WorldWideScience

Sample records for appetite depressants

  1. Appetitive Motivation and Negative Emotion Reactivity among Remitted Depressed Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Wetter, Emily K.; Flory, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Depression has been characterized as involving altered appetitive motivation and emotional reactivity. Yet no study has examined objective indices of emotional reactivity when the appetitive/approach system is suppressed in response to failure to attain a self-relevant goal and desired reward. Three groups of youth (N = 98, ages 9-15; remitted…

  2. The SEEKING mind: primal neuro-affective substrates for appetitive incentive states and their pathological dynamics in addictions and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaro, Antonio; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Appetitive motivation and incentive states are essential functions sustained by a common emotional brain process, the SEEKING disposition, which drives explorative and approach behaviors, sustains goal-directed activity, promotes anticipatory cognitions, and evokes feelings of positive excitement which control reward-learning. All such functions are orchestrated by the same "archetypical" neural processes, activated in ancient subcortical areas and transported to the forebrain by the mesolimbic dopamine (ML-DA) system. In mammals, the neurophysiology of the SEEKING urge is expressed by DA-promoted high-frequency oscillations, in the form of transient and synchronized gamma waves (>30Hz) emerging in limbic forebrain and diffusing throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical (BG-T-C) circuits. These patterns may be considered basic "SEEKING neurodynamic impulses" which represent the primary-process exploratory disposition getting integrated with information relative to the external and the internal environment. Abnormal manifestation of SEEKING and its neural substrates are evident in clinical depression and addiction. Specifically, depression is characterized by reduced recruitment of SEEKING, while addictions reflect re-organizations of the SEEKING disposition around ultra-specific appetitive memories and compulsive activities.

  3. Appetite in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite is defined as ‘a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food’. The counterpart of appetite is satiety, which is the state of satisfaction that follows after the need for food is fulfilled. However, palatable food can be appetizing in the absence of hunger and people may eng

  4. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories. PMID:11177517

  5. Probiotics and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Anne Toksvig

    Summary There is emerging focus on the gut microbiota’s (GM) effects on health. GM is suggested to be a contributing factor to the rapid development of obesity and its related diseases like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The omposition of the GM has been associated with weight, insulin...... intestine, in an animal study and in two human studies the effect of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L. casei W8 (W8) on appetite regulation, blood lipids and blood fatty acids. In addition, it was investigated if W8 had an effect on the fecal microbiota of the human......-armed parallel four weeks intervention study with W8 (1010 CFU) or placebo capsules was performed on young, normal to overweight participants. In the four weeks intervention study the effects of W8 on appetite, blood lipids, SCD1 activity and fecal microbiota were also investigated. Finally, associations between...

  6. On histamine and appetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eTorrealba

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain histamine may influence a variety of different behavioral and physiological functions, but its responsibility in waking up has casted a long shadow on other important functions of this neurotransmitter. Here we review evidence indicating a central role of brain histamine in motivation, emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the inputs that control the histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity. We review evidence supporting a dysfunction of histamine neurons and its cortical input in certain forms of decreased motivation (apathy. We finally discuss the relationship between the histamine system and drug addiction as a dysfunction of motivation.

  7. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably cons...

  8. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  9. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued, that...... these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of...... depression are presented....

  10. Appetite and energy balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    The idea that food intake is motivated by (or in anticipation of) 'hunger' arising from energy depletion is apparent in both public and scientific discourse on eating behaviour. In contrast, our thesis is that eating is largely unrelated to short-term energy depletion. Energy requirements meal-to-meal are trivial compared with total body energy stores, and energy supply to the body's tissues is maintained if a meal or even several meals are missed. Complex and exquisite metabolic machinery ensures that this happens, but metabolic regulation is only loosely coupled with the control of energy intake. Instead, food intake needs to be controlled because the limited capacity of the gut means that processing a meal presents a significant physiological challenge and potentially hinders other activities. We illustrate the relationship between energy (food) intake and energy expenditure with a simple analogy in which: (1) water in a bathtub represents body energy content, (2) water in a saucepan represents food in the gut, and (3) the bathtub is filled via the saucepan. Furthermore, (4) it takes hours to process and pass the full energy (macronutrient) content of the saucepan to the bathtub, and (5) both the saucepan and bathtub resist filling, representing negative feedbacks on appetite (desire to eat). This model is consistent with the observations that appetite is reduced acutely by energy intake (a meal added to the limited capacity of the saucepan/gut), but not increased by an acute increase in energy expenditure (energy removed from the large store of energy in the bathtub/body). The existence of relatively very weak but chronic negative feedback on appetite proportional to body fatness is supported by observations on the dynamics of energy intake and weight gain in rat dietary obesity. (We use the term 'appetite' here because 'hunger' implies energy depletion.) In our model, appetite is motivated by the accessibility of food and the anticipated and experienced

  11. Neuropharmacology of Human Appetite Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C. G.; Harrold, Joanne A.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of appetite relies on the integration of numerous episodic (meal) and tonic (energy storage) generated signals in energy regulatory centres within the central nervous system (CNS). These centers provide the pharmacological potential to modify human appetite (hunger and satiety) to increase or decrease caloric intake, or to normalize…

  12. Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Sherry L; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared wit...

  13. Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Donna E.; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in...

  14. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P;

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  15. Is My Child's Appetite Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal way, not overeat. That is a good habit for lifelong health. Provided by NIBBLES FOR HEALTH 17 Nutrition Newsletters for Parents of Young Children, USDA, Food and Nutrition Service Is My Child’s Appetite Normal? ...

  16. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  17. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  18. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of insomnia that share many of the properties of benzodiazepines. Other CNS depressants include meprobamate, methaqualone ( ... they are prescribed for to put you to sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures. ...

  19. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar to seizures) depression and other mental health issues continue Other Possible Problems Taking too much ...

  20. Depressive Illness: Pervasive Yet Mystifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Doctors annually treat between approximately four and eight million Americans for depression. Behavioral changes in depressed individuals are characterized by sadness, loneliness, and apathy. Other symptoms include fatigue, early morning insomnia, loss of appetite, and suicide attempts. Underlying depression may mask itself in physical symptoms,…

  1. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Donato

    2014-04-15

    Reading the CPD article was beneficial to my professional nursing practice and development. I gained a greater understanding of how depression is likely to exacerbate the effects of a physical illness or complicate the treatment of other health conditions. PMID:24712633

  2. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get better. Not a Normal Part of Aging Click for more information Depression is a common problem among older adults, but it is NOT a ... Z | videos A-Z | training | about us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  3. Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoon, H.F.A.; Graaf, de C.; Boesveldt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury), determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low) as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-wei

  4. Risk Appetite and Endogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre Zigrand; Hyun Song Shin; Jon Danielsson

    2010-01-01

    Risk is endogenous. Equilibrium risk is the fixed point of the mapping that takes perceived risk to actual risk. When risk-neutral traders operate under Value-at-Risk constraints, market conditions exhibit signs of fluctuating risk appetite and amplification of shocks through feedback effects. Correlations in returns emerge even when underlying fundamental shocks are independent. We derive a closedform solution of equilibrium returns, correlation and volatility by solving the fixed point prob...

  5. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....

  6. Clinical Approach to Children with Low Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ünal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is a conscious desire for food and it is regulated mainly by the gastrointestinal system, pancreas and adrenal glands. Poor appetite is a common problem in childhood. For assessment, history of development, nutrition and family are important. Poor appetite may also be a symptom of feeding disorders. Even though the etiology of feeding disorders may be classified as organic or functional, it indeed reflects the complex interaction of biological, behavioral and social factors. Personal, familial, economic and sociocultural factors may affect appetite. In this review, approaches to a child with low appetite who presents a difficult problem for his/her family and doctor are discussed in the light of recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 79-84

  7. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Silverstein; Jules Angst

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetit...

  8. A Growing Appetite for Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese as well as international buyers are showing great interest in collecting There was no sign of economic depression at Sotheby’s auction,"Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art",held in New York in March.The 1692 masterpiece,Two Mynas on

  9. Appetitive vs. Aversive Conditioning in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eAndreatta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS becomes associated with a biologically salient event (unconditioned stimulus, US, which might be pain (aversive conditioning or food (appetitive conditioning. After a few associations, the CS is able to initiate either defensive or consummatory responses, respectively. Contrary to aversive conditioning, appetitive conditioning is rarely investigated in humans, although its importance for normal and pathological behaviors (e.g., obesity, addiction is undeniable. The present study intents to translate animal findings on appetitive conditioning to humans using food as an US. Thirty-three participants were investigated between 8 am and 10 am without breakfast in order to assure that they felt hungry. During two acquisition phases, one geometrical shape (avCS+ predicted an aversive US (painful electric shock, another shape (appCS+ predicted an appetitive US (chocolate or salty pretzel according to the participants’ preference, and a third shape (CS- predicted neither US. In an extinction phase, these three shapes plus a novel shape (NEW were presented again without US delivery. Valence and arousal ratings as well as startle and skin conductance (SCR responses were collected as learning indices. We found successful aversive and appetitive conditioning. On the one hand, the avCS+ was rated as more negative and more arousing than the CS- and induced startle potentiation and enhanced SCR. On the other hand, the appCS+ was rated more positive than the CS- and induced startle attenuation and larger SCR. In summary, we successfully confirmed animal findings in (hungry humans by demonstrating appetitive learning and normal aversive learning

  10. Role of guar fiber in appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Theertham Pradyumna

    2016-10-01

    Appetite control and reduction of additional calorie intake may be a logical approach for proper weight management. Viscous dietary fibers are effective in appetite control but difficult to apply in normal serving sizes in foods and nutritional supplements due to their viscosity and required high doses. Guar fiber popularly known as partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is near non-viscous soluble fiber that has been proven effective in providing many physiological benefits. Guar fiber has also been identified as potential natural food and nutritional supplement ingredient for appetite control. The aim of this review is to summarize all the clinical studies pertinent to its effects on appetite control in normal subjects and postulate the mechanism of action. Guar fiber exhibited appetite control via delaying the colonic transit time of digested food, stimulation of satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) and induction of prolonged perception of post-meal satiation and satiety effects. Regular intake of guar fiber at a dose of 2g/serving provided significant sustained post-meal satiation effects and minimized the inter-meal calorie intake by about 20% in normal subjects. The intake of guar fiber alone at a dose >5g/serving or its combination with protein (2.6g guar fiber+8g protein/serving) showed acute satiety effects in normal subjects. Guar fiber containing >85% dietary fiber, with clear solubility and negligible taste impact, may be an ideal natural dietary fiber for use in food and supplement applications at low dosage levels for appetite control. PMID:27317834

  11. Glutamate and GABA in appetite regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cardoso Delgado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms.Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the

  12. Aversive Learning and Appetitive Motivation Toggle Feed-Forward Inhibition in the Drosophila Mushroom Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisse, Emmanuel; Owald, David; Barnstedt, Oliver; Talbot, Clifford B; Huetteroth, Wolf; Waddell, Scott

    2016-06-01

    In Drosophila, negatively reinforcing dopaminergic neurons also provide the inhibitory control of satiety over appetitive memory expression. Here we show that aversive learning causes a persistent depression of the conditioned odor drive to two downstream feed-forward inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the mushroom body, called MVP2, or mushroom body output neuron (MBON)-γ1pedc>α/β. However, MVP2 neuron output is only essential for expression of short-term aversive memory. Stimulating MVP2 neurons preferentially inhibits the odor-evoked activity of avoidance-directing MBONs and odor-driven avoidance behavior, whereas their inhibition enhances odor avoidance. In contrast, odor-evoked activity of MVP2 neurons is elevated in hungry flies, and their feed-forward inhibition is required for expression of appetitive memory at all times. Moreover, imposing MVP2 activity promotes inappropriate appetitive memory expression in food-satiated flies. Aversive learning and appetitive motivation therefore toggle alternate modes of a common feed-forward inhibitory MVP2 pathway to promote conditioned odor avoidance or approach. PMID:27210550

  13. Gastrointestinal targets of appetite regulation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delzenne, N.M.; Blundell, J.E.; Brouns, F.; Cunningham, K.; Graaf, de C.; Erkner, A.; Lluch, A.; Mars, M.; Peters, H.P.F.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss relevant aspects of the assessment of physiological functions – and related biomarkers – implicated in the regulation of appetite in humans. A short introduction provides the background and the present state of biomarker research as related to satiety

  14. Early Detection of Post-Stroke Depression

    OpenAIRE

    de Man - van Ginkel, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the first two years after stroke approximately one-third of the patients suffer from depression, also referred to as post-stroke depression (PSD). Patients with PSD suffer from symptoms, such as a diminished interest or pleasure (anhedonia), depressed mood, sleep disturbances, loss of energy, changes in appetite, feelings of inappropriate guilt, concentration difficulties, psychomotor retardation or agitation, and suicidal thoughts. PSD aggravates the burden of physical, psychological and ...

  15. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  16. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  17. Appetite and Energy Intake in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lone Brinkmann

    on appetite sensations, ad libitum energy intake and gastro-intestinal satiety hormones. 3. To compare the effect of dark chocolate versus milk chocolate on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake. In paper 1, the participants who received sucrose supplements had lower ratings of fullness and higher...... ratings of prospective food consumption between lunch and dinner, and after dinner than the participants who received artificial sweetener supplements. Both groups had a high energy intake during the test day, but the sucrose supplements induced a higher energy intake, compared with the artificial...... sweetener supplements. In paper 2, the modified triacylglycerol salatrim did not reduce energy intake, compared with traditional fat, despite slightly higher ratings of fullness during the salatrim test day. The slight difference in fullness was not due to differences in gastro-intestinal satiety hormones...

  18. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-08-01

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. PMID:27083128

  19. Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alison S; Hibbert, Emily J; Champion, Bernard L; Nanan, Ralph K H

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behavior. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognized to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate) and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone), are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilization of this effective and inexpensive class of drug. PMID:27199749

  20. Hypothalamic neuropeptides and the regulation of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer A; Bloom, Stephen R

    2012-07-01

    Neuropeptides released by hypothalamic neurons play a major role in the regulation of feeding, acting both within the hypothalamus, and at other appetite regulating centres throughout the brain. Where classical neurotransmitters signal only within synapses, neuropeptides diffuse over greater distances affecting both nearby and distant neurons expressing the relevant receptors, which are often extrasynaptic. As well as triggering a behavioural output, neuropeptides also act as neuromodulators: altering the response of neurons to both neurotransmitters and circulating signals of nutrient status. The mechanisms of action of hypothalamic neuropeptides with established roles in feeding, including melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the orexins, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), agouti-gene related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y, and oxytocin, are reviewed in this article, with emphasis laid on both their effects on appetite regulating centres throughout the brain, and on examining the evidence for their physiological roles. In addition, evidence for the involvement of several putative appetite regulating hypothalamic neuropeptides is assessed including, ghrelin, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), neuropeptide W and the galanin-like peptides. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central control of Food Intake'.

  1. Anandamide administration into the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulates appetite in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jamshidi, Nazila; Taylor, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation reports the possible role of the endocannabinoid anandamide in modulating appetitive behaviour. Given that cannabinoids have been used clinically to stimulate appetite in HIV and cancer chemotherapy patients, there has been a renewed interest in the involvement of cannabinoids in appetite modulation. This is the first report on the administration of anandamide into the ventromedial hypothalamus. Pre-satiated rats received an intrahypothalamic injection of anandamide (50 ng ...

  2. Genetic identification of a neural circuit that suppresses appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Matthew E.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Appetite suppression occurs following a meal and also during conditions when it is unfavorable to eat, such as during illness or exposure to toxins. A brain region hypothesized to play a role in appetite suppression is the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) 1-3 , a heterogeneous population of neurons surrounding the superior cerebellar peduncle in the brainstem. The PBN is thought to mediate the suppression of appetite induced by the anorectic hormones amylin and cholecystokinin, as well as lithium c...

  3. The Effect of Wholegrain on Appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine

    Background: Wholegrain consumption is suggested to improve short-term appetite sensation. This may occur immediately after wholegrain intake but also after a second meal. The latter may potentially be mediated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) that are generated during colonic fermentation...... hydrogen excretion and habitual wholegrain intake was even negatively associated with breath hydrogen excretion. Conclusion: Consumption of coarse wholegrain rye products may reduce energy intake at a later meal, which may potentially be mediated by colonic fermentation. It is, however, not clear whether...

  4. Ghrelin-derived peptides: a link between appetite/reward, GH axis and psychiatric disorders ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eLabarthe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress, …. but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe 1 the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, 2 how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH

  5. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  6. The role of infant appetite in extended formula feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch

  7. Appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of female sexual response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Both; E. Laan; M. Spiering; T. Nilsson; S. Oomens; W. Everaerd

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is only limited evidence for appetitive classical conditioning of female sexual response, and to date modulation of female sexual response by aversive conditioning has not been studied. AIM: The aim of this article is to study appetitive and aversive classical conditioning of sex

  8. Aging & appetite : Social and physiological approaches in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.F.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Aging is often accompanied by anorexia of aging, described as a decline in appetite, a lower dietary intake and followed by unexplained weight loss. The present thesis described research on anorexia of aging. Focus was given to social and physiological determinants of appetite and the relationship w

  9. Appetitive-aversive interactions in Pavlovian fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M; McNally, Gavan P

    2012-06-01

    The existence of value coding and salience coding neurons in the mammalian brain, including in habenula and ventral tegmental area, has sparked considerable interest in the interactions that occur between Pavlovian appetitive and aversive conditioning. Here we studied these appetitive-aversive interactions at the behavioral level by assessing the learning that occurs when a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus (conditional stimulus, CS) serves as a CS for shock in Pavlovian fear conditioning. A Pavlovian appetitive CS was retarded in the rate at which it could be transformed into a fear CS (counterconditioning), but the presence of the appetitive CS augmented fear learning to a concurrently presented neutral CS (superconditioning). Retardation of fear learning was not alleviated by manipulations designed to restore the associability of the appetitive CS before fear conditioning but was alleviated by manipulations designed to increase the aversive quality of the shock unconditioned stimulus (US). These findings are consistent with opponent interactions between the appetitive and aversive motivational systems and provide a behavioral approach for assessing the neural correlates of these appetitive-aversive interactions.

  10. Differential Recruitment of Distinct Amygdalar Nuclei across Appetitive Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sindy; Powell, Daniel J.; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is important for reward-associated learning, but how distinct cell groups within this heterogeneous structure are recruited during appetitive learning is unclear. Here we used Fos induction to map the functional amygdalar circuitry recruited during early and late training sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning. We found that a…

  11. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Silverstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1 The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2 Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3 Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4 Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for “somatic depression,” defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as “reactive” appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression.

  12. Evidence for Broadening Criteria for Atypical Depression Which May Define a Reactive Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Brett; Angst, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Arguing that additional symptoms should be added to the criteria for atypical depression. Method. Published research articles on atypical depression are reviewed. Results. (1) The original studies upon which the criteria for atypical depression were based cited fatigue, insomnia, pain, and loss of weight as characteristic symptoms. (2) Several studies of DSM depressive criteria found patients with atypical depression to exhibit high levels of insomnia, fatigue, and loss of appetite/weight. (3) Several studies have found atypical depression to be comorbid with headaches, bulimia, and body image issues. (4) Most probands who report atypical depression meet criteria for "somatic depression," defined as depression associated with several of disordered eating, poor body image, headaches, fatigue, and insomnia. The gender difference in prevalence of atypical depression results from its overlap with somatic depression. Somatic depression is associated with psychosocial measures related to gender, linking it with the descriptions of atypical depression as "reactive" appearing in the studies upon which the original criteria for atypical depression were based. Conclusion. Insomnia, disordered eating, poor body image, and aches/pains should be added as criteria for atypical depression matching criteria for somatic depression defining a reactive depressive disorder possibly distinct from endogenous melancholic depression. PMID:26258131

  13. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crista L. Barberini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors – approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence – these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  14. Complexity and competition in appetitive and aversive neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, Crista L; Morrison, Sara E; Saez, Alex; Lau, Brian; Salzman, C Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Decision-making often involves using sensory cues to predict possible rewarding or punishing reinforcement outcomes before selecting a course of action. Recent work has revealed complexity in how the brain learns to predict rewards and punishments. Analysis of neural signaling during and after learning in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, two brain areas that process appetitive and aversive stimuli, reveals a dynamic relationship between appetitive and aversive circuits. Specifically, the relationship between signaling in appetitive and aversive circuits in these areas shifts as a function of learning. Furthermore, although appetitive and aversive circuits may often drive opposite behaviors - approaching or avoiding reinforcement depending upon its valence - these circuits can also drive similar behaviors, such as enhanced arousal or attention; these processes also may influence choice behavior. These data highlight the formidable challenges ahead in dissecting how appetitive and aversive neural circuits interact to produce a complex and nuanced range of behaviors.

  15. Genetics of Amino Acid Taste and Appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Glendinning, John I; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Manita, Satoshi; McCaughey, Stuart A; Murata, Yuko; Reed, Danielle R; Tordoff, Michael G; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of amino acids by animals is controlled by both oral and postoral mechanisms. We used a genetic approach to investigate these mechanisms. Our studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in voluntary amino acid consumption, and these differences depend on sensory and nutritive properties of amino acids. Like humans, mice perceive some amino acids as having a sweet (sucrose-like) taste and others as having an umami (glutamate-like) taste. Mouse strain differences in the consumption of some sweet-tasting amino acids (d-phenylalanine, d-tryptophan, and l-proline) are associated with polymorphisms of a taste receptor, type 1, member 3 gene (Tas1r3), and involve differential peripheral taste responsiveness. Strain differences in the consumption of some other sweet-tasting amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, and l-threonine) do not depend on Tas1r3 polymorphisms and so must be due to allelic variation in other, as yet unknown, genes involved in sweet taste. Strain differences in the consumption of l-glutamate may depend on postingestive rather than taste mechanisms. Thus, genes and physiologic mechanisms responsible for strain differences in the consumption of each amino acid depend on the nature of its taste and postingestive properties. Overall, mouse strain differences in amino acid taste and appetite have a complex genetic architecture. In addition to the Tas1r3 gene, these differences depend on other genes likely involved in determining the taste and postingestive effects of amino acids. The identification of these genes may lead to the discovery of novel mechanisms that regulate amino acid taste and appetite. PMID:27422518

  16. Weight Loss Leads to Strong Increase in Appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases Media Advisory Friday, October 14, 2016 Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite Study with ... changes in caloric expenditure that typically accompany weight loss — and weight loss plateau. Findings from the analyses suggest that ...

  17. China Looks to Worldwide Resourccs to Sate Its Energy Appetite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An appetite for resources has long been a key determinant of Chinese foreign policy and recent figures detailing China's crude imports have posed further daunting geopolitical challenges over how China can ensure its oil supply.

  18. Contribution of gastroenteropancreatic appetite hormones to protein-induced satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Anita Belza; Ritz, Christian; Sørensen, Mejse Q;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of protein intake on appetite-regulating hormones and their dynamics are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the satiating effects of meals with varying protein contents and whether there was an effect of dose on appetite-regulating hormones and appetite ratings.Design: Twenty...... and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (P consumption dose-dependently decreased by 15% and 13% for MHP and by 25% and 26% for HP compared with NP...... (P effect of GLP-1 and PYY 3-36 (P = 0.03) next to the additive effect of GLP-1 (P = 0.006) on the composite appetite score. No difference was shown in ad libitum energy intake. CONCLUSION: Protein dose-dependently increased satiety and GLP-1, PYY 3-36, and glucagon...

  19. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  20. Validation of screening tools to assess appetite among geriatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisah, R; Suzana, S; Lee, F S

    2012-07-01

    Poor appetite is one of the main contributing factors of poor nutritional status among elderly individuals. Recognizing the importance of assessment of appetite, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the validity of appetite screening tools namely, the Council on Nutrition Appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) and the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) against the appetite, hunger and sensory perception questionnaire (AHSPQ), measures of nutritional status and food intake among geriatric patients at the main general hospital in Malaysia. Nutritional status was assessed using the subjective global assessment (SGA) while food intake was measured using the dietary history questionnaire (DHQ). Anthropometric parameters included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). A total of 145 subjects aged 60 to 86 years (68.3 ± 5.8 years) with 31.7% men and 68.3% women were recruited from outpatients (35 subjects) and inpatients (110 subjects) of Kuala Lumpur Hospital of Malaysia. As assessed by SGA, most subjects were classified as mild to moderately malnourished (50.4%), followed by normal (38.6%) and severely malnourished (11.0%). A total of 79.3% and 57.2% subjects were classified as having poor appetite according to CNAQ and SNAQ, respectively. CNAQ (80.9%) had a higher sensitivity than SNAQ (69.7%) when validated against nutritional status as assessed using SGA. However, the specificity of SNAQ (62.5%) was higher than CNAQ (23.2%). Positive predictive value for CNAQ and SNAQ were 62.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for CNAQ and SNAQ were 0.546 and 0.578, respectively. History of weight loss over the past one year (Adjusted odds ratio 2.49) (p risk factors for poor appetite among subjects. In conclusion, malnutrition and poor appetite were prevalent among the geriatric outpatients and inpatients. SNAQ was more reliable and valid as an appetite screening tool among this special

  1. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman;

    2016-01-01

    is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes’ PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight......In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect.......04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead...

  2. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required. PMID:25335699

  3. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight s......Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal...... with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21. cm...... (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09. cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially...

  4. Gene-environment factors in depressive disorders with a focus on circadian genes

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöholm, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Depressive disorders have a multifactorial etiology, where both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute. Depression is characterized by a depressed mood and accompanied by e.g. loss of interest and pleasure, disturbed sleep and appetite and difficulties in concentrating. A disturbed sleep-wake pattern as well as disruptions of other biological (circadian) rhythms is a hallmark of depression. This fact has led researchers to believe that disruptions of biological ...

  5. The strength of aversive and appetitive associations and maladaptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Yossef; Perez-Lanza, Daniel; Liddie, Shervin

    2014-08-01

    Certain maladaptive behaviors are thought to be acquired through classical Pavlovian conditioning. Exaggerated fear response, which can develop through Pavlovian conditioning, is associated with acquired anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs). Inflated reward-seeking behavior, which develops through Pavlovian conditioning, underlies some types of addictive behavior (e.g., addiction to drugs, food, and gambling). These maladaptive behaviors are dependent on associative learning and the development of long-term memory (LTM). In animal models, an aversive reinforcer (fear conditioning) encodes an aversive contextual and cued LTM. On the other hand, an appetitive reinforcer results in conditioned place preference (CPP) that encodes an appetitive contextual LTM. The literature on weak and strong associative learning pertaining to the development of aversive and appetitive LTM is relatively scarce; thus, this review is particularly focused on the strength of associative learning. The strength of associative learning is dependent on the valence of the reinforcer and the salience of the conditioned stimulus that ultimately sways the strength of the memory trace. Our studies suggest that labile (weak) aversive and appetitive LTM may share similar signaling pathways, whereas stable (strong) aversive and appetitive LTM is mediated through different pathways. In addition, we provide some evidence suggesting that extinction of aversive fear memory and appetitive drug memory is likely to be mediated through different signaling molecules. We put forward the importance of studies aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of weak and strong memories (aversive and appetitive), which would ultimately help in the development of targeted pharmacotherapies for the management of maladaptive behaviors that arise from classical Pavlovian conditioning.

  6. Depression - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blues; Gloom; Sadness; Melancholy ... depression . The main types of depression include: Major depression . It occurs when feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with daily life ...

  7. Vascular Heart and Brain Disease and Incident Late-Life Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Luijendijk (Hendrika)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDepression is characterized by depressed mood, loss of interest, rumination, feelings of guilt and shame, suicidal ideation, disturbed sleep and loss of appetite (1). It is associated with limitations in physical and social functioning and places a severe burden on patients and relatives

  8. Recognition and diagnosis of atypical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thase, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The term atypical depression dates to the first wave of reports describing differential response to monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). In contrast to more TCA-responsive depressions, patients with so-called atypical symptoms (e.g., hypersomnia, interpersonal sensitivity, leaden paralysis, increased appetite and/or weight, and phobic anxiety) were observed to be more responsive to MAOIs. After several decades of controversy and debate, the phrase "with atypical features" was added as an episode specifier in the DSM-IV in 1994. The 1-year prevalence of the defined atypical depression subtype is approximately 1% to 4%; around 15% to 29% of patients with major depressive disorder have atypical depression. Hardly "atypical" in contemporary contexts, atypical depression also is common in dysthymic bipolar II disorders and is notable for its early age at onset, more chronic course, and high rates of comorbidity with social phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia. The requirement of preserved mood reactivity is arguably the most controversial of the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression. When compared with melancholia, the neurobiological profiles of patients with atypical depression are relatively normal. The utility of the atypical depression subtype for differential therapeutics diminished substantially when the TCAs were supplanted as first-line antidepressants by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Although introduction of safer MAOIs has fostered renewed interest in atypical depression, the validity and importance of the DSM-IV definition of atypical depression for the nosology of affective illness remains an open question. PMID:17640153

  9. Early growth and postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Kajantie, Eero; Valsta, Liisa M;

    2013-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that slow prenatal or postnatal growth is associated with an increased risk of CVD and other metabolic diseases. However, little is known whether early growth affects postprandial metabolism and, especially, the appetite regulatory hormone system. Therefore......, we investigated the impact of early growth on postprandial appetite regulatory hormone responses to two high-protein and two high-fat content meals. Healthy, 65-75-year-old volunteers from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were recruited; twelve with a slow increase in BMI during the first year of life......, early growth may have a role in programming appetite regulatory hormone secretion in later life. Slow early growth is also associated with higher postprandial insulin and TAG responses but not with incretin levels....

  10. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  11. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030. CONCLUSIONS: Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  12. Acupuncture Treatment of Depressive Syndromes after Cerebral Vascular Accidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海荣

    2002-01-01

    @@ Depressive syndrome is a common complication in cerebral vascular accidents (CVA), which accounts for 70% of the complications. A mild case of the syndrome is marked by grief, sleeping disturbance, weakened mental activities, worry, loss of interest, and irritability. A severe case may have worse symptoms and signs, except the above mentioned ones, such as anxiety, reduced appetite, hallucination, delusion, desperation, etc. The author has adopted acupuncture to treat depressive syndromes after CVA with good therapeutic result as reported in the following.

  13. Appetite and falls: Old age and lived experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Mahler

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Falling among older adults is a well-known public health problem but the association between falling and appetite is seldom studied although poor nutritional status is accepted as a risk factor for falls. On this background the aim of this study was to understand how older adults, who have fallen several times within a year, related their experiences of appetite as a phenomenon in everyday life. In narrative in-depth interviews, eight women and four men contributed with their stories. Using interpretative phenomenology the thematic analysis resulted in three main themes: appetite for food; appetite for social relations and appetite for influence. Eating was not trivial everyday routine and required self-regimentation. Meals were not an object of desire, but of discipline out of the wish to survive. Feelings, reflections and ambivalence were bound to the lack of appetite on food. The participants were oriented towards the forbidden, the delicious and to everyday food as a strengthener and as medicine. In their dependency on help, home was the framework for establishing social relations as means of social support. As well as family and neighbours, the significant others were persons on whom the participants were dependent. Personal relationships and mutual dependencies may ensure social security in lives characterised by contingency and maintain influence in daily life. Falling is both a dramatic and a trivial incident where life and death could be at stake. From this perspective, connectedness was prominent in all fall stories. The quest for influence and a sense of social connectedness was the incentive to re-enter local community arenas and to express solidarity. In health-care practice multi-factorial fall-prevention should be complemented with a multi-dimensional approach in order to balance the medical approach with humanistic and societal approaches towards fall-prevention.

  14. Specific appetite for carotenoids in a colorful bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Senar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since carotenoids have physiological functions necessary for maintaining health, individuals should be selected to actively seek and develop a specific appetite for these compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Great tits Parus major in a diet choice experiment, both in captivity and the field, preferred carotenoid-enriched diets to control diets. The food items did not differ in any other aspects measured besides carotenoid content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specific appetite for carotenoids is here demonstrated for the first time, placing these compounds on a par with essential nutrients as sodium or calcium.

  15. Neuropeptide Regulation of Appetite and Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small CJ

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now recognised that appropriate regulation of reproduction, energy intake and energy expenditure, and thus maintenance of body weight and fertility, relies on complex hypothalamic neuro-circuitry. Feeding and reproductive function are closely linked. During times of under nourishment and falling body fat the reproductive axis is down regulated. Circulating factors and hypothalamic circuits co-ordinate these responses. Leptin has been described to be an important peripheral signal that indicates body fat stores to the hypothalamus and thus links nutrition and reproduction. Leptin acts by altering neuropeptide circuits in the hypothalamus, which alter gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH release and food intake. The importance of key neuropeptide systems identified in rodents is now being established in man. Notably mutations in the melanocortin MC4 receptor are found in up to 4 % of the morbidly obese whilst in a proportion of patients with anorexia nervosa mutations have been identified in the agoutirelated peptide (AgRP gene, which codes for an endogenous antagonist of this receptor. Intranasal administration of a melanocortin fragment known to activate the MC4 receptor decreases adiposity in humans. The melanocortin system has been shown to influence the reproductive axis in rodents. However, the role of the melanocortin system in the control of reproduction in humans remains to be established. Since the discovery of leptin, attention has also been focused on peripheral signals that regulate reproduction, food intake and energy expenditure, either directly or via feedback on hypothalamic circuits. Notable new discoveries in this area include the gastric hormone ghrelin. Circulating ghrelin stimulates food intake in rodents and humans although an influence on the reproductive axis is yet to be reported. Neuropeptidregulation von Appetit und Reproduktion. Mittlerweile gilt es als anerkannt, daß eine entsprechende Regulation der

  16. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fa...

  17. An Appetitive Conditioned Stimulus Enhances Fear Acquisition and Impairs Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hiu T.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments used between- and within-subject designs to examine appetitive-aversive interactions in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of an excitatory appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) on acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, a CS shocked in a compound with an appetitive excitor (i.e., a stimulus…

  18. Appetitive and regulatory processes in young adolescent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Hemel-Ruiter; P.J. de Jong; R.W. Wiers

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol (mis)use develops because of an imbalance between a fast automatic appetitive system, in which stimuli are valued in terms of their emotional and motivational significance and a slower controlled regulatory system, which acts on deliberate consid

  19. The endocannabinoid system and appetite: relevance for food reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence substantiates the central role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the modulation of both homeostatic and hedonic elements of appetite and food intake. Conversely, feeding status and dietary patterns directly influence activity of the ECS. Following a general introduction on the

  20. A Molecular Dissociation between Cued and Contextual Appetitive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Chi, Wanhao; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian learning, animals learn to associate discrete cues or environmental contexts with rewarding outcomes, and these cues and/or contexts can potentiate an ongoing instrumental response for reward. Although anatomical substrates underlying cued and contextual learning have been proposed, it remains unknown whether specific…

  1. Dietary fibres and appetite : comparing apples and oranges?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: dietary fibre, satiation, satiety, appetite, energy intake, body weight, viscosity, eating time, gastric emptying, fermentation.

    Background and objective:Dietary fibre can contribute in th

  2. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonov S.F.; Shusterman T.Y.; Rokutov S.V.; Shornikov A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce a...

  3. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review).

    OpenAIRE

    Spirina, I. D.; Leonov, S. F.; Shusterman, T. Y.; Rokutov, S. V.; Shornikov, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    The review of literature presents current data on cli­nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce a...

  4. Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Yuen, V G; McNeill, J H

    2001-06-01

    Vanadium, a potent nonselective inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, has been shown to mimic many of the metabolic actions of insulin both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism(s) of the effect of vanadium on the decrease in appetite and body weight in Zucker fa/fa rats, an insulin-resistant model, is still unclear. Because insulin may inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is known to be related to appetite, and increase leptin secretion in adipose tissue, we studied the possibility that the changes in appetite produced by vanadium may be linked to altered NPY levels in the hypothalamus. We also examined effects of vanadium on leptin. Zucker lean and fatty rats were chronically treated with bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BMOV), an organic vanadium compound, in the drinking water. Plasma and adipose tissue leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting, respectively. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA and peptide levels were measured using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. BMOV treatment significantly reduced food intake, body fat, body weight, plasma insulin levels, and glucose levels in fatty Zucker rats. Fifteen minutes after insulin injection (5 U/kg, intravenous [IV]), circulating leptin levels (+100%) and adipose leptin levels (+60%) were elevated in BMOV-treated fatty rats, although these effects were not observed in untreated fatty rats. NPY mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) (-29%), NPY peptide levels in ARC (-31%), as well as in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (-37%) were decreased with BMOV treatment in these fatty rats. These data indicate that BMOV may increase insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue and decrease appetite and body fat by decreasing NPY levels in the hypothalamus. BMOV-induced reduction in appetite and weight gain along with normalized insulin levels in models of obesity, suggest its possible use as a therapeutic agent in obesity.

  5. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  6. Depression (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others. Family members also have a risk of depression. Anxiety and depression are also common in family members ... cancer . A small number of children may have: Depression . Anxiety . Trouble sleeping. Problems getting along with family or ...

  7. Depression associated with dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Lingeswaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET, a benign, rare tumor of the brain, commonly presents with generalized or partial epilepsy, post-epilepsy sequelae of psychotic, depressive or anxiety symptoms or disorders, or is usually asymptomatic. We report the first case in scientific literature of temporal lobe DNET presenting with only major depressive disorder, without epilepsy. A 24-year-old single male, presented with pervasive sadness, easy fatigability, loss of interest in his daily activities, decreasing appetite associated with poor of quality sleep, poor attention and concentration, pessimism about the future, and headaches. He was diagnosed with severe depression, without psychotic symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a lobulated hyperintense temporal lobe mass of 2.7 × 2.2 mm in the hippocampus region suggestive of a DNET. Electroencephalography, thyroid function tests, blood sugar, and electrocardiogram were normal. The depression responded well to tablet Escitalopram 10 mg once daily initially, with no adverse effects reported.

  8. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This revie......, methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline), drugs that suppress appetite (phentermine, rimonabant, and sibutramine) and drugs used in Alzheimer's disease (donepezil and rivastigmine).......The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This review...... of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  9. An approach to the development of drugs for appetite disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, J E

    1989-01-01

    This review covers some modern concepts in the development of drugs to treat appetite disorders. Specific attention is paid to the peripheral satiety system and the role of gastrointestinal peptides such as cholecystokinin in the pathogenesis of satiety. Alterations in neuropeptide Y and/or peptide YY are suggested to play a role in the pathophysiology of bulimia. Corticotropin-releasing factor is a putative candidate peptide involved in anorexia nervosa. The serotonin reuptake inhibitors fenfluramine and fluoxetene decrease weight in obese subjects. Endogenous opioids modulate the choice of palatable foods. Anorexia in the old appears to be related to a decrease in opioid feeding drive and an excess of the satiety action of cholecystokinin. Other agents involved in weight regulation include those which alter gastric emptying, increase thermogenesis, or modulate fat cell metabolism. It should be stressed that many neurotransmitters that modulate appetite also alter other behaviors, increasing their propensity to produce side effects. PMID:2573002

  10. Deletion of Ghrelin Impairs neither Growth nor Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuxiang; Ahmed, Saira; Smith, Roy G

    2003-01-01

    Pharmacological studies show that ghrelin stimulates growth hormone release, appetite, and fat deposition, but ghrelin's physiological role in energy homeostasis has not been established. Ghrelin was also proposed to regulate leptin and insulin release and to be important for the normal function of stomach, heart, kidney, lung, testis, and placenta. To help determine a definable physiological role for ghrelin, we generated ghrelin-null mice. In contrast to predictions made from the pharmacolo...

  11. Richter and Sodium Appetite: from adrenalectomy to molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Eric G.; Sakai, Randall R.

    2007-01-01

    Nearly three-quarters of a century ago, Curt Richter removed the adrenal glands from rats and noted that the animal's vitality was dependent on its increased consumption of sodium chloride. In doing so, Richter revealed an innate behavioral mechanism that serves to maintain the hydromineral balance of an animal faced with sodium deficit. This experiment and others like it, led to the development of a field of research devoted to the investigation of salt appetite. The following is a discussio...

  12. Altered motivation masks appetitive learning potential of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Mazen R; Almeida, Osborne F X

    2014-01-01

    Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant) as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that (i) the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; (ii) higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and (iii) mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate). Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in the mouse

  13. Altered motivation masks appetitive learning potential of obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen R. Harb

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating depends strongly on learning processes which, in turn, depend on motivation. Conditioned learning, where individuals associate environmental cues with receipt of a reward, forms an important part of hedonic mechanisms; the latter contribute to the development of human overweight and obesity by driving excessive eating in what may become a vicious cycle. Although mice are commonly used to explore the regulation of human appetite, it is not known whether their conditioned learning of food rewards varies as a function of body mass. To address this, groups of adult male mice of differing body weights were tested two appetitive conditioning paradigms (pavlovian and operant as well as in food retrieval and hedonic preference tests in an attempt to dissect the respective roles of learning/motivation and energy state in the regulation of feeding behavior. We found that i the rate of pavlovian conditioning to an appetitive reward develops as an inverse function of body weight; ii higher body weight associates with increased latency to collect food reward; and iii mice with lower body weights are more motivated to work for a food reward, as compared to animals with higher body weights. Interestingly, as compared to controls, overweight and obese mice consumed smaller amounts of palatable foods (isocaloric milk or sucrose, in either the presence or absence of their respective maintenance diets: standard, low fat-high carbohydrate or high fat-high carbohydrate. Notably, however, all groups adjusted their consumption of the different food types, such that their body weight-corrected daily intake of calories remained constant. Thus, overeating in mice does not reflect a reward deficiency syndrome and, in contrast to humans, mice regulate their caloric intake according to metabolic status rather than to the hedonic properties of a particular food. Together, these observations demonstrate that excess weight masks the capacity for appetitive learning in

  14. THE TOLERANCE AND OPERATIONAL RISK APPETITE IN BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    PETRIA Nicolae; Ioan TRENCA; Simona MUTU

    2012-01-01

    Operational risk appetite is an area that attracts differing views among practitioners. In theory, accepting any type of risk may carry some aspect of reward but it is important for operational risk practitioners to be aware of the view that this risk type differs from, for example, credit risk and market risk. Operational risks may be inherent in operational activities but are rarely intentionally sought and have no material upside in terms of return/income generation. There are, however, co...

  15. Appetitive and aversive visual learning in freely moving Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Schnaitmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare appetitive and aversive visual memories of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, we developed a new paradigm for classical conditioning. Adult flies are trained en masse to differentially associate one of two visual conditioned stimuli (blue and green light as conditioned stimuli or CS with an appetitive or aversive chemical substance (unconditioned stimulus or US. In a test phase, flies are given a choice between the paired and the unpaired visual stimuli. Associative memory is measured based on altered visual preference in the test. If a group of flies has, for example, received a sugar reward with green light, they show a significantly higher preference for the green stimulus during the test than another group of flies having received the same reward with blue light. We demonstrate critical parameters for the formation of visual appetitive memory, such as training repetition, order of reinforcement, starvation, and individual conditioning. Furthermore, we show that formic acid can act as an aversive chemical reinforcer, yielding weak, yet significant, aversive memory. These results provide a basis for future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying visual memory and perception in Drosophila.

  16. Relationship of morningness-eveningness questionnaire score to melatonin and sleep timing, body mass index and atypical depressive symptoms in peri- and post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Meliska, Charles John; Martínez, Luis Fernando; López, Ana María; Sorenson, Diane Lynn; Nowakowski, Sara; Parry, Barbara Lockhart

    2011-01-01

    Previous work shows a relationship between measures of morning or evening preference (e.g., Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) scores) and melatonin and sleep timing, body mass index (BMI) and mood. This study explores the relationship of these factors to atypical depression (ATD) symptoms, particularly increased appetite and hypersomnia, in depressed and non-depressed peri- and post-menopausal women. Participants were 19 normal control subjects and 10 depressed patients, 46 – 72 yea...

  17. The Acute Effects of Swimming on Appetite, Food Intake, and Plasma Acylated Ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Stensel, David J.; Wasse, Lucy K.; King, James A

    2011-01-01

    Swimming may stimulate appetite and food intake but empirical data are lacking. This study examined appetite, food intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin responses to swimming. Fourteen healthy males completed a swimming trial and a control trial in a random order. Sixty min after breakfast participants swam for 60 min and then rested for six hours. Participants rested throughout the control trial. During trials appetite was measured at 30 min intervals and acylated ghrelin was assessed periodic...

  18. Atypical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Ertekin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical depression is defined as a specifier of major depressive disorder. Columbia criteria for atypical depression are commonly used to make a diagnosis. Female sex, onset at early age, chronic course, and higher rate of comorbidity (especially anxiety disorder and bipolar disorder is noteworthy in atypical depression. Although, the atypical depression seems to support the familial genetic transition, there is not any specific study supporting these data. In the treatment of atypical depression, monoamine oxidase inhibitors are reported to be more effective than tricyclic antidepressants. In recent studies, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have also proven to be efficient.

  19. Major depression and severe weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntrogkounta Α.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Α 25-year old patient was referred to the casualty department of the Community Mental Health Center of Central Sector of Thessaloniki from the emergency department of the Psychiatric Hospital of Thessaloniki, in order to manage symptoms of depression as long as her life- threating loss of weight. A. appeared to have depressive feelings, lack of appetite, lack of interest, withdrawal, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, low self-esteem and ideas of guilt. There were held 27 conferences. In the beginning there were supportive intervations in order to improve the depressive symptoms and to gain weight. Moreover we applied medication (SSRI's that after 6 months was stopped gradually, without any setback. There was an increase of weight, about 10 kg, which remained until the follow up one year later.

  20. Effects of RYGB on energy expenditure, appetite and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture;

    2016-01-01

    the effect of RYGB on glycaemic control per se. Here, we investigated the effect of RYGB on EE, appetite, glycaemic control, and specific signalling molecules compared to a control group in comparable negative energy balance. Subjects/Methods:Obese normal glucose tolerant participants were randomized...... different between the groups, but RYGB operated had lower fasting glucose (Pmediated...... by changes in gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Furthermore, we found that the early changes in glycaemic control after RYGB is to a large extent mediated by caloric restriction....

  1. Dietary fibres in the regulation of appetite and food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten Møller Georg

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation...... of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. This may be linked to increased chyme viscosity, as linseed dietary fibre has water holding capacity and intrinsic viscosity which...

  2. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  3. Depression - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of ... one time or another for short periods. Clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of ...

  4. The mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and body mass index in the two European countries Denmark and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Winkens, Laura; Toft, Madeleine Broman; Pedersen, Susanne; Brouwer, Ingeborg; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    In two European countries with a different prevalence of depression, namely Denmark (high) and Spain (low), we assessed whether the mediation effect of emotional eating between depression and Body Mass Index (BMI) as found in earlier studies can be replicated and whether this mediation effect is contingent on 1) change in appetite and 2) gender. Mediation and moderated mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Emotional eating (DEBQ: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (CES-D: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), change in appetite, weight and height were self-reported. In both countries, emotional eating acted as a mediator between depression and BMI (Denmark: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.03, 0.05]; Spain: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), 95% CI, [0.02, 0.04]). In Denmark this mediation effect was stronger for participants with increased appetite and for females than for participants with decreases/no change in appetite and for males (more appetite: B = 0.08, (SE = 0.03), [0.03, 0.15]; decreased appetite/no change in appetite: B = 0.03 (SE = 0.01), [0.02, 0.04]); females: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; males: B = 0.01 (SE = 0.01), [0.004, 0.04]. This supports depression with atypical features as an underlying mechanism in the mediation effect of emotional eating. In Spain there was no support for depression with atypical features as underlying mechanism because the mediation effect was neither moderated by change in appetite nor by gender. Instead, post-hoc analyses suggested 'stress of unemployment' as possible explanatory factor of the mediation effect, with stronger mediation effects for unemployed than for employed people (unemployed: B = 0.05 (SE = 0.01), [0.03, 0.07]; employed B = 0.02 (SE = 0.01), [0.01, 0.04]). The mediating effect of emotional eating between depressive symptoms and body mass index in both countries suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional

  5. Major Depression in a Small Group of Adults with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Beverly A.; Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    1995-01-01

    The clinical histories and treatment of 9 individuals with Down syndrome and major depression are presented, as are clinical characteristics of an additional 13 individuals. Vegetative symptoms of disinterest, withdrawal, mutism, psychomotor retardation, decreased appetite, and insomnia were prominent. Preoccupations with suicide, death,…

  6. Perinatal depression

    OpenAIRE

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes.

  7. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1 for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  8. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  9. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Rodenburg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. METHODS: Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. RESULTS: Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. CONCLUSIONS: Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  10. Aberrant Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia Patients During Appetitive Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Oliviana Diaconescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been suggested that schizophrenia involves dysfunction in brain connectivity at a neural level, and a dysfunction in reward processing at a behavioural level. The purpose of the present study was to link these two levels of analyses by examining effective connectivity patterns between brain regions mediating reward learning in patients with schizophrenia and healthy, age-matched controls. To this aim, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and galvanic skin recordings (GSR while patients and controls performed an appetitive conditioning experiment with visual cues as the conditioned (CS stimuli, and monetary reward as the appetitive unconditioned stimulus (US. Based on explicit stimulus contingency ratings, conditioning occurred in both groups; however, based on implicit, physiological GSR measures, patients failed to show differences between CS+ and CS- conditions. Healthy controls exhibited increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD activity across striatal, hippocampal and prefrontal regions and increased effective connectivity from the ventral striatum (VS to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC BA 11 in the CS+ compared to the CS- condition. Compared to controls, patients showed increased BOLD activity across a similar network of brain regions, and increased effective connectivity from the striatum to hippocampus and prefrontal regions in the CS- compared to the CS+ condition. The findings of increased BOLD activity and effective connectivity in response to the CS- in patients with schizophrenia offer insight into the aberrant assignment of motivational salience to non-reinforced stimuli during conditioning that is thought to accompany schizophrenia.

  11. Role of the serotoninergic system in the sodium appetite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of the sodium appetite. Data from the peripheral and icv administration of serotoninergic (5-HTergic agents showed the participation of 5-HT2/3 receptors in the modulation of sodium appetite. These observations were extended with the studies carried out after brain serotonin depletion, lesions of DRN and during blockade of 5-HT2A/2C receptors in lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN. Brain serotonin depletion and lesions of DRN increased the sodium appetite response, in basal conditions, after sodium depletion and hypovolemia or after beta-adrenergic stimulation as well. These observations raised the hypothesis that the suppression of ascending pathways from the DRN, possibly, 5-HTergic fibers, modifies the angiotensinergic or sodium sensing mechanisms of the subfornical organ involved in the control of the sodium appetite. 5-HTergic blockade in LPBN induced to similar results, particularly those regarded to the natriorexigenic response evoked by volume depletion or increase of the hypertonic saline ingestion induced by brain angiotensinergic stimulation. In conclusion, many evidences lead to acceptation of an integrated participation resulting of an interaction, between DRN and LPBN, for the sodium appetite control.Este artigo revisa o papel do sistema serotoninérgico no controle do apetite ao sódio. Dados derivados da administração periférica e icv de agentes serotoninérgicos demonstraram a participação de receptores 5-HT2/3 na modulação do apetite ao sódio. Estas observações foram estendidas com os estudos realizados após a depleção cerebral de serotonina, lesões do NDR e durante o bloqueio 5-HT2A/2C no núcleo parabraquial lateral (NPBL. A depleção cerebral de serotonina e as lesões do NDR aumentaram o apetite ao sódio, em condições basais, após depleção de sódio, durante a hipovolemia ou após a estimulação beta-adrenérgica. Estas

  12. Appetite-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Binge Eating with Purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Stacy L.; Craighead, Linda Wilcoxon

    2004-01-01

    The first-line treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), uses food-based self-monitoring. Six young women presenting with BN or significant purging behavior were treated with a modification, Appetite-Focused CBT (CBT-AF), in which self-monitoring is based on appetite cues and food monitoring is proscribed. This change…

  13. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa...

  14. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  15. Appetitive but Not Aversive Olfactory Conditioning Modifies Antennal Movements in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholé, Hanna; Junca, Pierre; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In honeybees, two olfactory conditioning protocols allow the study of appetitive and aversive Pavlovian associations. Appetitive conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) involves associating an odor, the conditioned stimulus (CS) with a sucrose solution, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Conversely, aversive conditioning of the sting…

  16. Neural Correlates of Appetitive-Aversive Interactions in Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Helen M.; McNally, Gavan P.

    2013-01-01

    We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in rats to identify the neural mechanisms for appetitive-aversive motivational interactions. In Stage I, rats were trained on conditioned stimulus (CS)-food (unconditioned stimulus [US]) pairings. In Stage II, this appetitive CS was transformed into a fear CS via pairings with footshock. The development of…

  17. An appropriate tool for appetite testing and evaluation in young children in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Appetite measurements were performed in 109 Beninese children aged 18–30 months to develop a tool for appetite evaluation in young children in nutritional intervention programmes. Two test foods were identified as appropriate for these children: a maize porridge (aklui) and rice (riz-au-gras). Ad li

  18. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep–wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psyc...

  19. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  20. The relationship between appetite and food preferences in British and Australian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fildes, A.; Mallan, K.M.; Cooke, L.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; Daniels, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appetitive traits and food preferences are key determinants of children's eating patterns but it is unclear how these behaviours relate to one another. This study explores relationships between appetitive traits and preferences for fruits and vegetables, and energy dense, nutrient poor (

  1. The Acute Effects of Swimming on Appetite, Food Intake, and Plasma Acylated Ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. King

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming may stimulate appetite and food intake but empirical data are lacking. This study examined appetite, food intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin responses to swimming. Fourteen healthy males completed a swimming trial and a control trial in a random order. Sixty min after breakfast participants swam for 60 min and then rested for six hours. Participants rested throughout the control trial. During trials appetite was measured at 30 min intervals and acylated ghrelin was assessed periodically (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7.5 h. =10. Appetite was suppressed during exercise before increasing in the hours after. Acylated ghrelin was suppressed during exercise. Swimming did not alter energy or macronutrient intake assessed at buffet meals (total trial energy intake: control 9161 kJ, swimming 9749 kJ. These findings suggest that swimming stimulates appetite but indicate that acylated ghrelin and food intake are resistant to change in the hours afterwards.

  2. Modeling appetitive Pavlovian-instrumental interactions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eoin C; Stephens, David N; Crombag, Hans S

    2010-10-01

    In appetitive Pavlovian associative learning, a stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) that has been associated with the delivery of a reinforcing event (unconditioned stimulus, US; e.g., food) can subsequently elicit or modulate goal-directed instrumental behaviors. For example, a Pavlovian CS can serve to reinforce (novel) instrumental behavior (conditioned reinforcement or CRf), or it can energize and potentiate ongoing instrumental responses when presented non-contingently (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer or PIT). Notably, these different effects of a Pavlovian CS on instrumental behavior are mediated by dissociable psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. Given the critical role that Pavlovian-instrumental interactions play in regulating motivated behavior and maladaptive manifestations of motivation such as eating disorders and addictions, understanding the underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms will be important. This unit describes behavioral protocols that produce robust and reliable PIT and CRf in mice and that open the door for future studies using transgenic approaches into the molecular mechanisms underlying associative learning and motivation.

  3. Hippocampal unit activity during classical aversive and appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M; Disterhoft, J F; Olds, J

    1972-02-18

    Rats were trained with a tone being followed by either food or electric shock, on alternate days. Unit activity during application of the conditioned stimulus was recorded from the dorsal hippocampus. The results indicate differentiation of the hippocampal system. Dentate units respond by augmentation to a conditioned stimulus which leads to food and by inhibition to the same stimulus when it precedes electric shock. The hippocampus proper responds by augmentation in both situations. The intensity of the hippocampal response to the conditioned stimulus on the first day of training is higher if the unconditioned stimulus is food than if it is electric shock. These data cast light on the functions of the dorsal dentate-hippocampal connections and the hippocampus proper during aversive and appetitive conditioning.

  4. CART in the Regulation of Appetite and Energy Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie eLau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been the subject of significant interest for over a decade. Work to decipher the detailed mechanism of CART function has been hampered by the lack of specific pharmacological tools like antagonists and the absence of a specific CART receptor(s. However, extensive research has been devoted to elucidate the role of the CART peptide and it is now evident that CART is a key neurotransmitter and hormone involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including food intake, maintenance of body weight, reward and addiction, stress response, psychostimulant effects and endocrine functions1,2. In this review, we focus on knowledge gained on CART’s role in controlling appetite and energy homeostasis, and also address certain species differences between rodents and humans.

  5. Atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonov S.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review of literature presents current data on cli¬nical picture and diagnostics of atypical depression. Rubric “atypical depression” includes a variety of depressive states characterized by reactively caused changes of mood, sensitivity to interpersonal contacts, inverted vegetative and somatic symptoms such as increased appetite and hypersomnia. The article considers the place of atypical depression in the structure of organic mental disorders. Positions of foreign authors that produce atypical depression as a clinical entity in the structure of Bipolar affective disorder II type are represented, the views of other authors on the structure of atypical depression are considered. The analysis of national concept of non-circular depression is carried out. Questions of atypical affective conditions acquire special significance due to preparation of International Classification of Diseases of the 11th revision, because inclusion in it of Bipolar affective disorder II type, a manifestation of which is considered to be atypical depressions, is under discussion.

  6. The Histaminergic Tuberomamillary Nucleus Is Involved in Appetite for Sex, Water and Amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Marco; Riveros, María E; Quispe, Maricel; Sánchez, Cristián; Perdomo, Guayec; Torrealba, Fernando; Valdés, José L

    2016-01-01

    The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.

  7. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  8. [Treatment of atypical and neurotic depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, P; Umann, E; Kulawik, H

    1986-10-01

    Hitherto it has not been usual to talk in the German language about the therapy-oriented concept of two forms of the progress of atypical depression (Type A and Type V). The characteristic symptom of Type A is angst, together with phobias, physical complaints, etc. In Type V there are vegetative symptoms, often towards evening (Hypersomnia, difficulty in getting to sleep, increased appetite, increased weight, increased libido), accompanied by hysterical extrovert personality traits, and of intermittent occurrence. These clinical pictures are amenable to psychopharmalogical therapy. In conformity with the assumption of "somatic accommodation" treatment with antidepressives is recommended in the case neurotic depression, too, at least in the initial stages of treatment. PMID:3809300

  9. Development of a lack of appetite item bank for computer-adaptive testing (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Laurberg Holst; Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K;

    2015-01-01

    measurement precision. The EORTC Quality of Life Group is developing a CAT version of the widely used EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Here, we report on the development of the lack of appetite CAT. METHODS: The EORTC approach to CAT development comprises four phases: literature search, operationalization, pre...... to 12 lack of appetite items. CONCLUSIONS: Phases 1-3 resulted in 12 lack of appetite candidate items. Based on a field testing (phase 4), the psychometric characteristics of the items will be assessed and the final item bank will be generated. This CAT item bank is expected to provide precise...

  10. Postnatal depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Michael; Howard, Louise Michele

    1991-01-01

    The differentiation between postnatal depression and other types of depression is often unclear, but there are treatment issues in nursing mothers that do not apply in other situations. Overall, the prevalence of depression in postpartum women is the same as the prevalence in women generally, at about 12–13%.Suicide is a major cause of maternal mortality in resource-rich countries, but rates are lower in women postpartum than in women who have not had a baby.Most episodes resolve spontaneo...

  11. Participation of α2 -adrenoceptors in sodium appetite inhibition during sickness behaviour following administration of lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Laurival A; Almeida, Roberto L; David, Richard B; de Paula, Patricia M; Andrade, Carina A F; Menani, José V

    2016-03-15

    Sickness behaviour, a syndrome characterized by a general reduction in animal activity, is part of the active-phase response to fight infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an effective endotoxin to model sickness behaviour, reduces thirst and sodium excretion, and increases neurohypophysial secretion. Here we review the effects of LPS on thirst and sodium appetite. Altered renal function and hydromineral fluid intake in response to LPS occur in the context of behavioural reorganization, which manifests itself as part of the syndrome. Recent data show that, in addition to its classical effect on thirst, non-septic doses of LPS injected intraperitoneally produce a preferential inhibition of intracellular thirst versus extracellular thirst. Moreover, LPS also reduced hypertonic NaCl intake in sodium-depleted rats that entered a sodium appetite test. Antagonism of α2 -adrenoceptors abolished the effect of LPS on sodium appetite. LPS and cytokine transduction potentially recruit brain noradrenaline and α2 -adrenoceptors to control sodium appetite and sickness behaviour. PMID:26036817

  12. APPETITE INHIBITORS CLASSIFIED AS ONE OF CONDITIONS RELATED TO DEVELOPMENT OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecilene Gomes Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian population leads the world in consumption of appetite suppressants/ anorectics. Prolonged use of appetite suppressants can cause pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, a chronic and disabling. Taking into consideration the large intake of appetite suppressants in Brazil and the fact that these are, according to the WHO, among the conditions related to the incidence of pulmonary hypertension and given the seriousness of this condition tothe carrier, saw the need to conduct a literature review on the adverse effects of these drugs, and know what are the risks of imminent health and also seek information about the HAP, with the aim of adding knowledge to nursing professionals to enable the health education regarding the conscious use of appetite suppressants and stimulate the search for information about a serious illness and so little known in nursing as PAH.

  13. Appetitive and aversive olfactory learning induce similar generalization rates in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nick; Roussel, Edith; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2014-03-01

    Appetitive and aversive learning drive an animal toward or away from stimuli predicting reinforcement, respectively. The specificity of these memories may vary due to differences in cost–benefit relationships associated with appetitive and aversive contexts. As a consequence, generalization performances may differ after appetitive and aversive training. Here, we determined whether honey bees show different rates of olfactory generalization following appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response, or aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension response. In both cases, we performed differential conditioning, which improves discrimination learning between a reinforced odor (CS?) and a non-reinforced odor (CS-) and evaluated generalization to two novel odors whose similarity to the CS? and the CS- was different. We show, given the same level of discriminatory performance, that rates of generalization are similar between the two conditioning protocols and discuss the possible causes for this phenomenon.

  14. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Frazier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.

  15. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing

    OpenAIRE

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Ávila, César

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objec...

  16. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    OpenAIRE

    Mareike eAugsburger; Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis; Manassé eBambonye; Thomas eElbert; Anselm eCrombach

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  17. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  18. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additio...

  19. Ghrelin-derived peptides: a link between appetite/reward, GH axis and psychiatric disorders ?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra eLabarthe; Oriane eFiquet; Rim eHassouna; Philippe eZizzari; Laurence eLanfumey; Nicolas eRamoz; Dominique eGrouselle; Jacques eEpelbaum; Virginie eTolle

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiat...

  20. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Mattes, Richard D.; Hendrickson, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  1. Understanding the role of Umami in appetite control: a protein-specific effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Masic, Una

    2014-01-01

    The fifth basic taste, ‘umami’, is the flavour function elicited by amino acids like monosodium glutamate (MSG) in foods. This taste is recognized for its flavour enhancing properties but little is known about its effects on appetite and intake. Thus the experiments in this thesis aimed to understand how umami influences pleasantness, appetite stimulation, satiation and satiety using MSG, with some additional focus on its associated ribonucleotide inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP). Chapter 2...

  2. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd A; Casey, B J

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI...

  3. Effect of viscosity on appetite and gastro-intestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijlstra, Nicolien; Mars, Monica; de Wijk, René A;

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that higher viscosity resulted in lower ad libitum intake and that eating rate is an important factor. In this study we aimed to explore the effect of viscosity on the gastro-intestinal hormones ghrelin, CCK-8 and GLP-1. Thirty-two subjects (22+/-2 y, BMI 21.9+/-2.2 kg...... than the liquid. There was a significant product effect for fullness (p 0.03), desire to eat (p 0.04), appetite something sweet (p 0.002) and prospective consumption (p 0.0009). We observed no clear effect of viscosity on gastro-intestinal hormones. Only for desacyl ghrelin there was a significant...... product effect (p 0.004). Concentrations were consistently higher after intake of the semi-solid product. Ad libitum intake of the chocolate cake was 102+/-55 g after the liquid and 96+/-46 g after the semi-solid product (ns). The results of our study show a similar response of the gastro...

  4. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Tucci

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  5. Prenatal imprinting of postnatal specific appetites and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaïdis, Stylianos

    2008-10-01

    Epigenetic influences on the fetus's genotype have been shown to occur during intrauterine life. Experimentally imposed extracellular dehydration in pregnant rats (a model for human hyponatremia caused by gravidic vomiting) brings about a dramatic enhancement of salt appetite not only in the dam, but also in offspring when they reach adulthood. This phenomenon has been verified in human newborn infants and adults whose mothers experienced nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy enhances its palatability for the offspring. Ingestion of olfactory test substances like anise or carrot by the mother during pregnancy gives rise to a preference for the same testants in the offspring. Under- or overnutrition in the pregnant mother appears to play a role in reprogramming the postnatal regulation of both feeding and fat reserves in offspring. Both maternal under- and overnutrition during pregnancy predispose the offspring to later development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A careful examination of the systems concerned with the regulation of food intake, and the neurosubstances involved in such regulation, reveals some of the mechanisms by which maternal nutritional status can affect the offspring and their food-related behaviors.

  6. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF TRIKATU AS APPETITE STIMULENT (AGNIVARDHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Akhilesh Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Human beings, in order to adjust themselves in the modest era, have been compelled to become fast and mechanical. This is the reason why they can’t give proper attention to daily and seasonal regimes, exercise and diet. This change in lifestyle is responsible for Agnimandya. According to them Mandagni is Root cause of every disease. Agni plays the key role in the process of bio-transformation. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the role of Trikatu (Pippali, Maricha and Shunthi as appetite stimulent (Agnivardhan.Methods and Material: This was a prospective randomized active control trial. A total of 60 participants showing classical symptoms of Agnimandya between 20 and 60 years of age were randomly assigned to receive treatments. One group received Trikatu churna while another group received Agnitundi Vati. Both groups practiced supervised intervention for 3 weeks. The signs and symptoms like Avipak, Prasek, Kshudhamandya, Shirogaurav, Amashay Pradeshi gaurav, Antrakujan, Pravahan were graded and interpreted at the end of the trial.Results: The result was found effective for treating Avipak, Prasek, Kshudhamandya, Shirogaurav, Amashay Pradeshi gaurav, Antrakujan, Pravahan of Agnimandya in the group treated with Trikatu Churna. The results for the above criteria for the assessment was found statically highly significant.Conclusions: Trikatu Churna is highly effective in treating Agnimandya.

  7. Appetitive and aversive learning in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ali; Colson, Violaine; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these conditions, the memory formed could be recalled at least 24 h after pairing with an aversive stimulus and only 5 min after pairing with an appetitive stimulus. This learning was specific to CS because trained larvae were able to discriminate CS from another odor that was present during the training but unrewarded. These results suggest that Lepidoptera larvae exhibit more behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated. PMID:21653242

  8. Predicting Hunger: The Effects of Appetite and Delay on Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read; van Leeuwen B

    1998-11-01

    Preferences often fluctuate as a result of transient changes in hunger and other visceral states. When current decisions have delayed consequences, the preferences that should be relevant are those that will prevail when the consequences occur. However, consistent with the notion of an intrapersonal empathy gap (Loewenstein, 1996) we find that an individual's current state of appetite has a significant effect on choices that apply to the future. Participants in our study made advance choices between healthy and unhealthy snacks (i.e., fruit and junk food) that they would receive in 1 week when they were either hungry (late in the afternoon) or satisfied (immediately after lunch). In 1 week, at the appointed time, they made an immediate choice, an opportunity to change their advance choice. Our main predictions were strongly confirmed. First, advance choices were influenced by current hunger as well as future hunger: hungry participants chose more unhealthy snacks than did satisfied ones. Second, participants were dynamically inconsistent: they chose far more unhealthy snacks for immediate choice than for advance choice. An additional hypothesis related to gender differences was also confirmed. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9831521

  9. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  10. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a real, treatable brain illness, or health problem. Depression can be caused by big transitions in life, stress, or changes in your body’s chemicals that affect your thoughts and moods. Even ...

  11. Postpartum depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be referred to a mental health specialist. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT) are types of talk therapy that often help postpartum depression. Support groups may be helpful, but they should ...

  12. Gender and Stress Perception Based Differences in BMI, Hormonal Response and Appetite in Adult Pakistani Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the gender based variations in stress perception induced changes in leptin, cortisol and serotonin (5-HT) trends, appetite and Body Mass Index (BMI). Study Design: An analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Neurochemistry Laboratory, University of Karachi, from January to August 2013. Methodology: Appetite, BMI and serum leptin, cortisol, and 5-HT were measured in 100 men and women of aged 30 - 60 years, working in teaching institutes of Karachi, to evaluate gender based, stress perception induced variations. The samples were identified by stratified random technique. The chemical variables were estimated through ELISA. Results were analysed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate general linear model using SPSS version 17. Results: Mean stress perception, BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly more in women (p < 0.05). Serum cortisol and 5-HT were found significantly reduced in women (p < 0.05). BMI, serum cortisol and leptin were found to be increased with increasing level of stress perception (p < 0.05). VAS for hunger and desire to eat as the measure of appetite was significantly higher in men (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Stress perception attenuates the positive effect of cortisol and negative effects of leptin and 5-HT on appetite through changes in their circulatory levels. Women perceive more stress and exhibit significantly attenuated changes in hormonal levels and appetite which may be the contributing factor towards obesity. Increased BMI in women despite decreased appetite merits more studies. (author)

  13. Contrasting role of octopamine in appetitive and aversive learning in the crab Chasmagnathus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kaczer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines are implicated in reinforcing associative learning. Octopamine (OA is considered the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline and several studies in insects converge on the idea that OA mediates the reward in appetitive conditioning. However, it is possible to assume that OA could have a different role in an aversive conditioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we pharmacologically studied the participation of OA in two learning processes in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, one appetitive and one aversive. It is shown that the aversive memory is impaired by an OA injection applied immediately or 30 minutes after the last training trial. By contrast, the appetitive memory is blocked by OA antagonists epinastine and mianserine, but enhanced by OA when injected together with the supply of a minimum amount of reinforcement. Finally, double-learning experiments in which crabs are given the aversive and the appetitive learning either successively or simultaneously allow us to study the interaction between both types of learning and analyze the presumed action of OA. We found that the appetitive training offered immediately, but not one hour, after an aversive training has an amnesic effect on the aversive memory, mimicking the effect and the kinetic of an OA injection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the role of OA is divergent in two memory processes of opposite signs: on the one hand it would mediate the reinforcement in appetitive learning, and on the other hand it has a deleterious effect over aversive memory consolidation.

  14. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Painchaud Guérard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.

  15. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  16. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  17. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  18. The Histaminergic Tuberomamillary Nucleus Is Involved in Appetite for Sex, Water and Amphetamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Contreras

    Full Text Available The histaminergic system is one component of the ascending arousal system which is involved in wakefulness, neuroendocrine control, cognition, psychiatric disorders and motivation. During the appetitive phase of motivated behaviors the arousal state rises to an optimal level, thus giving proper intensity to the behavior. Previous studies have demonstrated that the histaminergic neurons show an earlier activation during the appetitive phase of feeding, compared to other ascending arousal system nuclei, paralleled with a high increase in arousal state. Lesions restricted to the histaminergic neurons in rats reduced their motivation to get food even after 24 h of food deprivation, compared with intact or sham lesioned rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that the histaminergic system is important for appetitive behavior related to feeding. However, its role in other goal-directed behaviors remains unexplored. In the present work, male rats rendered motivated to obtain water, sex, or amphetamine showed an increase in Fos-ir of histaminergic neurons in appetitive behaviors directed to get those reinforcers. However, during appetitive tests to obtain sex, or drug in amphetamine-conditioned rats, Fos expression increased in most other ascending arousal system nuclei, including the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus and laterodorsal tegmental neurons, but not in the ventral tegmental area, which showed no Fos-ir increase in any of the 3 conditions. Importantly, all these appetitive behaviors were drastically reduced after histaminergic cell-specific lesion, suggesting a critical contribution of histamine on the intensity component of several appetitive behaviors.

  19. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  20. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Adults and Depression Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order a ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels down or sad sometimes, but these ...

  1. Caregiving and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  2. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can affect ... for themselves or for others. What causes postpartum depression? Postpartum depression does not have a single cause, but ...

  3. Experienced Poor Lighting Contributes to the Seasonal Fluctuations in Weight and Appetite That Relate to the Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tested which environmental, social, lifestyle, and health related factors of the individual contribute to the seasonal variations in mood and behavior and whether these influence the risks of the metabolic syndrome and major depressive disorder, both conditions having a high prevalence in industrialized populations. 5480 individuals, representative of the general population aged 30 and over in Finland, were assessed for metabolic syndrome using the ATP-III criteria, gave a self-report of seasonal variations in mood and behavior, and were interviewed for mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders using the DSM-IV criteria. The seasonal variations in mood and behavior have a metabolic factor composed of weight and appetite, and greater loadings on this factor increased the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio of 1.18, 95% confidence interval of 1.10 to 1.26). Self-reports of lighting experienced as poor at home contributed to scores on the metabolic factor (t=4.20,P<.0001). Lighting conditions and their dynamics may serve as a measure for intervention in order to influence the seasonal metabolic signals and in the end to prevent the metabolic syndrome.

  4. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal.

  5. Association between plasma endocannabinoids and appetite in hemodialysis patients: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N; Kim, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Shaun; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W; Watkins, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    Uremia-associated anorexia may be related to altered levels of long chain n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) derived circulating endocannabinoids (EC) and EC-like compounds that are known to mediate appetite. Our study's hypothesis was that such molecules are associated with appetite in patients with end-stage renal disease. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 20 chronic hemodialysis patients (9 females, 11 males) and 10 healthy female controls in whom appetite was assessed using the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and blood drawn in the fasting (and when applicable) pre-dialysis state. Blood levels of PUFA and EC were also measured. Higher blood levels of the long chain n-6 fatty acid 20:4n6 (arachidonic acid) and lower levels of the long chain n-3 fatty acid 20:5n3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) were observed in female hemodialysis patients compared to controls. No differences were observed between male and female patients. In female study participants strong correlations between specific EC-like compounds and total SNAQ scores were noted, including with the n-6 PUFA derived linoleoyl ethanolamide (L-EA; ρ=-0.60, Psupport a link between circulating EC and appetite in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27333956

  6. Activation of nucleus accumbens NMDA receptors differentially affects appetitive or aversive taste learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eNuñez-Jaramillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taste memory depends on motivational and post-ingestional consequences; thus, it can be aversive (e.g., conditioned taste aversion, CTA if a novel, palatable taste is paired with visceral malaise, or it can be appetitive if no intoxication appears after novel taste consumption, and a taste preference is developed. The nucleus accumbens (NAc plays a role in hedonic reactivity to taste stimuli, and recent findings suggest that reward and aversion are differentially encoded by the activity of NAc neurons. The present study examined whether the requirement for NMDA receptors in the NAc core during rewarding appetitive taste learning differs from that during aversive taste conditioning, as well as during retrieval of appetitive versus aversive taste memory, using the taste preference or CTA model, respectively. Bilateral infusions of NMDA (1 μg/μl, 0.5 μl into the NAc core were performed before acquisition or before retrieval of taste preference or CTA. Activation of NMDA receptors before taste preference training or CTA acquisition did not alter memory formation. Furthermore, NMDA injections before aversive taste retrieval had no effect on taste memory; however, 24 h later, CTA extinction was significantly delayed. Also, NMDA injections, made before familiar appetitive memory retrieval, interrupted the development of taste preference and produced a preference delay 24 h later. These results suggest that memory formation for a novel taste produces neurochemical changes in the NAc core that have differential requirements for NMDA receptors during retrieval of appetitive or aversive memory.

  7. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal. PMID:15527924

  8. Frontostriatal maturation predicts cognitive control failure to appetitive cues in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H; Hare, Todd; Casey, B J

    2011-09-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions among ventral striatal, dorsal striatal, and prefrontal cortical regions with varying appetitive load using fMRI scanning. Child, teen, and adult participants performed a go/no-go task with appetitive (happy faces) and neutral cues (calm faces). Impulse control to neutral cues showed linear improvement with age, whereas teens showed a nonlinear reduction in impulse control to appetitive cues. This performance decrement in teens was paralleled by enhanced activity in the ventral striatum. Prefrontal cortical recruitment correlated with overall accuracy and showed a linear response with age for no-go versus go trials. Connectivity analyses identified a ventral frontostriatal circuit including the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal striatum during no-go versus go trials. Examining recruitment developmentally showed that teens had greater between-subject ventral-dorsal striatal coactivation relative to children and adults for happy no-go versus go trials. These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response. Connectivity and coactivity data suggest these systems communicate at the level of the dorsal striatum differentially across development. Biased responding in this system is one possible mechanism underlying heightened risk-taking during adolescence. PMID:20809855

  9. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-09-10

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight.

  10. Neuroticism and extraversion moderate neural responses and effective connectivity during appetitive conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweckendiek, Jan; Stark, Rudolf; Klucken, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Classical appetitive conditioning constitutes a basic learning process through which environmental stimuli can be associated with reward. Previous studies showed that individual differences in neuroticism and extraversion influence emotional processing and have been shown to modulate neural activity in subcortical and prefrontal areas in response to emotional stimuli. However, the role of individual differences in appetitive conditioning has so far not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the association between neuroticism and extraversion with neural activity and connectivity during appetitive conditioning. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was either a picture of a dish or a cup. One stimulus (CS+) was paired with a monetary reward and the other stimulus (CS-) was associated with its absence while hemodynamic activity was measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. A significant negative correlation of neuroticism scores with amygdala activity was observed during appetitive conditioning. Further, extraversion was positively associated with responses in the hippocampus and the thalamus. In addition, effective connectivity between the amygdala as a seed region and the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, and the thalamus was negatively correlated with neuroticism scores and positively correlated with extraversion scores. The results may indicate a neural correlate for the deficits in appetitive learning in subjects with high neuroticism scores and point to a facilitating effect of extraversion on reward-related learning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2992-3002, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27132706

  11. Exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone does not elicit a salt appetite in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankevicius, M L; Widowski, T M

    2003-02-01

    In rodents, rabbits, and sheep, exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) leads to a marked increase in sodium appetite. It has been suggested that if pigs show a similar response to stress, an appetite for salt could increase their attraction to blood and contribute to the development of tail biting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ACTH on salt appetite in growing pigs. Individually housed Yorkshire pigs (45 kg) were divided into three groups of four. Group 1 had free access to water, 0.5 M NaCl, and 0.5 M KCl solutions; Group 2 to water, 0.5, and 0.25 M NaCl solutions; Group 3 to water, 0.25, and 0.125 M NaCl solutions. Intramuscular injection of long-acting synthetic ACTH (50 IU twice daily for 5 days) did not elicit increases in intakes of any of the available salt solutions compared to pretreatment intakes. However, there was a 1.6-fold increase in both water and feed intake during ACTH treatment. ACTH treatment also stimulated significant increases in salivary cortisol concentrations. Although increases in salivary cortisol concentrations and in water and feed intake indicate that there were physiological responses to the treatment, exogenous ACTH given for 5 days did not elicit a sodium appetite in growing pigs. These findings do not support the notion that a stress-induced salt appetite serves as an underlying mechanism for tail biting. PMID:12576126

  12. The Use of Functional MRI to Study Appetite Control in the CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila De Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has provided the opportunity to safely investigate the workings of the human brain. This paper focuses on its use in the field of human appetitive behaviour and its impact in obesity research. In the present absence of any safe or effective centrally acting appetite suppressants, a better understanding of how appetite is controlled is vital for the development of new antiobesity pharmacotherapies. Early functional imaging techniques revealed an attenuation of brain reward area activity in response to visual food stimuli when humans are fed—in other words, the physiological state of hunger somehow increases the appeal value of food. Later studies have investigated the action of appetite modulating hormones on the fMRI signal, showing how the attenuation of brain reward region activity that follows feeding can be recreated in the fasted state by the administration of anorectic gut hormones. Furthermore, differences in brain activity between obese and lean individuals have provided clues about the possible aetiology of overeating. The hypothalamus acts as a central gateway modulating homeostatic and nonhomeostatic drives to eat. As fMRI techniques constantly improve, functional data regarding the role of this small but hugely important structure in appetite control is emerging.

  13. Childhood trauma and dimensions of depression: a specific association with the cognitive domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Vares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation. Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.

  14. Effectiveness of solution-focused brief therapy for an adolescent girl with moderate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashapu Dharma Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the solution-focused brief therapy is practiced in persons with depression. In India, fewer studies have documented about the treatment outcome of solution-focused therapy among persons with depression. The current study was carried out with a 19-year-old girl, studying SSLC (10 th Standard was diagnosed with moderate depression. She had difficulty in attention, concentration, memory, irritability and sad mood, poor academic performance, guilt feelings, lethargic, anhedonia, decreased sleep, and decreased appetite. The case worker has chosen provided 6 sessions of solution focused therapy for depression. There was considerable improvement in her symptoms and in scholastic performance. The current study supports the effectiveness of solution-focused therapy in persons with depression.

  15. Is physical activity associated with appetite? A survey of long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermott, Megann; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Weiss, Edward P; Tomazic, Terry J; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this research was to explore the influence of physical activity on the appetite of older adults in long-term care. Given the impact of the anorexia of aging and the increasing numbers of older adults, this could have significant health implications. Residents (N = 93) of a long-term care, assisted living, and rehabilitation facility were surveyed using the "Appetite & Activity Questionnaire." There was no relationship found between physical activity and appetite regardless of the participants' sex or age. BMI appeared to correlate well with the amount of activity that was performed. The most salient finding was the near absence of physical activity, even in the presence of facilities, support personnel, and available time. PMID:19234996

  16. Appetitive behavioral traits and stimulus intensity influence maintenance of conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eOlshavsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in appetitive learning have long been reported, and generally divide into two classes of responses: cue- vs. reward-directed. The influence of cue- vs. reward-directed phenotypes on aversive cue processing, is less well understood. In the current study, we first categorized rats based on their predominant cue-directed orienting responses during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. Then, we investigated the effect of phenotype on the latency to exit a familiar dark environment and enter an unfamiliar illuminated open field. Next, we examined whether the two phenotypes responded differently to a reconsolidation updating manipulation (retrieval+extinction after fear conditioning. We report that the rats with a cue-directed (orienting phenotype differentially respond to the open field, and also to fear conditioning, depending on US-intensity. In addition, our findings suggest that, regardless of appetitive phenotype or shock intensity, extinction within the reconsolidation window prevents spontaneous recovery of fear.

  17. Influence of dexamethasone on appetite and body weight in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarčev Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Anorexia and cachexia are the most common symptoms in cancer patients. They increase morbidity and mortality among cancer patients as well as complications of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The most common drugs for treatment of cancer cachexia are corticosteroids and megestrol acetate. Material and Methods The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dexamethasone on appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Group A (30 patients was treated with cisplatin, etoposide and standard supportive therapy, while group B (30 patients received, in addition to this treatment, dexamethasone in the dose of 8 mg intravenously per day (1-3 day of chemotherapy. Results There was a statistically significant difference in appetite loss between two groups after the second chemotherapy cycle favoring group A. The analysis of weight loss showed a statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles, once again in favor of group A. Concerning the improvement of appetite and weight gain, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups after both chemotherapy cycles. Discussion Many double-blind randomized controlled studies showed beneficial symptomatic effect of corticosteroids in cancer cachexia, especially on the improvement of appetite, food intake and performance status. In most of the studies the weight gain was not recorded. The most effective type of corticosteroids, dose and route of administration have not been established. Conclusion Dexamethasone significantly decreases appetite loss and weight loss in lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, while it has no influence on appetite improvement and weight gain.

  18. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...

  19. Impact of appetitive and aversive outcomes on brain responses: Linking the animal and human literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B Bissonette

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is motivated by the possibility of obtaining reward and/or avoiding punishment. Though many have investigated behavior associated with appetitive or aversive outcomes, few have examined behaviors that rely on both. Fewer still have addressed questions related to how anticipated appetitive and aversive outcomes interact to alter neural signals related to expected value, motivation, and salience. Here we review recent rodent, monkey, and human research that address these issues. Further development of this area will be fundamental to understanding the etiology behind human psychiatric diseases and cultivating more effective treatments.

  20. Food Preference and Appetite after Switching between Sweet and Savoury Odours in Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle G Ramaekers

    Full Text Available Exposure to food odours increases the appetite for congruent foods and decreases the appetite for incongruent foods. However, the effect of exposure to a variety of food odours, as often occurs in daily life, is unknown.Investigate how switching between sweet and savoury odours affects the appetite for sweet and savoury products.Thirty women (age: 18-45y; BMI: 18.5-25kg/m2 intensely smelled the contents of cups filled with banana, meat or water (no-odour in a within-subject design with four combinations: no-odour/banana, no-odour/meat, meat/banana and banana/meat. Participants received one combination per test day. In each combination, two cups with different fillings were smelled for five minutes after each other. Treatment order was balanced as much as possible. The effects of previous exposure and current odour on the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, and odour pleasantness were analysed. A change from meat to banana odour or banana to meat odour was referred to as switch, whereas a change from no-odour to meat odour or no-odour to banana odour was no-switch.The current odour (P<0.001, as opposed to the previous exposure (P = 0.71, determined the appetite for (incongruent sweet and savoury products, already one minute after a switch between sweet and savoury odours. The pleasantness of the odour decreased during odour exposure (P = 0.005.After a switch, the appetite for specific products quickly adjusted to the new odour and followed the typical pattern as found during odour exposure in previous studies. Interestingly, the appetite for the smelled food remained elevated during odour exposure, known as sensory-specific appetite, whereas the pleasantness of the odour decreased over time, previously termed olfactory sensory-specific satiety. This seeming contradiction may result from different mechanisms underlying the odour-induced anticipation of food intake versus the decrease in hedonic value during prolonged sensory

  1. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ...

  2. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse;

    2014-01-01

    no differences in 24 h and postprandial EE or appetite regulation. However, lipid oxidation, estimated from the respiratory quotient (RQ), was found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC during daytime (P= 0·014) as well as during the time after the breakfast meal (P= 0·008) when...... the food was provided. Likewise, NEFA concentrations were found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC and IC (P...-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on EE and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC....

  3. [Postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S F

    1993-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in Beijing, China, in 1992. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to inquire the mothers at 6-12 month after delivery. A total of 550 women were investigated by mailing. 425 women replied. The positive rate of PPD in our study was 17.9%. Women who had had a history of mood disorder before pregnancy had a higher risk of PPD. Social and psychological factors such as lacking support from the women's relatives, the poor marital relationship and the bad living condition shown to be significantly associated with postnatal depression. PPD can seriously affected the physical and mental health and well-being of women, her child's early education causing delayed development and her family causing a great deal of suffering, personal distress and marital troubles even causing divorce and suicide. Thus it is important to identify the high risk women and give treatment as early as possible. PMID:8313745

  4. Reinforcement in an in Vitro Analog of Appetitive Classical Conditioning of Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia": Blockade by a Dopamine Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Fredy D.; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2005-01-01

    In a recently developed in vitro analog of appetitive classical conditioning of feeding in "Aplysia," the unconditioned stimulus (US) was electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve (En). This nerve is rich in dopamine (DA)-containing processes, which suggests that DA mediates reinforcement during appetitive conditioning. To test this…

  5. Multivitamin-multimineral and iron supplementation did not improve appetite of young stunted and anemic Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, low food intake is often reported in children < 5 y old. Reduced appetite may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether a combination of a multivitamin-multimineral supplement and additional iron treatment improved appetite and growth of 18- to 30-mo-old stunted and

  6. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Savorani, F.; Christensen, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Methods and results...

  7. Branding and Positioning to Satisfy the Customer's Appetite: An Educational Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Rebranding and positioning a school district has become critical to satisfy the "customer's" appetite, enhance public relations, and advance consumer perceptions. A service design model provides a district with the framework to advance its position by identifying attributes and prompts to satisfy customer needs and increase student enrollment. A…

  8. When competition breeds equality: effects of appetitive versus aversive competition in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.S. ten Velden; B. Beersma; C.K.W. de Dreu

    2011-01-01

    Competitive motivation is prevalent in negotiation but systematic insight into its effects is missing. We introduce the distinction between appetitive competition, in which negotiators seek relative gain, and aversive competition, in which negotiators seek to prevent relative loss. Two experiments t

  9. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues.

  10. Differential Endocannabinoid Regulation of Extinction in Appetitive and Aversive Barnes Maze Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harloe, John P.; Thorpe, Andrew J.; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2008-01-01

    CB[subscript 1] receptor-compromised animals show profound deficits in extinguishing learned behavior from aversive conditioning tasks, but display normal extinction learning in appetitive operant tasks. However, it is difficult to discern whether the differential involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system on extinction results from the…

  11. Hypothalamic metabolic compartmentation during appetite regulation as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca eLizarbe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the role of neuroglial compartmentation and transcellular neurotransmitter cycling during hypothalamic appetite regulation as detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Spectroscopy (MRS methods. We address first the neurochemical basis of neuroendocrine regulation in the hypothalamus and the orexigenic and anorexigenic feed-back loops that control appetite. Then we examine the main Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy strategies that have been used to investigate appetite regulation. Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI, Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast (BOLD and Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI have revealed Mn2+accumulations, augmented oxygen consumptions and astrocytic swelling in the hypothalamus under fasting conditions, respectively. High field 1H magnetic resonance in vivo, showed increased hypothalamic myo-inositol concentrations as compared to other cerebral structures. 1H and 13C high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS revealed increased neuroglial oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as increased hypothalamic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions under orexigenic stimulation. We propose here an integrative interpretation of all these findings suggesting that the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite is supported by important ionic and metabolic transcellular fluxes which begin at the tripartite orexigenic clefts and become extended spatially in the hypothalamus through astrocytic networks, becoming eventually MRI and MRS detectable.

  12. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.

  13. Appetitive Pavlovian Goal-Tracking Memories Reconsolidate Only under Specific Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Amy C.; Lee, Jonathan L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive evidence that appetitive memories undergo reconsolidation, two notable failures to observe reconsolidation have been reported: instrumental responding and goal-tracking. However, these studies do not provide conclusive evidence for a lack of memory reconsolidation due to the numerous boundary conditions that dictate whether a…

  14. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response (PER conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate (IPA, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  15. An alarm pheromone modulates appetitive olfactory learning in the honeybee (apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Francés, Bernard; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    In honeybees, associative learning is embedded in a social context as bees possess a highly complex social organization in which communication among individuals is mediated by dance behavior informing about food sources, and by a high variety of pheromones that maintain the social links between individuals of a hive. Proboscis extension response conditioning is a case of appetitive learning, in which harnessed bees learn to associate odor stimuli with sucrose reward in the laboratory. Despite its recurrent use as a tool for uncovering the behavioral, cellular, and molecular bases underlying associative learning, the question of whether social signals (pheromones) affect appetitive learning has not been addressed in this experimental framework. This situation contrasts with reports underlining that foraging activity of bees is modulated by alarm pheromones released in the presence of a potential danger. Here, we show that appetitive learning is impaired by the sting alarm pheromone (SAP) which, when released by guards, recruits foragers to defend the hive. This effect is mimicked by the main component of SAP, isopentyl acetate, is dose-dependent and lasts up to 24 h. Learning impairment is specific to alarm signal exposure and is independent of the odorant used for conditioning. Our results suggest that learning impairment may be a response to the biological significance of SAP as an alarm signal, which would detract bees from responding to any appetitive stimuli in a situation in which such responses would be of secondary importance.

  16. The combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers and the nature of their interaction during auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W

    2010-03-31

    Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance.

  17. Validation of an iPad visual analogue rating system for assessing appetite and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Louise; Smith, Adam; Re, Roberta; Wickham, Martin; Philippides, Andrew; Watten, Phil; Yeomans, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to validate appetite ratings made on a new electronic device, the Apple iPad Mini, against an existing but now obsolete electronic device (Hewlett Packard iPAQ). Healthy volunteers (9 men and 9 women) rated their appetite before and 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consuming both a low energy (LE: 77 kcal) and high energy (HE: 274 kcal) beverage at breakfast on 2 non-consecutive days in counter-balanced order. Rated hunger, desire to eat and how much participants could consume was significantly lower after HE than LE on both devices, although there was better overall differentiation between HE and LE for ratings on iPad. Rated satiation and fullness, and a composite measure combining all five ratings, was significantly higher after HE than LE on both devices. There was also evidence that differences between conditions were more significant when analysed at each time point than using an overall area under the curve (AUC) measure. Overall, these data confirm that appetite ratings made using iPad are at least as sensitive as those on iPAQ, and offer a new platform for researchers to collect appetite data.

  18. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antisense Oligonucleotides Attenuates Salt Appetite in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma; Itharat; Fluharty; Sakai

    1997-10-01

    The anterior ventral third ventricle (AV3V) region of the brain contains high concentrations of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that are important in the maintenance of body fluid and electrolyte balance as well as other physiological processes. Daily intracerebroventricular pulse injections of MR antisense oligonucleotides significantly suppressed deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) induced salt appetite in a dose-related manner. Similar administration of GR antisense or scrambled/sense oligonucleotide into the third ventricle failed to inhibit salt appetite. Salt appetite aroused after adrenalectomy was not suppressed by MR antisense oligonucleotide treatments but was suppressed by an antisense oligonucleotide directed against the angiotensin II AT1 receptor subtype. Receptor binding analysis demonstrated that MR and GR oligonucleotide treatments each reduced their respective receptor subtypes. Finally, although GR antisense oligonucleotide treatment was ineffective in suppressing DOCA-induced salt appetite, this treatment did increase stress induced corticosterone release as well as delayed the recovery of corticosterone to basal levels after stress. PMID:9787254

  19. Association between plasma endocannabinoids and appetite in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss is a well-recognized complication in subjects undergoing hemodialysis for impaired kidney function. This pilot study explored whether plasma levels of compounds known to mediate appetite, the endocannabinoids (EC) and EC-like compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), ar...

  20. Duration of hospitalization and appetite of HIV-infected South-African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.R.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritiona

  1. Associations of Children's Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provid

  2. Frontostriatal Maturation Predicts Cognitive Control Failure to Appetitive Cues in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Leah H.; Hare, Todd; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking is a public health issue that increases the odds of poor lifetime outcomes. One factor thought to influence adolescents' propensity for risk-taking is an enhanced sensitivity to appetitive cues, relative to an immature capacity to exert sufficient cognitive control. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing interactions…

  3. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  4. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  5. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Michael P; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  6. Impact of resistant starch on body fat patterning and central appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wah So

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue patterning has a major influence on the risk of developing chronic disease. Environmental influences on both body fat patterning and appetite regulation are not fully understood. This study was performed to investigate the impact of resistant starch (RS on adipose tissue deposition and central regulation of appetite in mice. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Forty mice were randomised to a diet supplemented with either the high resistant starch (HRS, or the readily digestible starch (LRS. Using (1H magnetic resonance (MR methods, whole body adiposity, intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL were measured. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI was used to investigate neuronal activity in hypothalamic regions involved in appetite control when fed ad libitum. At the end of the interventional period, adipocytes were isolated from epididymal adipose tissue and fasting plasma collected for hormonal and adipokine measurement. Mice on the HRS and LRS diet had similar body weights although total body adiposity, subcutaneous and visceral fat, IHCL, plasma leptin, plasma adiponectin plasma insulin/glucose ratios was significantly greater in the latter group. Adipocytes isolated from the LRS group were significantly larger and had lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. MEMRI data obtained from the ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei suggests a satiating effect of the HRS diet despite a lower energy intake. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Dietary RS significantly impacts on adipose tissue patterning, adipocyte morphology and metabolism, glucose and insulin metabolism, as well as affecting appetite regulation, supported by changes in neuronal activity in hypothalamic appetite regulation centres which are suggestive of satiation.

  7. Persistent depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    PDD; Chronic depression; Depression - chronic ... The exact cause of persistent depressive disorder (PDD) is unknown. It tends to run in families. PDD occurs more often in women. Most people with PDD will also ...

  8. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society ... Twitter Email Home Symptoms & Diagnosis MS Symptoms Depression Depression Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this ...

  9. Men and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  10. Depression in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or someone I know is in crisis? Share Depression in Women Download PDF Download ePub Order a ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone sometimes feels sad, but these feelings usually ...

  11. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptom Profile: Results from Nationwide General Population Surveys in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Maeng Je; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Lee, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hong Jin; Chang, Sung Man

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated gender differences in symptom profiles of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the Korean general population. Data were pooled from the series of nationwide Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys conducted in 2001, 2006 and 2011, respectively. Of the 18,807 participants, 507 (397 women and 110 men) were diagnosed with MDD within the prior 12 months. In agreement with previous studies, women with MDD appeared to be more vulnerable to experiencing atypical depressive episodes defined as depression with two or more symptoms of fatigue, increased appetite and hypersomnia (P intercultural similarity in female preponderance to atypical depression might reflect the common biological construct underlying the gender difference in mechanism of MDD. In clinical settings, gender differences of MDD should be carefully considered, because these features could be related with treatment response and drug side effects. PMID:26539012

  12. Increased numbers of orexin/hypocretin neurons in a genetic rat depression model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikrouli, Elli; Wörtwein, Gitta; Soylu, Rana;

    2011-01-01

    The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat is a genetic animal model of depression that displays characteristics similar to those of depressed patients including lower body weight, decreased appetite and reduced REM sleep latency. Hypothalamic neuropeptides such as orexin/hypocretin, melanin......-concentrating hormone (MCH) and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), that are involved in the regulation of both energy metabolism and sleep, have recently been implicated also in depression. We therefore hypothesized that alterations in these neuropeptide systems may play a role in the development...... of the FSL phenotype with both depressive like behavior, metabolic abnormalities and sleep disturbances. In this study, we first confirmed that the FSL rats displayed increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test compared to their control strain, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), which is indicative...

  13. Female attraction to appetitive-aggressive men is modulated by women's menstrual cycle and men's vulnerability to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Gilda; Weierstall, Roland; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier´s experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the "warrior" was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness. PMID:23531810

  14. Various forms of depression

    OpenAIRE

    BENAZZI, FRANCO

    2006-01-01

    The current subtyping of depression is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) categorical division of bipolar and depressive disorders. Current evidence, however, supports a dimensional approach to depression, as a continuum/spectrum of overlapping disorders, ranging from bipolar I depression to major depressive disorder. Types of depression which have recently been the focus of most research will be reviewed ; bipolar II depressi...

  15. Two Pairs of Mushroom Body Efferent Neurons Are Required for Appetitive Long-Term Memory Retrieval in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Plaçais

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges facing memory research is to combine network- and cellular-level descriptions of memory encoding. In this context, Drosophila offers the opportunity to decipher, down to single-cell resolution, memory-relevant circuits in connection with the mushroom bodies (MBs, prominent structures for olfactory learning and memory. Although the MB-afferent circuits involved in appetitive learning were recently described, the circuits underlying appetitive memory retrieval remain unknown. We identified two pairs of cholinergic neurons efferent from the MB α vertical lobes, named MB-V3, that are necessary for the retrieval of appetitive long-term memory (LTM. Furthermore, LTM retrieval was correlated to an enhanced response to the rewarded odor in these neurons. Strikingly, though, silencing the MB-V3 neurons did not affect short-term memory (STM retrieval. This finding supports a scheme of parallel appetitive STM and LTM processing.

  16. Alcohol intake and its effect on some appetite-regulating hormones in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...... is hardly mediated by any of the hormones studied in this investigation, as the GLP-1 and obestatin levels were unaffected by alcohol, the ghelin level decreased, and leptin - although declining after alcohol - has not previously been found to have short-term inhibitory effect on hunger....

  17. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain...... rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake......Background: Wholegrain rye has been associated with decreased hunger sensations. This may be partly mediated by colonic fermentation. Sustained consumption of fermentable components is known to change the gut microflora and may increase numbers of saccharolytic bacteria. Objective: To investigate...

  18. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  19. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  20. Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Howard L; Hjelmstad, Gregory O; Margolis, Elyssa B; Nicola, Saleem M

    2007-01-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuron firing precedes behaviors elicited by reward-predictive sensory cues and scales with the magnitude and unpredictability of received rewards. These patterns are consistent with roles in the performance of learned appetitive behaviors and in positive reinforcement, respectively. The VTA includes subpopulations of neurons with different afferent connections, neurotransmitter content, and projection targets. Because the VTA and substantia nigra pars compacta are the sole sources of striatal and limbic forebrain dopamine, measurements of dopamine release and manipulations of dopamine function have provided critical evidence supporting a VTA contribution to these functions. However, the VTA also sends GABAergic and glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, VTA-mediated but dopamine-independent positive reinforcement has been demonstrated. Consequently, identifying the neurotransmitter content and projection target of VTA neurons recorded in vivo will be critical for determining their contribution to learned appetitive behaviors.

  1. Intrapair Comparison of Life-Course Appetite and Physical Activity in Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Laura E; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    . They were asked to compare their appetite and physical activity to that of their co-twins in different stages of life. On an individual level, we found a positive association between current self-reported physical activity and late-life survival for elderly twins. This was supported by the intrapair......Avoiding overeating and being physically active is associated with healthy aging, but methodological issues challenge the quantification of the association. Intrapair comparison of twins is a study design that attempts to minimize social norm-driven biased self-reporting of lifestyle factors. We...... analyses, which revealed a positive association between midlife and current physical activity and late-life survival. A positive association between lower appetite and late-life survival was found generally over the life course in the individual level analyses but not in the intrapair analyses. Kappa...

  2. Depression and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight ... Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation ... » Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking Why ...

  3. Age-related changes in reappraisal of appetitive cravings during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Nicole R.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to regulate temptation and manage appetitive cravings is an important aspect of healthy adolescent development, but the neural systems underlying this process are understudied. In the present study, 60 healthy females evenly distributed from 10 to 23 years of age used reappraisal to regulate the desire to consume personally-craved and not craved unhealthy foods. Reappraisal elicited activity in common self-regulation regions including dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (...

  4. Cachexia in chronic kidney disease: a link to defective central nervous system control of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Mitch, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Anorexia is one of several abnormalities characterizing chronic kidney disease (CKD) that cause cachexia, the loss of muscle and adipose stores. It has been attributed to mechanisms ranging from accumulation of toxic “middle molecules” to psychological problems. In this issue of the JCI, Cheung and coworkers used elegant techniques to demonstrate that CKD-associated anorexia is caused by defective hypothalamic regulation of appetite. They attributed the defect to an alteration in the hypothal...

  5. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, James K.; Weierstall, Roland; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated “appetitive” aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N = 50) presented with an imaginative listening task i...

  6. Differences in brain circuitry for appetitive and reactive aggression as revealed by realistic auditory scripts

    OpenAIRE

    James Kenneth Moran

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is thought to divide into two motivational elements: The first being a self-defensively motivated aggression against threat and a second, hedonically motivated ‘appetitive’ aggression. Appetitive aggression is the less understood of the two, often only researched within abnormal psychology. Our approach is to understand it as a universal and adaptive response, and examine the functional neural activity of ordinary men (N=50) presented with an imaginative listening task inv...

  7. The influence of CS-US interval on several different indices of learning in appetitive conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Delamater, Andrew R.; Holland, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined the effects of varying the CS-US interval (and US density) on learning in an appetitive magazine approach task with rats. Learning was assessed with conditioned response (CR) measures, as well as measures of sensory-specific stimulus-outcome associations (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, potentiated feeding, and US devaluation). The results from these studies indicate that there exists an inverse relation between CS-US interval and magazine approach CRs, but that sen...

  8. The Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonist, Ezlopitant, Reduces Appetitive Responding for Sucrose and Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Pia Steensland; Simms, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Carsten K.; Joan Holgate; Bito-Onon, Jade J.; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; howeve...

  9. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women. PMID:25138661

  10. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. Pautassi; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditione...

  11. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: Using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk

    OpenAIRE

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed – by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eati...

  12. Appetite-modifying actions of pro-neuromedin U-derived peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtold, David A.; Ivanov, Tina R.; Luckman, Simon M.

    2009-01-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is known to have potent actions on appetite and energy expenditure. Deletion of the NMU gene in mice leads to an obese phenotype, characterized by hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure. Conversely, transgenic mice that overexpress proNMU exhibit reduced body weight and fat storage. Here, we show that central administration of NMU or the related peptide neuromedin S (NMS) dose-dependently decreases food intake, increases metabolic rate, and leads to significant weight...

  13. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  14. Can Flaxseed Help Satisfy Appetite in Women Subjected to Bariatric Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliane Cosendey-Menegati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective immediate weight loss method for the morbidly obese, despite widely reported weight regain after a few years. Appetite, satiety and satiation control are essential to maintaining a long-term result post-surgery. Dietary fatty acids composition may be implicated in the satiety. As flaxseed is a food high in linolenic acid, we aimed to verify the influence of flaxseed fat on appetite and satiety of women after bariatric surgery.Material and methods: Six women who underwent bariatric surgery at least 2 years before participated in a single-blind crossover trial that compared the effect of two isocaloric meals on satiety, one containing whole golden flaxseed (high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber (G1 and another withdefatted flaxseed (high in fiber (G2, with one week of washout period. This variable was estimated by visual analogue scales in both meals at baseline (T0, immediately after ingestion (T1 and 60, 120, and 180 minutes after the meal (T60, T120 and T180. Fasting anthropometric, body composition, laboratory tests (glucose and lipids and dietary variables, were evaluated while fasting.Results: The volunteers were obese and had excess central adiposity, even after two years of surgery and still showed habitual fibre intake below recommended levels. G1 had reduced hunger after 180 minutes compared to G2 (P=.046. Other parameters related to appetite and satiety did not differ between groups.Conclusions: Less hunger was observed after 180 minutes in whole golden flaxseed meal compared with the defatted flaxseed meal, indicating that the whole golden flaxseed meal, possibly, supports obesity treatment in the long-term after bariatric surgery by controlling appetite and satiety sensations.

  15. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  16. The combination of appetitive and aversive reinforcers and the nature of their interaction during auditory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilango, A; Wetzel, W; Scheich, H; Ohl, F W

    2010-03-31

    Learned changes in behavior can be elicited by either appetitive or aversive reinforcers. It is, however, not clear whether the two types of motivation, (approaching appetitive stimuli and avoiding aversive stimuli) drive learning in the same or different ways, nor is their interaction understood in situations where the two types are combined in a single experiment. To investigate this question we have developed a novel learning paradigm for Mongolian gerbils, which not only allows rewards and punishments to be presented in isolation or in combination with each other, but also can use these opposite reinforcers to drive the same learned behavior. Specifically, we studied learning of tone-conditioned hurdle crossing in a shuttle box driven by either an appetitive reinforcer (brain stimulation reward) or an aversive reinforcer (electrical footshock), or by a combination of both. Combination of the two reinforcers potentiated speed of acquisition, led to maximum possible performance, and delayed extinction as compared to either reinforcer alone. Additional experiments, using partial reinforcement protocols and experiments in which one of the reinforcers was omitted after the animals had been previously trained with the combination of both reinforcers, indicated that appetitive and aversive reinforcers operated together but acted in different ways: in this particular experimental context, punishment appeared to be more effective for initial acquisition and reward more effective to maintain a high level of conditioned responses (CRs). The results imply that learning mechanisms in problem solving were maximally effective when the initial punishment of mistakes was combined with the subsequent rewarding of correct performance. PMID:20080152

  17. Effect of dietary advanced glycation end products on postprandial appetite, inflammation, and endothelial activation in healthy overweight individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Malene Wibe; Bak, Monika Judyta; Andersen, Jeanette Marker;

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress.......Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formed in food during high-heat cooking may induce overeating and inflammation. We investigated whether AGE contents in a single meal affect postprandial appetite and markers of inflammation, endothelial activation, and oxidative stress....

  18. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Ying eDuan; Fang eShen; Ting Ting Gu; Nan eSui

    2016-01-01

    AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward betw...

  19. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug...

  20. Depression in Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Laurel D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Marano, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer’s pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms. PMID:23933974

  1. Symptom Profile and Severity in a Sample of Nigerians with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Increase Ibukun Adeosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD, because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n=129 and NMD (n=117 using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.

  2. Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E

    2016-09-01

    Energy balance is not a simple algebraic sum of energy expenditure and energy intake as often depicted in communications. Energy balance is a dynamic process and there exist reciprocal effects between food intake and energy expenditure. An important distinction is that of metabolic and behavioural components of energy expenditure. These components not only contribute to the energy budget directly, but also by influencing the energy intake side of the equation. It has recently been demonstrated that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potential driver of energy intake, and evidence is accumulating on the influence of physical activity (behavioural energy expenditure) on mechanisms of satiety and appetite control. These effects are associated with changes in leptin and insulin sensitivity, and in the plasma levels of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The influence of fat-free mass on energy expenditure and as a driver of energy intake directs attention to molecules emanating from skeletal tissue as potential appetite signals. Sedentariness (physical inactivity) is positively associated with adiposity and is proposed to be a source of overconsumption and appetite dysregulation. The molecular signals underlying these effects are not known but represent a target for research.

  3. Lean and obese dietary phenotypes: differences in energy and substrate metabolism and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, Louise; Hehir, Anthony P J; Lambert, Estelle V; Beglinger, Christoph; Goedecke, Julia H

    2015-11-28

    This study aimed to characterise lean and obese phenotypes according to diet and body composition, and to compare fasting and postprandial appetite and metabolic profiles following a high-fat test meal. A total of ten lean (BMI40 and 30 kg/m2) high-fat consumers (OHF; >40 % energy from fat) were recruited. Before and following the test meal (4727 kJ (1130 kcal), 77 % fat, 20 % carbohydrate (CHO) and 3 % protein), fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), RER, RMR and subjective appetite ratings (AR) were measured for 6 h. Thereafter, subjects consumed a self-selected portion of a standardised post-test meal (40 % fat, 45 % CHO and 15 % protein) and reported AR. Fasting (P=0·01) and postprandial (Plean groups, fasting and postprandial energy expenditures were significantly higher in OHF compared with LHF (Plean groups showed appropriate changes in plasma ghrelin and PYY following the test meal, whereas the OHF group showed a blunted response. In conclusion, the LHF phenotype had a greater capacity for fat oxidation, which may be protective against weight gain. OHF individuals had a blunted appetite hormone response to the high-fat test meal, which may subsequently increase energy intake, driving further weight gain.

  4. Energy balance, body composition, sedentariness and appetite regulation: pathways to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John E

    2016-09-01

    Energy balance is not a simple algebraic sum of energy expenditure and energy intake as often depicted in communications. Energy balance is a dynamic process and there exist reciprocal effects between food intake and energy expenditure. An important distinction is that of metabolic and behavioural components of energy expenditure. These components not only contribute to the energy budget directly, but also by influencing the energy intake side of the equation. It has recently been demonstrated that resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a potential driver of energy intake, and evidence is accumulating on the influence of physical activity (behavioural energy expenditure) on mechanisms of satiety and appetite control. These effects are associated with changes in leptin and insulin sensitivity, and in the plasma levels of gastrointestinal (GI) peptides such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The influence of fat-free mass on energy expenditure and as a driver of energy intake directs attention to molecules emanating from skeletal tissue as potential appetite signals. Sedentariness (physical inactivity) is positively associated with adiposity and is proposed to be a source of overconsumption and appetite dysregulation. The molecular signals underlying these effects are not known but represent a target for research. PMID:27503946

  5. High Amylose White Rice Reduces Post-Prandial Glycemic Response but Not Appetite in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Zenel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of three rice cultivars on postprandial glycemic control and appetite. A single-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial was performed with 18 healthy subjects, nine males and nine females. Three treatments were administered at three separate study visits: commercially available conventional white rice (short grain, specialty high amylose white rice 1 (Dixiebelle, and specialty high amylose white rice 2 (Rondo. Postprandial capillary blood glucose, venous blood glucose and insulin measurements, and appetite visual analog scale (VAS surveys were done over the course of two hours. The capillary blood glucose concentrations were significantly lower for Rondo compared to short grain rice at 30 min, and for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice at 45, 60, and 120 min. Capillary blood glucose area under the curve (AUC was significantly lower for Dixiebelle and Rondo compared to short grain rice. Subjects were significantly more hungry at 30 min after Dixiebelle intake than Rondo intake, but there were no other significant effects in appetite ratings. The present study determined that intake of high amylose rice with resistant starch (RS can attenuate postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in comparison to short grain rice.

  6. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  7. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0 or 7.0 (Bev-7.0 or gels as acid (Gel-Acid or heated (Gel-Heated. In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05, and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0 vs. CON (all, p < 0.05. Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  8. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  9. Mechanisms of attention for appetitive and aversive outcomes in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A J; Duka, T

    2010-11-12

    Different mechanisms of attention controlling learning have been proposed in appetitive and aversive conditioning. The aim of the present study was to compare attention and learning in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm using visual stimuli of varying predictive value of either monetary reward (appetitive conditioning; 10p or 50p) or blast of white noise (aversive conditioning; 97 dB or 102 dB). Outcome values were matched across the two conditions with regard to their emotional significance. Sixty-four participants were allocated to one of the four conditions matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a discriminative learning task using pairs of visual stimuli that signalled a 100%, 50%, or 0% probability of receiving an outcome. Learning was measured using a 9-point Likert scale of expectancy of the outcome, while attention using an eyetracker device. Arousal and emotional conditioning were also evaluated. Dwell time was greatest for the full predictor in the noise groups, while in the money groups attention was greatest for the partial predictor over the other two predictors. The progression of learning was the same for both groups. These findings suggest that in aversive conditioning attention is driven by the predictive salience of the stimulus while in appetitive conditioning attention is error-driven, when emotional value of the outcome is comparable.

  10. Impact of yogurt on appetite control, energy balance, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Angelo; Doyon, Caroline; Sanchez, Marina

    2015-08-01

    Recent data support the idea that regular yogurt consumption promotes body weight stability. The simplest explanation is that regular consumption of healthful foods such as yogurt results in decreased intake of less healthful foods containing high amounts of fat and/or sugar. There is also evidence to suggest that the high calcium and protein contents of yogurt and other dairy foods influence appetite and energy intake. The existence of a calcium-specific appetite control mechanism has been proposed. Milk proteins differ in terms of absorption rate and post-absorptive responses, which can influence their satiating properties. Studies in humans have shown that consumption of milk and yogurt increases the circulating concentration of the anorectic peptides glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY (PYY). The food matrix can also affect appetite and satiety. Yogurt is a fermented milk that contains bacteria that enrich the microbiota of the host. It appears that lean vs obese humans differ in the composition of their gut microbiota. The available relevant literature suggests that yogurt is a food that facilitates the regulation of energy balance.

  11. Effects of the Menopausal Transition on Dietary Intake and Appetite. A MONET Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karine, Duval; Denis, Prud’homme; Rémi, Rabasa-Lhoret; Irene, Strychar; Martin, Brochu; Jean-Marc, Lavoie; Éric, Doucet

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in dietary intake and appetite across the menopausal transition. Methods This was a 5-year observational, longitudinal study on the menopausal transition. The study included 94 premenopausal women at baseline (age: 49.9 ± 1.9 yrs; BMI: 23.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2). Body composition (DXA), appetite (visual analogue scale), eating frequency, energy intake (EI) and macronutrient composition (7-day food diary and buffet-type meal) were measured annually. Results Repeated-measures analyses revealed that total EI and carbohydrate intake from food diary decreased significantly over time in women who became postmenopausal by year 5 (P > 0.05) compared to women in the menopausal transition. In women who became postmenopausal by year 5, fat and protein intakes decreased across the menopausal transition (0.05 > P food consumption increased during the menopausal transition and remained at this higher level in the postmenopausal years (0.05 > PFasting fullness decreased across the menopausal transition (P food intake and an increase in appetite. PMID:24065065

  12. Prader-Willi syndrome: From genetics to behaviour, with special focus on appetite treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Joanne L; Sinnayah, Puspha; Mathai, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder resulting from a deletion in the expression of the paternally derived alleles in the region of 15q11-q13. PWS has a prevalence rate of 1:10,000-1:30,000 and is characterized by marked endocrine abnormalities including growth hormone deficiency and raised ghrelin levels. The hyperphagic phenotype in PWS is established over a number of phases and is exacerbated by impaired satiety, low energy expenditure and intellectual difficulties including obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or autistic behaviours. Clinical management in PWS typically includes familial/carer restriction and close supervision of food intake. If the supervision of food is left unmanaged, morbid obesity eventuates, central to the risk of cardiorespiratory disorder. None of the current appetite management/intervention strategies for PWS include pharmacological treatment, though recent research shows some promise. We review the established aberrant genetics and the endocrine and neuronal attributes which may determine disturbed regulatory processes in PWS. Focusing on clinical trials for appetite behaviours in PWS, we define the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with a view to initiating and focusing research towards possible targets for modulating appetite in PWS.

  13. A high-glycemic meal pattern elicited increased subjective appetite sensations in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Visalakshi; Lee, Jung-Sheng; Nowak, Janice K; Pohle, Rachael J; Nyrop, Jessica E; Leddy, John J; Pelkman, Christine L

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of variations in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia on subjective satiety in overweight and obese women. We altered the ingestion rate of a glucose beverage to model the postprandial effects of high- and low-glycemic meals. Fourteen women were tested in a within-subjects' design with two conditions: (1) Rapid, with a large glucose beverage consumed with breakfast and lunch and (2) Slow, with the same volume of glucose beverage consumed in eight portions (one with each meal, and the remaining seven at 20-min intervals after each meal). Meals were identical in the two conditions. Subjective appetitive sensations were measured with visual analog scales before and after meals, and hourly after each meal until 5 pm. Serum glucose and insulin were measured at similar time points. Subjects reported higher ratings of hunger and prospective consumption in the Rapid versus Slow condition at 4h after breakfast and several hours after lunch. Serum glucose was more strongly correlated with the appetitive ratings in the Rapid than the Slow condition, and explained more of the variance (20-31%) than insulin (2-4%). The results of this study support the glucostatic theory linking dynamic changes in blood glucose with appetitive sensations. PMID:17714828

  14. The involvement of nucleus accumbens dopamine in appetitive and aversive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, J D

    1994-04-18

    In recent years, considerable emphasis has been placed upon the putative role of nucleus accumbens dopamine systems in appetitive motivation and positive reinforcement. However, considerable evidence indicates that brain dopamine in general, and nucleus accumbens dopamine in particular, is involved in aspects of aversive motivation. Administration of dopamine antagonists or localized interference with nucleus accumbens dopamine systems has been shown to disrupt active avoidance behavior. In addition, accumbens dopamine release and metabolism is activated by a wide variety of stressful conditions. A review of the literature indicates that there are substantial similarities between the characteristics of dopaminergic involvement in appetitive and aversive motivation. There is conflicting evidence about the role of dopamine in emotion, and little evidence to suggest that the profound and consistent changes in instrumental behavior produced by interference with DA systems are due to direct dopaminergic mediation of positive affective responses such as hedonia. It is suggested that nucleus accumbens dopamine is involved in aspects of sensorimotor functions that are involved in both appetitive and aversive motivation. PMID:8037860

  15. Therapieresistente Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holsboer-Trachsler E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In der Behandlung einer Depression wird ein Nichtansprechen auf zwei adäquate Antidepressivatherapien während je 6–8 Wochen als Therapieresistenz bezeichnet. Da häufig zu geringe Dosierungen oder eine zu kurze Behandlungsdauer die Ursache für ein Nichtansprechen sind, sollte in einem ersten Schritt die medikamentöse Therapie hinsichtlich Dauer und Dosierung, eventuell unter Einbezug von Plasmaspiegelbestimmungen, überprüft und optimiert werden. Als pharmakologische Maßnahmen werden zunächst ein Wechsel des Antidepressivums und danach eine Kombination von verschiedenen Antidepressiva mit unterschiedlichem biochemischem Wirkungsansatz empfohlen. Zeigen beide nicht den gewünschten Erfolg, so sollte zusätzlich zur bestehenden Antidepressivabehandlung eine Augmentationstherapie, primär mit Lithium und/oder dem Schilddrüsenhormon T3, durchgeführt werden. Ein neuer, vielversprechender Behandlungsansatz ist eine Augmentationstherapie mit atypischen Neuroleptika. Als akut wirkende nichtpharmakologische Zusatzmaßnahme hat sich der partielle Schlafentzug bewährt. Weitere nichtpharmakologische Strategien umfassen Psychotherapie, Elektrokrampftherapie und Vagusnervstimulationsbehandlung.

  16. A high-throughput fluorescence-based assay system for appetite-regulating gene and drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Shimada

    Full Text Available The increasing number of people suffering from metabolic syndrome and obesity is becoming a serious problem not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. However, there are few agents currently approved for the treatment of obesity. Those that are available are mainly appetite suppressants and gastrointestinal fat blockers. We have developed a simple and rapid method for the measurement of the feeding volume of Danio rerio (zebrafish. This assay can be used to screen appetite suppressants and enhancers. In this study, zebrafish were fed viable paramecia that were fluorescently-labeled, and feeding volume was measured using a 96-well microplate reader. Gene expression analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf, knockdown of appetite-regulating genes (neuropeptide Y, preproinsulin, melanocortin 4 receptor, agouti related protein, and cannabinoid receptor 1, and the administration of clinical appetite suppressants (fluoxetine, sibutramine, mazindol, phentermine, and rimonabant revealed the similarity among mechanisms regulating appetite in zebrafish and mammals. In combination with behavioral analysis, we were able to evaluate adverse effects on locomotor activities from gene knockdown and chemical treatments. In conclusion, we have developed an assay that uses zebrafish, which can be applied to high-throughput screening and target gene discovery for appetite suppressants and enhancers.

  17. Violent Offending Promotes Appetitive Aggression Rather than Posttraumatic Stress-A Replication Study with Burundian Ex-Combatants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbach, Anke; Nandi, Corina; Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé; Westner, Britta; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified appetitive aggression, i.e., the perception of committed, violent acts as appealing, exciting and fascinating, as a common phenomenon within populations living in precarious and violent circumstances. Investigating demobilized soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) demonstrated that violent offending is associated with appetitive aggression and not necessarily with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. In the present study, we sought to replicate these results in an independent and larger sample of demobilized soldiers from Burundi. As with the Congolese ex-combatants, random forest regression revealed that the number of lifetime perpetrated violent acts is the most important predictor of appetitive aggression and the number of lifetime experienced traumatic events is the main predictor for posttraumatic stress. Perpetrated violent acts with salient cues of hunting (pursuing the victim, the sight of blood, etc.) were most predictive for perceiving violent cues appealingly after demobilization. Moreover, the association of violent acts and appetitive aggression as well as traumatic events and posttraumatic stress remains strong even years after demobilization. Patterns of traumatic events and perpetrated acts as predictors for posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression seem to be robust among different samples of ex-combatants who fought in civil wars. Psychotherapeutic interventions that address these complementary facets of combat-related disorders-namely, posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression-are indispensable for a successful reintegration of those who fought in armed conflicts and to achieve a successful transition to peace. PMID:26696913

  18. Relation of addiction genes to hypothalamic gene changes subserving genesis and gratification of a classic instinct, sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Wolfgang B; McKinley, Michael J; Walker, Lesley L; Zhang, Hao; Pfenning, Andreas R; Drago, John; Hochendoner, Sarah J; Hilton, Donald L; Lawrence, Andrew J; Denton, Derek A

    2011-07-26

    Sodium appetite is an instinct that involves avid specific intention. It is elicited by sodium deficiency, stress-evoked adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and reproduction. Genome-wide microarrays in sodium-deficient mice or after ACTH infusion showed up-regulation of hypothalamic genes, including dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), dopamine receptors-1 and -2, α-2C- adrenoceptor, and striatally enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). Both DARPP-32 and neural plasticity regulator activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (ARC) were up-regulated in lateral hypothalamic orexinergic neurons by sodium deficiency. Administration of dopamine D1 (SCH23390) and D2 receptor (raclopride) antagonists reduced gratification of sodium appetite triggered by sodium deficiency. SCH23390 was specific, having no effect on osmotic-induced water drinking, whereas raclopride also reduced water intake. D1 receptor KO mice had normal sodium appetite, indicating compensatory regulation. Appetite was insensitive to SCH23390, confirming the absence of off-target effects. Bilateral microinjection of SCH23390 (100 nM in 200 nL) into rats' lateral hypothalamus greatly reduced sodium appetite. Gene set enrichment analysis in hypothalami of mice with sodium appetite showed significant enrichment of gene sets previously linked to addiction (opiates and cocaine). This finding of concerted gene regulation was attenuated on gratification with perplexingly rapid kinetics of only 10 min, anteceding significant absorption of salt from the gut. Salt appetite and hedonic liking of salt taste have evolved over >100 million y (e.g., being present in Metatheria). Drugs causing pleasure and addiction are comparatively recent and likely reflect usurping of evolutionary ancient systems with high survival value by the gratification of contemporary hedonic indulgences. Our findings outline a molecular logic for instinctive behavior encoded by the brain with

  19. Effects of Zinc Supplementation in Patients with Major Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ranjbar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Major depression is a mood disorder that causes changes in physical activity, appetite, sleep and weight. Regarding the role of zinc in the pathology of depression, the present study was aimed to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation in the treatment of this disease.Methods:This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Forty four patients with major depression were randomly assigned to groups receiving zinc supplementation and placebo. Patients in Zinc group received daily supplementation with 25 mg zinc adjunct to antidepressant; Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs, while the patients in placebo group received placebo with antidepressants (SSRIs for twelve weeks. Severity of depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline and was repeated at the sixth and twelfth weeks. ANOVA with repeated measure was used to compare and track the changes during the study .Results:The mean score of Beck test decreased significantly in the zinc supplement group at the end of week 6 (P<0.01 and 12 (P<0.001 compared to the baseline. The mean score of Beck Depression Inventory reduced significantly compared to the placebo group at the end of 12th week (P<0.05Conclusion:The results of the present study indicate that zinc supplementation together with SSRIs antidepressant drug improves major depressive disorders more effectively in patients with placebo plus antidepressants (SSRIs.

  20. Dementia: Depression and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Dementia | Depression and Alzheimer’s Disease What is depression? When doctors talk about depression, they mean the medical illness called major depression. Someone who has ...

  1. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this ... teen's life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for ...

  2. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  3. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  4. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ... at risk for: Returning symptoms, such as severe depression Increased risk of suicide (for some people) Withdrawal ...

  5. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  6. Depression and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Depression and Pregnancy Thursday, 20 March 2014 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to depression may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  7. Learning about depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000325.htm Learning about depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... trigger or reason. What Are the Signs of Depression? You may notice some or all of the ...

  8. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  9. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ ... following an SCI? What are the secondary conditions? I have no health insurance, what are my options? ...

  10. Depression and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, ...

  11. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Student - College Concerns Stressed or Depressed? Know the Difference Boost Your School Performance by Taking Care of You Top Ten Freshman Year Issues Alcohol, Substance Abuse and Depression Winter Break Survival Tips for College ...

  12. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance 5 Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Complementary Medicine ... depression can be successfully treated. With early recognition, intervention, and support, most employees can overcome clinical depression and pick up where ...

  13. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to feel ...

  14. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ Page contents The ... the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing ...

  15. Depression in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan; Pine, Daniel S.; Thapar, Ajay K

    2012-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder in adolescence is common worldwide but often unrecognised. The incidence, notably in girls, rises sharply after puberty and, by the end of adolescence, the 1 year prevalence rate exceeds 4%. The burden is highest in low-income and middle-income countries. Depression is associated with sub stantial present and future morbidity, and heightens suicide risk. The strongest risk factors for depression in adolescents are a family history of depression and exposure to psy...

  16. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  17. Management of Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; EPPERSON, C. NEILL

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepres...

  18. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  19. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  20. Involvement of oxidative stress in the regulation of NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in amphetamine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Pei-Ni; Yu, Ching-Han; Chen, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Tsung-Ta; Kuo, Dong-Yih

    2015-05-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) treatment can suppress appetite and increase oxidative stress in the brain. AMPH-induced appetite suppression is associated with the regulation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus. The present study explored whether antioxidants, including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GP), were involved in this NPY/CART-mediated appetite control. Rats were treated daily with AMPH for four days. Changes in food intake and expression levels of hypothalamic NPY, CART, GST, and GP were examined and compared. Results showed that, in AMPH-treated rats, (1) food intake and NPY expression decreased, while CART, GST, and GP expression increased; (2) NPY knockdown in the brain enhanced the decrease in NPY and the increases in CART, GST, and GP expression; and (3) central inhibition of reactive oxygen species production decreased GST and GP and modulated AMPH anorexia and the expression levels of NPY and CART. The present results suggest that oxidative stress in the brain participates in regulating NPY/CART-mediated appetite control in AMPH-treated rats. These results may advance the knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism of AMPH-evoked or NPY/CART-mediated appetite suppression.

  1. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children. PMID:27507005

  2. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J;

    Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales and a number...... of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD....

  3. Heart disease and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  4. Prevention of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor, Jennifer; Wadsworth, Martha

    Substantial numbers of children and adolescents experience symptoms of sadness, dysphoria, and other characteristics associated with depression. The nature of depression in children and adolescents has presented challenges in identification and definition. This chapter reviews research on depression in children and adolescents. Three current…

  5. Understanding Depression (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Depression KidsHealth > For Parents > Depression Print A A A ... to Help en español Comprender la depresión About Depression It's normal for kids to feel sad, down, ...

  6. What is depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofie Davidsen, Annette; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2014-01-01

    on the usefulness of the concept of depression and in their language and narrative styles when telling stories about depressed patients. The differences were captured in three polarities which expressed the range of experiences in the two groups. Psychiatrists considered the diagnosis of depression as a pragmatic...

  7. Effect of chronic exercise on appetite control in overweight and obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia Vanessa Garcia; Kulseng, Bard; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2013-01-01

    The effect of exercise on body mass is likely to be partially mediated through changes in appetite control. However, no studies have examined the effect of chronic exercise on obestatin and cholecystokinin (CCK) plasma concentrations or the sensitivity to detect differences in preload energy...... in obese individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic exercise on 1) fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of obestatin, CCK, leptin, and glucose insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and 2) the accuracy of energy compensation in response to covert preload manipulation....

  8. Meal replacement: calming the hot-state brain network of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Brielle M Paolini; Laurienti, Paul J.; Norris, James; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to “hot states” which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) that exists after a brief period of food ...

  9. Meal Replacement: Calming the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Brielle ePaolini; Laurienti, Paul J.; James eNorris; W. Jack eRejeski

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to hot states which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A) that exists after a brief period of food re...

  10. Food intake and appetite control in a GH-transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmolin, Camila; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-10-01

    The biological actions of growth hormone (GH) are pleiotropic, including growth promotion, energy mobilization, gonadal development, appetite, and social behavior. The regulatory network for GH is complex and includes many central and peripheral endocrine factors as well as that from the environment. It is known that GH transgenesis results in increased growth, food intake, and consequent metabolic rates in fishes. However, the manner in which GH transgenesis alters the energetic metabolism in fishes has not been well explored. In order to elucidate these consequences, we examined the effect of GH overexpression on appetite control mechanisms in a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. To this, we analyzed feeding behavior and the expression of the main appetite-related genes in two different feeding periods (fed and fasting) in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic (T) zebrafish as well as glycaemic parameters of them. Our initial results have shown that NT males and females present the same feeding behavior and expression of main appetite-controlling genes; therefore, the data of both sexes were properly grouped. Following grouped data analyses, we compared the same parameters in NT and T animals. Feeding behavior results have shown that T animals eat significantly more and faster than NT siblings. Gene expression results pointed out that gastrointestinal (GT) cholecystokinin has a substantial contribution to the communication between peripheral and central control of food intake. Brain genes expression analyses revealed that T animals have a down-regulation of two strong and opposite peptides related to food intake: the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (pomc) and the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (npy). The down-regulation of pomc in T when compared with NT is an expected result, since the decrease in an anorexigenic factor might keep the transgenic fish hungry. The down-regulation of npy seemed to be contradictory at first, but if we consider the GH's capacity to

  11. The intestinal distribution pattern of appetite- and glucose regulatory peptides in mice, rats and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Toräng, Signe;

    2016-01-01

    distribution analysis of the tissue content of the major appetite- and glucose regulatory peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-2), oxyntomodulin/glicentin, neurotensin, and peptide YY (PYY) from the duodenum to distal colon...... mouse the highest level was found in the distal colon. In rats and pigs, neurotensin was predominantly detected in mid and lower part of the small intestine, while the mouse showed the highest levels in the distal small intestine. In contrast, the distribution of GIP was restricted to the proximal small...

  12. Appetite - increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes may include: Anxiety Certain drugs (such as corticosteroids, cyproheptadine, and tricyclic antidepressants) Bulimia (most common in women 18 to 30 years old) Diabetes mellitus (including gestational diabetes ) Graves disease ...

  13. Sleep deprivation in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten patients diagnosed as suffering from depressive illness were treated with 2 consecutive nights of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was effective in both types of depression viz. endoge-nous and reactive. The improvement was greater and seemed to last longer in endogenous depression as compared to reactive depression at the time of evaluation, 7 days after completion of sleep deprivation. Depressed mood, suicidal tendencies and retard-ation seemed to show the greatest improvement while insight and gastro-intestinal and somatic symptoms, improved the least.

  14. [Symptomatic and concurrent depressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, J L

    1999-04-01

    The symptomatic and concurrent depressions description need to resort to comorbidity and symptomatic co-occurrence concepts. Patients with depressive symptoms or in a major depressive episode may also be suffering from another nonmood psychiatric disorders as alcoholism, anxiety or eating disorders. Many general medical conditions which are link with depression are illustrated with the examples of cancer, coronary artery disease, endocrinologic diseases, dementia, stroke and chronic fatigue syndrome. When depression and another psychiatric or medical conditions occur together, it is important to provide to the practitioner guidelines for the decision to treat one of the two disorders. This paper contains an example of decisional algorithm. PMID:10337217

  15. Test-meal palatability is associated with overconsumption but better represents preceding changes in appetite in non-obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, Kevin; Frampton, James; Gonzalez, Javier T

    2016-09-01

    Single-course, ad libitum meals are recommended for the assessment of energy intake within appetite research. This study represents the first investigation of the comparative sensitivity of two single-course, ad libitum meals designed to differ in palatability. We conducted two experiments using a preload study design. All protocols were identical except for the energy content of the preloads (Expt 1: 579 and 1776 kJ; Expt 2: 828 and 4188 kJ). During each experiment, ten healthy men completed four experimental trials constituting a low- or high-energy preload beverage, a 60-min intermeal interval and consumption of a pasta-based or a porridge-based, ad libitum meal. Appetite ratings were measured throughout each trial, and palatability was assessed after food consumption. Preload manipulation did not influence appetite (P=0·791) or energy intake (P=0·561) in Expt 1. Palatability and energy intake were higher for the pasta meal than for the porridge meal in both experiments (palatability P≤0·002; energy intake P≤0·001). In Expt 2, consumption of the high-energy preload decreased appetite (P=0·051) and energy intake (P=0·002). Energy compensation was not significantly different between pasta and porridge meals (P=0·172), but was more strongly correlated with preceding changes in appetite at the pasta meal (r -0·758; P=0·011) than the porridge meal (r -0·498; P=0·143). The provision of a highly palatable, pasta-based meal produced energy intakes that were more representative of preceding appetite ratings, but the moderately palatable, porridge-based meal produced more ecologically valid energy intakes. Ad libitum meal selection and design may require a compromise between sensitivity and ecological validity.

  16. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-08-01

    The belief that breakfast is the most important meal of day has been derived from cross-sectional studies that have associated breakfast consumption with a lower BMI. This suggests that breakfast omission either leads to an increase in energy intake or a reduction in energy expenditure over the remainder of the day, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. However, observational studies do not imply causality. A number of intervention studies have been conducted, enabling more precise determination of breakfast manipulation on indices of energy balance. This review will examine the results from these studies in adults, attempting to identify causal links between breakfast and energy balance, as well as determining whether consumption of breakfast influences exercise performance. Despite the associations in the literature, intervention studies have generally found a reduction in total daily energy intake when breakfast is omitted from the daily meal pattern. Moreover, whilst consumption of breakfast supresses appetite during the morning, this effect appears to be transient as the first meal consumed after breakfast seems to offset appetite to a similar extent, independent of breakfast. Whether breakfast affects energy expenditure is less clear. Whilst breakfast does not seem to affect basal metabolism, breakfast omission may reduce free-living physical activity and endurance exercise performance throughout the day. In conclusion, the available research suggests breakfast omission may influence energy expenditure more strongly than energy intake. Longer term intervention studies are required to confirm this relationship, and determine the impact of these variables on weight management.

  17. Anabolic-androgenic steroids and appetitive sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jessica Y; Wood, Ruth I

    2014-09-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) increase libido and sexual behavior, but the underlying behavioral mechanisms are unclear. One way AAS may enhance expression of sexual behavior is by increasing the willingness to work for sex. In the present study, sexually-experienced male rats received daily injections of testosterone at supraphysiologic doses (7.5 mg/kg in water with 13% cyclodextrin) or vehicle and were tested for appetitive sexual behavior measured by operant responding for access to an estrous female. Initially, rats were trained in their home cage to respond on a nose-poke under a 10-min fixed-interval schedule for food reward. Once rats achieved stable response rates, the food was replaced by a female, followed by mating for 10 min. There was no effect of testosterone on operant responding for food (28.1 ± 4.4 responses/10 min for testosterone, 30.6 ± 4.3 for vehicle) or sex (35.0 ± 4.0 responses/10 min for testosterone, 37.3 ± 5.2 for vehicle). However, rats made significantly more responses for sex than for food (p 0.05). These findings suggest that chronic high-dose testosterone does not enhance appetitive drive for sexual behavior. PMID:25200201

  18. Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Lyons, David J; Cristiano, Claudia; Burke, Luke K; Madara, Joseph C; Campbell, John N; Garcia, Ana Paula; Land, Benjamin B; Lowell, Bradford B; Dileone, Ralph J; Heisler, Lora K

    2016-01-01

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a key gateway for meal-related signals entering the brain from the periphery. However, the chemical mediators crucial to this process have not been fully elucidated. We reveal that a subset of NTS neurons containing cholecystokinin (CCK(NTS)) is responsive to nutritional state and that their activation reduces appetite and body weight in mice. Cell-specific anterograde tracing revealed that CCK(NTS) neurons provide a distinctive innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), with fibers and varicosities in close apposition to a subset of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R(PVH)) cells, which are also responsive to CCK. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within the PVH reveal the satiating function of CCK(NTS) neurons to be mediated by a CCK(NTS)→PVH pathway that also encodes positive valence. These data identify the functional significance of CCK(NTS) neurons and reveal a sufficient and discrete NTS to hypothalamus circuit controlling appetite. PMID:26974347

  19. Pontomesencephalic Tegmental Afferents to VTA Non-dopamine Neurons Are Necessary for Appetitive Pavlovian Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Jie Yau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg. While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.

  20. Pontomesencephalic Tegmental Afferents to VTA Non-dopamine Neurons Are Necessary for Appetitive Pavlovian Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hau-Jie; Wang, Dong V; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Chen, Billy T; Deisseroth, Karl; Ikemoto, Satoshi; Bonci, Antonello

    2016-09-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) receives phenotypically distinct innervations from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). While PPTg-to-VTA inputs are thought to play a critical role in stimulus-reward learning, direct evidence linking PPTg-to-VTA phenotypically distinct inputs in the learning process remains lacking. Here, we used optogenetic approaches to investigate the functional contribution of PPTg excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the VTA in appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. We show that photoinhibition of PPTg-to-VTA cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs during cue presentation dampens the development of anticipatory approach responding to the food receptacle during the cue. Furthermore, we employed in vivo optetrode recordings to show that photoinhibition of PPTg cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs significantly decreases VTA non-dopamine (non-DA) neural activity. Consistently, photoinhibition of VTA non-DA neurons disrupts the development of cue-elicited anticipatory approach responding. Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning.

  1. Effects of high fructose diets on central appetite signaling and cognitive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien eLowette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fructose has increased tremendously over the last five decades, which is to a large extent due to the development of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS, a commercial sugar additive that contains high amounts of free fructose. HFCS is often added to processed food and beverages partly because it is a powerful sweetener but even more so because the production is cheap. Although fructose in combination with fiber, vitamins and minerals, as present in fruits, is a healthy source of energy, isolated fructose, in processed food products has been associated with several health disorders such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Apart from its metabolic consequences, a growing body of literature suggests that free fructose can also affect neuronal systems. High fructose intake may on the one hand affect central appetite regulation by altering specific components of the endocannabinoid system. On the other hand it appears to impact on cognitive function by affecting phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor, synapsin 1 and synaptophysin. The present report reviews the recent evidence showing a negative effect of free fructose consumption on central appetite control, as well as cognitive function.

  2. A note on eating disorders and appetite and satiety in the orthodox Jewish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, Yigal; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between religion and eating concerns is receiving increasing empirical attention; and because religion seems to be important to many women with eating concerns, there is an interest in investigating the role religion plays and ways that religion might be employed therapeutically. Research has indicated that women who feel loved and accepted by God are buffered from eating disorder risk factors. An aspect of religiosity that is unique to Judaism is Halakhah, the system of Jewish Law and Ethics which informs the life of a religiously observant orthodox Jew. In this note, we briefly describe how Halakhah approaches the issues of appetite and satiety in eating meals. These might well contribute to the protective influence regarding tendencies for eating disorders in a person whose culture demands an awareness of and commitment to halakhic norms. Some of the most significant characteristics of disordered eating-lack of appetite, disturbed satiated response, withdrawal from community and decreased spirituality-correlate inversely with the halakhic requirements of eating a meal. We suggest that future studies of orthodox Jewish women measuring eating-order symptomatology and its correlation with religiosity might focus not only on well-known indicators of halakhic adherence such as kashrut and Sabbath observance, but also on the specifics of how their kosher meals are eaten, including ritually washing one's hands before eating, saying the appropriate blessing before and after eating, eating the required two meals on the Sabbath, and fully participating in the Passover Seder meal.

  3. Appetite controlled by a cholecystokinin nucleus of the solitary tract to hypothalamus neurocircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Lyons, David J; Cristiano, Claudia; Burke, Luke K; Madara, Joseph C; Campbell, John N; Garcia, Ana Paula; Land, Benjamin B; Lowell, Bradford B; Dileone, Ralph J; Heisler, Lora K

    2016-03-14

    The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a key gateway for meal-related signals entering the brain from the periphery. However, the chemical mediators crucial to this process have not been fully elucidated. We reveal that a subset of NTS neurons containing cholecystokinin (CCK(NTS)) is responsive to nutritional state and that their activation reduces appetite and body weight in mice. Cell-specific anterograde tracing revealed that CCK(NTS) neurons provide a distinctive innervation of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), with fibers and varicosities in close apposition to a subset of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R(PVH)) cells, which are also responsive to CCK. Optogenetic activation of CCK(NTS) axon terminals within the PVH reveal the satiating function of CCK(NTS) neurons to be mediated by a CCK(NTS)→PVH pathway that also encodes positive valence. These data identify the functional significance of CCK(NTS) neurons and reveal a sufficient and discrete NTS to hypothalamus circuit controlling appetite.

  4. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assogna F

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of

  5. Second-meal effects of pulses on blood glucose and subjective appetite following a standardized meal 2 h later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Cho, France; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated whether pulses (chickpeas, yellow peas, navy beans, lentils) have an effect on blood glucose (BG) and appetite following a fixed-size meal 2 h later. Over the following 2 h, all pulses lowered BG area under the curve (AUC) and lentils reduced appetite AUC compared with white bread (p < 0.05). Following the meal, BG was lower after lentils and chickpeas at 150 and 165 min, and AUC was lower after lentils compared with white bread (p < 0.05). PMID:24797207

  6. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, C. K.; Rosenbaum, D.; Han, H.; Geiselman, P.; Wyatt, H; Hill, J.; Brill, C; Bailer, B.; Miller, B. V.; R. Stein; Klein, S; Foster, Gard D.

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n=134) or a LFD (n=136) for two years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated d...

  7. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Heimerikx, J.; Rubingh, C.M.; Berg, R. van den; O'Shea, M.; Gambelli, L.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Einerhand, A.W.C.; Scott, C.; Keizer, H.G.; Mennen, L.I.

    2008-01-01

    Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (

  8. Pectin is not pectin: A randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jonathan, M.C.; Schols, H.A.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber

  9. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Background: Different dietary fats are metabolized differently in humans and may influence energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, appetite regulation, and body weight regulation.Objective: We examined the short-term effects of 4 triacylglycerols (test fats) on subjective appetite, ad libitum...

  10. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents accompanying a parent in recyclable trash collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Gabriela B; Pereira, Érico F; Cordeiro, Mara L

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between mental health and poverty has been well documented in adults. However, few studies have addressed how low socioeconomic status and psychosocial vulnerabilities may influence depressive symptoms in adolescents. The current study was carried out in a non-randomly selected sample of 239 adolescents whose parents work as ragpickers (waste collectors for recycling) in Brazil. In-person interviews were conducted, and the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). We observed that 23% (CI ± 5.34) of the adolescents presented with depressive symptoms and 35% (CI ± 6.05) had suicidal ideation. Fatigue or loss of energy (p = .012) and irritable mood (p = .013) were significantly higher among boys than girls according to DSM-IV criteria. However, we found no gender differences in DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorders (MDD) or Dysthymic Disorder (DD) in diminished interest or pleasure, weight loss or weight gain, decreased appetite, sleep problems, feelings of worthlessness, diminished concentration or ability to think, recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or low self-esteem. There were no significant gender differences in total CDI score, however a greater percentage of girls presented with depressed mood than boys (29.9% vs. 17.1%, p < .05). PMID:25011630

  11. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  12. Factors Associated with Depression Assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 in Long-Term Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Ae-Jin; Shin, Jinyoung; Ko, Hyeonyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive disorders and factors associated in long-term cancer survivors. Methods A total of 702 long-term cancer survivors over 5-years in remission were recruited in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital in Korea. Self-report using the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Fatigue Severity Scale assessed depression and fatigue, respectively. Demographic characteristics, cancer-related clinical characteristics, comorbidity, health behaviors, and physical symptoms were assessed through the review of medical records or a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results We identified 26.1% of patients who had a depressed mood or displayed a loss of interest. The most prevalent primary site of cancer was the stomach (65.2%), followed by lung, breast, colorectal, and thyroid cancer. We also found that 5.7% of subjects experienced double or triple primary cancers. Larger proportion among depressive group (89.1%) complained at least one physical problem than among non-depressive group (53.2%). Physical symptoms including sleep problems, dry mouth, indigestion, pain, decreased appetite, and febrile sense were more frequent in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group. The Fatigue Severity Scale scores were higher in the depressive group than in the non-depressive group (P<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the highest tertile level of fatigue (odds ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 3.81–14.02) was associated with the increased risk of depression. Conclusion These findings suggest that careful concern about depression is necessary in long-term cancer survivors. Fatigue may be a surrogate sign for depression, and warrants further evaluation. PMID:27468341

  13. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  14. Sphingolipids in Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Jernigan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is one of the most common and severe diseases affecting the world's population. However, the pathogenesis of the disease remains inadequately defined. Previously, a lack of monoaminergic neurotransmitters was the focus of pathophysiological concepts; however, recent concepts focus on a alteration of neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This concept suggests that neurogenesis is decreased in major depression with a rarefication of neuronal networks and a lack of new, immature neurons in the hippocampus, events that may result in the clinical symptoms of major depression. However, molecular targets involved in the pathogenesis of major depression and, in particular, a reduction of neurogenesis, are largely unknown. We have recently discovered that an inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system mediates the effects of tri- and tetracyclic antidepressants. Moreover, an accumulation of ceramide in the hippocampus results in depression-like symptoms. This suggests the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system is very important in the pathogenesis of major depression.

  15. Quetiapine for acute bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttajit S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Manit Srisurapanont, Narong Maneeton, Benchalak Maneeton Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Precise estimated risks and benefits of quetiapine for acute bipolar depression are needed for clinical practice. Objective: To systematically review the efficacy and the tolerability of quetiapine, either as monotherapy or combination therapy, for acute bipolar depression. Methods: We included all randomized, controlled trials (RCTs comparing quetiapine with other treatments, including placebo, in patients with acute bipolar depression (bipolar I or II disorder, major depressive episode. Published and unpublished RCTs were identified using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, Web of Knowledge™, CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, the EU Clinical Trials Register database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The primary outcome was the change scores of depression rating scales. Results: Eleven RCTs (n=3,488 were included. Two of them were conducted in children and adolescents. The change in depression scores was significantly greater in the quetiapine group compared with the placebo group (mean difference, [MD] =-4.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.59 to -3.73. The significant difference was observed from week 1. Compared with placebo, quetiapine had higher incidence rates of extrapyramidal side effects, sedation, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, constipation, dry mouth, increased appetite, and weight gain but lower risks of treatment-emergent mania and headache. Quetiapine treatment was associated with significant improvement of clinical global impression, quality of life, sleep quality, anxiety, and functioning. Conclusion: Quetiapine monotherapy is effective for acute bipolar depression and the prevention of mania/hypomania switching. Its common adverse effects are extrapyramidal side effects, sedation, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, constipation, dry mouth

  16. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  17. Physical activity & depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiantoula E.; Tsiadoula L.; Patsiaouras A.; Kokaridas D.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of pe...

  18. Stress, norepinephrine and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, B E

    2001-01-01

    Stress is an important precipitant factor in depression, and the changes in various body systems that occur in depression are similar to those observed in response to stress. This paper discusses the interactions among the immune, endocrine and norepinephrine systems that are evident in patients with depression, as well as those affected by stress. Many of the stress-induced changes can be reversed by antidepressants, particularly norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.

  19. Fibromyalgia and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Gracely, Richard H.; M. Catherine Bushnell; Marta Ceko

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia and depression might represent two manifestations of affective spectrum disorder. They share similar pathophysiology and are largely targeted by the same drugs with dual action on serotoninergic and noradrenergic systems. Here, we review evidence for genetic and environmental factors that predispose, precipitate, and perpetuate fibromyalgia and depression and include laboratory findings on the role of depression in fibromyalgia. Further, we comment on several aspects of fibromyal...

  20. Depression in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk fac...

  1. From loss to loneliness: The relationship between bereavement and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Eiko I; Bockting, Claudi; Arjadi, Retha; Borsboom, Denny; Amshoff, Maximilian; Cramer, Angélique O J; Epskamp, Sacha; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Carr, Deborah; Stroebe, Margaret

    2015-05-01

    Spousal bereavement can cause a rise in depressive symptoms. This study empirically evaluates 2 competing explanations concerning how this causal effect is brought about: (a) a traditional latent variable explanation, in which loss triggers depression which then leads to symptoms; and (b) a novel network explanation, in which bereavement directly affects particular depression symptoms which then activate other symptoms. We used data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC) study and compared depressive symptomatology, assessed via the 11-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), among those who lost their partner (N = 241) with a still-married control group (N = 274). We modeled the effect of partner loss on depressive symptoms either as an indirect effect through a latent variable, or as a direct effect in a network constructed through a causal search algorithm. Compared to the control group, widow(er)s' scores were significantly higher for symptoms of loneliness, sadness, depressed mood, and appetite loss, and significantly lower for happiness and enjoyed life. The effect of partner loss on these symptoms was not mediated by a latent variable. The network model indicated that bereavement mainly affected loneliness, which in turn activated other depressive symptoms. The direct effects of spousal loss on particular symptoms are inconsistent with the predictions of latent variable models, but can be explained from a network perspective. The findings support a growing body of literature showing that specific adverse life events differentially affect depressive symptomatology, and suggest that future studies should examine interventions that directly target such symptoms. PMID:25730514

  2. Depression after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegelstein, R C

    2001-01-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for increased postmyocardial infarction morbidity and mortality, even after controlling for the extent of coronary artery disease, infarct size, and the severity of left ventricular dysfunction. This risk factor takes on added significance when one considers that almost half of patients recovering from a myocardial infarction have major or minor depression and that major depression alone occurs in about one in five of these individuals. Despite the well-documented risk of depression, questions remain about the mechanism of the relationship between mood disturbance and adverse outcome. The link may be explained by an association with lower levels of social support, poor adherence to recommended medical therapy and lifestyle changes intended to reduce the risk of subsequent cardiac events, disturbances in autonomic tone, enhanced platelet activation and aggregation, and systemic immune activation. Unfortunately, questions about the pathophysiologic mechanism of depression in this setting are paralleled by uncertainties about the optimal treatment of depression for patients recovering from a myocardial infarction and by a lack of knowledge about whether treating depression lowers the associated increased mortality risk. Ongoing research studies will help to determine the benefits of psychosocial interventions and of antidepressant therapy for patients soon after myocardial infarction. Although the identification of depression as a risk factor may by itself be a reason to incorporate a comprehensive psychological evaluation into the routine care of patients with myocardial infarction, this practice should certainly become standard if studies show that treating depression reduces the increased mortality risk of these patients.

  3. [Sleep in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, D; Darcourt, G

    1990-11-28

    Insomnia is a cardinal symptom of depression, side by side with alterations of mood and slowing down of psychomotor activities. It bears witness to a rupture in the built-in circadian rhythm: architectural changes in sleep betray a biological desynchronization. Insomnia is also a failed attempt at finding a solution to depression. Total deprivation of sleep for one night may damp down the depressive disorders, and so does partial sleep deprivation in the second part of the night during several days. This leads to the conclusion that the waking-sleep system participates in the expression of symptoms of depression or even contributes to the genesis of the disease. PMID:2148377

  4. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A;

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic ...

  5. Effect of growth in infancy on body composition, insulin resistance, and concentration of appetite hormones in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjaer, Anni; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    High infancy weight gain is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR) in later life, but the association with later body composition has not been well explored. Appetite regulatory hormones may be programmed in early life, but data to support this are lacking....

  6. Immediate Extinction Causes a Less Durable Loss of Performance than Delayed Extinction following Either Fear or Appetitive Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In…

  7. A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control : from identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, I.

    2015-01-01

    A technological and physiological integrated approach for appetite control. From identification of novel biomarkers to development of new functional ingredients. Human dietary behaviour is driven by homeostatic, hedonic and environmental factors. Foods can influence

  8. Control of Appetite and Food Preference by NMDA Receptor and Its Co-Agonist d-Serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Matsui, Sho; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes a significant negative impact on health of human beings world-wide. The main reason for weight gain, which eventually leads to obesity, is excessive ingestion of energy above the body's homeostatic needs. Therefore, the elucidation of detailed mechanisms for appetite control is necessary to prevent and treat obesity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a post-synaptic glutamate receptor and is important for excitatory neurotransmission. It is expressed throughout the nervous system, and is important for long-term potentiation. It requires both ligand (glutamate) and co-agonist (d-serine or glycine) for efficient opening of the channel to allow calcium influx. d-serine is contained in fermented foods and marine invertebrates, and brain d-serine level is maintained by synthesis in vivo and supply from food and gut microbiota. Although the NMDA receptor has been reported to take part in the central regulation of appetite, the role of d-serine had not been addressed. We recently reported that exogenous d-serine administration can suppress appetite and alter food preference. In this review, we will discuss how NMDA receptor and its co-agonist d-seine participate in the control of appetite and food preference, and elaborate on how this system could possibly be manipulated to suppress obesity. PMID:27399680

  9. Control of Appetite and Food Preference by NMDA Receptor and Its Co-Agonist d-Serine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Sasaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity causes a significant negative impact on health of human beings world-wide. The main reason for weight gain, which eventually leads to obesity, is excessive ingestion of energy above the body’s homeostatic needs. Therefore, the elucidation of detailed mechanisms for appetite control is necessary to prevent and treat obesity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor is a post-synaptic glutamate receptor and is important for excitatory neurotransmission. It is expressed throughout the nervous system, and is important for long-term potentiation. It requires both ligand (glutamate and co-agonist (d-serine or glycine for efficient opening of the channel to allow calcium influx. d-serine is contained in fermented foods and marine invertebrates, and brain d-serine level is maintained by synthesis in vivo and supply from food and gut microbiota. Although the NMDA receptor has been reported to take part in the central regulation of appetite, the role of d-serine had not been addressed. We recently reported that exogenous d-serine administration can suppress appetite and alter food preference. In this review, we will discuss how NMDA receptor and its co-agonist d-seine participate in the control of appetite and food preference, and elaborate on how this system could possibly be manipulated to suppress obesity.

  10. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants with a range of putative health benefits. However, high beverage energy and fructose intake may lead to weight gain and insulin resistance, respectively. This study assessed the effects of CGJ consumption for 12-wk on appetite, di...

  11. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  12. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foltz, Martin; Maljaars, Jeroen; Schuring, Ewoud A. H.; van der Wal, Robert J. P.; Boer, Theo; Duchateau, Guus S. M.; Peters, Harry P. F.; Stellaard, Frans; Masclee, Ad A.

    2009-01-01

    Foltz M, Maljaars J, Schuring EA, van der Wal RJ, Boer T, Duchateau GS, Peters HP, Stellaard F, Masclee AA. Intragastric layering of lipids delays lipid absorption and increases plasma CCK but has minor effects on gastric emptying and appetite. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G982-G991,

  13. Slimming and Appetite-Suppressing Effects of Caraway Aqueous Extract as a Natural Therapy in Physically Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Hamzah, Sareena; Hajifaraji, Majid; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Following the current 'Globesity' trend, there is an increasing demand for alternative natural therapies for weight management. Numerous phytoconstituents reduce body weight through suppressing appetite and reducing food intake. Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is one of the medicinal plants that is traditionally used for weight loss. In this study, the appetite-suppressing effects of caraway aqueous extract (CAE) on 70 aerobically trained, overweight, and obese women were examined in a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Subjects were randomly allocated into placebo and experimental groups and consumed either 30 mL/day of CAE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity over a period of 90 days. Calorie and macronutrient intake and anthropometric indices were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, appetite changes were assessed through a visual analog scale and an ad libitum pizza test. After the intervention, the results showed a significant reduction in appetite levels and carbohydrate intake of the experimental group compared with the placebo group. All of the anthropometric indices were reduced significantly in CAE compared with placebo group (p < 0.01). These preliminary outcomes suggest that a dietary CAE might be effective in weight management of physically active, adult females, reducing their body size and hunger level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26988309

  14. Review: Efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Georg; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, Mette Bredal;

    2013-01-01

    on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence......This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent...... on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity...

  15. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin......, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels...

  16. Comparative analysis reveals loss of the appetite-regulating peptide hormone ghrelin in falcons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2015-05-15

    Ghrelin and leptin are key peripherally secreted appetite-regulating hormones in vertebrates. Here we consider the ghrelin gene (GHRL) of birds (class Aves), where it has been reported that ghrelin inhibits rather than augments feeding. Thirty-one bird species were compared, revealing that most species harbour a functional copy of GHRL and the coding region for its derived peptides ghrelin and obestatin. We provide evidence for loss of GHRL in saker and peregrine falcons, and this is likely to result from the insertion of an ERVK retrotransposon in intron 0. We hypothesise that the loss of anorexigenic ghrelin is a predatory adaptation that results in increased food-seeking behaviour and feeding in falcons.

  17. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea;

    2016-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different...... isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... glucose (p = 0.001) was lower for RG+T, and triacylglycerols (p = 0.02) increased for LRG+T; however, insulin, C-peptide, and ghrelin were comparable in all other meals. In conclusion, our study indicates that acute consumption of whole-grain pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering...

  18. Molecular mechanisms of appetite and obesity: a role for brain AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Urisarri, Adela; Couce, María L; López, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Feeding behaviour and energy storage are both crucial aspects of survival. Thus, it is of fundamental importance to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating these basic processes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been revealed as one of the key molecules modulating energy homoeostasis. Indeed, AMPK appears to be essential for translating nutritional and energy requirements into generation of an adequate neuronal response, particularly in two areas of the brain, the hypothalamus and the hindbrain. Failure of this physiological response can lead to energy imbalance, ultimately with extreme consequences, such as leanness or obesity. Here, we will review the data that put brain AMPK in the spotlight as a regulator of appetite. PMID:27555613

  19. Defining the neural basis of appetite and obesity: from genes to behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2014-06-01

    Obesity represents one of the biggest public health challenges facing us today. Urbanisation, sedentary lifestyles and the availability of inexpensive, highly palatable foods have promoted the increasing prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years. However, some people gain weight more easily than others, and there is strong evidence that, within a given environment, this variance in body weight is influenced by genetic factors. This article discusses how genetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of body weight. We now understand that weight is regulated by neural mechanisms that regulate appetite and energy expenditure and that disruption of these pathways can result in severe obesity in some patients. These studies provide a framework for investigating patients and ultimately may guide the development of more rational, targeted therapies for genetically susceptible individuals with severe obesity. PMID:24889574

  20. Expanding the role of striatal cholinergic interneurons and the midbrain dopamine system in appetitive instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical nuclei thought to underlie a wide variety of vertebrate behavior. Although a great deal is known about the functional and physiological properties of the basal ganglia, relatively few models have been formally developed that have been tested against both behavioral and physiological data. Our previous work (Ashby FG, Crossley MJ. J Cogn Neurosci 23: 1549-1566, 2011) showed that a model grounded in the neurobiology of the basal ganglia could account for basic single-neuron recording data, as well as behavioral phenomena such as fast reacquisition that constrain models of conditioning. In this article we show that this same model accounts for a variety of appetitive instrumental conditioning phenomena, including the partial reinforcement extinction (PRE) effect, rapid and slowed reacquisition following extinction, and renewal of previously extinguished instrumental responses by environmental context cues.

  1. Expanding the role of striatal cholinergic interneurons and the midbrain dopamine system in appetitive instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Horvitz, Jon C; Balsam, Peter D; Ashby, F Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a collection of subcortical nuclei thought to underlie a wide variety of vertebrate behavior. Although a great deal is known about the functional and physiological properties of the basal ganglia, relatively few models have been formally developed that have been tested against both behavioral and physiological data. Our previous work (Ashby FG, Crossley MJ. J Cogn Neurosci 23: 1549-1566, 2011) showed that a model grounded in the neurobiology of the basal ganglia could account for basic single-neuron recording data, as well as behavioral phenomena such as fast reacquisition that constrain models of conditioning. In this article we show that this same model accounts for a variety of appetitive instrumental conditioning phenomena, including the partial reinforcement extinction (PRE) effect, rapid and slowed reacquisition following extinction, and renewal of previously extinguished instrumental responses by environmental context cues. PMID:26467514

  2. Delayed Dopamine Signaling of Energy Level Builds Appetitive Long-Term Memory in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Musso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory cues relevant to a food source, such as odors, can be associated with post-ingestion signals related either to food energetic value or toxicity. Despite numerous behavioral studies, a global understanding of the mechanisms underlying these long delay associations remains out of reach. Here, we demonstrate in Drosophila that the long-term association between an odor and a nutritious sugar depends on delayed post-ingestion signaling of energy level. We show at the neural circuit level that the activity of two pairs of dopaminergic neurons is necessary and sufficient to signal energy level to the olfactory memory center. Accordingly, we have identified in these dopaminergic neurons a delayed calcium trace that correlates with appetitive long-term memory formation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that the Drosophila brain remembers food quality through a two-step mechanism that consists of the integration of olfactory and gustatory sensory information and then post-ingestion energetic value.

  3. Effectiveness of Electroconvulsive Therapy for Depression and Cotard’s Syndrome in a Patient with Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of psychogeriatrics, the differential diagnosis of depression and dementia, as well as the treatment of depression and comorbid dementia, is an important issue. In this paper, the authors present the case of a 72-year-old woman with Cotard’s syndrome and frontotemporal dementia (FTD who was admitted to a psychiatric hospital with delusions of negation accompanied by depressive symptoms. Pharmacotherapy over a 2-year hospitalization was unsuccessful, and she was subsequently transferred to our university hospital. A total of 18 sessions of electroconvulsive therapy released her from psychomotor inhibition, appetite loss, and Cotard’s delusions. The indication for electroconvulsive therapy in patients with dementia is discussed.

  4. The role of previous exposure in the appetitive and consummatory effects of orexigenic neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen C; Clegg, Deborah J; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2005-05-01

    The ingestion of foods is comprised of two distinct phases of behavior: appetitive and consummatory. While most food intake paradigms include both phases, the intraoral intake test emphasizes the stereotyped consummatory-phase by infusing a liquid food directly into the oral cavity. Several hypothalamic peptides have been shown to increase intake of chow in standard food intake paradigms and the current experiments sought to test whether these peptides would increase food intake in the intraoral intake paradigm. NPY, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A were infused into the third ventricle (i3vt) in a counterbalanced latin-square design just prior to rats getting 0.1M sucrose solution infused via indwelling intraoral catheters and compared it to intake on bottle tests with access to the same sucrose solution. On the first day, each peptide increased intraoral intake relative to saline in the between-subjects comparison. Moreover, intake of sucrose following i3vt saline increased as a function of training. By the final day of the experiment, rats receiving saline consumed as much sucrose as rats receiving NPY, MCH, or orexin-A. This finding was conceptually replicated in the second experiment in which rats drank sucrose freely from a bottle on the home cage. A third experiment directly assessed the role of previous exposure in the sucrose intake induced by NPY. Those results confirm that repeated exposure to sucrose increases baseline intake and attenuates the hyperphagic effect of NPY. These results are consistent with two conclusions: (1) NPY, MCH, and orexin-A increase both appetitive and consummatory-phase ingestive behaviors on initial exposures; (2) repeated training interacts with the effects of these orexigenic peptides.

  5. Effects of carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners on appetite and the secretion of gastrointestinal satiety peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Robert E; Frey, Florian; Töpfer, Antonia; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In vitro, both carbohydrate sugars and artificial sweeteners (AS) stimulate the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It has been suggested that the gut tastes sugars and AS through the same mechanisms as the tongue, with potential effects on gut hormone release. We investigated whether the human gut responds in the same way to AS and carbohydrate sugars, which are perceived by lingual taste as equisweet. We focused on the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) satiety peptides in relation to appetite perception. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, six-way, cross-over trial including twelve healthy subjects. On separate days, each subject received an intragastric infusion of glucose, fructose or an AS (aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose) dissolved in 250 ml of water or water only (control). In a second part, four subjects received an intragastric infusion of the non-sweet, non-metabolisable sugar analogue 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Glucose stimulated GLP-1 (P = 0·002) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY; P = 0·046) secretion and reduced fasting plasma ghrelin (P = 0·046), whereas fructose was less effective. Both carbohydrate sugars increased satiety and fullness (albeit not significantly) compared with water. In contrast, equisweet loads of AS did not affect gastrointestinal peptide secretion with minimal effects on appetite. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose increased hunger ratings, however, with no effects on GLP-1, PYY or ghrelin. Our data demonstrate that the secretion of GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin depends on more than the detection of (1) sweetness or (2) the structural analogy to glucose. PMID:21255472

  6. GABA levels in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during the viewing of appetitive and disgusting food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Caterina; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura; Edden, Richard A E; Ferretti, Antonio; Marzoli, Daniele; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Brancucci, Alfredo

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing how the brain appraises the psychological dimensions of reward is one of the central topics of neuroscience. It has become clear that dopamine neurons are implicated in the transmission of both rewarding information and aversive and alerting events through two different neuronal populations involved in encoding the motivational value and the motivational salience of stimuli, respectively. Nonetheless, there is less agreement on the role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the related neurotransmitter release during the processing of biologically relevant stimuli. To address this issue, we employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-invasive methodology that allows detection of some metabolites in the human brain in vivo, in order to assess the role of the vmPFC in encoding stimulus value rather than stimulus salience. Specifically, we measured gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and, with control purposes, Glx levels in healthy subjects during the observation of appetitive and disgusting food images. We observed a decrease of GABA and no changes in Glx concentration in the vmPFC in both conditions. Furthermore, a comparatively smaller GABA reduction during the observation of appetitive food images than during the observation of disgusting food images was positively correlated with the scores obtained to the body image concerns sub-scale of Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). These results are consistent with the idea that the vmPFC plays a crucial role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli, possibly by encoding stimulus salience through glutamatergic and/or noradrenergic projections to deeper mesencephalic and limbic areas. PMID:27436536

  7. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Theeuwes, Wessel F; McMullen, Michael K; McMullen, Anna K; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F; Schellekens, Harriët

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a). Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek) stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits. PMID:25068823

  8. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  9. The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, reduces appetitive responding for sucrose and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Steensland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether the NK1-receptor system plays a role in the reinforcing properties of sucrose using a novel selective and clinically safe NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant (CJ-11,974, in three animal models of sucrose consumption and seeking. Furthermore, we compared the effect of ezlopitant on ethanol consumption and seeking in rodents. The NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant decreased appetitive responding for sucrose more potently than for ethanol using an operant self-administration protocol without affecting general locomotor activity. To further evaluate the selectivity of the NK1-receptor antagonist in decreasing consumption of sweetened solutions, we compared the effects of ezlopitant on water, saccharin-, and sodium chloride (NaCl solution consumption. Ezlopitant decreased intake of saccharin but had no effect on water or salty solution consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicates that the NK1-receptor may be a part of a common pathway regulating the self-administration, motivational and reinforcing aspects of sweetened solutions, regardless of caloric value, and those of substances of abuse. Additionally, these results indicate that the NK1-receptor system may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity induced by over-consumption of natural reinforcers.

  10. Dopamine and food reward: effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Herbert, Vanessa M B; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Munafò, Marcus R; Rogers, Peter J

    2012-03-20

    It has been suggested that obese individuals over-eat in order to compensate for deficits in the dopaminergic reward system. The current study used acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) to investigate the effect of reduced dopamine function on appetite and the reward value of food in healthy volunteers. The compensatory-eating hypothesis would predict an increase in the reward value and consumption of food following depletion by this method. In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 17 male participants (mean age=29.2 (SEM=2.7) years; mean body mass index=24.4 (SEM=0.6) kg/m(2)) were administered with a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free; depletion condition) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL; control). Plasma amino acid levels were measured at baseline and peak depletion (300 min). Appetite, willingness to pay for food, liking, desired portion size and ad libitum food intake were also assessed. The TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with significant decreases in tyrosine, phenylalanine, and the ratio of tyrosine+phenylalanine to the other large neutral amino acids (all p<.001). There were no effects on our measures of willingness to pay for food or liking. However, in the TYR/PHE-free condition, participants reported significantly lower levels of hunger following a fixed-test meal relative to the BAL condition. In conclusion, we found no evidence for compensatory eating following ATPD. Our results also provide support for the role of dopamine in motivational components of eating.

  11. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  12. Nutritional Aspects of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine E. Lang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics, which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials.

  13. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Tea Drinking Suppresses Subjective Short-term Appetite in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, JiYoung; Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2015-07-01

    Appetite controlling has been an main strategy for regulating food intake and energy balance in obesity treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of drinking tea of the medicinal herbs, fennel and fenugreek, on the subjective appetite in overweight Korean women. The study was conducted using a placebo-controlled, single-blinded, randomized, and 3-way crossover design. Nine healthy women were given fennel tea (FT), fenugreek tea (FGT), or placebo tea (PT). After drinking a given tea, a lunch buffet was provided and then food consumption of subjects was analyzed. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured at seven independent time point using a visual analog scale (VAS). Mean age of 9 subjects were 49.7 ± 4.5 years and their mean body mass index were 24.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2). There was no significant difference in food consumption in the lunch buffet after drinking each tea; however, with respect to the subjective appetite scale, FGT decreased hunger, led to less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). Similarly, the consumption of FT resulted in decreased hunger, less prospective food consumption, and increased feelings of fullness compared with the PT (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of VAS graph indicated that FGT resulted in a higher feeling of fullness than the PT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, drinking the FT and FGT were significantly effective aid to suppress subjective appetite among overweight women in South Korea. PMID:26251835

  14. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). Postpizza meal BG AUC was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments than in the yellow pea treatment (p < 0.05). The beneficial effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type. PMID:21957874

  15. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  16. Depression in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Return to Web version Depression in Children and Teens Depression in Children and Teens How are the symptoms ... aafp.org/afp/20001115/2297.html) Childhood and Adolescent Depression by SK Bhatia, M.D., and SC Bhatia, ...

  17. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000646.htm Helping your teen with depression To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your teen's depression may be treated with talk therapy, anti-depression ...

  18. Depression During and After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet ePublications Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet (PDF, 260 ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention (7 items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  20. St. John's Wort and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z St. John's Wort and Depression: In Depth Share: On This Page Introduction Key ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Depression Depression is a medical condition that affects about ...

  1. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had antidepressan

  2. Memory training in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vanderhasselt, M.A.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Memory biases, that is, general memory impairments as well as specific mood-congruent memory biases, are important vulnerability factors in depression. Recently, computerized memory trainings have been developed to target these biases, reducing rumination and lightening depressive symptoms. This rev

  3. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a common, yet serious, medical illness. Clinical depression is a “whole-body” illness that affects your mood, thoughts, body and behavior. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months or years. Appropriate ... Clinical depression can affect anyone: Anyone can experience ...

  4. Depression following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined...

  5. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  6. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Depression, however, is a serious medical disorder that affects your thoughts, feelings, physical health and behaviors as well as other aspects of your life. Depression can cause physical and psychological symptoms. It can worsen pain, make sleep difficult, cause loss of energy, take away your ...

  7. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  8. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  9. Measuring psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, S D; Meyers, B S; Flint, A J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotic depression (PD) is a highly debilitating condition, which needs intensive monitoring. However, there is no established rating scale for evaluating the severity of PD. The aim of this analysis was to assess the psychometric properties of established depression rating scales...... and a number of new composite rating scales, covering both depressive and psychotic symptoms, in relation to PD. METHOD: The psychometric properties of the rating scales were evaluated based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. RESULTS: A rating scale consisting of the 6-item......'s correlation coefficient between change in HAMD-BPRS11 and Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scores = -0.74--0.78) and unidimensionality (Loevinger's coefficient of homogeneity = 0.41) in the evaluation of PD. The HAM-D6 fulfilled the same criteria, whereas the full 17-item Hamilton Depression...

  10. Depression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R E

    1988-12-01

    Depressive syndromes that occur during the course of schizophrenia are not clearly understood but have important implications for the treatment of the schizophrenic patient. In this review of the literature on depression secondary to schizophrenia, the author notes that lack of tested diagnostic criteria has led to a misunderstanding of its relatively high frequency and its association with poor outcome features such as impaired psychosocial functioning, schizophrenic relapse, and suicide. Differential diagnosis, including ruling out akinetic depression, is essential, he believes, partly because the concept of schizophrenic depression as postpsychotic is not supported by evidence. Clinical management must address such increased risk factors as relapse and suicide, but evidence indicates that secondary depression in schizophrenia does not respond to antidepressant medication. PMID:3068116

  11. Lao Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson-Muskin, M B; Golden, C

    1989-01-01

    There are no measurement tools that accurately measure depression among Lao refugees. The overall purpose of this research was to complete the development and validation procedures for the Lao Depression Inventory (LDI). The study consisted of 216 Ethnic Lao refugees. A clinical interview and 164 true/false questions were administered to identify specific items which could identify depression among the Ethnic Lao people. All items were administered in both English and Lao. Overall, 78 of the 164 items differentiated groups of depressed and nondepressed Lao at the .01 level. Results of validation procedures showed that a 30-item scale had an accuracy rate of 89% in identifying the presence of depression in the validation group; the hit-rate for the same items and cutoff was 92% in the cross-validation group. Potential uses of the scale are discussed. PMID:2918451

  12. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  13. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Series JOINT COMMISSION LAUNCHES EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGN ON ADULT DEPRESSION Educational Brochure Provides Guidance on Recognizing and Treating Depression [PDF] DBSA 2013–2017 STRATEGIC PLAN Learn how ...

  14. Depression in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Wing Ma, Terry; Kam-Tao Li, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The reported prevalence of depression in dialysis population varied from 22.8% (interview-based diagnosis) to 39.3% (self- or clinician-administered rating scales). Such differences were attributed to the overlapping symptoms of uraemia and depression. Systemic review and meta-analysis of observational studies showed that depression was a significant predictor of mortality in dialysis population. The optimal screening tool for depression in dialysis patients remains uncertain. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) have been validated for screening purposes. Patients who scored ≥14 using BDI should be referred to a psychiatrist for early evaluation. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders (SCID) remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Non-pharmacological treatment options include cognitive behavioural therapy and exercise training programs. Although frequent haemodialysis may have beneficial effects on patients' physical and mental well-being, it cannot and should not be viewed as a treatment of depression. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are generally effective and safe in ESRD patients, but most studies were small, non-randomized and uncontrolled. The European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) guideline suggests a trial of SSRI for 8 to 12 weeks in dialysis patients who have moderate-major depression. The treatment effect should be re-evaluated after 12 weeks to avoid prolonging ineffective medication. This review will discuss the current understanding in the diagnosis and management of depression in dialysis patients. PMID:26860073

  15. Mirtazapine in the treatment of adolescents with major depression: an open-label, multicenter pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo-Pesu, Kirsi-Maria; Vuola, Tapani; Lahelma, Liisa; Marttunen, Mauri

    2004-01-01

    This multicenter, open-label study with a duration of 85 days was performed to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy and safety of mirtazapine (dose range, 30-45 mg) in 12-18-year-old adolescents diagnosed with major depression. Twenty-four (24) patients (15 female patients and 9 male patients) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for major depression and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17) score of 18 at baseline were enrolled in the study. The primary outcome measures were HAM-D-17, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scales. Any changes in symptoms of anxiety were measured using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). The average age of the 23 subjects, who were eligible for analysis, was 16.3 years (standard deviation (SD) 6.11, median 17.3). The mean daily dose of mirtazapine was 32.9 mg. Mirtazapine showed a marked efficacy on all rating scales and was well tolerated. Mirtazapine had a beneficial effect on sleep. A rapid onset of sleep and pattern of action was seen. No dropouts due to adverse events were recorded. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were tiredness, increased appetite, and dizziness. The results of this study suggest that mirtazapine may be an effective treatment for major depression in adolescents. PMID:15319015

  16. A REVIEW ON PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION AND LONG TERM COURSE OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an etiologically heterogeneous group of brain disorders characterized by a wide range of symptoms that reflect alterations in cognitive, psychomotor and emotional processes. Depression is a common problem affecting about 121 million people world-wide. It occurs in persons of all genders, ages, and back- grounds. The human stress experience contributes to the pathogenesis of depression, and may also play a role in the severity and recurrence of this debilitating illness. Despite its prevalence and social impact, its prognosis and management are often poor, not only due to the heterogeneity of this ailment, but also our lack of knowledge of the pathophysiology underlying depression. Various areas of brain like forebrain, hippocampus, amygdala, limbic system and medial prefrontal cortex appear to be implicated in depression. The two most well accepted international systems are the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM-IV of the American Psychiatric Association and the International Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 of the World Health Organization (WHO. Depression refers to a wide range of mental health problems which is characterized by Depressed mood most of the day, anhedonia, large increase or decrease in appetite, insomnia, psychomotor agitation (evident by, for example, hand wringing or slowness of movement, fatigue or loss of energy, Indecisiveness or diminished ability to think or concentrate, Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt, Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Despite our increased understanding of both its pathophysiology and treatment, depression remains highly prevalent, accounting for more disability than any other disorder world wide.

  17. Orlistat inhibition of intestinal lipase acutely increases appetite and attenuates postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide-1, cholecystokinin, and peptide YY concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellrichmann, Mark; Kapelle, Mario; Ritter, Peter R;

    2008-01-01

    .0001), whereas appetite and prospective food consumption increased (P alters gastric and gallbladder emptying and reduces...... of Orlistat or placebo. Gastric emptying, gallbladder volume and the plasma levels of CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and ghrelin were determined and appetite sensations were measured using visual analogue scales. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was accelerated by Orlistat administration (P emptying...... whether Orlistat alters the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)-amide (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin as well as postprandial appetite sensations. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy human volunteers were examined with a solid-liquid test meal after the oral administration...

  18. Predictors of depression stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression. Method Three samples were surveyed to investigate the predictors: a national sample of 1,001 Australian adults; a local community sample of 5,572 residents of the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan aged 18 to 50 years; and a psychologically distressed subset (n = 487 of the latter sample. Personal and Perceived Stigma were measured using the two subscales of the Depression Stigma Scale. Potential predictors included demographic variables (age, gender, education, country of birth, remoteness of residence, psychological distress, awareness of Australia's national depression initiative beyondblue, depression literacy and level of exposure to depression. Not all predictors were used for all samples. Results Personal stigma was consistently higher among men, those with less education and those born overseas. It was also associated with greater current psychological distress, lower prior contact with depression, not having heard of a national awareness raising initiative, and lower depression literacy. These findings differed from those for perceived stigma except for psychological distress which was associated with both higher personal and higher perceived stigma. Remoteness of residence was not associated with either type of stigma. Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of treating the concepts of personal and perceived stigma separately in designing measures of stigma, in interpreting the pattern of findings in studies of the predictors of stigma, and in designing, interpreting the impact of and disseminating interventions for stigma.

  19. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  20. Epilepsy coexisting with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Barbara; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-10-01

    Depression episodes in epilepsy is the most common commorbidity, affecting between 11% and 62% of patients with epilepsy. Although researchers have documented a strong association between epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities, the nature of this relationship is poorly understood. The manifestation of depression in epilepsy is a complex issue having many interacting neurobiological and psychosocial determinants, including clinical features of epilepsy (seizure frequency, type, foci, or lateralization of foci) and neurochemical or iatrogenic mechanisms. Other risk factors are a family history of psychiatric illness, particularly depression, a lack of control over the seizures and iatrogenic causes (pharmacologic and surgical). In addition, treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as well as social coping and adaptation skills have also been recognised as risk factors of depression associated with epilepsy. Epilepsy may foster the development of depression through being exposed to chronic stress. The uncertainty and unpredictability of seizures may instigate sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach in patients with epilepsy and lead to social isolation, stigmatization, or disability. Often, depression is viewed as a reaction to epilepsy's stigma and the associated poor quality of life. Moreover, patients with epilepsy display a 4-5 higher rate of depression and suicide compared with healthy population. PMID:27634589

  1. Management of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.

  2. Behandlingsresistent depression kan behandles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack...... of compliance. Regarding treatment, evidence is sparse, but switching to a different antidepressant, and combination or augmentation with another agent, admission and treatment with ECT are the options. The choice of treatment must be based on the characteristics of the depression, the severity of treatment...

  3. Depressive prototype narrative. A convergent validation in depressive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    The present study has the intention of establishing the identification that a group of depressed male subjects does with the narrative prototype of depression compared to a group of depressed female subjects. The sample was made of 65 depressive subjects and 65non depressive subjects for every group according to the genderwith ages between 16 and 40 years. The participants were derived from different centers of psychological attention of the city of Bucaramanga. An additional inclusion criter...

  4. Depression, Pain, and Pain Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the degree to which depression predicted pain and pain behavior. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered to 207 low back pain patients. Depression and physical findings were the most important predictors of pain and pain behavior. Depression proved significant even after controlling for important demographic and medical status…

  5. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  6. Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children123

    OpenAIRE

    Kral, Tanja VE; Whiteford, Linda M; Heo, Moonseong; FAITH, MYLES S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional data indicate an inverse relation between breakfast consumption and child weight. It has been suggested that skipping breakfast may adversely affect appetite in children, which could lead to overeating later in the day.

  7. Effects on anthropometry and appetite of vitamins and minerals given in lipid nutritional supplements for malnourished HIV-infected adults referred for antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Andrea M; Woodd, Susannah; PrayGod, George;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The evidence base for effects of nutritional interventions for malnourished HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is limited and inconclusive. OBJECTIVE:: We hypothesised that both vitamin and mineral deficiencies and poor appetite limit weight gain in malnouris...

  8. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us anything ⟟ Resources in your area ☇ Fundraise with Team Reeve Need to talk to someone? We’re ... are looking for more information on how to manage depression or have a specific question, our information ...

  9. Suicide and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Save. Suicide Awareness Voices of Education Suicide and Depression Q&A Why do people kill ... does not become an option. Do people attempt suicide to prove something or to get sympathy? No. ...

  10. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our repository of fact sheets on hundreds of topics ranging from state resources to secondary complications of ... Center (MSKTC) maintains factsheets on a number of topics, including depression with a self-test to help ...

  11. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... University of Washington provides pamphlets on depression with spinal cord injury and potential ... do I find a rehabilitation facility? How can I locate funding for rehabilitation ...

  12. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... helplessness and confusion is to arm yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and ... Karp Resources If you are looking for more information on how to manage depression or have a ...

  13. Screening for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve the lives of people who have mood disorders. The Power of Peers DBSA envisions wellness for people who live with depression and bipolar disorder. Because DBSA was created for and is led ...

  14. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... grieving, taking control, talking about your disability, taking care of yourself, and looking ahead. Depression, however, is ... make it difficult for you to take good care of your health. Other symptoms include oversleeping, change ...

  15. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... behaviors as well as other aspects of your life. Depression can cause physical and psychological symptoms. It ... loss of energy, take away your enjoyment of life and make it difficult for you to take ...

  16. Depression - older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these steps do not help, medicines to treat depression and talk therapy often help. Doctors often prescribe lower doses of antidepressants to older people, and increase the dose more slowly than in ...

  17. Vision in depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubl, E.; Tebartz Van Elst, L.; Ebert, D.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Reduced dopaminergic transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the physiology of visual contrast sensitivity (CS). To test the hypothesis that altered dopaminergic neurotransmissi...

  18. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.;

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  19. TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 is a physiological appetite and body weight regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in all humans and when overproduced in cancer leads to anorexia/cachexia, by direct action on brain feeding centres. In these studies we have examined the role of physiologically relevant levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of appetite, body weight and basal metabolic rate. MIC-1/GDF15 gene knockout mice (MIC-1(-/- weighed more and had increased adiposity, which was associated with increased spontaneous food intake. Female MIC-1(-/- mice exhibited some additional alterations in reduced basal energy expenditure and physical activity, possibly owing to the associated decrease in total lean mass. Further, infusion of human recombinant MIC-1/GDF15 sufficient to raise serum levels in MIC-1(-/- mice to within the normal human range reduced body weight and food intake. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 is involved in the physiological regulation of appetite and energy storage.

  20. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum;

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary...... and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix...... fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...

  1. Identifying Depression on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Moin

    2016-01-01

    Social media has recently emerged as a premier method to disseminate information online. Through these online networks, tens of millions of individuals communicate their thoughts, personal experiences, and social ideals. We therefore explore the potential of social media to predict, even prior to onset, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in online personas. We employ a crowdsourced method to compile a list of Twitter users who profess to being diagnosed with depression. Using up to a year of pri...

  2. Sleep deprivation and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had antidepressant effects. A large number of studies have followed these observations. The purpose of the studies presented in this thesis was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of TSD and related procedures for ...

  3. LIFE EVENTS AND DEPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    R N Chatterjee; Mukherjee, S. P.; Nandi, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY The life events occurring in a 6 month period preceding onset of illness in 50 OPD primary depressives were inquired into by a Life Events Inventory and compared with those in a corresponding time period of 50 matched controls. The relation between life events and the depth of depression at initial interview was also studied. The results are analysed and the probable pitfalls discussed.

  4. The role of ACTH and adrenal glucocorticoids in the salt appetite of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, E H; Covelli, M D; Denton, D A; Nelson, J F; Shulkes, A A

    1975-10-01

    The selective appetites of wild rabbits for 500 mEq/1 solutions of NaC1, KC1, MgC1(2), and CaC1(2) were studied in intact and adrenalectomized rabbits during daily treatment with either 4 IU long acting ACTH, 1.0 or 2.5 mg cortisol acetate, or 2.5 mg corticosterone. The animals were individually caged and external sodium balances performed. In intact rabbits, cortisol or corticosterone produced a significant stimulation of NaC1 appetite. The response to concurrent dosage of cortisol and corticosterone was less than half of that obtained with ACTH which produced a comparable alteration of blood glucocorticoid levels but a 10-fold increase in NaC1 intake. CaC1(2) intake was increased in intact rabbits by cortisol treatment but not by corticosterone or ACTH. Adrenalectomized rabbits maintained on daily steroid replacement therapy of 0.1 mg deoxycorticosterone acetate and 0.75 mg cortisone acetate showed a normal pattern of electolyte, food, and water intake. Under these conditions ACTH produced a 4-fold increase in NaC1 intake. Further addition of cortisol and corticosterone to steroid replacement therapy produced an increase in NaC1 intake comparable to their effect on normal rabbits. Thereupon supplementation with ACTH resulted in an increase to a level at least as great as that found in ACTH treated, normal rabbits. The effects of ACTH and glucocorticoids on NaC1 appetite were synergistic. Sodium balance showed that increases in NaC1 intake were not the result of the treatment initially producing a body sodium deficit, which was then corrected by increased intake. The results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that NaC1 appetite may be hormonally regulated, and demonstrate that ACTH is capable of stimulating NaC1 intake by a previously unsuspected non-adrenal pathway.

  5. Memory Elicited by Courtship Conditioning Requires Mushroom Body Neuronal Subsets Similar to Those Utilized in Appetitive Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Shelby A.; Baker, Bruce S.

    2016-01-01

    An animal’s ability to learn and to form memories is essential for its survival. The fruit fly has proven to be a valuable model system for studies of learning and memory. One learned behavior in fruit flies is courtship conditioning. In Drosophila courtship conditioning, male flies learn not to court females during training with an unreceptive female. He retains a memory of this training and for several hours decreases courtship when subsequently paired with any female. Courtship conditioning is a unique learning paradigm; it uses a positive-valence stimulus, a female fly, to teach a male to decrease an innate behavior, courtship of the female. As such, courtship conditioning is not clearly categorized as either appetitive or aversive conditioning. The mushroom body (MB) region in the fruit fly brain is important for several types of memory; however, the precise subsets of intrinsic and extrinsic MB neurons necessary for courtship conditioning are unknown. Here, we disrupted synaptic signaling by driving a shibirets effector in precise subsets of MB neurons, defined by a collection of split-GAL4 drivers. Out of 75 lines tested, 32 showed defects in courtship conditioning memory. Surprisingly, we did not have any hits in the γ lobe Kenyon cells, a region previously implicated in courtship conditioning memory. We did find that several γ lobe extrinsic neurons were necessary for courtship conditioning memory. Overall, our memory hits in the dopaminergic neurons (DANs) and the mushroom body output neurons were more consistent with results from appetitive memory assays than aversive memory assays. For example, protocerebral anterior medial DANs were necessary for courtship memory, similar to appetitive memory, while protocerebral posterior lateral 1 (PPL1) DANs, important for aversive memory, were not needed. Overall, our results indicate that the MB circuits necessary for courtship conditioning memory coincide with circuits necessary for appetitive memory. PMID

  6. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Li; Armstrong, Cheryl L.H.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER)...

  7. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety.

  8. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan A. Brown

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB, a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO, or a water control (H2O. Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H2O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: −2.28, −0.20 MJ, but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ, with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H2O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively. In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008 but not to H2O (p = 0.074. The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage.

  9. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Green, Benjamin P; James, Lewis J; Stevenson, Emma J; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H₂O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H₂O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: -2.28, -0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H₂O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H₂O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  10. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  11. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Payam Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Shahin Akhondzadeh; Mohammad.Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar; Elham Ranjar; Seyed. Mohammad-Ali Kooshesh; Seyed-Ali Keshavarz

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: on...

  12. Effect of chronic oral administration of a low dose of captopril on sodium appetite of hypothyroid rats: Influence of aldosterone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura R.R.; Olivares E.L.; Passos Junior D.B.; Ramalho M.J.; Antunes-Rodrigues J.; Reis L.C.

    2001-01-01

    Rats rendered hypothyroid by treatment with methimazole develop an exaggerated sodium appetite. We investigated here the capacity of hypothyroid rats (N = 12 for each group) to respond to a low dose of captopril added to the ration, a paradigm which induces an increase in angiotensin II synthesis in cerebral areas that regulate sodium appetite by increasing the availability of circulating angiotensin I. In addition, we determined the influence of aldosterone in hypothyroid rats during the exp...

  13. Evaluation of the role of physical activity levels on the release of appetite-related hormones after preloads with a different energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhler, Linn

    2014-01-01

    Background:Previous research has shown that regular exercisers are able to adjust their energy intake after preloads of different energy content, while inactive individuals are not. However, the mechanisms responsible for the better short-term appetite control in active individuals remain unknown. Purpose: The aim of this study was to look at differences in the release of the appetite hormones in response to preloads of different energy content betwe...

  14. Comparison of Appetite-regulating Hormones and Body Composition in Pediatric Patients in Predialysis Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease and Healthy Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Eftekhari; Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani; Mitra Basiratnia; Abbas Rezaianzadeh; Shiva Faghih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Methods...

  15. Plasma Cortisol Levels in Response to a Cold Pressor Test Did Not Predict Appetite or Ad Libitum Test Meal Intake in Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D.; Hernandez, Dominica B.; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E.

    2012-01-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2 min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng...

  16. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Perinatal depression is prevalent and has a great impact on both mother and infant. There are empirically validated treatments for both postpartum depression and depression during pregnancy. Primary among these is interpersonal psychotherapy, which has been shown to be effective for postpartum women across the spectrum from mild to severe depression. At present, interpersonal psychotherapy is the best validated treatment for postpartum depression and should be considered first-line treatment,...

  17. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L. H.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05), protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  18. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  19. Ageing Is Associated with Decreases in Appetite and Energy Intake—A Meta-Analysis in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not well recognized that in the elderly weight loss is more common than weight gain. The aim of this analysis was to determine the effect of ageing on appetite (hunger/fullness and energy intake, after overnight fasting and in a postprandial state, by meta-analyses of trials that included at least two age groups (>18 years. We hypothesized that appetite and energy intake would be less in healthy older compared with younger adults. Following a PubMed-database systematic search up to 30 June 2015, 59 studies were included in the random-effects-model meta-analyses. Energy intake was 16%–20% lower in older (n = 3574/~70 years/~71 kg/~25 kg/m2 than younger (n = 4111/~26 years/~69 kg/~23 kg/m2 adults (standardized mean difference: −0.77 (95% confidence interval −0.90 to −0.64. Hunger was 25% (after overnight fasting; weighted mean difference (WMD: −17 (−22 to −13 mm to 39% (in a postprandial state; WMD: −14 (−19 to −9 mm lower, and fullness 37% (after overnight fasting; WMD: 6 mm (95% CI: 1 to 11 mm greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, appetite and energy intake are less in healthy older than younger adults, suggesting that ageing per se affects food intake.

  20. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-02-01

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss. PMID:26821042

  1. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (Pneuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  2. Leptin promoter gene polymorphism on -2549 position decreases plasma leptin and increases appetite in normal weight volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bragança Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Investigate whether polymorphism in the promoter region encoding leptin and leptin receptor gene, in normal weight individuals, affects hormonal and appetite responses to peanuts.Materials and methods: Appetite, anthropometric indices, body composition, physical activity, dietary intake and leptin, ghrelin and insulin levels were monitored. Polymorphism analyses were also carried out.Results: None of the treatments led to statistical differences in the analyzed hormones. No polymorphism was found for leptin receptor gene, while for leptin gene, 50% of the volunteers presented one polymorphic allele and 13% presented both polymorphic alleles. These last ones presented lower body fat mass, leptin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, and fullness rates. They also presented higher hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat sweet and salty foods.Conclusions: Peanut did not affect appetite and presented no different hormonal responses, compared to other foods studied. Polymorphic allele carriers in both alleles presented higher probability to develop obesity. However, the magnitude of this probability could not be measured.

  3. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  4. Addiction: from context-induced hedonia to appetite, based on transition of micro-behaviors in morphine abstinent tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eDuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.

  5. Addiction: From Context-Induced Hedonia to Appetite, Based on Transition of Micro-behaviors in Morphine Abstinent Tree Shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ying; Shen, Fang; Gu, Tingting; Sui, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP). To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies. PMID:27375516

  6. Impact of nutritional labelling on 10-d energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Elise; Perron, Julie; Drapeau, Vicky; Lamarche, Benoît; Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia; Provencher, Véronique

    2015-12-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional labelling on energy intake, appetite perceptions and attitudes towards food. During a 10-d period, seventy normal-weight (BMIlabelling groups in which the only difference was the label posted on lunch meal entrée: (1) low-fat label, (2) energy label (energy content of the entrée and average daily needs) and (3) no label (control). Average energy intake was calculated by weighing all foods before v. after daily consumption. Hunger and fullness perceptions were rated on visual analogue scales immediately before and after each meal. Satiety efficiency was assessed through the calculation of the satiety quotient (SQ). The appreciation and perceived healthiness of the lunch entrées were rated on eight-point Likert scales. There was no difference in energy intake, SQ and attitudes towards food between the three labelling groups. Fasting hunger perception was higher in the low-fat label group compared with the two others groups (P=0·0037). No interactions between labelling groups and BMI categories were observed. In conclusion, although labelling does not seem to influence energy intake, a low-fat label may increase women's fasting hunger perceptions compared with an energy label or no label.

  7. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste. PMID:26791832

  8. Coordinated activity of ventral tegmental neurons adapts to appetitive and aversive learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbok Kim

    Full Text Available Our understanding of how value-related information is encoded in the ventral tegmental area (VTA is based mainly on the responses of individual putative dopamine neurons. In contrast to cortical areas, the nature of coordinated interactions between groups of VTA neurons during motivated behavior is largely unknown. These interactions can strongly affect information processing, highlighting the importance of investigating network level activity. We recorded the activity of multiple single units and local field potentials (LFP in the VTA during a task in which rats learned to associate novel stimuli with different outcomes. We found that coordinated activity of VTA units with either putative dopamine or GABA waveforms was influenced differently by rewarding versus aversive outcomes. Specifically, after learning, stimuli paired with a rewarding outcome increased the correlation in activity levels between unit pairs whereas stimuli paired with an aversive outcome decreased the correlation. Paired single unit responses also became more redundant after learning. These response patterns flexibly tracked the reversal of contingencies, suggesting that learning is associated with changing correlations and enhanced functional connectivity between VTA neurons. Analysis of LFP recorded simultaneously with unit activity showed an increase in the power of theta oscillations when stimuli predicted reward but not an aversive outcome. With learning, a higher proportion of putative GABA units were phase locked to the theta oscillations than putative dopamine units. These patterns also adapted when task contingencies were changed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that VTA neurons organize flexibly as functional networks to support appetitive and aversive learning.

  9. Ghrelin and the brain-gut axis as a pharmacological target for appetite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; El-Salhy, Magdy; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; Chopin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Appetite regulation is highly complex and involves a large number of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptide hormones. These are small, processed, secreted peptides derived from larger prepropeptide precursors. These peptides are important targets for the development of therapeutics for obesity, a global health epidemic. As a case study, we consider the ghrelin axis. The ghrelin axis is likely to be a particularly useful drug target, as it also plays a role in energy homeostasis, adipogenesis, insulin regulation and reward associated with food intake. Ghrelin is the only known circulating gut orexigenic peptide hormone. As it appears to play a role in diet-induced obesity, blocking the action of ghrelin is likely to be effective for treating and preventing obesity. The ghrelin peptide has been targeted using a number of approaches, with ghrelin mirror-image oligonucleotides (Spiegelmers) and immunotherapy showing some promise. The ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, may also provide a useful target and a number of antagonists and inverse agonists have been developed. A particularly promising new target is the enzyme which octanoylates ghrelin, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), and drugs that inhibit GOAT are likely to circumvent pharmacological issues associated with approaches that directly target ghrelin or its receptor.

  10. The ghrelin axis--does it have an appetite for cancer progression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Lisa K; Seim, Inge; Walpole, Carina M; Herington, Adrian C

    2012-12-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is a peptide hormone with diverse physiological roles. Ghrelin regulates GH release, appetite and feeding, gut motility, and energy balance and also has roles in the cardiovascular, immune, and reproductive systems. Ghrelin and the GHSR are expressed in a wide range of normal and tumor tissues, and a fluorescein-labeled, truncated form of ghrelin is showing promise as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Plasma ghrelin levels are generally inversely related to body mass index and are unlikely to be useful as a biomarker for cancer, but may be useful as a marker for cancer cachexia. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ghrelin and GHSR genes have shown associations with cancer risk; however, larger studies are required. Ghrelin regulates processes associated with cancer, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration, cell invasion, inflammation, and angiogenesis; however, the role of ghrelin in cancer is currently unclear. Ghrelin has predominantly antiinflammatory effects and may play a role in protecting against cancer-related inflammation. Ghrelin and its analogs show promise as treatments for cancer-related cachexia. Further studies using in vivo models are required to determine whether ghrelin has a role in cancer progression.

  11. Reward signal in a recurrent circuit drives appetitive long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Toshiharu; Aso, Yoshinori; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Abe, Ayako; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2015-11-17

    Dopamine signals reward in animal brains. A single presentation of a sugar reward to Drosophila activates distinct subsets of dopamine neurons that independently induce short- and long-term olfactory memories (STM and LTM, respectively). In this study, we show that a recurrent reward circuit underlies the formation and consolidation of LTM. This feedback circuit is composed of a single class of reward-signaling dopamine neurons (PAM-α1) projecting to a restricted region of the mushroom body (MB), and a specific MB output cell type, MBON-α1, whose dendrites arborize that same MB compartment. Both MBON-α1 and PAM-α1 neurons are required during the acquisition and consolidation of appetitive LTM. MBON-α1 additionally mediates the retrieval of LTM, which is dependent on the dopamine receptor signaling in the MB α/β neurons. Our results suggest that a reward signal transforms a nascent memory trace into a stable LTM using a feedback circuit at the cost of memory specificity.

  12. Cloning and tissue distribution of appetite-regulating peptides in pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, H

    2015-10-01

    Pirapitinga (or red-bellied pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, Characiforme, Serrasalmidae) is an economically important South American fish for which the endocrine mechanism of the regulation of feeding has never been examined. To better understand these mechanisms, cDNAs encoding the appetite-regulating peptides orexin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), apelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), leptin and ghrelin were isolated in pirapitinga and their mRNA distributions examined in peripheral tissues and brain. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to those of other Characiforme fish (i.e. Mexican cavefish) and Siluriformes (catfish) as well as Cypriniformes (i.e. goldfish, zebrafish). All peptides were widely expressed within the brain. With the exception of CART, which was only expressed in brain, the mRNAs of all peptides were present in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and gills. The widespread and peptide-specific distributions suggest that each peptide might have distinct physiological actions in the brain and on peripheral tissues, in particular on the gastrointestinal tract, which include feeding regulation. This preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulation of feeding in Serrasalmidae fish, including pirapitinga. PMID:25846408

  13. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E

    2009-06-01

    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  14. [Change of peripheral blood appetite regulation factor of anorexia children and infect of child anorexia granule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hui-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhong; Fang, Guo-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.

  15. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A.; Rogers, Peter J.; Etchells, Katie A.; Houstoun, Katie V. E.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N = 60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered. PMID:24025548

  16. The L-cell in nutritional sensing and the regulation of appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor eSpreckley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract senses the ingestion of food and responds by signalling to the brain to promote satiation and satiety. Representing an important part of the gut-brain axis, enteroendocrine Lcells secrete the anorectic peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY in response to the ingestion of food. The release of GLP-1 has multiple effects, including the secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells, decreased gastric emptying and increased satiation. PYY also slows gastrointestinal motility and reduces food intake. At least part of the gut-brain response seems to be due to direct sensing of macronutrients by L-cells, by mechanisms including specific nutrient-sensing receptors. Such receptors may represent possible pathways to target to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure. Designing drugs or functional foods to exploit the machinery of these nutrient-sensing mechanisms may offer a potential approach for agents to treat obesity and metabolic disease.

  17. Synergistic relationship between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the satiating effect of cholecystokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerard P

    2013-12-01

    Synergism between the Columbia University Appetitive Behavior Seminar and the research program of Smith and Gibbs on the satiating effect of cholecystokinin during the past 40 years is described. The Seminar was synergistic with the research program in five ways. First, the steady parade of speakers gave us a window on the varied and interesting work going on in the field. Second, the Seminar was the kind of audience for presentations of the work-in-progress on CCK that scientists hope for and rarely find. Criticism by members of the Seminar was relentless and constructive, and ideas for further experiments or new ways to tackle problematic data poured forth. Third, members of the Seminar did experiments that facilitated the experimental success of the research program. Fourth, members of the Seminar tutored us on topics that we wanted to import into the research program on CCK. Fifth, and probably most important, members of the Seminar gave us the encouragement, good humor, and friendship so necessary for coping with the struggles of the scientific life.

  18. Oleoylethanolamide: A Novel Potential Pharmacological Alternative to Cannabinoid Antagonists for the Control of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial pharmaceutical interest for the endocannabinoid system as a target for antiobesity therapies has been restricted by the severe adverse effects of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant. This study points at oleoylethanolamide (OEA, a monounsaturated analogue, and functional antagonist of anandamide, as a potential and safer antiobesity alternative to CB1 antagonism. Mice treated with equal doses (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. of OEA or rimonabant were analyzed for the progressive expression of spontaneous behaviors (eating, grooming, rearing, locomotion, and resting occurring during the development of satiety, according to the paradigm called behavioral satiety sequence (BSS. Both drugs reduced food (wet mash intake to a similar extent. OEA treatment decreased eating activity within the first 30 min and caused a temporary increase of resting time that was not accompanied by any decline of horizontal, vertical and total motor activity. Besides decreasing eating activity, rimonabant caused a marked increase of the time spent grooming and decreased horizontal motor activity, alterations that might be indicative of aversive nonmotivational effects on feeding. These results support the idea that OEA suppresses appetite by stimulating satiety and that its profile of action might be predictive of safer effects in humans as a novel antiobesity treatment.

  19. Nonsomatic treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Joel T; Kovacs, Maria

    2002-07-01

    There is solid evidence that active and goal-oriented cognitive-behavioral or relationship-focused therapies are generally superior to more generic therapies or to no treatment for clinically diagnosed and for undiagnosed but symptomatic youths. Between 50% to 87% of diagnosed youths who received a targeted treatment had recovered from their depressive episodes, in comparison to 21% to 75% of those who received some other generic therapy and 5% to 48% of wait-listed youths. The cognitive behavioral and relationship-oriented interventions that were tested tended to be even more successful in reducing depressive symptoms in school-based samples, possibly because the participants in the school-based studies may have been less disturbed than the clinically diagnosed cases. Although the targeted treatments generally yielded better results than the comparison conditions, the targeted interventions seem to be similarly successful in ameliorating depression. Determining which psychosocial therapy works best for a given depressed youngster remains problematic. As noted in recent reviews [30,46,47], little attention has been devoted to which interventions, or parts of an intervention, are likely to be effective with children with various characteristics. This issue acquires added importance because in some diagnosed samples half or more of the treated participants were still in a depressive episode at the end of the trial. Likewise, in intervention studies involving symptomatic, school-based youngsters, not all children improved, and gains were not uniform across domains of functioning (e.g., severity of depression, self-esteem, global functioning). Possibly, for some of the nonresponders, the participant's characteristics and relevant problems and the target interventions were mismatched. For example, a depressed youth with a long history of highly dysfunctional relationships may not respond optimally to a therapy focusing on negative cognitions; alternatively

  20. Depression in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the frequency of depression and its risk factors in patients under going hemodialysis. It is a cross-sectional prospective study conducted at Hemodialysis unit of Shalamar Hospital and Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore from 1/sup st/ January 2006 to 30/sup th/ April 2006. All patients getting regular hemodialysis for more than three months were included. Beck's Depression Inventory- II (BDI-II; adapted in Urdu) was administered on all the patients who were able to read or understand it. Blood sample were drawn at the same time for routine hematological, biochemical parameters and viral markers (Anti HCV and HbsAg). Diagnosis was made as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM IV) for correlation of psychological variables with clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters. Eighty nine patients were enrolled which included fifty two (58.4%) were male and seventy seven (86.5%) were married. Major causes of renal failure were diabetes, hypertension and chronic glomerulonephrotis. Duration of dialysis was from 03 to 49 months with mean of 19.64 +- 11.7 months. Severity of depression was categorized in to mild, moderate and severe on the basis of BDI score. Majority of the patients fifty (56.1%) were moderately to severely depressed and there was no gender difference in the prevalence of depression. Majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis were depressed. Major risk factors for depression were marital status, illiteracy, number of children, socioeconomic factors, gender, hypertension and hypoalbuminemia. Patients with anemia, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia had suicidal tendency. Patients with hepatitis C and disturbed liver function have strong correlation with psychological parameters. (author)

  1. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren’s anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkarimi Heba A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no randomized controlled trials to assess the impact of treating dental caries on various aspects of children’s health. This study was conducted to assess the impact of dental treatment of severe dental caries on children’s weight, height and subjective health related outcomes, namely dental pain, satisfaction with teeth and smile, dental sepsis and child’s appetite. Methods The study was a community-based, randomized, controlled trial in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years with untreated dental caries. Participants were randomly assigned to early (test or regular (control dental treatment. The primary outcome was Weight-for-age Z-score. Secondary outcomes were Height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores, dental pain, dental sepsis, satisfaction with teeth and child’s appetite. Results 86 children were randomly assigned to test (42 children and control (44 groups. Mean duration of follow-up was 34.8 (±1.1 weeks. There were insignificant improvements in anthropometric outcomes between the groups after treatment of caries. However, treated children had significantly less pain experience (P = 0.006 (OR 0.09, [0.01-0.51] and higher satisfaction with teeth (P = 0.001 (OR 9.91, [2.68-36.51] compared to controls. Controls had significantly poorer appetites (P = 0.01 (OR 2.9, [1.24-6.82] compared to treated children. All treated children were free of clinical dental sepsis whereas 20% (9 of 44 of controls who were free of sepsis at baseline had sepsis at follow-up. Conclusions Although dental treatment did not significantly improve the anthropometric outcomes, it significantly improved the dental outcomes and children’s satisfaction with teeth, smile and appetite. This is the first study to provide evidence that treatment of severe dental caries can improve children’s appetite. Trial registration Effect of Dental Treatment on Children's Growth. Clinical Trial Gov ID# NCT01243866

  2. Poststroke depression: Diagnosis of depression, phenomenology and specificity of depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi-Žikić Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of depression. Depressive disorder is nowadays diagnosed by the two widely used diagnostic systems - International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization, 10th revision and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria of the American Psychiatric Organisation, 4th edition. The criteria for depressive disorder used in these two systems are almost identical. Poststroke depression. The diagnosis of depression may be difficult to establish in stroke patients, especially in patients with aphasia/dysphasia, anosognosia and other cognitive dysfunction. Major vs. minor poststroke depression, specificity and sensitivity of depressive symptoms: The phenomenology of major poststroke depression has been found to be similar to that of primary depression, and it appears that minor and major are not stages of the same continuum, but rather separate entities. Contrary to common opinion, non specific somatic symptoms do not hinder the diagnosis of poststroke depression and can be highly discriminative and crucial in the evaluation of poststroke depression. Validity of the poststroke depression diagnosis Studies have shown that a valid diagnosis of poststroke depression may be established successfully using structured or semi-structured neuropsychiatric interviews, according to the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Criteria. Conclusion. It appears that no new diagnostic tools specific for major depression in stroke patients are necessary. The existing diagnostic procedures will fail to diagnose or misdiagnose depression only in few stroke patients.

  3. Observation on Therapeutic Effects of Acupuncture plus Psychological Intervention for Postpartum Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Han-ling; Peng Li; Zheng Su; Wang Lu-shan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus psychological intervention for postpartum depression. Methods: By random number table, 85 patients with postpartum depression were divided into a treatment group and a control group. Forty-three cases in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture plus psychological intervention, once every day, five sessions per week, and rest at weekend. Forty-two cases in the control group were treated by oral administration of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride, 20 mg, once per day. The two groups were treated continuously for six weeks. The change of the score in Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) was observed and the therapeutic effect was summarized. Results:The total effective rate was 90.7%in the treatment group and 90.5% in the control group. The difference in the total effective rate between two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In the intra-group comparisons of HAMD scores two, four and six weeks after treatment in both groups with those before treatment, the differences were statistically significant (all P0.05). Regarding the adverse events, 5 cases had nausea, 3 cases had dizziness, and 6 cases had poor appetite in the control group; no obvious adverse events happened in the treatment group. Conclusion:Acupuncture plus psychological intervention for postpartum depression is as same as oral administration of Fluoxetine Hydrochloride in therapeutic effects, but it does not have adverse reaction.

  4. Magnesium in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wlaź, Piotr; Nowak, Gabriel; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Skalski, Michał; Poleszak, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is one of the most essential mineral in the human body, connected with brain biochemistry and the fluidity of neuronal membrane. A variety of neuromuscular and psychiatric symptoms, including different types of depression, was observed in magnesium deficiency. Plasma/serum magnesium levels do not seem to be the appropriate indicators of depressive disorders, since ambiguous outcomes, depending on the study, were obtained. The emergence of a new approach to magnesium compounds in medical practice has been seen. Apart from being administered as components of dietary supplements, they are also perceived as the effective agents in treatment of migraine, alcoholism, asthma, heart diseases, arrhythmias, renal calcium stones, premenstrual tension syndrome etc. Magnesium preparations have an essential place in homeopathy as a remedy for a range of mental health problems. Mechanisms of antidepressant action of magnesium are not fully understood yet. Most probably, magnesium influences several systems associated with development of depression. The first information on the beneficial effect of magnesium sulfate given hypodermically to patients with agitated depression was published almost 100 years ago. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies confirmed the initial observations as well as demonstrated the beneficial safety profile of magnesium supplementation. Thus, magnesium preparations seem to be a valuable addition to the pharmacological armamentarium for management of depression. PMID:23950577

  5. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  6. Physical activity & depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiantoula E.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major public health disorder. Clinical depression is the most frequent disability in North America among other countries and by 2020 it is estimated that it will represent the second most common disability worldwide. Physical activity can be used to prevent as well as treat depression. Its characteristics and structure should be individualized to the personality and special needs of the patient as well as to the severity of the disorder. Intensity, duration and the place of performance are of special importance. Research has identified neurobiological and psychological paths that can develop between physical activity and well being. More studies although are needed in order to standardize the use of physical activity as a treatment option, mainly in the groups of children and teenagers.

  7. Depression in new fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing awareness about the burden of ill-health experienced by men. Research has shown that fatherhood has a protective effect on men's health. However, the transition can be complex and demanding, and may cause distress, anxiety and increased risk of depression. This article discusses paternal postnatal depression, which is a significant public health issue that is not acknowledged widely or well researched. As a result, men are under-screened, under-diagnosed and under-treated for the condition and other postnatal mental health problems, causing detrimental effects on their health and negative effects on the health and wellbeing of mother and child. Read Paternal postnatal depression: an overview for primary healthcare professionals in Primary Health Care. PMID:27387639

  8. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  9. Involvement of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and its interaction with haloperidol in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalha, Carla Christina; Mattioli, Rosana

    2007-05-17

    This study investigated the actions of the histaminergic system on appetitive learning and memory, and its interaction with the dopaminergic system in goldfish. It consisted of nine sessions, in which fish were tested in a four-arm tank. On day 1, the animals were habituated for 10 min. On day 2, they were placed in one arm and had to find food at the left or the right arm. Time to begin feeding was recorded, and the procedure repeated for more 3 days (training phase). On training day 4, seven groups were injected with saline, seven with haloperidol (2.0 mg/kg) and one with DMSO solution before training and after feeding, three groups received saline, six chlorpheniramine (CPA) (1.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg), and six l-histidine (LH) (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg). Saline groups were considered as control of CPA and LH treated groups and DMSO as control of haloperidol. A non-injected group was also included. Testing occurred after 24 h. A reversal procedure was conducted 24h after testing and repeated for 3 days. The groups receiving CPA at 1.0 and 8.0 mg/kg and LH at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg differed between Test and Reversal day 1. Pre-treatment with haloperidol plus 8.0 mg/kg of CPA and 25 and 50 mg/kg of LH reverted the treatment effect. However, in the groups treated with 1.0 mg/kg of CPA and 100 mg/kg of LH, the difference remained. This study confirmed the interaction between the histaminergic and the dopaminergic systems on memory process in goldfish.

  10. Central lead administration inhibits water intake and sodium appetite in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. De-Castro-e-Silva

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that acute third ventricle injections of lead acetate (PbAc exert a powerful antidipsogenic effect and induce a significant increase in renal sodium excretion. In the present study we confirm the antidipsogenic effect of lead and demonstrate that central administration of this metal, in minute amounts, significantly reduces salt intake both during dehydration and after central angiotensinergic stimulation. Adult male Wistar rats had the third ventricle cannulated seven days before the experiments. During this period they had free access to distilled water and hypertonic saline solution (1.5%. After a 24-h period of fluid deprivation, experimental animals received third ventricle injections of PbAc (0.3, N = 8 and 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 14 while controls received sodium acetate (NaAc; 3.0 nmol/rat, N = 10. Rats treated with PbAc at the highest dose showed a significant reduction (P<0.05 both in water and hypertonic saline intake when compared to controls. When the effect of lead administration on angiotensin II-induced water and salt intake was studied, normohydrated animals received third ventricle injections of angiotensin II (9.6 nmol/rat after pretreatment with 3.0 nmol/rat of PbAc (experimental group, N = 10 or NaAc (controls, N = 8. The group pretreated with PbAc presented a significant reduction (P<0.05 in both water and salt intake compared to controls. Thus, this study confirms the antidipsogenic effect of central lead injections and demonstrates that the presence of lead in the brain exerts a significant inhibition of sodium appetite.

  11. Intertrial intervals and contextual conditioning in appetitive pavlovian learning: effects over the ABA renewal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Jasso, Rodrigo; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Nieto, Javier; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia

    2014-09-01

    Three experiments using rats in an appetitive conditioning procedure analyzed the effect of short and long (50s vs. 1440s) intertrial intervals (ITI) over the acquisition of conditioned stimulus (CS), context (Ctxt), and unconditioned stimulus (US) associations, as well as the effect on the extinction and renewal of the conditioned response to the CS. Experiment 1 revealed more contextual conditioned responses in groups trained with the short ITIs, however the renewal effect was not observed during test phase with either ITI condition. When subjects were pre-exposed to the contexts before the acquisition phase (Experiment 2) renewal of the conditioned response (CR) was only observed in long ITI group. However, when the acquisition context was extinguished (Experiment 3) the renewal effect observed in the Experiment 2 was weakened. In all three experiments subjects showed a similar number of responses to the tone predicting food, however they showed a clear contextual conditioning effect only for the groups trained with short ITIs. It is noteworthy that the acquisition context showed high levels of the CR in the renewal test only for groups trained with short ITIs (Experiment 2) but these responses were absent if additional contextual extinction was imposed before such test (Experiment 3). In general, all groups showed similar acquisition curves for the CS but only Short groups had an increase in the CR during the pre-CS. Also, context conditioning does not interfere with the conditioning of the CS and context pre-exposure prior to acquisition is essential in order to observe the renewal effect when long ITIs are used.

  12. Meal Replacement: Calming the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brielle ePaolini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing awareness in the field of neuroscience that the self-regulation of eating behavior is driven by complex networks within the brain. These networks may be vulnerable to hot states which people can move into and out of dynamically throughout the course of a day as a function of changes in affect or visceral cues. The goal of the current study was to identify and determine differences in the Hot-state Brain Network of Appetite (HBN-A that exists after a brief period of food restraint followed either by the consumption of a meal replacement (MR or water. Fourteen overweight/obese adults came to our laboratory on two different occasions. Both times they consumed a controlled breakfast meal and then were restricted from eating for 2.5 hours prior to an MRI scan. On one visit, they consumed a meal replacement (MR liquid meal after this period of food restriction; on the other visit they consumed an equal amount of water. After these manipulations, the participants underwent a resting fMRI scan. Our first study aim employed an exploratory, data-driven approach to identify hubs relevant to the HBN-A. Using data from the water condition, five regions were found to be the hubs or nodes of the HBN-A: insula, anterior cingulated cortex, the superior temporal pole, the amygdala, and the hippocampus. We then demonstrated that the consumption of a liquid MR dampened interconnectivity between the nodes of the HBN-A as compared to water. Importantly and consistent with these network data, the consumption of a MR beverage also lowered state cravings and hunger.

  13. Appetite-related hormone levels in obese women with and without binge eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paraguassú Brandão

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of appetite-related hormones (peptide YY3-36, total ghrelin, leptin and insulin before and after consumption of a meal in obese women with and without binge eating episodes and normal weight women. METHODS: Twenty-five women aged 32-50 years were invited to participate in this study, including 9 normal weight women without binge eating episodes (20-25kg/m², group 1, 9 obese women with binge eating episodes (³30kg/m², group 2, and 7 obese women without binge eating episodes (group 3. Four blood samples were collected from each participant, one being 60 minutes before and three being 15, 45 and 90 minutes after a meal. The composition of the meal was 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein and 30% lipids. RESULTS: Group 3 presented increased HOMA-IR (M=2.5, SD=1.04 when compared with group 1 (M=1.5, SD=0.53 and group 2 (M=1.8, SD=0.58, p=0.04. Body mass index (p<0.0001, leptin (p<0.0001 and insulin (p=0.01 were higher in group 3 than in the other groups before and after the meal. Additionally, total ghrelin (p=0.003 and PYY3-36 (p=0.02 levels were lower in group 2 than in the other groups before and after the meal. After adjustment for body mass index, only the lower PYY3-36 level of group 2 remained statistically different from the other groups (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that lower levels of PYY 3-36 are associated with binge eating in obese women.

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  15. Role of neuropeptides in appetite regulation and obesity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sarika; Anubhuti

    2006-12-01

    Obesity represents the most prevalent nutritional problem worldwide which in the long run predisposes to development of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, endometrial carcinoma, osteoarthritis, gall stones and cardiovascular diseases. Despite significant reductions in dietary fat consumption, the prevalence of obesity is on a rise and is taking on pandemic proportions. Obesity develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over time. Recently, a close evolutionary relationship between the peripheral and hypothalamic neuropeptides has become apparent. The hypothalamus being the central feeding organ mediates regulation of short-term and long-term dietary intake via synthesis of various orexigenic and anorectic neuropeptides. The structure and function of many hypothalamic peptides (neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocortins, agouti-related peptide (AGRP), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), orexins have been characterized in rodent models The peripheral neuropeptides such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY3-36), amylin, bombesin regulate important gastrointestinal functions such as motility, secretion, absorption, provide feedback to the central nervous system on availability of nutrients and may play a part in regulating food intake. The pharmacological potential of several endogenous peripheral peptides released prior to, during and/or after feeding are being explored. Long-term regulation is provided by the main circulating hormones leptin and insulin. These systems implicated in hypothalamic appetite regulation provide potential targets for treatment of obesity which could potentially pass into clinical development in the next 5 years. This review summarizes various effects and interrelationship of these central and peripheral neuropeptides in metabolism, obesity and their potential role as targets for treatment of obesity.

  16. STUDY OF DEPRESSION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh V

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The presence of depression in schizophrenia has been recognized since the time of Kraepelin and Bleuler. Depressive symptoms associated with schizophrenia have received considerable attention in recent years. It has been suggested that patient may manifest depressive symptoms during the onset of psychotic symptoms, during course of chronic schizophrenia or after the psychotic symptoms has been abated. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the prevalence of depression in schizophrenia. 2. To study the correlation between depression and subtype of schizophrenia. MATERALS & METHODS: 50 consecutive patients suffering from schizophrenia according to DSM-IV criteria, who were brought to psychiatric OPD were selected for this study. Patients between 15-55years age were included in this study. HDRS (Hamilton depression rating scale was administered to all patients to assess severity of depression. RESULTS: Out of 50 patients suffering from schizophrenia, 44% of patients suffering from schizophrenia were depressed. In this study the most common symptoms of depression were depressed mood, loss of interest on pleasure, sleep disturbance, loss of energy/fatigue, psychomotor disturbance, suicidal thought or death wish, feeling of hopelessness. CONCLUSION: Depression is common in patients suffering from schizophrenia. The severity of depression was mild to moderate, no one had severe depression. It is more common in patients who are living in nuclear family, who are divorced, who have paranoid type of schizophrenia, who were not on antipsychotic medicine.

  17. Paroxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriani, Andrea; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Veronese, Antonio; Watanabe, Norio; Churchill, Rachel; McGuire, Hugh; Barbui, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the efficacy of paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents in alleviating the acute symptoms of major depressive disorder.To review acceptability of treatment with paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents.To investigate the adverse effects of paroxetine in comparison with other anti-depressive agents.

  18. Major Depression and Complicated Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grieving process Symptoms of major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people to have sadness, ... pain or trying to avoid letting go. Complicated grief If normal mourning does not occur, or if ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Autism (12 items) Bipolar Disorder (1 item) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (16 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (12 items) Bipolar Disorder (1 item) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (16 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  20. Depression Plagues Many with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159436.html Depression Plagues Many With COPD Studies found 1 in ... pulmonary disorder (COPD) may raise the risk of depression among patients with the incurable respiratory illness, two ...

  1. Depression in an evolutionary context

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpert Lewis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Sadness and low levels of depression are adaptive since they lead the individual to try and make up a loss. By contrast, severe or clinical depression is not adaptive, but can be thought of as sadness having become malignant.

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Traumatic Events (3 items) NIMH (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People ... is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Autism (12 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (16 items) Eating ... items) Autism (12 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (16 items) Eating ...

  4. Depression Plagues Many with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159436.html Depression Plagues Many With COPD Studies found 1 in ... pulmonary disorder (COPD) may raise the risk of depression among patients with the incurable respiratory illness, two ...

  5. Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160991.html Facebook Bullying Can Cause Depression Social media attacks have ' ... Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Negative experiences on Facebook can increase the odds of depression in young ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (12 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (12 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ...

  7. Depression following acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Terese Sara Hoej; Maartensson, Solvej; Ibfelt, Else Helene;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Depression is common following acute coronary syndrome, and thus, it is important to provide knowledge to improve prevention and detection of depression in this patient group. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) whether indicators of stressors and coping resources were risk...... factors for developing depression early and later after an acute coronary syndrome and (2) whether prior depression modified these associations. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study, which includes 87,118 patients with a first time diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome during the period...... 2001-2009 in Denmark. Cox regression models were used to analyse hazard ratios (HRs) for depression. RESULTS: 1.5 and 9.5 % develop early (≤30 days) and later (31 days-2 years) depression after the acute coronary syndrome. Among all patients with depression, 69.2 % had first onset depression, while 30...

  8. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  9. Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Barbara; Collishaw, Stephan; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review recent evidence on child and adolescent depression.Method: Narrative review.Results: Rates of unipolar depression are low before puberty, but rise from the early teens, especially among girls. Concurrent comorbidity with both disruptive and emotional disorders is common, especially among younger children; across age, youth depression may be preceded by both anxiety and disruptive behaviour disorders, and increase risk for alcohol problems. Adolescent depression is associa...

  10. : Socioeconomic position and depression persistence.

    OpenAIRE

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Leclerc, Annette; Ribet, Céline; Rouillon, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    International audience Research examining the association between socioeconomic position and depression course has yielded inconsistent results. We tested the association between low socioeconomic position and 7-year depression persistence among 298 community-based individuals with depression (subset of the GAZEL cohort study based in France). Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models). Low socioeconomic position predicted depression persistence (men: low vs. int...

  11. Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Noel M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…

  12. Sadness, Depression, and Avoidance Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Allan M.

    2008-01-01

    Research into genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive explanations for depression (biopsychosocial models) provides support for the role of these variables in the etiology of depression. Regularly identified as basic to depression is loss, and the experience of loss has been found to be more influential than genetic factors in the causation of…

  13. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Treatments (11 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help.   Watch on ... for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being ...

  15. [Toloxatone and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Labriola, R; Caetano Esquivel, G; Alvarez, M; Servidio, M

    1991-12-01

    One hundred and one depressed inpatients were treated by the authors with a second-generation antidepressive original molecule: Toloxatone, a specific and reversible MAO A inhibitor. Upon admission, all 101 patients with depressive illness did not score higher than 20 on Hamilton's Scale, and did not score lower than 4 on Fischer, Fernández Labriola and Rodríguez Casanova's Endogeneity Test. Biological profiles (Phenyl-ethylamine, NA, and MHPG) were available on 57 subjects. At the beginning of the experiment: (a) No subject was taking antidepressives, (b) Patients' age averaged 46; (c) The 6-week experiment was a double-blind vs. placebo type. Daily toloxatone dose was standardized in a 400 mg intake. Significant modifications were detected in 51 subjects. Among the 59 subjects that were administered active substance, 37 achieved either "excellent" or "good" outcomes. Biological markers pointed out a profile of patients with a better response to Toloxatone: Namely, patients with a lower noradrenergic activity. Anxiety-free depression as well as inhibited depressions are a psychiatrist's choice for administering Toloxatone. PMID:1843597

  16. Genetic Determinants of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. López León (Sandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the studies in this genetic epidemiological thesis was to investigate candidate genes that play a role in the etiology of depression and to obtain new insights about biological pathways that may be involved in this disorder. The introduction of the thesis presents a review of

  17. Depressive Stories for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    While stories with a depressing message are now common for teenagers, resistance to them remains where smaller children are concerned. But is this more a case of the publishers and providers concerned protecting their own particular image of childhood? This article looks at the case for books that also convey a sense of sadness to infants,…

  18. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... what it means in terms of short-term planning and long-range goals. However, depression can be ... Ask us anything Get a peer mentor Find resources in your area Join ... Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C. 20201. Grantees undertaking projects ...

  19. Depression as an evolutionary adaptation: implications for the development of preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, C A; Pickles, A R

    2009-03-01

    Several authors have suggested that rather than being a disease state, depression is an evolutionary adaptation to human social organization. Adaptations are produced in response to selection pressures and similar adaptations may easily have evolved in a range of other species. The current paper seeks to identify the social pressures that may lead to a species developing depression as an adaptation and the potential benefits that this may confer. It also examines whether rats and mice, the species most commonly used to model depression in the laboratory, have social organizations in which selection pressures towards the development of depression as an adaptation are likely to exist. It is proposed that depression is a useful adaptation in group-living animals, where there is competition for a social rank that gives reproductive advantage over others. The cluster of symptoms associated with depression include altered activity patterns, reduced sociability and appetite, and increased submissiveness. This combination strongly suggests that the function of depression is to reduce the likelihood of an individual being subject to further attack once they have lost social status and so increase their chances of survival in the period immediately following this. Successful transition from high to low status may provide further opportunities to reproduce. Hence, animals that become depressed during this critical period gain a reproductive advantage over those that do not, as these are either killed or expelled from the group. Wild mice do not have social hierarchies and are highly territorial. Wild rats do have social hierarchies however these only compete for reproductive advantage at the level of the sperm, and social status does not translate into significantly greater access to mates. Therefore, there are no selection pressures in these species towards the development of depression and so it is most unlikely that rats and mice have this adaptation. It is concluded that

  20. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Markey, Oonagh

    2011-09-07

    Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http:\\/\\/www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  1. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  2. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinick Tom R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p half and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78, eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84 and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72. The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284

  3. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M Egan

    Full Text Available The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0 were fed either T1 basal diet or T2 basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001, had lower intake per visit (P<0.001, spent less time eating per day (P<0.001, had a lower eating rate (P<0.01 and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001 compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05 and time effect (P<0.05 on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01, neuromedin B (P<0.05, neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05 in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05 in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  4. Field Study of Dairy Cows with Reduced Appetite in Early Lactation: Clinical Examinations, Blood and Rumen Fluid Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 125 cows with reduced appetite and with clinical signs interpreted by the owner as indicating bovine ketosis 6 to 75 days postpartum. Almost all of the cows were given concentrates 2 to 3 times daily. With a practitioners view to treatment and prophylaxis the cows were divided into 5 diagnostic groups on the basis of thorough clinical examination, milk ketotest, decreased protozoal activity and concentrations, increased methylene blue reduction time, and increased liver parameters: ketosis (n = 32, indigestion (n = 26, combined ketosis and indigestion (n = 29, liver disease combined with ketosis, indigestion, or both (n = 15, and no specific diagnosis (n = 17. Three cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and 3 with abomasal displacement were not grouped. Nonparametric methods were used when groups were compared. Aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were elevated in the group with liver disease. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in cows with ketosis, compared with cows with indigestion. Activity and concentrations of large and small protozoas were reduced, and methylene blue reduction time was increased in cows with indigestion. The rumen fluid pH was the same for groups of cows with and without indigestion. Prolonged reduced appetite before examination could have led to misclassification. Without careful interpretation of the milk ketotest, many cases with additional diagnoses would have been reported as primary ketosis. Thorough clinical examination together with feasible rumen fluid examination and economically reasonable blood biochemistry did not uncover the reason(s for reduced appetite in 14% of the cows. More powerful diagnostic methods are needed.

  5. Plain Talk about Depression. Plain Talk Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marilyn

    Depression is defined as a "whole-body" illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts. Three of the most prevalent types of depressive disorders are described: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorders (formerly called manic-depressive illness). Eleven symptoms of depression and 10 symptoms of mania are listed. Causes of depression are…

  6. Cushing's Syndrome Masquerading as Treatment Resistant Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar, B. N.; Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, n...

  7. Effect of short-duration physical activity and ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term energy intake in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Thomas, Scott G; Goode, Robert C; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (1) to examine the role of low- to moderate-intensity, short-duration physical activity on subjective appetite and (2) to identify the role of and associations between ventilation threshold (VeT) and energy intake at a pizza lunch 30 min after glucose and whey protein drinks in normal weight boys. In 14 boys (age: 12.5+/-0.4 years) subjective appetite was measured before and after a 12 min walking protocol designed to determine physical fitness based on the VeT. On a separate occasion food intake (FI) and subjective appetite were measured in response to sweetened preloads of either a SPLENDA Sucralose control, glucose or whey protein made up to 250 ml with water, given in random order to each boy, 2h after a standardized breakfast. Subjective average appetite and prospective food consumption scores increased after physical activity. VeT was positively associated with FI at a pizza lunch consumed 30 min after glucose and whey protein drinks. Glucose and whey protein reduced FI similarly at lunch compared with control. In conclusion, appetite is increased by low- to moderate-intensity, short-duration physical activity and FI following glucose and protein preloads is positively associated with fitness levels in boys. PMID:17537539

  8. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThin™ on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrold Joanne A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Certain free fatty acids have been shown to have potent effects on food intake and self-reported changes in appetite; effects associated with increases in the release of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1. In the current study, the effects of a Korean pine nut oil product, PinnoThin™, at doses 2 g, 4 g and 6 g triglyceride (TG and 2 g free fatty acid (FFA, on food intake and appetite were examined in a cross-over double-blind placebo-controlled randomised counter-balanced design in 42 overweight female volunteers. 2 g FFA PinnoThin™, given 30 minutes prior to an ad-libitum buffet test lunch, significantly reduced food intake (gram by 9% (F(4,164 = 2.637, p = 0.036 compared to olive oil control. No significant effect of PinnoThin™ on macronutrient intake or ratings of appetite were observed. Given the recent data showing that the TG form of PinnoThin™ may also reduce appetite by increasing CCK release, the lack of any effect of the TG form found in this study could be attributed to the timing of the dosing regime. Collectively, these data suggest that PinnoThin™ may exert satiating effects consistent with its known action on CCK and GLP-1 release, and previously observed effects on self-reported appetite ratings.

  9. Depression and bulimia: the link between depression and bulimic cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesier-Carter, B; Hamilton, S A; O'Neil, P M; Lydiard, R B; Malcolm, R

    1989-08-01

    This study assessed the link between bulimic and depressive cognitions. Twenty-nine bulimics and 16 controls from the general population were first assessed on levels of depression using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change Version and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Bulimics were significantly more depressed than controls. Bulimics differed significantly from controls on all cognitive measures associated with depression (Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and Attributional Style Questionnaire), but differences on these measures were nonsignificant when depression, as measured by the BDI, was controlled. Bulimics differed from controls regardless of level of depression on the three scales of the Restraint Inventory, the Rationalization and All-or-None scales of the Thoughts About Eating Inventory, and most of the eight scales of the Eating Disorders Inventory. Bulimics showed more maladaptive thinking associated with depression, but these differences likely reflect the levels of depression for each group. The differences on the measures of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of bulimia remained when the level of depression was controlled statistically. This suggests that although depression can be frequently diagnosed in a bulimic sample, specific maladaptive cognitions and behaviors reflect a distinct disorder (bulimia) and are not simply the expression of an affective disorder. PMID:2768669

  10. Overview of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Wistya Tri Mayasari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Depression is a state of disorder tone generally feeling characterized by feelings of sadness, apathy, pessimism, and loneliness. Epidemiology of depression showed a lifetime prevalence of 7-12% for men and 20-25% for women. The reason for the prevalence differences between men and women not much can be explained, but biological factors and socio-cultural influences. In the depression is sadness lasts for days so that it can disrupt work, study, eat, sleep, and enjoyment. The cause of depression is not just one, but multifactorial. Most of the cause may arise from or the people themselves. Because it is not clear on anatomy, biochemistry, or physiology. To diagnose depression may use criteria of PPDGJ or using DSM-IV-TR /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L B; Flint, A; Raben, A;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. DESIGN: The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol...... meals, or energy intake were different on the two occasions. Glucose, GLP-1, insulin, and GIP responses were also unaffected by the infusion, whereas glucagon levels were higher during the GLP-2 treatment (Pphysiological concentrations does not seem to play...

  12. The use of X-Radiography for the return of appetite measurements in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792)

    OpenAIRE

    Tekinay, Ahmet Adem

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Quantification of return of appetite in fish is considerably important with respect to the estimation of optimum feeding protocols, Therefore, 30 adult female rainbow trout (0. mykiss) (205.6 ± 2.2 g) in a fresh water recirculation system were fed the control diet containing 42.6% of digestible protein and 19.7 MJ kg'' of digestible energy until all fish were satiated. The fish were re-fed at different time intervals (t= 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours) with the test diet containi...

  13. Selective associations produced solely with appetitive contingencies: the stimulus-reinforcer interaction revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V; Schindler, C W

    1993-03-01

    which a reinforcer is presented, rather than (or as well as) its physical properties, can generate the selective associations previously attributed to "stimulus-reinforcer interactions." This could mean that regardless of the class of reinforcer that ultimately maintains responding (appetitive or aversive), the contingency-generated hedonic value of the compound stimulus may influence the dominant modality of stimulus control.

  14. Development, factor structure and application of the Dog Obesity Risk and Appetite (DORA) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Eleanor; Smith, Stephen P; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs. Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management. Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test-retest reliability. Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test-retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food), four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken) and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health). Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation) and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise) were associated with obesity. Owners of

  15. Selective associations produced solely with appetitive contingencies: the stimulus-reinforcer interaction revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S J; Panlilio, L V; Schindler, C W

    1993-03-01

    which a reinforcer is presented, rather than (or as well as) its physical properties, can generate the selective associations previously attributed to "stimulus-reinforcer interactions." This could mean that regardless of the class of reinforcer that ultimately maintains responding (appetitive or aversive), the contingency-generated hedonic value of the compound stimulus may influence the dominant modality of stimulus control. PMID:8454957

  16. Anti-ghrelin antibodies in appetite suppression: recent advances in obesity pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altabas V

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Velimir Altabas, Vanja Zjačić-Rotkvić Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, “Mladen Sekso”, Clinic for Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center “Sestre milosrdnice”, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: Obesity is a medical condition caused by accumulated excess body fat with negative impact on patients' health, including decreased life expectancy. It has become a major health problem in most developed and developing countries, since the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled during the last 30 years. Consequently, novel treatments focusing on obesity are being investigated. Potential targets include several pathophysiological mechanisms involved in appetite control affecting multiple organ systems, like adipose tissue; some cell types in the stomach and gut; pancreas; thyroid gland; several hypothalamic areas; and centers located in the brainstem. One of the most important orexigenic neuropeptides is ghrelin, which is produced and secreted primarily by ghrelin cells located in the stomach and duodenum. In humans, plasma ghrelin levels rise when the stomach is empty and fall shortly after meal ingestion. In fat tissue, ghrelin increases fat storage. In the brain, it exerts its orexigenic action through activation of NPY/AgRP neurons in the arcuate nucleus. From the pharmacological point of view, it seems that opposing ghrelin activity could be used as a therapeutic principle in treating obesity. The principal idea of antiobesity drugs is to augment anorexigenic and lipolytic signaling, or to block orexigenic and lipogenic mediators. Recent studies have shown that therapeutic vaccines could be a new approach in the development of antiobesity medications. A vaccine should provoke an immune response to a specific causal factor for a particular disease. Several types of anti-ghrelin vaccines have been developed so far, with significant immune response in terms of rising anti-ghrelin antibodies. However, in the

  17. Neuroticism in remitted major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders; Kristoffersen, Marius; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    not been consistent. METHOD: We examined neuroticism, extraversion and perceived stress in 88 fully remitted depressed patients with a mean age of 60 years and with a history of hospitalization for major depressive disorder. Patients were divided into those with onset after and those with onset before 50......BACKGROUND: The personality trait of neuroticism is strongly related to depression, but depression is etiologically heterogeneous. Late-onset depression (LOD) may be more closely related to vascular factors, and previous studies of neuroticism in LOD versus early-onset depression (EOD) have...... age of onset and neuroticism was confirmed in analyses based on age of depression onset as a continuous variable. CONCLUSION: Neuroticism may be an etiological factor in EOD but not or less so in LOD. This finding contributes to the growing evidence for etiological differences between early- and late...

  18. Depression in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Safaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods: One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results: The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001. In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001. Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion: Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences.

  19. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Møller, P.; Smeets, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background & aims Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy...... intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. Methods 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin + green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while...... the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. Results CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during...

  20. Regulación del peso corporal y del apetito Body Weight and Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Vásquez-Machado

    2010-06-01

    capacidad reguladora del sistema de balance energético. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar avances recientes en la comprensión de los mecanismos reguladores del peso corporal y el apetito, los cuales han ampliado la visión de la fisiopatología de la obesidad, al tiempo que ofrecen diversas perspectivas para su tratamiento.Due to the fact that the obesity epidemic shows no signs of diminishing, a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has become necessary. During this process energy intake is matched to energy expenditure over time, in such a way that body fuel stored in the form of adipose tissue is held constant despite daily fluctuations in caloric intake. The system that controls energy balance possesses 2 components: a short and a long-term. The short-term system is in charge of appetite regulation or the initiation and termination of individual meals. It responds basically to gut hormones or satiety signals that accumulate during eating and ultimately contribute to meal termination. Adiposity factors are circulating signals generated in proportion to the body energy storages, such as insulin and leptin, levels of which are involved in the regulation of energy balance over long intervals thereby promoting body weight stability. The central melanocortin pathway represents a crucial integration point for these signals. Melanocortin receptor ligands are synthesized by discrete neuronal populations within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and exert actions in both components of the energy balance equation. In addition to hormones, the brain also responds directly to the nutrient circulating levels. Two fuel-sensing protein kinases functioning as main regulators of body weight and food intake in the hypothalamus have been identified: mTOR and AMPK. Besides these basic homeostatic circuits, the hedonic mechanisms of feeding are important in the regulation of energy intake since they can override the energy balance