emerged. The first category was called emotional paralysis and included the subcategories feeling severely depressed; feeling anxious; feeling impatient and irritable; and having dyshedonia. The second category was disturbance of thinking and was comprised of the subcategories of preoccupation, instable spiritual beliefs, and guilt. Cognitive decline was the third identified category and was further divided into subcategories of frustration, unawareness of the disorder, negative evaluation, indecisiveness, and loss of focus and loss of memory. Another major category was physical illnesses with the subcategories of physical discomfort, sleep problems, appetite disturbance, facial changes, sexual dysfunction, and medical conditions. The final category was failure in life, which had failure in personal affairs, jeopardized interpersonal relations, and unstable work life as subcategories. These findings provide a base for further research in this area. They also have clinical relevance for health care providers working with patients with MDD. Related cultural issues also are discussed.
Huang Han-ling; Peng Li; Zheng Su; Wang Lu-shan
Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus psychological intervention for postpartum depression. Methods: By random number table, 85 patients with postpartum depression were divided into a treatment group and a control group. Forty-three cases in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture plus psychological intervention, once every day, five sessions per week, and rest at weekend. Forty-two cases in the control group were treated by oral administration of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride, 20 mg, once per day. The two groups were treated continuously for six weeks. The change of the score in Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) was observed and the therapeutic effect was summarized. Results:The total effective rate was 90.7%in the treatment group and 90.5% in the control group. The difference in the total effective rate between two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the intra-group comparisons of HAMD scores two, four and six weeks after treatment in both groups with those before treatment, the differences were statistically significant (all P0.05). Regarding the adverse events, 5 cases had nausea, 3 cases had dizziness, and 6 cases had poor appetite in the control group; no obvious adverse events happened in the treatment group. Conclusion:Acupuncture plus psychological intervention for postpartum depression is as same as oral administration of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride in therapeutic effects, but it does not have adverse reaction.
Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.
Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...
Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai
Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/- weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/- mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/- mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.
Erdem Ö et al.
Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression
Anna Boltong; Sanchia Aranda; Russell Keast; Rochelle Wynne; Francis, Prudence A.; Jacqueline Chirgwin; Karla Gough
Background ‘Taste’ changes are commonly reported during chemotherapy. It is unclear to what extent this relates to actual changes in taste function or to changes in appetite and food liking and how these changes affect dietary intake and nutritional status. Patients and methods This prospective, repeated measures cohort study recruited participants from three oncology clinics. Women (n = 52) prescribed adjuvant chemotherapy underwent standardised testing of taste perception, appetite and food...
Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan
lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....
Seyed-Ali Mostafavi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Elham Ranjar; Seyed. Mohammad-Ali Kooshesh; Seyed-Ali Keshavarz
Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: on...
Bodinham, Caroline L; Hitchen, Katie L; Youngman, Penelope J; Frost, Gary S; Robertson, M Denise
While it has been proposed, based on epidemiological studies, that whole grains may be beneficial in weight regulation, possibly due to effects on satiety, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming this. The present cross-over study aimed to investigate the short-term effects on appetite and food intake of 48 g of whole-grain wheat (daily for 3 weeks) compared with refined grain (control). A total of fourteen healthy normal-weight adults consumed, within their habitual diets, either two whole-grain bread rolls (providing 48 g of whole grains over two rolls) or two control rolls daily for 3 weeks. Changes in food intake were assessed using 7 d diet diaries. Changes in subjective appetite ratings and food intake were also assessed at postprandial study visits. There were no significant differences between interventions in energy intake (assessed by the 7 d diet diaries and at the ad libitum test meal), subjective appetite ratings or anthropometric measurements. However, there was a significant difference between interventions for systolic blood pressure, which decreased during the whole-grain intervention and increased during the control intervention (-2 v. 4 mmHg; P = 0·015). The present study found no effect of whole grains on appetite or food intake in healthy individuals; however, 48 g of whole grain consumed daily for 3 weeks did have a beneficial effect on systolic blood pressure. The findings from the present study therefore do not support epidemiological evidence that whole grains are beneficial in weight regulation, although further investigation in other population groups (such as overweight and obese) would be required.
Capello, Aimée E M; Markus, C Rob
Stress or negative mood often promotes energy intake and overeating. Since the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is found to mediate stress vulnerability as well as to influence energy intake, this gene may also influence the negative effects of stress exposure on overeating. Moreover, since stress proneness also reflects cognitive stress vulnerability - as often defined by trait neuroticism - this may additionally predispose for stress-induced overeating. In the present study it was investigated whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with neuroticism on changes in mood, appetite and energy intake following exposure to a real-life academic examination stressor. In a balanced-experimental design, homozygous S-allele and L-allele carriers (N = 94) with the lowest and highest neuroticism scores were selected from a large database of 5-HTTLPR genotyped students. Mood, appetite and energy intake were measured before and after a 2-hour academic examination and compared with a control day. Examination influenced appetite for particular sweet snacks differently depending on 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism. S/S compared with L/L subjects reported greater examination stress, and this was accompanied by a more profound post-stress increase in appetite for sweet snacks. Data also revealed a 5-HTTLPR genotype by trait neuroticism interaction on energy intake, regardless of examination. These results consolidate previous assumptions of 5-HTTLPR involvement in stress vulnerability and suggest 5-HTTLPR and neuroticism may influence stress-induced overeating depending on the type of food available. These findings furthermore link previous findings of increased risk for weight gain in S/S-allele carriers, particularly with high scores on trait neuroticism, to increased energy intake.
Montague, Shelby A.; Baker, Bruce S.
An animal’s ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female. As such, courtship conditioning is not clearly categorized as either appetitive or aversive conditioning. The mushroom body (MB) region in the fruit fly brain is important for several types of memory; however, the precise subsets of intrinsic and extrinsic MB neurons necessary for courtship conditioning are unknown. Here, we disrupted synaptic signaling by driving a shibirets effector in precise subsets of MB neurons, defined by a collection of split-GAL4 drivers. Out of 75 lines tested, 32 showed defects in courtship conditioning memory. Surprisingly, we did not have any hits in the γ lobe Kenyon cells, a region previously implicated in courtship conditioning memory. We did find that several γ lobe extrinsic neurons were necessary for courtship conditioning memory. Overall, our memory hits in the dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and the mushroom body output neurons were more consistent with results from appetitive memory assays than aversive memory assays. For example, protocerebral anterior medial DANs were necessary for courtship memory, similar to appetitive memory, while protocerebral posterior lateral 1 (PPL1) DANs, important for aversive memory, were not needed. Overall, our results indicate that the MB circuits necessary for courtship conditioning memory coincide with circuits necessary for appetitive memory. PMID
Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.
Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In all experiments, conditioning and extinction were accomplished in single sessions, and retention testing took place 24 h after extinction. In both f...
Blaine, E H; Covelli, M D; Denton, D A; Nelson, J F; Shulkes, A A
The selective appetites of wild rabbits for 500 mEq/1 solutions of NaC1, KC1, MgC1(2), and CaC1(2) were studied in intact and adrenalectomized rabbits during daily treatment with either 4 IU long acting ACTH, 1.0 or 2.5 mg cortisol acetate, or 2.5 mg corticosterone. The animals were individually caged and external sodium balances performed. In intact rabbits, cortisol or corticosterone produced a significant stimulation of NaC1 appetite. The response to concurrent dosage of cortisol and corticosterone was less than half of that obtained with ACTH which produced a comparable alteration of blood glucocorticoid levels but a 10-fold increase in NaC1 intake. CaC1(2) intake was increased in intact rabbits by cortisol treatment but not by corticosterone or ACTH. Adrenalectomized rabbits maintained on daily steroid replacement therapy of 0.1 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate and 0.75 mg cortisone acetate showed a normal pattern of electolyte, food, and water intake. Under these conditions ACTH produced a 4-fold increase in NaC1 intake. Further addition of cortisol and corticosterone to steroid replacement therapy produced an increase in NaC1 intake comparable to their effect on normal rabbits. Thereupon supplementation with ACTH resulted in an increase to a level at least as great as that found in ACTH treated, normal rabbits. The effects of ACTH and glucocorticoids on NaC1 appetite were synergistic. Sodium balance showed that increases in NaC1 intake were not the result of the treatment initially producing a body sodium deficit, which was then corrected by increased intake. The results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that NaC1 appetite may be hormonally regulated, and demonstrate that ACTH is capable of stimulating NaC1 intake by a previously unsuspected non-adrenal pathway.
Sun, Feng-Hua; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Liu, Zhi-Gang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether both glycemic index (GI) and breakfast fructose content affect appetite during the postprandial period and recovery period after 1 hr of brisk walking. Ten healthy young men (age: 21.7 ± 1.5 y, body mass index: 20.9 ± 1.1 kg∙m(-2), VO2max: 53.7 ± 3.7 mL∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) completed 1 hr of brisk walking at 46% VO2max 2 hr after eating one of three isocaloric breakfasts: a low-GI breakfast not including fructose content (LGI), a low-GI breakfast including fructose beverage (LGIF) and a high-GI breakfast (HGI). All breakfasts provided 1.0 g∙kg(-1) body weight carbohydrates, and the calculated GI values for the three breakfasts were 41, 39, and 72, respectively. In the LGIF and HGI trials, approximately 25% of participants' energy was derived from either fructose or glucose beverage. Appetite scores were measured every 30 min during the 2-hr postprandial period and 1-hr recovery period. During the postprandial period, the incremental areas under the blood response curve values of glucose and insulin were higher in the HGI trial, compared with those in the LGI and LGIF trials. At 30 and 60 min during the recovery period, the appetite scores were lower in the LGIF trial than those in the LGI and HGI trials. No differences were observed between the LGI and HGI trials. Breakfast fructose content, rather than GI, seems to affect appetite during the recovery period after 1 hr of brisk walking.
Concordant ingestion of appetite regulation internet is the basic physiological activity of human. Appetite regulation relates to complicate mechanisms and involves many systems and factors. Their impacting and controlling formed the appetite regulation internet. The hypothalamus plays a crucial role in re-cepting,integrating and releasing signals of energy status in central nervous system. The consummated con-struction of hypothalamus about appetite regulation and the finding of new regulation factors are very impor-tant for the learning of mechanism of obesity and diabetes and the development of drugs.%食欲调节网络的协调性摄食活动是维持人类生命的基本生理活动,食欲调节具有复杂而精细的调节机制,而下丘脑正是接受、整合与发放食欲调节信号、维持体重稳定的重要中枢.中枢神经系统或外周组织产生的具有促/抑食欲作用的神经内分泌因子在下丘脑形成复杂的食欲调节网络和相互投射的神经环路,对食欲进行精确的调控.不断完善下丘脑食欲调节区域,不断发现新的调控因子及其作用机制,对深入了解肥胖及糖尿病的病理生理机制及设计开发各种有效控制体重和血糖的药物有重大意义.
Haer, Roos; Banholzer, Lilli; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland
BackgroundCivil wars are characterized by intense forms of violence, such as torture, maiming and rape. Political scientists suggest that this form of political violence is fostered through the provision of particular intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to combatants. In the field of psychology, the perpetration of this kind of cruelty is observed to be positively linked to appetitive aggression. Over time, combatants start to enjoy the fights and even the perpetration of atrocities. In this stud...
Liedtke, Wolfgang B.; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L.; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J.; Hilton, Donald L.; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Denton, Derek A.
Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator
Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette
The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P decreased hunger (P decreased prospective consumption (P decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.
Montenegro, Rafael A; Okano, Alexandre H; Cunha, Felipe A; Gurgel, Jonas L; Fontes, Eduardo B; Farinatti, Paulo T V
This study investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) isolated or combined with aerobic exercise influenced the desire to eat, hunger, and satiety in overweight subjects. Nine volunteers underwent anodal or sham tDCS (2 mA; 20 min) over DLPFC and isocaloric exercise bouts (70%VO(2)R; ~200 kcal). The appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales at four moments: I - Baseline; II - After tDCS; III - Post-Exercise and IV - 30-min Post-Exercise. The tDCS on left DLPFC decreased the desire to eat at baseline (tDCS -26% vs. -14% Sham). The tDCS associated with exercise had greater suppressing effect in desire to eat compared to either tDCS or exercise alone (tDCS -39% vs. -27% Sham). Moreover, the tDCS associated with exercise decreased hunger (tDCS -48% vs. 36% Sham) and increased satiety (tDCS 28% vs. 7% Sham) immediately after exercise. The post-exercise 30-min recovery elicited an overall increase in appetite. However the increase in desire to eat and hunger after recovery was lower after tDCS (29% and 13%, respectively) compared to sham stimulation (77% and 113%, respectively). These findings in overweight subjects indicate that the combination of tDCS over DLPFC and aerobic exercise induced greater decrease in appetite sensations compared to anodal tDCS or exercise alone.
Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru
The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation.
Full Text Available It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years. We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2 than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2 adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64. Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD: −17 (−22 to −13 mm to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9 mm lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.
Brooks Samantha J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.
Deighton, Kevin; Zahra, Jessica C; Stensel, David J
This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed at 0-1 h in the fasted exercise trial and 4-5 h in the postprandial exercise trial. A standardised breakfast was provided at 1.5 h and ad libitum buffet meals at 5.5 and 9.5 h. Appetite ratings and resting expired air samples were collected throughout each trial. Postprandial exercise suppressed appetite to a greater extent than fasted exercise. Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials, resulting in a negative energy balance in exercise trials relative to control after accounting for differences in energy expenditure (control: 9774±2694 kJ; fasted exercise: 6481±2318 kJ; postprandial exercise: 6017±3050 kJ). These findings suggest that 60 min treadmill running induces a negative daily energy balance relative to a sedentary day but is no more effective when performed before or after breakfast.
Rajkumar, Ramamoorthy; See, Lionel Kee Yon; Dawe, Gavin Stewart
A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs are known to perturb appetite regulation causing greater hyperphagia in humans and rodents than earlier generation typical agents. However, the neuronal structures that underlie hyperphagic effects are poorly understood. Arcuate nucleus (ArcN), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVA) and nucleus incertus (NI) have been implicated in appetite regulation. The NI is the principal source of the relaxin-3 (RLN3) peptide, which is reported to have orexigenic effects. Moreover, ArcN, PVN, and PVA receive RLN3 immunoreactive fibers from the NI and express relaxin family peptide type 3 (RXFP3) receptor. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute effects of clozapine (atypical), chlorpromazine (typical) and fluphenazine (typical) on c-Fos expression (a marker of neuronal response) in these appetite-related centers of the rat brain. The numbers of c-Fos expressing neurons in these structures were counted in immunofluorescence stained brain sections. Acute treatment with clozapine, chlorpromazine and fluphenazine differentially influenced c-Fos expression in these brain structures. This study is also the first demonstration that antipsychotics influence the NI. The patterns of the effects of these antipsychotics are related to their reported hyperphagic properties.
Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.
Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan
Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.
Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The presence of depression in schizophrenia has been recognized since the time of Kraepelin and Bleuler. Depressive symptoms associated with schizophrenia have received considerable attention in recent years. It has been suggested that patient may manifest depressive symptoms during the onset of psychotic symptoms, during course of chronic schizophrenia or after the psychotic symptoms has been abated. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the prevalence of depression in schizophrenia. 2. To study the correlation between depression and subtype of schizophrenia. MATERALS & METHODS: 50 consecutive patients suffering from schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria, who were brought to psychiatric OPD were selected for this study. Patients between 15-55years age were included in this study. HDRS (Hamilton depression rating scale was administered to all patients to assess severity of depression. RESULTS: Out of 50 patients suffering from schizophrenia, 44% of patients suffering from schizophrenia were depressed. In this study the most common symptoms of depression were depressed mood, loss of interest on pleasure, sleep disturbance, loss of energy/fatigue, psychomotor disturbance, suicidal thought or death wish, feeling of hopelessness. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The severity of depression was mild to moderate, no one had severe depression. It is more common in patients who are living in nuclear family, who are divorced, who have paranoid type of schizophrenia, who were not on antipsychotic medicine.
Bruxel, E M; Salatino-Oliveira, A; Genro, J P; Zeni, C P; Polanczyk, G V; Chazan, R; Rohde, L A; Hutz, M H
Carboxylesterase 1 is the enzyme involved in methylphenidate (MPH) metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between a -75 T>G polymorphism and appetite reduction in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A sample of 213 children with ADHD was investigated. The primary outcome was appetite reduction measured by the Barkley Stimulant Side Effect Rating Scale applied at baseline, at 1 and 3 months of treatment. MPH doses were augmented until no further clinical improvement or significant adverse events occurred. The G allele presented a trend for association with appetite reduction scores (P=0.05). A significant interaction between the G allele and treatment over time for appetite reduction scores was also observed (P=0.03). The G allele carriers presented a higher risk for appetite reduction worsening when compared with T allele homozygotes (odds ratio=3.47, P=0.01). The present results suggest an influence of carboxylesterase 1 -75 T>G polymorphism on the worsening of appetite reduction with MPH treatment in youths with ADHD.
Smith, Gerard P
Synergism between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the research program of Smith and Gibbs on the satiating effect of cholecystokinin during the past 40 years is described. The Seminar was synergistic with the research program in five ways. First, the steady parade of speakers gave us a window on the varied and interesting work going on in the field. Second, the Seminar was the kind of audience for presentations of the work-in-progress on CCK that scientists hope for and rarely find. Criticism by members of the Seminar was relentless and constructive, and ideas for further experiments or new ways to tackle problematic data poured forth. Third, members of the Seminar did experiments that facilitated the experimental success of the research program. Fourth, members of the Seminar tutored us on topics that we wanted to import into the research program on CCK. Fifth, and probably most important, members of the Seminar gave us the encouragement, good humor, and friendship so necessary for coping with the struggles of the scientific life.
Seim, Inge; El-Salhy, Magdy; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; Chopin, Lisa
Appetite regulation is highly complex and involves a large number of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptide hormones. These are small, processed, secreted peptides derived from larger prepropeptide precursors. These peptides are important targets for the development of therapeutics for obesity, a global health epidemic. As a case study, we consider the ghrelin axis. The ghrelin axis is likely to be a particularly useful drug target, as it also plays a role in energy homeostasis, adipogenesis, insulin regulation and reward associated with food intake. Ghrelin is the only known circulating gut orexigenic peptide hormone. As it appears to play a role in diet-induced obesity, blocking the action of ghrelin is likely to be effective for treating and preventing obesity. The ghrelin peptide has been targeted using a number of approaches, with ghrelin mirror-image oligonucleotides (Spiegelmers) and immunotherapy showing some promise. The ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, may also provide a useful target and a number of antagonists and inverse agonists have been developed. A particularly promising new target is the enzyme which octanoylates ghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), and drugs that inhibit GOAT are likely to circumvent pharmacological issues associated with approaches that directly target ghrelin or its receptor.
Chopin, Lisa K; Seim, Inge; Walpole, Carina M; Herington, Adrian C
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is a peptide hormone with diverse physiological roles. Ghrelin regulates GH release, appetite and feeding, gut motility, and energy balance and also has roles in the cardiovascular, immune, and reproductive systems. Ghrelin and the GHSR are expressed in a wide range of normal and tumor tissues, and a fluorescein-labeled, truncated form of ghrelin is showing promise as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Plasma ghrelin levels are generally inversely related to body mass index and are unlikely to be useful as a biomarker for cancer, but may be useful as a marker for cancer cachexia. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ghrelin and GHSR genes have shown associations with cancer risk; however, larger studies are required. Ghrelin regulates processes associated with cancer, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration, cell invasion, inflammation, and angiogenesis; however, the role of ghrelin in cancer is currently unclear. Ghrelin has predominantly antiinflammatory effects and may play a role in protecting against cancer-related inflammation. Ghrelin and its analogs show promise as treatments for cancer-related cachexia. Further studies using in vivo models are required to determine whether ghrelin has a role in cancer progression.
Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.
Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Abe, Ayako; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu
Dopamine signals reward in animal brains. A single presentation of a sugar reward to Drosophila activates distinct subsets of dopamine neurons that independently induce short- and long-term olfactory memories (STM and LTM, respectively). In this study, we show that a recurrent reward circuit underlies the formation and consolidation of LTM. This feedback circuit is composed of a single class of reward-signaling dopamine neurons (PAM-α1) projecting to a restricted region of the mushroom body (MB), and a specific MB output cell type, MBON-α1, whose dendrites arborize that same MB compartment. Both MBON-α1 and PAM-α1 neurons are required during the acquisition and consolidation of appetitive LTM. MBON-α1 additionally mediates the retrieval of LTM, which is dependent on the dopamine receptor signaling in the MB α/β neurons. Our results suggest that a reward signal transforms a nascent memory trace into a stable LTM using a feedback circuit at the cost of memory specificity.
Hu, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hui-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhong; Fang, Guo-Xing
Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.
Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract senses the ingestion of food and responds by signalling to the brain to promote satiation and satiety. Representing an important part of the gut-brain axis, enteroendocrine Lcells secrete the anorectic peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY in response to the ingestion of food. The release of GLP-1 has multiple effects, including the secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells, decreased gastric emptying and increased satiation. PYY also slows gastrointestinal motility and reduces food intake. At least part of the gut-brain response seems to be due to direct sensing of macronutrients by L-cells, by mechanisms including specific nutrient-sensing receptors. Such receptors may represent possible pathways to target to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure. Designing drugs or functional foods to exploit the machinery of these nutrient-sensing mechanisms may offer a potential approach for agents to treat obesity and metabolic disease.
Bourdier, Léna; Lalanne, Christophe; Morvan, Yannick; Kern, Laurence; Romo, Lucia; Berthoz, Sylvie
The concept of Emotional Eating (EE) is increasingly considered to be implicated in overeating and obesity, and in different subtypes of eating disorders. Among the self-report questionnaires assessing EE, the Emotional Appetite Questionnaire (EMAQ) includes recent advances in this area: it evaluates a broad range of emotions and situations both positive and negative, and the way they modulate food intake (decrease, stability, or increase). The main objective of our study was to further investigate the psychometric properties of the French version of the EMAQ in a large sample of students. Participants completed the EMAQ (n = 679), the DEBQ (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) (n = 75) and the CIDI-eating disorders screening (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) (n = 604). Factorial structure, reliability, and validity of the EMAQ were tested. Factorial analyses supported a two-factor (Positive and Negative) structure. The internal consistency indices were satisfactory and results suggest good test–retest reliability for the scale. Convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed from the significant correlations observed between the EMAQ scores and the DEBQ-EE subscale scores. Regarding associations with weight, whereas EMAQ negative scores were positively correlated with BMI, EMAQ positive scores were negatively correlated with BMI. Finally, EMAQ scores differed significantly depending on gender and risk for bulimia nervosa. This study supports the validity and the reliability of the EMAQ, which appears to be a promising instrument to better understand individual differences that could modulate food intake. PMID:28386243
Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura
Objective Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers’ appetitive traits. Method Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3–5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Results Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001), but parental Monitoring was not. Parental Pressuring was significantly associated with greater child Satiety responsiveness (p <.001), while parental Prompting was not. Parental Instrumental and Emotional feeding were both associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p <.001). All relationships were independent of child BMI z-score. Discussion Prospective data are needed to determine whether the parent–child feeding relationships identified here promote, or protect against, the development of eating pathology in children. However, our results suggest that cross-sectional associations depend on the style (e.g., authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. PMID:24976396
Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E
The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.
Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.
Full Text Available The initial pharmaceutical interest for the endocannabinoid system as a target for antiobesity therapies has been restricted by the severe adverse effects of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant. This study points at oleoylethanolamide (OEA, a monounsaturated analogue, and functional antagonist of anandamide, as a potential and safer antiobesity alternative to CB1 antagonism. Mice treated with equal doses (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. of OEA or rimonabant were analyzed for the progressive expression of spontaneous behaviors (eating, grooming, rearing, locomotion, and resting occurring during the development of satiety, according to the paradigm called behavioral satiety sequence (BSS. Both drugs reduced food (wet mash intake to a similar extent. OEA treatment decreased eating activity within the first 30 min and caused a temporary increase of resting time that was not accompanied by any decline of horizontal, vertical and total motor activity. Besides decreasing eating activity, rimonabant caused a marked increase of the time spent grooming and decreased horizontal motor activity, alterations that might be indicative of aversive nonmotivational effects on feeding. These results support the idea that OEA suppresses appetite by stimulating satiety and that its profile of action might be predictive of safer effects in humans as a novel antiobesity treatment.
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160991.html Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression Social media attacks have ' ... Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negative experiences on Facebook can increase the odds of depression in young ...
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Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse
Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves.
Alkarimi Heba A
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of treating dental caries on various aspects of children’s health. This study was conducted to assess the impact of dental treatment of severe dental caries on children’s weight, height and subjective health related outcomes, namely dental pain, satisfaction with teeth and smile, dental sepsis and child’s appetite. Methods The study was a community-based, randomized, controlled trial in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years with untreated dental caries. Participants were randomly assigned to early (test or regular (control dental treatment. The primary outcome was Weight-for-age Z-score. Secondary outcomes were Height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores, dental pain, dental sepsis, satisfaction with teeth and child’s appetite. Results 86 children were randomly assigned to test (42 children and control (44 groups. Mean duration of follow-up was 34.8 (±1.1 weeks. There were insignificant improvements in anthropometric outcomes between the groups after treatment of caries. However, treated children had significantly less pain experience (P = 0.006 (OR 0.09, [0.01-0.51] and higher satisfaction with teeth (P = 0.001 (OR 9.91, [2.68-36.51] compared to controls. Controls had significantly poorer appetites (P = 0.01 (OR 2.9, [1.24-6.82] compared to treated children. All treated children were free of clinical dental sepsis whereas 20% (9 of 44 of controls who were free of sepsis at baseline had sepsis at follow-up. Conclusions Although dental treatment did not significantly improve the anthropometric outcomes, it significantly improved the dental outcomes and children’s satisfaction with teeth, smile and appetite. This is the first study to provide evidence that treatment of severe dental caries can improve children’s appetite. Trial registration Effect of Dental Treatment on Children's Growth. Clinical Trial Gov ID# NCT01243866
S. López León (Sandra)
textabstractThe aim of the studies in this genetic epidemiological thesis was to investigate candidate genes that play a role in the etiology of depression and to obtain new insights about biological pathways that may be involved in this disorder. The introduction of the thesis presents a review of
Artal, Michal; Sherman, Carl
Physical activity is useful for preventing and easing depression symptoms. When prescribing exercise as an adjunct to medication and psychotherapy, physicians must consider each patient's individual circumstances. Hopelessness and fatigue can make physical exercise difficult. A feasible, flexible, and pleasurable program has the best chance for…
Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Male depression is a serious medical condition, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Learn the signs and symptoms — and what to do. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do you feel irritable, isolated or withdrawn? Do you find yourself working all ...
Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; Vadillo, Miguel A.
Depressive realism consists of the lower personal control over uncontrollable events perceived by depressed as compared to nondepressed individuals. In this article, we propose that the realism of depressed individuals is caused not by an increased accuracy in perception, but by their more comprehensive exposure to the actual environmental…
Crundwell, R. Marc A.; Killu, Kim
Although depression is classified as an adult mental health disorder, middle to late adolescence is the age when symptoms most commonly surface. If teachers can recognize the signs of depression in students, Crundwell and Killu assert, they can provide a supportive, flexible school environment that enables depressed students to learn and thrive.…
Leventhal, Allan M.
Research into genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive explanations for depression (biopsychosocial models) provides support for the role of these variables in the etiology of depression. Regularly identified as basic to depression is loss, and the experience of loss has been found to be more influential than genetic factors in the causation of…
Anil Kumar, B. N.; Sandeep Grover
Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, n...
Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…