WorldWideScience

Sample records for appendix a4 far-field

  1. Far field acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  2. 44 CFR Appendix A(4) to Part 61 - Appendix A(4) to Part 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... notice sent to you in conjunction with the community inspection procedure established under 44 CFR 59.30... procedure set forth in National Flood Insurance Program Regulations (44 CFR 59.30). During the several years... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A(4) to Part 61...

  3. Notions of support for far fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, John

    2006-08-01

    In practical remote sensing, faraway sources radiate fields that, within measurement precision, are nearly those radiated by point sources. Algorithms like MUSIC (Devaney J. Acoust. Soc. Am. at press, Kirsch 2002 Inverse Problems 18 1025-40) correctly identify their number, their locations and their strengths based on observations of the near or far fields they radiate. Asymptotic perturbation formulae (Ammari et al 2005 SIAM J. Appl. Math. 65 2107-27, Brühl et al 2003 Numer. Math. 93 635-54) have been used to successfully locate small sparse inclusions based on remote measurements. The main motivation for this paper is to locate sources which are supported on sets that are larger and less sparse. Although the far field of a solution to the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation does not determine the source, or its support, uniquely, we will show how to associate with any far field a unique union of well-separated-convex sets (UWSC sets) that is both big enough to support a source that can radiate that far field, and small enough that it must be contained in the UWSC-support of any source that radiates the same far field. This means that it makes theoretical sense to look for not only the number and the locations, but also the convex geometry of sources based on the far field they radiate. The only requirement is that sources be well separated—the diameter of each convex component is strictly smaller than the distance to the other components. We also give examples to illustrate the extent to which both the convexity and well-separated properties in UWSC are necessary, i.e. we will exhibit far fields with which it is not possible to associate a unique smallest compact set or, in {{\\bb R}}^{2} , a unique smallest disjoint union of convex sets.

  4. Far-field environment working group summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearcy, E.C. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Cady, R.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.

  5. Natural analogs for far-field environment/hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of natural-analog studies to characterize far-field conditions in the vicinity of geologic repository systems for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Conditions in the far field are determined by the natural state and evolution of the repository geosphere and its environment.

  6. Analytical structure of Hermite Gaussian beam in far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan; Chen Liang; Chu Xiu-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the vectorial structure of electromagnetic beam and the method of stationary phase, the analytical structure of Hermite Gaussian beam in far field is presented. The structural energy flux distributions are also investigated in the far field. The structural pictures of some Hermite Gaussian beams are depicted in the far field. As the structure of Hermite Gaussian beam is dominated by the transverse mode numbers and the initial transverse Gaussian half width, it is more complex than that of Gaussian beam. The ratios of the structural energy fluxes to the whole energy flux are independent of the transverse mode numbers and the initial transverse Gaussian half width. The present research reveals the internal vectorial structure of Hermite Gaussian beam from other viewpoint.

  7. Spectrally resolved far-fields of terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Brandstetter, Martin; Krall, Michael; Kainz, Martin A; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron M; Strasser, Gottfried; Unterrainer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a convenient and fast method to measure the spectrally resolved far-fields of multimode terahertz quantum cascade lasers by combining a microbolometer focal plane array with an FTIR spectrometer. Far-fields of fundamental TM0 and higher lateral order TM1 modes of multimode Fabry-P\\'erot type lasers have been distinguished, which very well fit to the results obtained by a 3D finite-element simulation. Furthermore, multimode random laser cavities have been investigated, analyzing the contribution of each single laser mode to the total far-field. The presented method is thus an important tool to gain in-depth knowledge of the emission properties of multimode laser cavities at terahertz frequencies, which become increasingly important for future sensing applications.

  8. RECONSTRUCTION OF SCATTERED FIELD FROM FAR-FIELD BY REGULARIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-jun Liu; Jin Cheng; G. Nakamura

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an inverse scattering problem for an obstacle D(∪)R2 with Robin boundary condition. By applying the point source, we give a regularizing method to recover the scattered field from the far-field pattern. Numerical implementations are also presented.

  9. Near- and Far-Field Optical Response of Eccentric Nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Díaz-Núñez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Vladimir; Montaño-Priede, Luis; Rivera, Antonio; Pal, Umapada

    2017-12-01

    We study the optical response of eccentric nanoshells (i.e., spherical nanoparticles with an eccentric spherical inclusion) in the near and the far field through finite-difference time-domain simulations. Plasmon hybridization theory is used to explain the obtained results. The eccentricity generates a far-field optical spectrum with various plasmon peaks. The number, position, and width of the peaks depend on the core offset. Near-field enhancements in the surroundings of these structures are significantly larger than those obtained for equivalent concentric nanoshells and, more importantly, they are almost independent of the illumination conditions. This opens up the door for using eccentric nanoshells in applications requiring intense near-field enhancements.

  10. On Super-Planckian thermal emission in far field regime

    CERN Document Server

    Biehs, Svend-Age

    2016-01-01

    We study, in the framework of the Landauer theory, the thermal emission in far-field regime, of arbitrary indefinite planar media and finite size systems. We prove that the flux radiated by the former is bounded by the blackbody emission while, for the second, there is in principle, no upper limit demonstrating so the possibility for a super-Planckian thermal emission with finite size systems.

  11. Hybrid multilevel plane wave based near-field far-field transformation utilising combined near- and far-field translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Schmidt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The radiation of large antennas and those operating at low frequencies can be determined efficiently by near-field measurement techniques and a subsequent near-field far-field transformation. Various approaches and algorithms have been researched but for electrically large antennas and irregular measurement contours advanced algorithms with low computation complexity are required. In this paper an algorithm employing plane waves as equivalent sources and utilising efficient diagonal translation operators is presented. The efficiency is further enhanced using simple far-field translations in combination with the expensive near-field translations. In this way a low complexity near-field transformation is achieved, which works for arbitrary sample point distributions and incorporates a full probe correction without increasing the complexity.

  12. Far-field super-resolution imaging of resonant multiples

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2016-05-20

    We demonstrate for the first time that seismic resonant multiples, usually considered as noise, can be used for super-resolution imaging in the far-field region of sources and receivers. Tests with both synthetic data and field data show that resonant multiples can image reflector boundaries with resolutions more than twice the classical resolution limit. Resolution increases with the order of the resonant multiples. This procedure has important applications in earthquake and exploration seismology, radar, sonar, LIDAR (light detection and ranging), and ultrasound imaging, where the multiples can be used to make high-resolution images.

  13. Coherence vortices of partially coherent beams in the far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Pu-Sheng; Lü Bai-da

    2007-01-01

    Based on the propagation law of cross-spectral density function, studied in this paper are the coherence vortices of partially coherent, quasi-monochromatic singular beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator in the far field, where our main attention is paid to the evolution of far-field coherence vortices into intensity vortices of fully coherent beams. The results show that, although there are usually no zeros of intensity in partially coherent beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator, zeros of spectral degree of coherence exist. The coherence vortices of spectral degree of coherence depend on the relative coherence length, mode index and positions of pairs of points.If a point and mode index are kept fixed, the position of coherence vortices changes with the increase of the relative coherence length. For the low coherent case there is a circular phase dislocation. In the coherent limit coherence vortices become intensity vortices of fully coherent Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  14. Fundamental Bounds on Radio Localization Precision in the Far Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dil, B J; Hoenders, B J

    2015-01-01

    This paper experimentally and theoretically investigates the fundamental bounds on radio localization precision of far-field Received Signal Strength (RSS) measurements. RSS measurements are proportional to power-flow measurements time-averaged over periods long compared to the coherence time of the radiation. Our experiments are performed in a novel localization setup using 2.4GHz quasi-monochromatic radiation, which corresponds to a mean wavelength of 12.5cm. These experiments show for the first time that time-averaged far-field RSS measurements are not independent but cross-correlated over a spatial region. We experimentally and theoretically show that the minimum radius of the cross-correlated region approaches the diffraction limit, which equals half the mean wavelength of the radiation. Measuring RSS beyond a sampling density of one sample per half the mean wavelength is shown not to increase localization precision, as the Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE) converges asymptotically to roughly half the mean ...

  15. Far-field superresolution by imaging of resonance scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-10-31

    We show that superresolution imaging in the far-field region of the sources and receivers is theoretically and practically possible if migration of resonant multiples is employed. A resonant multiple is one that bounces back and forth between two scattering points; it can also be the multiple between two smoothly varying interfaces as long as the reflection wave paths partially overlap and reflect from the same Fresnel zone. For a source with frequency f, compared to a one-way trip, N round trips in propagating between two scatterers increase the effective frequency by 2N × f and decrease the effective wavelength by λ/(2N). Thus, multiples can, in principle, be used as high-frequency probes to estimate detailed properties of layers. Tests with both synthetic and field data validate this claim. Improved resolution by multiple imaging is not only feasible for crustal reflections, but might be applicable to mantle and core reverberations recorded by earthquake seismologists.

  16. Prediction of the far field noise from wind energy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic physical factors involved in making predictions of wind turbine noise and an approach which allows for differences in the machines, the wind energy farm configurations and propagation conditions are reviewed. Example calculations to illustrate the sensitivity of the radiated noise to such variables as machine size, spacing and numbers, and such atmosphere variables as absorption and wind direction are presented. It is found that calculated far field distances to particular sound level contours are greater for lower values of atmospheric absorption, for a larger total number of machines, for additional rows of machines and for more powerful machines. At short and intermediate distances, higher sound pressure levels are calculated for closer machine spacings, for more powerful machines, for longer row lengths and for closer row spacings.

  17. Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, M; Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and topological properties of these fields are different from topological properties of the free space electromagnetic (EM) fields. Such MDM originated fields, called magnetoelectric (ME) fields, carry both spin and orbital angular momentums. They are characterized by power flow vortices and non zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far field microwave radiation based ...

  18. Far-Field Tsunami Hazard in New Zealand Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Goring, Derek G.; Greer, S. Dougal; Power, William L.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of a numerical modeling study investigating the effects of far-field tsunamis in New Zealand ports. Four sites (Marsden Point, Tauranga, Harbor, Port Taranaki and Lyttelton Harbor) were selected based on a combination of factors such as economic importance and the availability of historical and/or instrumental data. Numerical models were created using the ComMIT tsunami modeling tool and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) hydrodynamic model. Comparison of model results to measured data from recent historical events showed that, for particular sites and events, the model correlated well with the timing and amplitude of the observed tsunami, and, in most cases, there was generally good agreement between the and modeled tsunami heights and current speeds. A sensitivity analysis for tsunami heights and current speeds was conducted using a suite of large ( M W 9) tsunamigenic earthquake sources situated at regular 15° intervals in azimuth along the Pacific Rim while another set of scenarios focused on regional tsunami sources in the Southwest Pacific. Model results were analyzed for tsunami heights and current speeds as a function of the source region. In terms of currents, the analysis identified where speeds were greatest and which source was responsible. Results suggested that tsunamis originating from Central America produced the strongest response in New Zealand. The modeling was also used to determine the timing and duration of potentially dangerous current speeds as well as minimum `safe depths' for vessel evacuation offshore. This study was motivated by the desire to reduce damage and operational losses via improved forecasting of far-field tsunamis at New Zealand ports. It is important that forecasts are accurate since tsunami damage to ships and facilities is expensive and can be mitigated given timely warnings and because preventable false alarms are also costly in terms of lost productivity. The modeling presented here will

  19. Far-field Diffraction Properties of Annular Walsh Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pubali Mukherjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular Walsh filters are derived from the rotationally symmetric annular Walsh functions which form a complete set of orthogonal functions that take on values either +1 or −1 over the domain specified by the inner and outer radii of the annulus. The value of any annular Walsh function is taken as zero from the centre of the circular aperture to the inner radius of the annulus. The three values 0, +1, and −1 in an annular Walsh function can be realized in a corresponding annular Walsh filter by using transmission values of zero amplitude (i.e., an obscuration, unity amplitude and zero phase, and unity amplitude and phase, respectively. Not only the order of the Walsh filter but also the size of the inner radius of the annulus provides an additional degree of freedom in tailoring of point spread function by using these filters for pupil plane filtering in imaging systems. In this report, we present the far-field amplitude characteristics of some of these filters to underscore their potential for effective use in several demanding applications like high-resolution microscopy, optical data storage, microlithography, optical encryption, and optical micromanipulation.

  20. Parameter governing the far-field features of round jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xi; Mohseni, Kamran

    2016-10-01

    This study is inspired by the observation and hypothesis that the spreading and decay behaviors of a jet directly depend on the momentum-mixing mechanism between the jet and surrounding fluid. This mixing behavior is dictated by the kinematic viscosity ν for a laminar jet, which can be dramatically enhanced in a turbulent flow and is represented by the eddy viscosity ɛ . Similarly, pulsation in a synthetic jet is identified as another mechanism for enhancing mixing, which can be captured by an enhanced eddy viscosity beyond what is observed in a corresponding turbulent continuous jet. To this end, an effective-eddy-viscosity concept is proposed to model any excitation of a jet that could result in enhanced mixing beyond what is predicted by the kinematic viscosity. Our previous study found that ɛ is actuator dependent and its relationship with the spreading or decay behavior of a jet is not obvious. To remove the actuator dependence, this study performs a dimensional analysis to relate the spreading and decay behaviors to a scaled effective eddy viscosity ɛ /√{K } (K is the momentum flux). This quantity physically represents a competition between the radial diffusion and the axial convection of the jet axial momentum. The experimental results confirm that ɛ /√{K } governs the spreading and decay rates of the far field for any round jets.

  1. Simultaneous drift, microsaccades, and ocular microtremor measurement from a single noncontact far-field optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, James P.; Vohnsen, Brian; Sheridan, John T.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the combined far-field measurement of the three involuntary eye movements, drift, microsaccades, and ocular microtremor (OMT), using a noncontact far-field optical method. We review the significance of the smallest and least measured, and thus least understood, of the three, OMT. Using modern digital imaging techniques, we perform detailed analysis, present experimental results, and examine the extracted parameters using a noncontact far-field sensor. For the first time, in vivo noncontact measurements of all three fixational in-plane movements of the human eye are reported, which simultaneously provide both the horizontal (left-right) and vertical (up-down) displacement results.

  2. Fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse quasicrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ming-yang; ZHOU Jun; L Petti; S De Nicola; P Mormile

    2011-01-01

    We report a numerical method to analyze the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for two-dimensional Thue-Morse(2-D TM) structures.The far-field diffraction patterns of the 2-D TM structures can be obtained by the numerical method,and they have a good agreement with the experimental ones.The analysis shows that the fractal characteristics of far-field diffraction patterns for the 2-D TM structures are determined by the inflation rule,which have potential applications in the design of optical diffraction devices.

  3. Influence of turbulent atmosphere on the far-field coherent combined beam quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Zhou; Zejin Liu; Xiaojun Xu; Xiaolin Wang; Xiao Li; Zilun Chen

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of coherent combined laser beams in turbulent atmosphere is numerically studied based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. By choosing beam propagation factor (BPF) and beam quality factor (BQ) to characterize the far-field irradiance distribution properties, the influence of turbulence on far-field coherent combined beam quality is studied in detail. The investigation reveals that with the coherence length decreasing, the irradiance distribution pattern evolves from typical non-Gaussian shape with multiple side-lobes into Gaussian shape which is seen in the incoherent combining case. In weak turbulent atmosphere, the far-field beam quality suffers less when the 1aser array gets more compact and operates at a longer wavelength. In strong turbulent atmosphere, the far-field beam quality degrades into the incoherent combining case without any relationship with the fill factor and laser wavelength.

  4. A universal expression of near-filed/far-field boundary in stratified structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chao; Wang, Huai Yu; Wang, Xue Hua

    2015-01-01

    The division of the near-field and far-field zones for electromagnetic waves is important for simplifying theoretical calculations and applying far-field results. In this paper, we have studied the far-field asymptotic behaviors of dipole radiations in stratified backgrounds and obtained a universal empirical expression of near-field/far-field (NFFF) boundary. The boundary is mainly affected by lateral waves, which corresponds to branch point contributions in Sommerfeld integrals. In a semispace with a higher refractive index, the NFFF boundary is determined by a dimensional parameter and usually larger than the operating wavelength by at least two orders of magnitude. In a semispace with the lowest refractive index in the structure (usually air), the NFFF boundary is about ten wavelengths. Moreover, different treatments in the asymptotic method are discussed and numerically compared. An equivalence between the field expressions obtained from the asymptotic method and those from reciprocal theorem is demonstr...

  5. Structural polarization properties of vector Gaussian beam in the far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan; Ni Yong-Zhou; Chu Xiu-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the vector angular spectrum representation of optical beam and the method of stationary phase, the analytical TE and TM terms of vector Gaussian beam have been presented in the far field. By using the local polarization matrix, the polarization properties of the TE and TM terms in the far field are investigated, and it is found that the degree of their polarization is only determined by the spatial location. When the source is completely polarized, the TE and TM terms are both completely polarized in the far field. When the source is completely unpolarized, the TE and TM terms in the far field are partially polarized. The whole beam is also partially polarized except on the propagating axis. Moreover, the degrees of polarization of TE and TM terms are both larger than that of the whole beam.

  6. One-dimensional Fibonacci grating for far-field super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2013-06-15

    One-dimensional Fibonacci gratings are used to transform evanescent waves into propagating waves for far-field super-resolution imaging. By detecting far-field intensity distributions of light through objects in front of the Fibonacci grating in free space, we can observe the objects with nearly λ/9 spatial resolution. Analytical results are verified by numerical simulations. We also discuss the effect of sampling error on imaging resolution of the system.

  7. Thermal extraction: enhancing thermal emission of finite size macroscopic blackbody to far-field vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Torbjorn Skauli Gang; Wang, Hailiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of far-field thermal radiation had directly led to the discovery of quantum mechanics a century ago, and is of great current practical importance for applications in energy conversions, radiative cooling, and thermal control. It is commonly assumed that for any macroscopic thermal emitter, its maximal emitted power within any given frequency range cannot exceed that of a blackbody with the same surface area. In contrast to such conventional wisdom, here we propose, and experimentally demonstrate, that the emitted power from a finite size macroscopic blackbody to far field vacuum can be significantly enhanced, within the constraint of the second law of thermodynamics. To achieve such an enhancement, the thermal body needs to have internal electromagnetic density of states (DOS) greater than that of vacuum, and one needs to provide a thermal extraction mechanism to enable the contributions of all internal modes to far field radiation.

  8. Near-field measurements of the even-order harmonics undetectable in far-field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2016-12-01

    Even-order harmonics (EOHs) are generated for oriented molecules and for atoms under specific conditions. Here, we focus on the most common situations where EOHs are not observed in far-field measurements. We propose an experiment to show that the EOHs are produced close to the nucleus but are not detected in the far-field measurements due to destructive interferences of the propagated EOHs of the emitted radiation. However, Rydberg gas atoms (e.g., rubidium), which are out of the focus of the laser beam, are expected to be ionized due to their weak interaction with a specific EOH of helium, which is not observed by the far-field detector. The ionization energy of the Rydberg gas atoms should be in resonance with the single-photon energy of a specific EOH.

  9. Efficient Compression of Far Field Matrices in Multipole Algorithms based on Spherical Harmonics and Radiating Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schroeder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compression of far field matrices in the fast multipole method and its multilevel extension for electromagnetic problems. The compression is based on a spherical harmonic representation of radiation patterns in conjunction with a radiating mode expression of the surface current. The method is applied to study near field effects and the far field of an antenna placed on a ship surface. Furthermore, the electromagnetic scattering of an electrically large plate is investigated. It is demonstrated, that the proposed technique leads to a significant memory saving, making multipole algorithms even more efficient without compromising the accuracy.

  10. Research on Far-Field Wavelet's Extraction and Application of Vertical Cable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangchun; Xiao, Qingsong; Xia, Changliang; Wu, Zhongliang; Xie, Chengliang

    2017-03-01

    In marine seismic exploration, ghost wave and bubble effect reduce the vertical resolution and interpretation accuracy seriously. Here firstly the far-field wavelet including source wavelet, ghost wave and bubble effect recorded by the vertical cable system (VCS) is extracted. Then, filters are designed using the extracted far-field wavelet to eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet. At last, the designed filters are applied to the seismic data of VCS. The results show that this method can eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet effectively and the vertical resolution of the seismic data is improved obviously.

  11. Analysis of ventilation systems subjected to explosive transients: far-field analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, P.K.; Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Duerre, K.H.; Gregory, W.S.

    1981-11-01

    Progress in developing a far-field explosion simulation computer code is outlined. The term far-field implies that this computer code is suitable for modeling explosive transients in ventilation systems that are far removed from the explosive event and are rather insensitive to the particular characteristics of the explosive event. This type of analysis is useful when little detailed information is available and the explosive event is described parametrically. The code retains all the features of the TVENT code and allows completely compressible flow with inertia and choking effects. Problems that illustrate the capabilities and limitations of the code are described.

  12. Numerical Methods for the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with Nonzero Far-field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present numerical methods for the nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) in the semiclassical regimes: \\[i \\vep\\; u_t^\\vep=-\\fl{\\vep^2}{2}\\;\\btu u^\\vep+V(\\bx)u^\\vep+ f(|u^\\vep|^2)u^\\vep, \\qquad \\bx\\in{\\Bbb R}^d,\\] with nonzero far-field conditions. A time-splitting cosine-spectral (TS-Cosine) method is presented when the nonzero far-field conditions are or can be reduced to homogeneous Neumann conditions, a time-splitting Chebyshev-spectral (TS-Chebyshe...

  13. Two-dimensional Fibonacci grating for far-field super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2016-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) Fibonacci grating is used to transform evanescent waves into propagating waves for far-field super-resolution imaging. By detecting far-field intensity distributions of light field through objects in front of the 2D Fibonacci grating in free space at once, we can retrieve the image of objects with beyond λ/7 spatial resolution. We also find that the coherent illumination case can give a better resolution than incoherent illumination case by such 2D grating-assisted imaging system. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulation.

  14. Far-field DOA estimation and near-field localization for multipath signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbir, Ahmet M.; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2014-09-01

    In direction finding and localization applications, multipath signals are important sources of error for parameter estimation. When the antenna array receives multipath reflections which are coherent with the far-field line-of-sight signal, estimating the far- and near-field components becomes an important problem. In this paper, a new method is proposed to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the far-field source and to localize its near-field multipaths. Far-field source DOA is estimated using calibration of the antenna array. A near-to-far transformation is proposed for the estimation of the near-field source DOA angles. In order to estimate the near-field range parameters, a compressive sensing approach is presented where a dictionary with near-field sources with different ranges is employed. As a result, the proposed method estimates the far-field and near-field source DOAs as well as the range and the signal amplitudes of the near-field sources. This method is evaluated using close-to-real world data generated by a numerical electromagnetic tool, where the array and transmitter are placed in an irregular terrain and array data are generated using full 3-D propagation model. It is shown that unknown source parameters can be estimated effectively showing the potential of the proposed approach in applications involving high-frequency direction finding and indoor localization.

  15. Second-order spatial correlation in the far-field: Comparing entangled and classical light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erfeng; Liu, Weitao; Lin, Huizu; Chen, Pingxing

    2016-02-01

    We consider second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field. The quantum theory of second-order spatial correlation is analyzed, and the role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. Meanwhile, the difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced.

  16. Analysis of atrial sensed far-field ventricular signals : A reassessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J; Nagelkerke, D; denHeijer, P; Mulder, H; Begemann, MJS; Lie, KI; Ruiter, Jaap H.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate detection of the spontaneous far-field ventricular signal may be used to determine the ventricular activation, and hence, the interval from atrial stimulus to the ventricular R wave (AR interval) using a standard atrial pacing lead. This can be useful in developing a physiological atrial ra

  17. Anomalous spectral shift of near- and far-field plasmonic resonances in nano-gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, Anna; Weller, Lee; Andrae, Patrick; Benz, Felix; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2016-01-01

    The near-field and far-field spectral response of plasmonic systems are often assumed to be identical, due to the lack of methods that can directly compare and correlate both responses under similar environmental conditions. We develop a widely-tuneable optical technique to probe the near-field resonances within individual plasmonic nanostructures that can be directly compared to the corresponding far-field response. In tightly-coupled nanoparticle-on-mirror constructs with nanometer-sized gaps we find >40meV blueshifts of the near-field compared to the dark-field scattering peak, which agrees with full electromagnetic simulations. Using a transformation optics approach, we show such shifts arise from the different spectral interference between different gap modes in the near- and far-field. The control and tuning of near-field and far-field responses demonstrated here is of paramount importance in the design of optical nanostructures for field-enhanced spectroscopy, as well as to control near-field activity ...

  18. Spatially resolved surface topography retrieved from far-field intensity scattering measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrad, Myriam; Lequime, Michel; Amra, Claude

    2014-02-01

    A far-field setup based on the fast and simultaneous recording of 1 million intensity angle-resolved-light-scattering patterns allows both to reconstruct surface topography and to cancel local defects in this topography. A spectral analysis is performed on measured data and allows to extract roughness and slopes mapping of a surface taking into account the spectral bandpass.

  19. Comparison of different antenna diagnostics techniques with limited far field data input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Cappellin, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three different antenna diagnostics techniques are compared for the case when the input far-field data represent only few complete cuts or a two-dimensional grid with a limited angular sector. The techniques are applied to several different antennas: a high-gain offset reflector...... and extreme near fields....

  20. Far-Field Emission Pattern of a Dielectric Circular Microresonator with a Point Scatterer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dettmann, C.P.; Morozov, G.V.; Sieber, M.; Waalkens, H.

    2008-01-01

    The far-field emission pattern of a two-dimensional circular microresonator with a point scatterer inside, at some distance away from the centre, is investigated theoretically. We demonstrate that the presence of the scatterer leads to significant enhancement in the directionality of the outgoing li

  1. Far-field momentum flux of high-frequency axisymmetric synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on predicting the far-field momentum flux for axisymmetric synthetic jets, which is an important parameter that characterizes the performance of such jets in flow-control applications. Previous researchers have found that a negative pressure gradient near the jet orifice is responsible for the observed decrease in the momentum flux in the streamwise direction. As a result, prediction of the far field momentum flux of synthetic jets has encountered serious challenges. In this paper, the far-field momentum flux is modeled by calculating the hydrodynamic impulse of the vortical structure formed during one actuation cycle, under the assumption that the jet is fully developed and periodic. In this manner, the complex near-field effect of a synthetic jet is explicitly captured by the interactions between the vortices and the actuator. Furthermore, the impulse of these vortical structures is predicted using only the actuation parameters of the synthetic jet, namely, the stroke length, L, the orifice diameter, d, and the actuation frequency, f. For a synthetic jet with a stroke ratio, L/d, larger than the formation number, L∗/d, this model predicts that the normalized far-field momentum flux, K/Ks, decreases when L/d increases. This can be explained by an increasing circulation fraction of the trailing jet, which contains less impulse per unit circulation compared with the leading vortex. This model is validated using hot-wire anemometry measurement of a series of synthetic jets. Moreover, by comparing with experimental data that have large L/d, this model suggests that the contribution of trailing jet to the overall far-field momentum flux is not negligible.

  2. An improved schlieren method for measurement and automatic reconstruction of the far-field focal spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengzhou; Hu, Bingliang; Yin, Qinye

    2017-01-01

    The schlieren method of measuring far-field focal spots offers many advantages at the Shenguang III laser facility such as low cost and automatic laser-path collimation. However, current methods of far-field focal spot measurement often suffer from low precision and efficiency when the final focal spot is merged manually, thereby reducing the accuracy of reconstruction. In this paper, we introduce an improved schlieren method to construct the high dynamic-range image of far-field focal spots and improve the reconstruction accuracy and efficiency. First, a detection method based on weak light beam sampling and magnification imaging was designed; images of the main and side lobes of the focused laser irradiance in the far field were obtained using two scientific CCD cameras. Second, using a self-correlation template matching algorithm, a circle the same size as the schlieren ball was dug from the main lobe cutting image and used to change the relative region of the main lobe cutting image within a 100×100 pixel region. The position that had the largest correlation coefficient between the side lobe cutting image and the main lobe cutting image when a circle was dug was identified as the best matching point. Finally, the least squares method was used to fit the center of the side lobe schlieren small ball, and the error was less than 1 pixel. The experimental results show that this method enables the accurate, high-dynamic-range measurement of a far-field focal spot and automatic image reconstruction. Because the best matching point is obtained through image processing rather than traditional reconstruction methods based on manual splicing, this method is less sensitive to the efficiency of focal-spot reconstruction and thus offers better experimental precision. PMID:28207758

  3. Examination of Far-Field Mathematical Absorber Reflection Suppression through Computational Electromagnetic Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Gregson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical absorber reflection suppression (MARS technique has been used to identify and then suppress the effects of spurious scattering within spherical, cylindrical, and planar near-field antenna measurement systems, compact antenna test ranges (CATRs, and far-field measurement facilities for some time now. The recent development of a general-purpose three-dimensional computational electromagnetic model of a spherical antenna test system has enabled the MARS measurement and postprocessing technique to be further investigated. This paper provides an overview of the far-field MARS technique and presents an introduction to the computational electromagnetic range model. Preliminary results of computational electromagnetic range simulations that replicate typical MARS measurement configurations are presented and discussed which, for the first time, confirm through simulation many of the observations that have previously been noted using purely empirical techniques.

  4. Analysis of Far-Field Radiation from Apertures Using Monte Carlo Integration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Fakharian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An integration technique based on the use of Monte Carlo Integration (MCI is proposed for the analysis of the electromagnetic radiation from apertures. The technique that can be applied to the calculation of the aperture antenna radiation patterns is the equivalence principle followed by physical optics, which can then be used to compute far-field antenna radiation patterns. However, this technique is often complex mathematically, because it requires integration over the closed surface. This paper presents an extremely simple formulation to calculate the far-fields from some types of aperture radiators by using MCI technique. The accuracy and effectiveness of this technique are demonstrated in three cases of radiation from the apertures and results are compared with the solutions using FE simulation and Gaussian quadrature rules.

  5. Multi-pulse pumping for far-field super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Sebastian; Raut, Sangram; Doan, Hung; Kimball, Joe; Fudala, Rafal; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Strzhemechny, Yuri; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2016-02-01

    Recently, far-field optical imaging with a resolution significantly beyond diffraction limit has attracted tremendous attention allowing for high resolution imaging in living objects. Various methods have been proposed that are divided in to two basic approaches; deterministic super-resolution like STED or RESOLFT and stochastic super-resolution like PALM or STORM. We propose to achieve super-resolution in far-field fluorescence imaging by the use of controllable (on-demand) bursts of pulses that can change the fluorescence signal of long-lived component over one order of magnitude. We demonstrate that two beads, one labeled with a long-lived dye and another with a short-lived dye, separated by a distance lower than 100 nm can be easily resolved in a single experiment. The proposed method can be used to separate two biological structures in a cell by targeting them with two antibodies labeled with long-lived and short-lived fluorophores.

  6. Seismic Waves Scattering Impact through Tunnel Excavation on Adjacent Monuments Subjected to Far Field Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobakhloo E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the effect of seismic wave scattering has attracted extensive attention in the past couple of decades especially in infrastructures like tunnels. A seismic wave, meeting the tunnel, can generate scattering which, in most cases, may incur damages in adjacent structures. In this study, using Finite Element Method (FEM, the effect of seismic wave scattering in far field has been investigated. The twin tunnels of Shiraz subway system are selected as the case study in this research and three far field seismic waves were chosen for time history analyses. Investigating the normal mode (before tunnel construction in comparison to the excavation mode (after tunnel construction enables calculation of the effect of displacement in adjacent structures. The analysis results indicate there is a significant difference between before and after tunnel construction (P-value<0.05. Accordingly, the influence of constructing a tunnel on adjacent surface structures is very important for tunnel design.

  7. Far-Field Turbulent Vortex-Wake/Exhaust Plume Interaction for Subsonic and HSCT Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Adam, Ihab; Wong, Tin-Chee

    1996-01-01

    Computational study of the far-field turbulent vortex-wake/exhaust plume interaction for subsonic and high speed civil transport (HSCT) airplanes is carried out. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using the implicit, upwind, Roe-flux-differencing, finite-volume scheme. The two-equation shear stress transport model of Menter is implemented with the NS solver for turbulent-flow calculation. For the far-field study, the computations of vortex-wake interaction with the exhaust plume of a single engine of a Boeing 727 wing in a holding condition and two engines of an HSCT in a cruise condition are carried out using overlapping zonal method for several miles downstream. These results are obtained using the computer code FTNS3D. The results of the subsonic flow of this code are compared with those of a parabolized NS solver known as the UNIWAKE code.

  8. Far Field Evolution of Momentum Driven and Scalar Dominated Flow Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ilangovan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To capture the effect of initial conditions in far field evolution of momentum driven and scalar dominated flow field, Witze scaling has been used for collapsing vector and scalar data to attain asymptotic state at self-preserving region of the jet. It incorporates the initial mass, momentum, energy to capture the effect of heating level on both near and far field development of strongly heated coaxial turbulent round air jets entering into quiescent ambient. This paper compares the effectiveness of potential core length and jet effective diameter as the length scales to collapse both mean and fluctuating components of velocity vector and temperature scalar. Similarity considerations with Witze length scale using the initial momentum flux and buoyancy flux gives a good collapse at all levels of heating.

  9. Second-order spatial correlation in the far-field: Comparing entangled and classical light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Erfeng, E-mail: efzhang@163.com; Liu, Weitao; Lin, Huizu; Chen, Pingxing

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field is investigated. • The role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. • The difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced. - Abstract: We consider second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light in the far-field. The quantum theory of second-order spatial correlation is analyzed, and the role of photon statistics and detection mode in the second-order spatial correlation are discussed. Meanwhile, the difference of second-order spatial correlation with entangled and classical light sources is deduced.

  10. A far-field-viewing sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K L; Taylor, L C; Walt, D R

    1999-07-15

    We demonstrate a far-field-viewing GRINscope sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations. The GRINscope was fabricated by permanently affixing a micro-Gradient index (GRIN) lens on the distal face of a 350-micron-diameter optical imaging fiber. The GRINscope can obtain both chemical and visual information. In one application, a thin, pH-sensitive polymer layer was immobilized on the distal end of the GRINscope. The ability of the GRINscope to visually image its far-field surroundings and concurrently detect pH changes in a flowing stream was demonstrated. In a different application, the GRINscope was used to image pH- and O2-sensitive particles on a remote substrate and simultaneously measure their fluorescence intensity in response to pH or pO2 changes.

  11. Far-field dispersal modeling for fuel-air-explosive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, M.W.

    1990-05-01

    A computer model for simulating the explosive dispersal of a fuel agent in the far-field regime is described and is applied to a wide variety of initial conditions to judge their effect upon the resulting fuel/air cloud. This work was directed toward modeling the dispersal process associated with Fuel-Air-Explosives devices. The far-field dispersal regime is taken to be that time after the initial burster charge detonation in which the shock forces no longer dominate the flow field and initial canister and fuel mass breakup has occurred. The model was applied to a low vapor pressure fuel, a high vapor pressure fuel and a solid fuel. A strong dependence of the final cloud characteristics upon the initial droplet size distribution was demonstrated. The predicted fuel-air clouds were highly non-uniform in concentration. 18 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Far-field subwavelength imaging from a single broadband antenna in combined with strongly disordered medium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-01-01

    The far-field subwavlength imaging is a challenging issue. In this letter we demonstrate numerically that the far-field subwavelength imaging of weakly scattering objects can be obtained by processing the data acquired by a single antenna, which benefits from the use of the strongly disordered medium. A mathematical model has been proposed for solving such problem based on the idea of sparse reconstruction. Moreover, this study leads to an important conclusion that the strongly disordered medium can serves as an efficient apparatus for the single-antenna compressive measurement, which shifts the complexity of devising compressive sensing (CS) hardware from the design, fabrication and electronic control. The proposed method and associated results can find applications in several imaging disciplines, such as optics, THz, RF or ultrasound imaging.

  13. Far-field mapping of the longitudinal magnetic and electric optical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ecoffey, C

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate the experimental mapping of the longitudinal magnetic and electric optical fields with a standard scanning microscope that involves a high numerical aperture far-field objective. The imaging concept relies upon the insertion of an azimuthal or a radial polarizer within the detection path of the microscope which acts as an optical electromagnetic filter aimed at transmitting selectively to the detector the signal from the magnetic or electric longitudinal fields present in the detection volume, respectively. The resulting system is thus versatile, non invasive, of high resolution, and shows high detection efficiencies. Magnetic optical properties of physical and biological micro and nano-structures may thus be revealed with a far-field microscope.

  14. Fusion of regularized femtosecond filaments in air: far field on-axis emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipilo, D. E.; Panov, N. A.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Andreeva, V. A.; Kosareva, O. G.; Seleznev, L. V.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Ionin, A. A.; Chin, S. L.

    2016-11-01

    The fusion of several coherent 800 nm femtosecond filaments is induced experimentally and numerically by transmitting a beam through a mask with circular apertures followed by the focusing lens. The far-field image of the four-filament fusion region reveals bright on-axis maximum and differs drastically from the diffraction pattern of a low energy beam propagating through the mask in the linear regime. In 3D+time numerical simulations with the carrier wave resolved we show a factor-of-5 saturable growth in the peak plasma density with successive increase in the number of mask openings. An overall spectral blueshift of the fundamental and the third harmonics follows the plasma density increase. The simulated far-field on-axis emission agrees with the experiment and serves as the indication of nonlinear interaction in the fusion region.

  15. Concept of far-field optical evaluation of the apparatus function of an SNOM tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesensky, Nikolay B.; Veiko, Vadim P.; Ivanova, Tatiana V.; Lee, Kyeong-Hee

    2004-04-01

    An approach to the optical investigation of probes for scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOM tips) and recognition of their near-field parameters by far-field measurements is considered. The comparison of approximate calculations of vector light field diffracted by a subwavelength aperture with more rigorous calculations of the light field passing through a tapered end of a SNOM tip is presented. A numerical iterative procedure of the SNOM tip aperture reconstruction by the analytical continuation of the emerging light Fourier spectrum is presented. The approach is based on the use of plane waves covering a wide range of spatial frequencies. The results of experimental measurements and far-field data treatment with the definition of a subwavelength aperture are discussed.

  16. Near-Field/Far-Field Transformation with Helicoidal Scanning from Irregularly Spaced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco D'Agostino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast and accurate technique for the compensation of the probe positioning errors in the near-field/far-field transformation with helicoidal scanning is proposed in this paper. It relies on a nonredundant sampling representation using a spherical modelling of the antenna under test and employs an iterative scheme to evaluate the near-field data at the points fixed by the helicoidal nonredundant representation from the acquired irregularly distributed ones. Once these helicoidal data have been recovered, those required by a classical cylindrical near-field/far-field transformation are efficiently determined by using an optimal sampling interpolation algorithm. Some numerical tests assessing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its stability with respect to random errors affecting the near-field data are shown.

  17. A Conformal Mapping Suitable for Problems Involving Interaction Between Given Geometries and Known Far Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    A conformal transformation formula using Riemann-Stieltjes integrals is derived for use with problems involving the interaction between a given finite-sized geometry and a known far field. The derivative of this transformation is non-singular in the domain considered and tends to one at infinity. A formula is derived for transformation from the unit circle to the exterior of an arbitrarily given continuous curve with bounded variation . A special case of the transformation is very similar

  18. Seismic Waves Scattering Impact through Tunnel Excavation on Adjacent Monuments Subjected to Far Field Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghobakhloo E.; Pourlak M.; Razmkhah A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the effect of seismic wave scattering has attracted extensive attention in the past couple of decades especially in infrastructures like tunnels. A seismic wave, meeting the tunnel, can generate scattering which, in most cases, may incur damages in adjacent structures. In this study, using Finite Element Method (FEM), the effect of seismic wave scattering in far field has been investigated. The twin tunnels of Shiraz subway system are selected as the case study in this research a...

  19. Optical far-field super-resolution microscopy using nitrogen vacancy center ensemble in bulk diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shen; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Dong, Yang; Zou, Chong-Wen; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical far-field super-resolution microscopy using array of nitrogen vacancy centers in bulk diamond as near-field optical probes. The local optical field, which transmits through the nanostructures on the diamond surface, is measured by detecting the charge state conversion of nitrogen vacancy center. And the locating of nitrogen vacancy center with spatial resolution of 6.1 nm is realized with the charge state depletion nanoscopy. The nanostructures on the surface of diam...

  20. Note on the classification of super-resolution in far-field microscopy and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Passon, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In recent years several far-field microscopy techniques have been developed which manage to overcome the diffraction limit of resolution. A unifying classification scheme for them is clearly desirable. We argue that existing schemes based on the information capacity of the optical system can not easily be extended to cover e.g., STED microscopy or techniques based on single molecule imaging. We suggest a classification based on a reconstruction of the Abbe limit.

  1. Note on the classification of super-resolution in far-field microscopy and information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passon, Oliver; Grebe-Ellis, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    In recent years several far-field microscopy techniques have been developed which manage to overcome the diffraction limit of resolution. A unifying classification scheme for them is clearly desirable. We argue that existing schemes based on the information capacity of the optical system can not easily be extended to cover e.g., STED microscopy or techniques based on single molecule imaging. We suggest a classification based on a reconstruction of the Abbe limit.

  2. A Coupled Far-Field Formulation for Time-Periodic Numerical Problems in Fluid Dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edmund Chadwick; Rabea El-Mazuzi

    2012-11-01

    Consider uniform flow past an oscillating body generating a time-periodic motion in an exterior domain, modelled by a numerical fluid dynamics solver in the near field around the body. A far-field formulation, based on the Oseen equations, is presented for coupling onto this domain thereby enabling the whole space to be modelled. In particular, examples for formulations by boundary elements and infinite elements are described.

  3. Chiral-field microwave antennas (Chiral microwave near fields for far-field radiation)

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenetskii, E O; Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    In a single-element structure we obtain a radiation pattern with a squint due to chiral microwave near fields originated from a magnetostatic-mode ferrite disk. At the magnetostatic resonances, one has strong subwavelength localization of energy of microwave radiation. Magnetostatic oscillations in a thin ferrite disk are characterized by unique topological properties: the Poynting-vector vortices and the field helicity. The chiral-topology near fields allow obtaining unique phase structure distribution for far-field microwave radiation.

  4. Two-Dimensional Far Field Source Locating Method with Nonprior Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative position of seismic source and sensors has great influence on locating accuracy, particularly in far field conditions, and the accuracy will decrease seriously due to limited calculation precision and prior velocity error. In order to improve the locating accuracy of far field sources by isometric placed sensors in a straight line, a new locating method with nonprior velocity is proposed. After exhaustive research, this paper states that the hyperbola which is used for locating will be very close to its asymptote when seismic source locates in far field of sensors; therefore, the locating problem with prior velocity is equivalent to solving linear equations and the problem with nonprior velocity is equivalent to a nonlinear optimization problem with respect to the unknown velocity. And then, this paper proposed a new locating method based on a one-variable objective function with respect to the unknown velocity. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method has faster convergence speed, higher accuracy, and better stability.

  5. Fluorescent Nanowire Ring Illumination for Wide-Field Far-Field Subdiffraction Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Kuang, Cuifang; Hao, Xiang; Pang, Chenlei; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Ying; Yu, Chao; Xu, Yingke; Nan, Di; Shen, Weidong; Fang, Yue; He, Lenian; Liu, Xu; Yang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Here we demonstrate an active method which pioneers in utilizing a combination of a spatial frequency shift and a Stokes frequency shift to enable wide-field far-field subdiffraction imaging. A fluorescent nanowire ring acts as a localized source and is combined with a film waveguide to produce omnidirectional illuminating evanescent waves. Benefitting from the high wave vector of illumination, the high spatial frequencies of an object can be shifted to the passband of a conventional imaging system, contributing subwavelength spatial information to the far-field image. A structure featuring 70-nm-wide slots spaced 70 nm apart has been resolved at a wavelength of 520 nm with a 0.85 numerical aperture standard objective based on this method. The versatility of this approach has been demonstrated by imaging integrated chips, Blu-ray DVDs, biological cells, and various subwavelength 2D patterns, with a viewing area of up to 1 0 0 0 μ m2 , which is one order of magnitude larger than the previous far-field and full-field nanoscopy methods. This new resolving technique is label-free, is conveniently integrated with conventional microscopes, and can potentially become an important tool in cellular biology, the on-chip industry, as well as other fields requiring wide-field nanoscale visualization.

  6. The spectral shift between near- and far-field resonances of optical nano-antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Christoph; Hebestreit, Erik; Mühlig, Stefan; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Burger, Sven; Lederer, Falk; Pertsch, Thomas

    2014-04-21

    Within the past several years a tremendous progress regarding optical nano-antennas could be witnessed. It is one purpose of optical nano-antennas to resonantly enhance light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, e.g. the interaction of an external illumination with molecules. In this specific, but in almost all schemes that take advantage of resonantly enhanced electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of nano-antennas, the precise knowledge of the spectral position of resonances is of paramount importance to fully exploit their beneficial effects. Thus far, however, many nano-antennas were only optimized with respect to their far-field characteristics, i.e. in terms of their scattering or extinction cross sections. Although being an emerging feature in many numerical simulations, it was only recently fully appreciated that there exists a subtle but very important difference in the spectral position of resonances in the near-and the far-field. With the purpose to quantify this shift, Zuloaga et al. suggested a Lorentzian model to estimate the resonance shift. Here, we devise on fully analytical grounds a strategy to predict the resonance in the near-field directly from that in the far-field and disclose that the issue is involved and multifaceted, in general. We outline the limitations of our theory if more sophisticated optical nano-antennas are considered where higher order multipolar contributions and higher order antenna resonances become increasingly important. Both aspects are highlighted by numerically studying relevant nano-antennas.

  7. A Diagnostic for Electric Field Measurements in the Near/Far-Field Regions of ICRF Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Isler, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    The physics mechanisms of wave heating and current drive processes in the bulk hot plasma are generally well identified. However, details of the wave-plasma interaction with a material surface in the cold plasma edge are still not fully understood. The driver behind this interaction is the time-periodic wave electric field and is referred to as the near/far-field depending on the location with respect to the antenna. Various models have been formulated to capture the near/far-field physics but have not been tested experimentally. Thus, a diagnostic capable of measuring the electric field with temporal and 3D-spatial resolution is critical for confidence in the codes used to design next generation ICRF antennas. This research is focused on the development of a laser based spectroscopic technique, Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy (DFSS), and its implementation to study near/far-field physics. Using DFSS the spectra line profile of various electronic transitions are measured and fit to a quantum mechanical model incorporating both magnetic and dynamic electric field operators. The electric field direction and magnitude are extracted from the fit. The experimental setup and planned experiments will be discussed. Additionally, initial measurements of fitted Hδ spectrum under the influence of known electric and magnetic fields will be presented.

  8. Different Designs of Dual-Focus Perforated Transmitarray Antenna in Near/Far-Field Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abd El-Azem Malhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designs of the single-focus and multi-focused transmitarray antennas for the near-field (NF or/and far-field (FF applications have been introduced. Perforated dielectric single sheet is used for transmitarray design for simple configuration. Single-focus transmitarray for the far-field and the near-field are obtained. The radiation characteristics of 13×13 unit-cells transmitarray in the near-field and the far-field region have been investigated. A single structure multi-focus transmitarray is designed using the chess-board arrangement of the unit-cells elements. Multi-focus transmitarray for FF/FF, FF/NF, and NF/NF have been designed and investigated. The phase distribution and the corresponding holes radii for the first quadrant of the multi-focus transmitarray are presented. The radiation characteristics of different array configuration have been investigated and analyzed using full-wave simulator CST Microwave Studio.

  9. Insights on proximity effect and multiphoton induced luminescence from gold nanospheres in far field optical microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Johan [Biomedical Photonics Group, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Guldbrand, Stina [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Evenbratt, Hanne [Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemigården 4, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kirejev, Vladimir; Ericson, Marica B., E-mail: marica.ericson@chem.gu.se [Biomedical Photonics Group, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Kemivägen 10, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Grönbeck, Henrik [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 9, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-12-07

    Gold nanoparticles can be visualized in far-field multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy (MPM) based on the phenomena of multiphoton induced luminescence (MIL). This is of interest for biomedical applications, e.g., for cancer diagnostics, as MPM allows for working in the near-infrared (NIR) optical window of tissue. It is well known that the aggregation of particles causes a redshift of the plasmon resonance, but its implications for MIL applying far-field MPM should be further exploited. Here, we explore MIL from 10 nm gold nanospheres that are chemically deposited on glass substrates in controlled coverage gradients using MPM operating in NIR range. The substrates enable studies of MIL as a function of inter-particle distance and clustering. It was shown that MIL was only detected from areas on the substrates where the particle spacing was less than one particle diameter, or where the particles have aggregated. The results are interpreted in the context that the underlying physical phenomenon of MIL is a sequential two-photon absorption process, where the first event is driven by the plasmon resonance. It is evident that gold nanospheres in this size range have to be closely spaced or clustered to exhibit detectable MIL using far-field MPM operating in the NIR region.

  10. Far-field optical imaging with subdiffraction resolution enabled by nonlinear saturation absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chenliang; Wei, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The resolution of far-field optical imaging is required to improve beyond the Abbe limit to the subdiffraction or even the nanoscale. In this work, inspired by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) imaging, in which carbon (or Au) thin films are usually required to be coated on the sample surface before imaging to remove the charging effect while imaging by electrons. We propose a saturation-absorption-induced far-field super-resolution optical imaging method (SAI-SRIM). In the SAI-SRIM, the carbon (or Au) layers in SEM imaging are replaced by nonlinear-saturation-absorption (NSA) thin films, which are directly coated onto the sample surfaces using advanced thin film deposition techniques. The surface fluctuant morphologies are replicated to the NSA thin films, accordingly. The coated sample surfaces are then imaged using conventional laser scanning microscopy. Consequently, the imaging resolution is greatly improved, and subdiffraction-resolved optical images are obtained theoretically and experimentally. The SAI-SRIM provides an effective and easy way to achieve far-field super-resolution optical imaging for sample surfaces with geometric fluctuant morphology characteristics.

  11. From near-field to far-field coupling in the third dimension: retarded interaction of particle plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Richard; Ameling, Ralf; Weiss, Thomas; Christ, André; Giessen, Harald

    2011-10-12

    We study the transition from the near-field to the far-field coupling regime of particle plasmons in a three-dimensional geometry. In the far-field regime, retardation plays the dominant role and the plasmonic resonances are radiatively coupled. When the spatial arrangement of the oscillators is matched to their resonance wavelength, superradiant-like effects are observed.

  12. Experimental Verification of the Spectral Shift between Near- and Far-Field Peak Intensities of Plasmonic Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Gonzalez, P; Neubrech, F; Huck, Christian; Chen, J; Golmar, F; Casanova, F; Hueso, L E; Pucci, A; Aizpurua, J; Hillenbrand, R

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts a distinct spectral shift between the near- and far-field optical responses of plasmonic antennas. Here we combine near-field optical microscopy and far-field spectroscopy of individual infrared-resonant nanoantennas to verify experimentally this spectral shift. Numerical calculations corroborate our experimental results. We furthermore discuss the implications of this effect in surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS).

  13. Controlling activation site density by low-energy far-field stimulation in cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörning, Marcel; Takagi, Seiji; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-06-01

    Tachycardia and fibrillation are potentially fatal arrhythmias associated with the formation of rotating spiral waves in the heart. Presently, the termination of these types of arrhythmia is achieved by use of antitachycardia pacing or cardioversion. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, in that they either have limited application or produce undesirable side effects. Low-energy far-field stimulation has recently been proposed as a superior therapy. This proposed therapeutic method would exploit the phenomenon in which the application of low-energy far-field shocks induces a large number of activation sites (“virtual electrodes”) in tissue. It has been found that the formation of such sites can lead to the termination of undesired states in the heart and the restoration of normal beating. In this study we investigate a particular aspect of this method. Here we seek to determine how the activation site density depends on the applied electric field through in vitro experiments carried out on neonatal rat cardiac tissue cultures. The results indicate that the activation site density increases exponentially as a function of the intracellular conductivity and the level of cell isotropy. Additionally, we report numerical results obtained from bidomain simulations of the Beeler-Reuter model that are quantitatively consistent with our experimental results. Also, we derive an intuitive analytical framework that describes the activation site density and provides useful information for determining the ratio of longitudinal to transverse conductivity in a cardiac tissue culture. The results obtained here should be useful in the development of an actual therapeutic method based on low-energy far-field pacing. In addition, they provide a deeper understanding of the intrinsic properties of cardiac cells.

  14. Reverse design of a bull's eye structure based on the plasmonic far-field pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2013-09-09

    We present a novel concept on designing a bull's eye structure for a single-wavelength optical source. The plasmonic far-field around a subwavelength aperture on a thin gold film is calculated by finite-difference time-domain method. Based on the annular field intensity distribution on the film surface, we present a method for determining a fairly optimal first groove radius and a periodicity of the grooves that show enhanced transmission. By additionally fine-tuning groove width and groove depth, we have achieved a transmission factor of 9.74. Our novel method has high potential in applications such as silicon infrared sensors.

  15. Far-field head-media optical interaction in heat-assisted magnetic recording

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ruoxi; Klemmer, Timothy; Olson, Heidi; Zhang, Deming; Perry, Tyler; Yin, Huaqing; Hipwell, Roger; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Tang, Huan; Seigler, Mike

    2015-01-01

    We have used a plane-wave expansion method to theoretically study the far-field head-media optical interaction in HAMR. For the ASTC media stack specifically, we notice the outstanding sensitivity related to interlayer's optical thickness for media reflection and magnetic layer's light absorption. With 10-nm interlayer thickness change, the recording layer absorption can be changed by more than 25%. The 2-D results are found to correlate well with full 3-D model and magnetic recording tests on flyable disc with different interlayer thickness.

  16. Characterization of Nonparaxial Truncated Cosine-Gaussian Beams and the Beam Quality in the Far Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Xiao-Ping; L(U) Bai-Da

    2006-01-01

    @@ The analytical expression characterizing the propagation of nonparaxial truncated cosine-Gaussian (CoG) beams in free space is derived, and some special cases are discussed. The extended power in the bucket (PIB) is proposed to characterize the beam quality of nonparaxial truncated beams in the far field. It is shown that the extended PIB is applicable to nonparaxial truncated beams, and the PIB of nonparaxial truncated CoG beams depends on the decentred parameter, waist-width-to-wavelength ratio, truncation parameter, and bucket size chosen.

  17. Tunable far-field acoustic imaging by two-dimensional sonic crystal with concave incident surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng-Fu; Lu, Dan-Feng; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ji, Chang-Ying; Shi, Qing-Fan

    2017-01-01

    An additional concave incident surface comprised of two-dimensional (2D) sonic crystals (SCs) is employed to tune the acoustic image in the far-field region. The tunability is realized through changing the curvature of the concave surface. To explain the tuning mechanism, a simple ray-trace analysis is demonstrated based on the wave-beam negative refractive law. Then, a numerical confirmation is carried out. Results show that both the position and the intensity of the image can be tuned by the introduced concave surface.

  18. Fourier method for recovering acoustic sources from multi-frequency far-field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianchao; Guo, Yukun; Zhang, Deyue; Liu, Hongyu

    2017-03-01

    We consider an inverse source problem of determining a source term in the Helmholtz equation from multi-frequency far-field measurements. Based on the Fourier series expansion, we develop a novel non-iterative reconstruction method for solving the problem. A promising feature of this method is that it utilizes the data from only a few observation directions for each frequency. Theoretical uniqueness and stability analysis are provided. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method in both two and three dimensions.

  19. Far-Field and Middle-Field Vertical Velocities Associated with Megathrust Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Klein, E.; Vigny, C.; Garaud, J.; Shestakov, N.; Satirapod, C.; Simons, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    The recent megathrust earthquakes (Sumatra, Chili and Japan) have induced far-field postseismic subsidence with velocities from a few mm/yr to more than 1cm/yr at distances from 500 to 1500km from the earthquake epicentre, for several years following the earthquake. This subsidence is observed in Argentina, China, Korea, far-East Russia and in Malaysia and Thailand as reported by Satirapod et al. ( ASR, 2013). In the middle-field a very pronounced uplift is localized on the flank of the volcanic arc facing the trench. This is observed both over Honshu, in Chile and on the South-West coast of Sumatra. In Japan, the deformations prior to Tohoku earthquake are well measured by the GSI GPS network: While the East coast was slightly subsiding, the West coast was raising. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to understand the deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes. The meshes designed for each region feature a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere. They are refined close to the subduction zones. Using these finite element models, we find that the pattern of the predicted far-field vertical postseismic displacements depends upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. A low viscosity asthenosphere at shallow depth, just below the lithosphere is required to explain the subsidence at distances from 500 to 1500km. A thick (for example 600km) asthenosphere with a uniform viscosity predicts subsidence too far away from the trench. Slip on the subduction interface is unable tot induce the observed far-field subsidence. However, a combination of relaxation in a low viscosity wedge and slip or relaxation on the bottom part of the subduction interface is necessary to explain the observed postseismic uplift in the middle-field (volcanic arc area). The creep laws of the various zones used to explain the postseismic data can be injected in

  20. Near-field to far-field characterization of speckle patterns generated by disordered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigi, Valentina; Perros, Elodie; Binard, Guillaume; Bourdillon, Céline; Maître, Agnès; Carminati, Rémi; Krachmalnicoff, Valentina; De Wilde, Yannick

    2016-04-04

    We study the intensity spatial correlation function of optical speckle patterns above a disordered dielectric medium in the multiple scattering regime. The intensity distributions are recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with sub-wavelength spatial resolution at variable distances from the surface in a range which spans continuously from the near-field (distance ≪ λ) to the far-field regime (distance ≫ λ). The non-universal behavior at sub-wavelength distances reveals the connection between the near-field speckle pattern and the internal structure of the medium.

  1. Near-field to far-field characterization of speckle patterns generated by disordered nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Parigi, Valentina; Binard, Guillaume; Bourdillon, Céline; Maître, Agnès; Carminati, Rémi; Krachmalnicoff, Valentina; De Wilde, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    We study the intensity spatial correlation function of optical speckle patterns above a disordered dielectric medium in the multiple scattering regime. The intensity distributions are recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with sub-wavelength spatial resolution at variable distances from the surface in a range which spans continuously from the near-field (distance $ \\ll \\lambda $) to the far-field regime (distance $\\gg \\lambda $). The non-universal behavior at sub-wavelength distances reveals the connection between the near-field speckle pattern and the internal structure of the medium.

  2. A NUMERICAL MODEL OF FAR-FIELD COD CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION FOR NATURAL RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A far-field numerical model is developed to simulate jet pollution into natural rivers. Its character is to compute the velocity and pollution concentration separately. The velocity is computed by SIMPLEC algorithm in boundary-fitted coordinate systems. The pollution concentration distribution is computed by developed QUAL-IIm and QAIIL 2D program. The present model was applied to the Xiantao section of the Hanjiang River a tributary of Yangtze River, and Xiangjiang River. The flow field and COD distribution are in good agreement with field data.

  3. A Broadband UHF Tag Antenna For Near-Field and Far-Field RFID Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dhaouadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of passive broadband tag antenna for Ultra-High Frequency (UHF band. The antenna is intended for both near and far fields Radio Frequency Identification (RFID applications. The meander dipole tag antenna geometry modification is designed for frequency bandwidth increasing. The measured bandwidth of the proposed broadband Tag antenna is more than 140 MHz (820–960 MHz, which can cover the entire UHF RFID band. A comparison between chip impedance of datasheet and the measured chip impedance has been used in our simulations. The proposed progressive meandered antenna structure, with an overall size of 77 mm × 14 mm × 0.787 mm, produces strong and uniform magnetic field distribution in the near-field zone. The antenna impedance is matched to common UHF chips in market simply by tuning its capacitive and inductive values since a perfect matching is required in the antenna design in order to enhance the near and the far field communications. Measurements confirm that the designed antenna exhibits good performance of Tag identification for both near-field and far-field UHF RFID applications.

  4. Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhai, Feng; Hu, Debo; Liu, Ruina; Liu, Kaihui; Sun, Zhipei; Dai, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Infrared spectroscopy, especially for molecular vibrations in the fingerprint region between 600 and 1,500 cm-1, is a powerful characterization method for bulk materials. However, molecular fingerprinting at the nanoscale level still remains a significant challenge, due to weak light-matter interaction between micron-wavelengthed infrared light and nano-sized molecules. Here we demonstrate molecular fingerprinting at the nanoscale level using our specially designed graphene plasmonic structure on CaF2 nanofilm. This structure not only avoids the plasmon-phonon hybridization, but also provides in situ electrically-tunable graphene plasmon covering the entire molecular fingerprint region, which was previously unattainable. In addition, undisturbed and highly confined graphene plasmon offers simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane vibrational modes with ultrahigh detection sensitivity down to the sub-monolayer level, significantly pushing the current detection limit of far-field mid-infrared spectroscopies. Our results provide a platform, fulfilling the long-awaited expectation of high sensitivity and selectivity far-field fingerprint detection of nano-scale molecules for numerous applications.

  5. Far-field radially polarized focal spot from plasmonic spiral structure combined with central aperture antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lei; Ren, Yuan; Lu, Yonghua; Lei, Xinrui; Jiang, Kang; Li, Kuanguo; Wang, Yong; Cui, Chenjing; Wen, Xiaolei; Wang, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of a vector micro-beam with an optical antenna has significant potentials for nano-optical technology applications including bio-optics, optical fabrication, and quantum information processing. We have designed and demonstrated a central aperture antenna within an Archimedean spiral that extracts the bonding plasmonic field from a surface to produce a new vector focal spot in far-field. The properties of this vector focal field are revealed by confocal microscopy and theoretical simulations. The pattern, polarization and phase of the focal field are determined by the incident light and by the chirality of the Archimedean spiral. For incident light with right-handed circular polarization, the left-handed spiral (one-order chirality) outputs a micro-radially polarized focal field. Our results reveal the relationship between the near-field and far-field distributions of the plasmonic spiral structure, and the structure has the potential to lead to advances in diverse applications such as plasmonic lenses, near-field angular momentum detection, and optical tweezers. PMID:27009383

  6. Metal/Polymer Based Stretchable Antenna for Constant Frequency Far-Field Communication in Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2015-10-06

    Body integrated wearable electronics can be used for advanced health monitoring, security, and wellness. Due to the complex, asymmetric surface of human body and atypical motion such as stretching in elbow, finger joints, wrist, knee, ankle, etc. electronics integrated to body need to be physically flexible, conforming, and stretchable. In that context, state-of-the-art electronics are unusable due to their bulky, rigid, and brittle framework. Therefore, it is critical to develop stretchable electronics which can physically stretch to absorb the strain associated with body movements. While research in stretchable electronics has started to gain momentum, a stretchable antenna which can perform far-field communications and can operate at constant frequency, such that physical shape modulation will not compromise its functionality, is yet to be realized. Here, a stretchable antenna is shown, using a low-cost metal (copper) on flexible polymeric platform, which functions at constant frequency of 2.45 GHz, for far-field applications. While mounted on a stretchable fabric worn by a human subject, the fabricated antenna communicated at a distance of 80 m with 1.25 mW transmitted power. This work shows an integration strategy from compact antenna design to its practical experimentation for enhanced data communication capability in future generation wearable electronics.

  7. Far-field radially polarized focal spot from plasmonic spiral structure combined with central aperture antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lei; Ren, Yuan; Lu, Yonghua; Lei, Xinrui; Jiang, Kang; Li, Kuanguo; Wang, Yong; Cui, Chenjing; Wen, Xiaolei; Wang, Pei

    2016-03-01

    Manipulation of a vector micro-beam with an optical antenna has significant potentials for nano-optical technology applications including bio-optics, optical fabrication, and quantum information processing. We have designed and demonstrated a central aperture antenna within an Archimedean spiral that extracts the bonding plasmonic field from a surface to produce a new vector focal spot in far-field. The properties of this vector focal field are revealed by confocal microscopy and theoretical simulations. The pattern, polarization and phase of the focal field are determined by the incident light and by the chirality of the Archimedean spiral. For incident light with right-handed circular polarization, the left-handed spiral (one-order chirality) outputs a micro-radially polarized focal field. Our results reveal the relationship between the near-field and far-field distributions of the plasmonic spiral structure, and the structure has the potential to lead to advances in diverse applications such as plasmonic lenses, near-field angular momentum detection, and optical tweezers.

  8. Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhai, Feng; Hu, Debo; Liu, Ruina; Liu, Kaihui; Sun, Zhipei; Dai, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy, especially for molecular vibrations in the fingerprint region between 600 and 1,500 cm−1, is a powerful characterization method for bulk materials. However, molecular fingerprinting at the nanoscale level still remains a significant challenge, due to weak light–matter interaction between micron-wavelengthed infrared light and nano-sized molecules. Here we demonstrate molecular fingerprinting at the nanoscale level using our specially designed graphene plasmonic structure on CaF2 nanofilm. This structure not only avoids the plasmon–phonon hybridization, but also provides in situ electrically-tunable graphene plasmon covering the entire molecular fingerprint region, which was previously unattainable. In addition, undisturbed and highly confined graphene plasmon offers simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane vibrational modes with ultrahigh detection sensitivity down to the sub-monolayer level, significantly pushing the current detection limit of far-field mid-infrared spectroscopies. Our results provide a platform, fulfilling the long-awaited expectation of high sensitivity and selectivity far-field fingerprint detection of nano-scale molecules for numerous applications. PMID:27460765

  9. Plasmonic and Mie scattering control of far-field interference for regular ripple formation on various material substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Go; Maeda, Naoki; Miyanishi, Tomoya; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N; Obara, Minoru

    2011-09-26

    We present experimental and theoretical results on plasmonic control of far-field interference for regular ripple formation on semiconductor and metal. Experimental observation of interference ripple pattern on Si substrate originating from the gold nanosphere irradiated by femtosecond laser is presented. Gold nanosphere is found to be an origin for ripple formation. Arbitrary intensity ripple patterns are theoretically controllable by depositing desired plasmonic and Mie scattering far-field pattern generators. The plasmonic far-field generation is demonstrated not only by metallic nanostructures but also by the controlled surface structures such as ridge and trench structures on various material substrates.

  10. Can two partially coherent cosh-Gaussian beams generate far fields with the same spectral degree of coherence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Su-Ye; Lü Bai-Da

    2009-01-01

    Taking partially coherent cosh-Gaussian (ChG) beams as an example of more general partially coherent beams,we have studied the spectral degree of coherence of partially coherent ChG beams in the far field. It is shown that,unlike Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams,in the strict sense there do not exist two partially coherent ChG beams which can generate far fields with the same spectral degree of coherence. However,under certain conditions it is possible to find two partially coherent ChG beams with the same spectral degree of coherence in the far field.

  11. Planar Near-Field Phase Retrieval Using GPUs for Accurate THz Far-Field Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkin, Gary

    2013-04-01

    With a view to using Phase Retrieval to accurately predict Terahertz antenna far-field from near-field intensity measurements, this paper reports on three fundamental advances that achieve very low algorithmic error penalties. The first is a new Gaussian beam analysis that provides accurate initial complex aperture estimates including defocus and astigmatic phase errors, based only on first and second moment calculations. The second is a powerful noise tolerant near-field Phase Retrieval algorithm that combines Anderson's Plane-to-Plane (PTP) with Fienup's Hybrid-Input-Output (HIO) and Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) to achieve increased accuracy at reduced scan separations. The third advance employs teraflop Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) to achieve practically real time near-field phase retrieval and to obtain the optimum aperture constraint without any a priori information.

  12. Terminating Ventricular Fibrillation Using Pulsed Far-Field Stimulation in Whole Rabbit Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Amgad; Hornung, Daniel; Bittihn, Philip; Xia Wu, Dong; Krinsky, Valentin; Zabel, Markus; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Luther, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    During life-threatening cardiac fibrillation, chaotic spatio-temporal dynamics is mediated by vortex-like rotating waves. Current defibrillation strategies rely on global control through high-energy shocks, which may have severe side-effects including traumatic pain and tissue damage. Far-field antifibrillation pacing terminates fibrillation using a train of low-energy electric pulses [1,2]. Using optical mapping in isolated rabbit heart preparations, we evaluate the efficiency and robustness of this approach. We found that a series of pulses at low energies (ventricular fibrillation with a success rate of 95%. We will discuss the physical mechanisms involved.[4pt] [1] F.H. Fenton et al, Circulation 120 467-476 (2009).[0pt] [2] A. Pumir et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 208101 (2007).

  13. Computation of unsteady transonic flows through rotating and stationary cascades. 3: Acoustic far-field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, S.; Fischer, D.; Erdos, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    A small perturbation type analysis has been developed for the acoustic far field in an infinite duct extending upstream and downstream of an axial turbomachinery stage. The analysis is designed to interface with a numerical solution of the near field of the blade rows and, thereby, to provide the necessary closure condition to complete the statement of infinite duct boundary conditions for the subject problem. The present analysis differs from conventional inlet duct analyses in that a simple harmonic time dependence was not assumed, since a transient signal is generated by the numerical near-field solution and periodicity is attained only asymptotically. A description of the computer code developed to carry out the necessary convolutions numerically is included, as well as the results of a sample application using an impulsively initiated harmonic signal.

  14. Far-field characterization of the thermal dynamics in lasing microspheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez, J M; Capuj, N E; Berencen, Y; Pitanti, A; Garrido, B; Tredicucci, A

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the dynamical thermal behavior of lasing microspheres placed on a dielectric substrate while they are homogeneously heated-up by the top-pump laser used to excite the active medium. The lasing modes are collected in the far-field and their temporal spectral traces show characteristic lifetimes of about 2 ms. The latter values scale with the microsphere radius and are independent of the pump power in the studied range. Finite-Element Method simulations reproduce the experimental results, revealing that the thermal dynamics is dominated by the heat dissipated towards the substrate through the medium surrounding the contact point. The characteristic system scale regarding thermal transport is of few hundreds of nanometers, thus enabling an effective toy model for investigating heat conduction in non-continuum gaseous media and near-field radiative energy transfer.

  15. Far-field nanoscale infrared spectroscopy of vibrational fingerprints of molecules with graphene plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Hai; Zhai, Feng; Hu, Debo; Liu, Ruina; Liu, Kaihui; Sun, Zhipei; Dai, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy, especially for molecular vibrations in the fingerprint region between 600 and 1500 cm-1, is a powerful characterization method for bulk materials. However, molecular fingerprinting at the nanoscale level still remains a significant challenge, due to weak light-matter interaction between micron-wavelengthed infrared light and nano-sized molecules. Here, we demonstrate molecular fingerprinting at the nanoscale level using our specially designed graphene plasmonic structure on CaF2 nanofilm. This structure not only avoids the plasmon-phonon hybridization, but also provides in situ electrically-tunable graphene plasmon covering the entire infrared fingerprint region, which was previously unattainable. In addition, undisturbed and highly-confined graphene plasmon offers simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane vibrational modes with ultrahigh detection sensitivity down to the sub-monolayer level, significantly pushing the current detection limit of far-field mid-infrared spectrosc...

  16. Far field emission profile of pure wurtzite InP nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgarini, Gabriele, E-mail: g.bulgarini@tudelft.nl; Reimer, Michael E.; Zwiller, Val [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J.; Lapointe, Jean [National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2014-11-10

    We report on the far field emission profile of pure wurtzite InP nanowires in comparison to InP nanowires with predominantly zincblende crystal structure. The emission profile is measured on individual nanowires using Fourier microscopy. The most intense photoluminescence of wurtzite nanowires is collected at small angles with respect to the nanowire growth axis. In contrast, zincblende nanowires present a minimum of the collected light intensity in the direction of the nanowire growth. Results are explained by the orientation of electric dipoles responsible for the photoluminescence, which is different from wurtzite to zincblende. Wurtzite nanowires have dipoles oriented perpendicular to the nanowire growth direction, whereas zincblende nanowires have dipoles oriented along the nanowire axis. This interpretation is confirmed by both numerical simulations and polarization dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. Knowledge of the dipole orientation in nanostructures is crucial for developing a wide range of photonic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells.

  17. Optical far-field super-resolution microscopy using nitrogen vacancy center ensemble in bulk diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shen; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Dong, Yang; Zou, Chong-Wen; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical far-field super-resolution microscopy using array of nitrogen vacancy centers in bulk diamond as near-field optical probes. The local optical field, which transmits through the nanostructures on the diamond surface, is measured by detecting the charge state conversion of nitrogen vacancy center. And the locating of nitrogen vacancy center with spatial resolution of 6.1 nm is realized with the charge state depletion nanoscopy. The nanostructures on the surface of diamond are then imaged with resolution below optical diffraction limit. The results offer an approach to built a general-purpose optical super-resolution microscopy and a convenient platform for high spatial resolution quantum sensing with nitrogen vacancy center.

  18. Far-Field Plasmonic Resonance Enhanced Nano-Particle Image Velocimetry within a Micro Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhili; Haque, Sara S; Zhang, Mingjun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel far-field plasmonic resonance enhanced nanoparticle-seeded Particle Image Velocimetry (nPIV) has been demonstrated to measure the velocity profile in a micro channel. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles have been used to seed the flow in the micro channel. By using Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), plasmonic resonance enhanced light scattering has been calculated for spherical silver nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 15nm to 200nm. Optimum scattering wavelength is specified for the nanoparticles in two media: water and air. The diffraction-limited plasmonic resonance enhanced images of silver nanoparticles at different diameters have been recorded and analyzed. By using standard PIV techniques, the velocity profile within the micro channel has been determined from the images.

  19. Optical far-field super-resolution microscopy using nitrogen vacancy center ensemble in bulk diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shen; Chen, Xiang-dong; Zhao, Bo-Wen; Dong, Yang; Zou, Chong-Wen; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate optical far-field super-resolution microscopy using an array of nitrogen vacancy centers in bulk diamond as near-field optical probes. The local optical field, which transmits through the nanostructures on the diamond surface, is measured by detecting the charge state conversion of the nitrogen vacancy center. Locating the nitrogen vacancy center with a spatial resolution of 6.1 nm is realized with charge state depletion nanoscopy. The nanostructures on the surface of a diamond are then imaged with a resolution below the optical diffraction limit. The results offer an approach to build a general-purpose optical super-resolution microscopy technique and a convenient platform for high spatial resolution quantum sensing with nitrogen vacancy centers.

  20. Spatial frequency characterisation of a far-field superlens to facilitate general purpose imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadakar Masouleh, Farzaneh; Teal, Paul; Moore, Ciaran

    2016-04-01

    Based on sub-wavelength energy concentration and enhancement of evanescent fields, far-field super-lenses (FSLs) were proposed recently as a means to achieve super-resolution imaging and thus improve the accuracy and resolution of optical microscopy. Comprised of a thin-film plasmonic enhancement layer and a diffraction grating, the performance of FSLs depends greatly on the geometry and size of its constituent parts. In this paper, we aim to characterize the resolution capabilities of FSLs in a novel and meaningful way, while also exploring the effects of non-ideal grating geometries due to fabrication limitations on imaging performance. We use finite element modelling to explore trapezoidal, inverse-trapezoidal, circular, rounded rectangular, and rectangular grating profiles and present a transfer function that quantifies the performance of these grating profiles in terms of their transmission at different wavenumbers.

  1. Far-field and near-field investigation of plasmonic-photonic hybrid laser mode

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Taiping; Callard, Ségolène; jamois, Cecile; Letartre, Xavier; Chevalier, Celine; Rojo-Romeo, Pedro; Devif, Brice; Viktorovitch, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We report an approach to achieve this goal via build a plasmonic-dielectric photonic hybrid system. We induce a defect mode based photonic crystal (PC) cavity to work as a intermedium storage as well as a near-field light source to excite a plasmonic nanoantenna (NA). In this way, a plasmonic-photonic nano-laser source is created in present experiment. The coupling condition between the two elements is investigated in far-field and near-field level. We found that the NA reduces the Q-factor of the PC-cavity. Meanwhile, the NA concentrates and enhances the laser emission of the PC-cavity. This novel hybrid dielectric-plasmonic structure may open a new avenue in the generation of nano-light sources, which can be applied in areas such as optical information storage, non-linear optics, optical trapping and detection, integrated optics, etc.

  2. An atmospheric backscatter model on wind measurements using far-field approximation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Weiping; ZHAO Zhengyu

    2007-01-01

    A backscatter model was developed for measuring wind field with the far-field approximation method.The theoretical computation and computer simulations with one spatial dimension show that this model can realistically describe the physical meaning and process of the three methods in wind measurements including the spaced antenna (SA) method,Doppler beam swing (DBS) method,and spaced interferometry (SI).The computational difficulties of the traditional theoretical model cannot only be smoothed away,but common characteristics and differences of the three methods can be compared deeply.The comparison of the numerical results between the Wuhan medium frequency (MF) radar (30° N,114° E) observation and the computer simulation of the full correlation analysis (FCA) of the SA method indicates that the two results agree very well and this model has practical application.

  3. Exploiting spatiotemporal degrees of freedom for far field subwavelength focusing using time reversal in fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Dupré, Matthieu; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2016-01-01

    Materials which possess a high local density of states varying at a subwavelength scale theoretically permit to focus waves onto focal spots much smaller than the free space wavelength. To do so metamaterials -manmade composite media exhibiting properties not available in nature- are usually considered. However this approach is limited to narrow bandwidths due to their resonant nature. Here, we prove that it is possible to use a fractal resonator alongside time reversal to focus microwaves onto $\\lambda/15$ subwavelength focal spots from the far field, on extremely wide bandwidths. We first numerically prove that this approach can be realized using a multiple channel time reversal mirror, that utilizes all the degrees of freedom offered by the fractal resonator. Then we experimentally demonstrate that this approach can be drastically simplified by coupling the fractal resonator to a complex medium, here a cavity, that efficiently converts its spatial degrees of freedom into temporal ones. This allows to achie...

  4. Image restoration for indirectly far-field image using microlenses array integrated with LCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fugui; Wang, Anting; Lei, Dong; Zhe, Cui; Ming, Hai

    2010-10-01

    Image restoration for constructing high-spatial-resolution images in an imaging system which realizes indirectly far-filed imaging by integrating the microlenses array with LCD is reported. We have investigated the indirectly far-field imaging condition where adjacent sampling points contribute the detected signal. Experimental setup with microlens of 500 μm diameter and 8 mm focal length is built to prove this condition by studying performance of image restoration using modified point spread function (PSF). Since any one iterative method is not optimal for all image deblurring problems, some deblurring algorithms including direct deconvolution and iterative deconvolution are applied to our imaging system and we compared the effectiveness of these iterative procedures to choose right one for our use.

  5. Single and dual-Gregorian reflector antenna shaped beam far-field synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, M. J.

    The direct far-field G.O. synthesis of shaped beam reflector antennas has recently been treated by Mehler, Tun and Adatia (1986). These authors use a synthesis technique which exploits complex coordinates and which is based on a method originally considered by Norris and Westcott (1976). They describe the synthesis of single reflector antennas which radiate both elliptical beams and European coverage patterns. Here this technique is extended to consider a class of dual reflector antennas which possess shaped main reflectors and conic subreflectors. An example is given of a Gregorian duel reflector antenna which radiates a cross-polar field significantly smaller than that radiated by single shaped reflector antennas. In addition, the behavior of the radiation pattern as a function of the reflector diameter is investigated.

  6. Multifunctional microscope for far-field and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Christophe; Yeo, Boon-Siang; Melanson, Jeremy; Zenobi, Renato

    2006-02-01

    The development of a versatile and easy-to-use instrument designed for Raman micro- and nanospectroscopy in the visible range is described in this work. An atomic force microscope, an inverted confocal microscope, and a piezostage are combined to perform an accurate and fast tip-laser alignment and to characterize large areas under the same conditions of illumination across the surface. In addition, a metallized tip is used to locally enhance the electromagnetic field and to probe the sample surface leading to in situ chemical analysis at the nanoscale. Both far-field and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopies (TERS) have been carried out on dye molecules and on nano-objects with short exposure times. The TERS observation of tip-induced sample deformation on single-walled carbon nanotubes is also presented.

  7. Far-field characteristics of the square grooved-dielectric lens antenna for the terahertz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wu; Zeng, Wei

    2016-09-10

    In order to improve the gain and directionality of a terahertz antenna, a square grooved-dielectric lens antenna based on a Fresnel zone plate is proposed. First, a diagonal horn, which is adopted as the primary feed antenna, is designed. Then, the far-field characteristics of the lens antenna are studied by using Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory and the paraxial approximation. The effects of the full-wave period, the focus diameter ratio, the subregion, and the dielectric substrate thickness on radiation characteristics are studied. The experimental results show that the proposed lens antenna has axisymmetric radiation patterns. The gain is over 26.1 dB, and the 3 dB main lobe beam width is lower than 5.6° across the operation band. The proposed lens antenna is qualified for applications in terahertz wireless communication systems.

  8. Far-Field Distributions of Double-Heterostructure Diode Lasers: an Improved Non-Equiphase Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-Guo; DUAN Kai-Liang; LU Bai-Da

    2007-01-01

    A non-equiphase Gaussian model is proposed to simulate the far-field distributions ofdouble-heterostructure diode lasers, which is physically reasonable because the phase along the junction of diode lasers could not be equal. A comparison of the numerically calculated intensity profiles in using the equal phase and non-equiphase models with the experimentally measured intensity profiles given by Nemoto shows that in the x direction perpendicular to the junction plane, the non-equiphase Gaussian model is as good as the equal phase Gaussian model. Specifically,in the y direction parallel to the junction plane and the 45° direction with respect to the x axis in the xoy plane,the numerical results by using the non-equiphase model are in good agreement with the experimental data, as the propagation distance is larger than a certain value.

  9. Realization of periodic and quasiperiodic microstructures with sub-diffraction-limit feature sizes by far-field holographic lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2006-09-01

    The authors experimentally demonstrate a far-field holography for the realization of Ag nanoparticles-embedded periodic and quasiperiodic microstructures with feature sizes beyond the diffraction limit. Periodic cylindrical nanoshell arrays with about 240nm hole diameter and 12-fold symmetry quasiperiodic structures with 220nm feature sizes are achieved, respectively, by using a 632.8nm laser beam. Our results imply that conventional far-field optical technology is capable of fabricating nanostructures in modern micromanufacture.

  10. Femtosecond refractive-index tailoring of an optical fiber and phase retrieval from far-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation.......A refractive-index change is written inside an optical fiber close to the end face by femtosecond laser light. The induced phase change is measured by analyzing the far-field intensity profiles before and after the irradiation....

  11. Far-Field to Near-Field Coupling for Enhancing Light-Matter Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Alireza

    This thesis reports on theoretical, modeling, and experimental research within the framework of a key scientific question, which is enhancing the coupling between diffraction-limited far-field and sub-wavelength quantum emitter/absorber. A typical optoelectronic device delivers an optical process such as light detection (e.g. photodetector) or light intensity modulation (e.g. electro-absorptive modulator). In conventional devices, optical process is in the form of far-field or guided wave modes. The main aim of this thesis is to show that converting these modes into near-field domain can enhance the performance of the optoelectronic device. Light in the form of far-field can be converted into near-field domain by the optical antenna. Among different optoelectronic devices, this thesis focuses mainly on integrating the optical antenna with infrared photodetectors. The available semiconductors have weak infrared absorption that reduces light detection efficiency. Integration of the optical antenna with infrared absorber (such as quantum wells in quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)) increases the infrared absorption. Particularly this integration is favorable as the optical antenna has low metallic loss in infrared region. The author of this thesis believes that optical antenna has unique properties in confining light on the scale of deep sub-wavelength, enhancing electric field intensity and delivering optical energy to semiconductor absorbers. These properties are reaching into practical applications only if overall optical performance is low loss, parameter free (independent of optical parameters such a polarization and angle of incident) and broadband. In this thesis, the integration of optical antenna with infrared photodetectors and thermophotovoltaic are researched and developed which satisfy the aforementioned criteria. In addition, several different optical antennas have been designed, fabricated and characterized in order to analyze and demonstrate

  12. Far-field method for the characterisation of three-dimensional fields: vectorial polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, O.; Lara, D.; Dainty, C.

    2010-06-01

    The first attempt to completely characterise a three-dimensional field was done by Ellis and Dogariu with excellent results reported [1] . However, their method is based on near-field techniques, which limits its range of applications. In this work, we present an alternative far-field method for the characterisation of the three-dimensional field that results from the interaction of a tightly focused three-dimensional field [2] with a sub-resolution specimen. Our method is based on the analysis of the scattering-angle-resolved polarisation state distribution across the exit pupil of a high numerical aperture (NA) collector lens using standard polarimetry techniques. Details of the method, the experimental setup built to verify its capabilities, and numerical and first experimental evidence demonstrating that the method allows for high sensitivit y on sub-resolution displacements of a sub-resolution specimen shall be presented [3]. This work is funded by Science Foundation Ireland grant No. 07/IN.1/I906 and Shimadzu Corporation, Japan. Oscar Rodríguez is grateful to the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT, Mexico) for the Ph D scholarship 177627.

  13. Tsunami Size Distributions at Far-Field Locations from Aggregated Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of tsunami amplitudes at far-field tide gauge stations is explained by aggregating the probability of tsunamis derived from individual subduction zones and scaled by their seismic moment. The observed tsunami amplitude distributions of both continental (e.g., San Francisco) and island (e.g., Hilo) stations distant from subduction zones are examined. Although the observed probability distributions nominally follow a Pareto (power-law) distribution, there are significant deviations. Some stations exhibit varying degrees of tapering of the distribution at high amplitudes and, in the case of the Hilo station, there is a prominent break in slope on log-log probability plots. There are also differences in the slopes of the observed distributions among stations that can be significant. To explain these differences we first estimate seismic moment distributions of observed earthquakes for major subduction zones. Second, regression models are developed that relate the tsunami amplitude at a station to seismic moment at a subduction zone, correcting for epicentral distance. The seismic moment distribution is then transformed to a site-specific tsunami amplitude distribution using the regression model. Finally, a mixture distribution is developed, aggregating the transformed tsunami distributions from all relevant subduction zones. This mixture distribution is compared to the observed distribution to assess the performance of the method described above. This method allows us to estimate the largest tsunami that can be expected in a given time period at a station.

  14. EM Modeling of Far-Field Radiation Patterns for Antennas on the GMA-TT UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    2015-01-01

    To optimize communication with the Generic Modular Aircraft T-Tail (GMA-TT) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), electromagnetic (EM) simulations have been performed to predict the performance of two antenna types on the aircraft. Simulated far-field radiation patterns tell the amount of power radiated by the antennas and the aircraft together, taking into account blockage by the aircraft as well as radiation by conducting and dielectric portions of the aircraft. With a knowledge of the polarization and distance of the two communicating antennas, e.g. one on the UAV and one on the ground, and the transmitted signal strength, a calculation may be performed to find the strength of the signal travelling from one antenna to the other and to check that the transmitted signal meets the receiver system requirements for the designated range. In order to do this, the antenna frequency and polarization must be known for each antenna, in addition to its design and location. The permittivity, permeability, and geometry of the UAV components must also be known. The full-wave method of moments solution produces the appropriate dBi radiation pattern in which the received signal strength is calculated relative to that of an isotropic radiator.

  15. Reconstruction of Far-Field Tsunami Amplitude Distributions from Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2016-12-01

    The probability distribution of far-field tsunami amplitudes is explained in relation to the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones. Tsunami amplitude distributions at tide gauge stations follow a similar functional form, well described by a tapered Pareto distribution that is parameterized by a power-law exponent and a corner amplitude. Distribution parameters are first established for eight tide gauge stations in the Pacific, using maximum likelihood estimation. A procedure is then developed to reconstruct the tsunami amplitude distribution that consists of four steps: (1) define the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones; (2) establish a source-station scaling relation from regression analysis; (3) transform the seismic moment distribution to a tsunami amplitude distribution for each subduction zone; and (4) mix the transformed distribution for all subduction zones to an aggregate tsunami amplitude distribution specific to the tide gauge station. The tsunami amplitude distribution is adequately reconstructed for four tide gauge stations using globally constant seismic moment distribution parameters established in previous studies. In comparisons to empirical tsunami amplitude distributions from maximum likelihood estimation, the reconstructed distributions consistently exhibit higher corner amplitude values, implying that in most cases, the empirical catalogs are too short to include the largest amplitudes. Because the reconstructed distribution is based on a catalog of earthquakes that is much larger than the tsunami catalog, it is less susceptible to the effects of record-breaking events and more indicative of the actual distribution of tsunami amplitudes.

  16. Steering far-field spin-dependent splitting of light by inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Xiaohui; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2012-01-01

    An inhomogeneous anisotropic medium with specific structure geometry can apply tunable spin-dependent geometrical phase to the light passing through the medium, and thus can be used to steer the spin-dependent splitting (SDS) of light. In this paper, we exemplify this inference by the $q$-plate, an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium. It is demonstrated that when a linearly polarized light beam normally passes through a $q$-plate, $k$-space SDS first occurs, and then the real-space SDS in the far-field focal plane of a converging lens is distinguishable. Interestingly, the SDS, described by the normalized Stokes parameter $S_3$, shows a multi-lobe and rotatable splitting pattern with rotational symmetry. Further, by tailoring the structure geometry of $q$-plate or/and incident polarization angle of light, the lobe number and the rotation angle both are tunable. Our result suggests that the $q$-plate can serve as potential devices for manipulating the photon spin states and enable applications such as in nano-opt...

  17. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for near-and far-field seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Geist, E.L.; Jaffe, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Mofjeld, H.; Synolakis, C.E.; Titov, V.V.; Areas, D.; Bellomo, D.; Carlton, D.; Horning, T.; Johnson, J.; Newman, J.; Parsons, T.; Peters, R.; Peterson, C.; Priest, G.; Venturato, A.; Weber, J.; Wong, F.; Yalciner, A.

    2009-01-01

    The first probabilistic tsunami flooding maps have been developed. The methodology, called probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), integrates tsunami inundation modeling with methods of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Application of the methodology to Seaside, Oregon, has yielded estimates of the spatial distribution of 100- and 500-year maximum tsunami amplitudes, i.e., amplitudes with 1% and 0.2% annual probability of exceedance. The 100-year tsunami is generated most frequently by far-field sources in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes that do not exceed 4 m, with an inland extent of less than 500 m. In contrast, the 500-year tsunami is dominated by local sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes in excess of 10 m and an inland extent of more than 1 km. The primary sources of uncertainty in these results include those associated with interevent time estimates, modeling of background sea level, and accounting for temporal changes in bathymetry and topography. Nonetheless, PTHA represents an important contribution to tsunami hazard assessment techniques; viewed in the broader context of risk analysis, PTHA provides a method for quantifying estimates of the likelihood and severity of the tsunami hazard, which can then be combined with vulnerability and exposure to yield estimates of tsunami risk. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Prediction of far-field wind turbine noise propagation with parabolic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongkyu; Lee, Dongjai; Honhoff, Saskia

    2016-08-01

    Sound propagation of wind farms is typically simulated by the use of engineering tools that are neglecting some atmospheric conditions and terrain effects. Wind and temperature profiles, however, can affect the propagation of sound and thus the perceived sound in the far field. A better understanding and application of those effects would allow a more optimized farm operation towards meeting noise regulations and optimizing energy yield. This paper presents the parabolic equation (PE) model development for accurate wind turbine noise propagation. The model is validated against analytic solutions for a uniform sound speed profile, benchmark problems for nonuniform sound speed profiles, and field sound test data for real environmental acoustics. It is shown that PE provides good agreement with the measured data, except upwind propagation cases in which turbulence scattering is important. Finally, the PE model uses computational fluid dynamics results as input to accurately predict sound propagation for complex flows such as wake flows. It is demonstrated that wake flows significantly modify the sound propagation characteristics.

  19. Reconstruction of Far-Field Tsunami Amplitude Distributions from Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The probability distribution of far-field tsunami amplitudes is explained in relation to the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones. Tsunami amplitude distributions at tide gauge stations follow a similar functional form, well described by a tapered Pareto distribution that is parameterized by a power-law exponent and a corner amplitude. Distribution parameters are first established for eight tide gauge stations in the Pacific, using maximum likelihood estimation. A procedure is then developed to reconstruct the tsunami amplitude distribution that consists of four steps: (1) define the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones; (2) establish a source-station scaling relation from regression analysis; (3) transform the seismic moment distribution to a tsunami amplitude distribution for each subduction zone; and (4) mix the transformed distribution for all subduction zones to an aggregate tsunami amplitude distribution specific to the tide gauge station. The tsunami amplitude distribution is adequately reconstructed for four tide gauge stations using globally constant seismic moment distribution parameters established in previous studies. In comparisons to empirical tsunami amplitude distributions from maximum likelihood estimation, the reconstructed distributions consistently exhibit higher corner amplitude values, implying that in most cases, the empirical catalogs are too short to include the largest amplitudes. Because the reconstructed distribution is based on a catalog of earthquakes that is much larger than the tsunami catalog, it is less susceptible to the effects of record-breaking events and more indicative of the actual distribution of tsunami amplitudes.

  20. EM modeling of far-field radiation patterns for antennas on the GMA-TT UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    2015-05-01

    To optimize communication with the Generic Modular Aircraft T-Tail (GMA-TT) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), electromagnetic (EM) simulations have been performed to predict the performance of two antenna types on the aircraft. Simulated far-field radiation patterns tell the amount of power radiated by the antennas and the aircraft together, taking into account blockage by the aircraft as well as radiation by conducting and dielectric portions of the aircraft. With a knowledge of the polarization and distance of the two communicating antennas, e.g. one on the UAV and one on the ground, and the transmitted signal strength, a calculation may be performed to find the strength of the signal travelling from one antenna to the other and to check that the transmitted signal meets the receiver system requirements for the designated range. In order to do this, the antenna frequency and polarization must be known for each antenna, in addition to its design and location. The permittivity, permeability, and geometry of the UAV components must also be known. The full-wave method of moments solution produces the appropriate dBi radiation pattern in which the received signal strength is calculated relative to that of an isotropic radiator.

  1. Characterization of far-field jet flows from complex nozzles via Particle Tracking Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Liberzon, Alex; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the advection, diffusion and mixing of turbulence and scalars of jet flows under various geometric configurations and Reynolds numbers is of high relevance in environmental and engineering applications. In this experimental study, we characterize the far-field turbulence of jet flows in the proximity of twelve rotor diameters downstream of a series of complex nozzle geometries. The jet flows are released into a still body of water from a series of nozzles of different cross sections but with common hydraulic diameter dh = 0.01 m at a Reynolds number Re = U0*dh/ ν approx. 7000, where U0 is the flow velocity at the outlet of the jet and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the flow. The system is closed-loop and seeded with particles of 100 μm diameter. Results are analyzed from Lagrangian and Eulerian frames of references via 3D particle tracking velocimetry (OpenPTV, www.openptv.net). Lagrangian features of the particles are characterized in terms of the nozzle geometries and high-order turbulence statistics are obtained at various planes within the interrogation volume, which mimics 3D PIV.

  2. Vectorial Structure of Non-Paraxial Linearly Polarized Gaussian Beam in Far Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guo-Quan; CHEN Liang; NI Yong-Zhou

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the vectorial structure of non-paraxial electromagnetic beams and the method of stationary phase,the analytical TE and TM terms of non-paraxial linearly polarized Gaussian beam are presented in the far field.The influence of linearly polarized angle on the relative energy flux distributions of the whole beam and its TE and TM terms is studied. The beam spot of the TE term is perpendicular to the direction of linearly polarized angle, while that of the TM term coincides with the direction of linearly polarized angle. The whole beam spot is elliptical, and the long axis is located at the direction of linearly polarized angle. The relative energy flux distribution of the TE term is relatively centralized in the direction perpendicular to the linearly polarized angle.While that of the TM term is relatively centralized in the direction of linearly polarized angle. To obtain the isolated TM and TE terms, a polarizer should be put at the long and the short axis of the whole beam. spot,respectively.

  3. Near-Field to Far-Field Transformation Techniques with Spiral Scannings: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cicchetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the near-field-far-field (NF-FF transformation techniques with innovative spiral scannings, useful to derive the radiation patterns of the antennas commonly employed in the modern wireless communication systems, is provided in this paper. The theoretical background and the development of a unified theory of the spiral scannings for quasi-spherical and nonspherical antennas are described, and an optimal sampling interpolation expansion to evaluate the probe response on a quite arbitrary rotational surface from a nonredundant number of its samples, collected along a proper spiral wrapping it, is presented. This unified theory can be applied to spirals wrapping the conventional scanning surfaces and makes it possible to accurately reconstruct the NF data required by the NF-FF transformation employing the corresponding classical scanning. A remarkable reduction of the measurement time is so achieved, due to the use of continuous and synchronized movements of the positioning systems and to the reduced number of needed NF measurements. Some numerical and experimental results relevant to the spherical spiral scanning case when dealing with quasi-planar and electrically long antennas are shown.

  4. Reconstruction of far-field tsunami amplitude distributions from earthquake sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The probability distribution of far-field tsunami amplitudes is explained in relation to the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones. Tsunami amplitude distributions at tide gauge stations follow a similar functional form, well described by a tapered Pareto distribution that is parameterized by a power-law exponent and a corner amplitude. Distribution parameters are first established for eight tide gauge stations in the Pacific, using maximum likelihood estimation. A procedure is then developed to reconstruct the tsunami amplitude distribution that consists of four steps: (1) define the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones; (2) establish a source-station scaling relation from regression analysis; (3) transform the seismic moment distribution to a tsunami amplitude distribution for each subduction zone; and (4) mix the transformed distribution for all subduction zones to an aggregate tsunami amplitude distribution specific to the tide gauge station. The tsunami amplitude distribution is adequately reconstructed for four tide gauge stations using globally constant seismic moment distribution parameters established in previous studies. In comparisons to empirical tsunami amplitude distributions from maximum likelihood estimation, the reconstructed distributions consistently exhibit higher corner amplitude values, implying that in most cases, the empirical catalogs are too short to include the largest amplitudes. Because the reconstructed distribution is based on a catalog of earthquakes that is much larger than the tsunami catalog, it is less susceptible to the effects of record-breaking events and more indicative of the actual distribution of tsunami amplitudes.

  5. Far-field Fano resonance in nanoring lattices modeled from extracted, point dipole polarizability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Forcherio, Gregory T. [Microelectronics and Photonics Graduate Program, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Blake, Phillip [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Keith Roper, D., E-mail: dkroper@uark.edu [Microelectronics and Photonics Graduate Program, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    Coupling and extinction of light among particles representable as point dipoles can be characterized using the coupled dipole approximation (CDA). The analytic form for dipole polarizability of spheroidal particles supports rapid electrodynamic analysis of nanoparticle lattices using CDA. However, computational expense increases for complex shapes with non-analytical polarizabilities which require discrete dipole (DDA) or higher order approximations. This work shows fast CDA analysis of assembled nanorings is possible using a single dipole nanoring polarizability extrapolated from a DDA calculation by summing contributions from individual polarizable volume elements. Plasmon resonance wavelengths of nanorings obtained using extracted polarizabilities blueshift as wall dimensions-to-inner radius aspect ratio increases, consistent with published theory and experiment. Calculated far-field Fano resonance energy maximum and minimum wavelengths were within 1% of full volume element results. Considering polarizability allows a more complete physical picture of predicting plasmon resonance location than metal dielectric alone. This method reduces time required for calculation of diffractive coupling more than 40 000-fold in ordered nanoring systems for 400–1400 nm incident wavelengths. Extension of this technique beyond nanorings is possible for more complex shapes that exhibit dipolar or quadrupole radiation patterns.

  6. Far-Field Voice Activity Detection and Its Applications in Adverse Acoustic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Voice Activity Detection (VAD), being in the focus of speech processing research for many years, is nowadays a mature technology with application in several sectors. Embedded VAD components in telecommunications systems (like in cellular telephony) attempt to reduce power consumption of transmitt......Voice Activity Detection (VAD), being in the focus of speech processing research for many years, is nowadays a mature technology with application in several sectors. Embedded VAD components in telecommunications systems (like in cellular telephony) attempt to reduce power consumption...... of transmitters and bandwidth utilization. VAD technology is also integrated in speech-processing systems, such as Speaker Identification, Automatic Event Detection, and Automatic Speech Recognition, to prevent their operation in the absence of speech, and thus reduce the error rates of each of these systems....... The performance of VAD systems depends strongly on various factors, including the discriminative ability of the classification criterion employed, the dynamics of the additive noise and the signal to noise ratio. Speech signals transmitted within reverberant enclosures and captured using far-field microphones...

  7. Sea-level probability for the last deglaciation: A statistical analysis of far-field records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, J. D.; Hemingway, R.; Rohling, E. J.; Challenor, P. G.; Medina-Elizalde, M.; Lester, A. J.

    2011-12-01

    Pulses of ice-sheet meltwater into the world ocean during the last deglaciation are of great current interest, because these large-scale events offer important test-beds for numerical models of the responses of ocean circulation and climate to meltwater addition. The largest such event has become known as meltwater pulse (mwp) 1a, with estimates of about 20 m of sea-level rise in about 500 years. A second meltwater pulse (mwp-1b) has been inferred from some sea-level records, but its existence has become debated following the presentation of additional records. Even the use of the more ubiquitous mwp-1a in modelling studies has been compromised by debate about its exact age, based upon perceived discrepancies between far-field sea-level records. It is clear that an objective investigation is needed to determine to what level inferred similarities and/or discrepancies between the various deglacial sea-level records are statistically rigorous (or not). For that purpose, we present a Monte Carlo style statistical analysis to determine the highest-probability sea-level history from six key far-field deglacial sea-level records, which fully accounts for realistic methodological and chronological uncertainties in all these records, and which is robust with respect to removal of individual component datasets. We find that sea-level rise started to accelerate into the deglaciation from around 17 ka BP. Within the deglacial rise, there were two distinct increases; one at around the timing of the Bølling warming (14.6 ka BP), and another, much broader, event that just post-dates the end of the Younger Dryas (11.3 ka BP). We interpret these as mwp-1a and mwp-1b, respectively. We find that mwp-1a occurred between 14.3 ka BP and 12.8 ka BP. Highest rates of sea-level rise occurred at ~ 13.8 ka, probably (67% confidence) within the range of 100-130 cm/century, although values may have been as high as 260 cm/century (99% confidence limit). Mwp-1b is robustly expressed as a broad

  8. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard in the NE Atlantic from Near- and Far-field Tectonic Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M.; Matias, L.; Carrilho, F.; Miranda, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the hazard posed by tsunamis must include an evaluation of the possible tsunami impact from near- and far-field sources as well as its likelihood of occurrence. In the NE Atlantic region, tsunami hazard assessment has been mainly performed through deterministic approaches considering regional most credible earthquake scenarios. This work focuses on the probabilistic approach for tsunami hazard assessment in the NE Atlantic region. The advantage of such approach consists of yielding information on the likelihood of tsunami impact in addition to the other components of hazard assessment (wave heights, inundation, run-up…etc). Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment approach, used here, integrates tsunami waveform and inundation modeling with probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methods. This approach consists of various steps: i) identification of tsunami sources and assessment of their annual rates of recurrence; ii) Numerical simulations of near-shore waveform and flooding; iii) Evaluation of the probability exceedance for wave heights and inundations for a given period of time; vi) Derivation of tsunami hazard curves. Both near- and far-field seismic sources able to trigger tsunamis that reach/affect the NE Atlantic coasts are considered in order to generate a set of credible scenarios for the region. This database incorporates various magnitude ranges of possible earthquakes generated at the potential tsunamigenic zones from the Gulf of Cadiz to the Caribbean. The annual recurrence rate of each magnitude range is derived through the Bayesian method that incorporates seismic information from historical catalog and instrumental periods for the Gulf of Cadiz, while we will use only instrumental information for the Caribbean source area. A numerical code, solving shallow water equations in their linear and non linear forms, is then employed to simulate the tsunami propagation and flooding resulting from the occurrence of the

  9. Linking near- and far-field hydrodynamic models for simulation of desalination plant brine discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, D A; Barry, M E; Collecutt, G C; Brook, J; Wiltshire, D

    2013-01-01

    A desalination plant is proposed to be the major water supply to the Olympic Dam Expansion Mining project. Located in the Upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia, the site was chosen due to the existence of strong currents and their likely advantages in terms of mixing and dilution of discharged return water. A high-resolution hydrodynamic model (Estuary, Lake and Coastal Ocean Model, ELCOM) was constructed and, through a rigorous review process, was shown to reproduce the intricate details of the Spencer Gulf dynamics, including those characterising the discharge site. Notwithstanding this, it was found that deploying typically adopted 'direct insertion' techniques to simulate the brine discharge within the hydrodynamic model was problematic. Specifically, it was found that in this study the direct insertion technique delivered highly conservative brine dilution predictions in and around the proposed site, and that these were grid and time-step dependent. To improve the predictive capability, a strategy to link validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions to hydrodynamic simulations was devised. In this strategy, environmental conditions from ELCOM were used to produce boundary conditions for execution of a suite of CFD simulations. In turn, the CFD simulations provided the brine dilutions and flow rates to be applied in ELCOM. In order to conserve mass in a system-wide sense, artificial salt sinks were introduced to the ELCOM model such that salt quantities were conserved. As a result of this process, ELCOM predictions were naturally very similar to CFD predictions near the diffuser, whilst at the same time they produced an area of influence (further afield) comparable to direct insertion methods. It was concluded that the linkage of the models, in comparison to direct insertion methods, constituted a more realistic and defensible alternative to predict the far-field dispersion of outfall discharges, particularly with regards to the estimation of brine

  10. Assessment of reflectivity of noise barriers in the far field – QUIESST method compared to traditional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, F. de

    2013-01-01

    The sound reflectivity of noise barriers elements is one of the major acoustic product characteristics. Traditionally this property was tested in reverberation rooms according to EN 1793-1 and the results were used to predict the effect of sound reflections in the far field. As in many cases these r

  11. Modeling of coastal effluent transport: an approach to linking far-field and near-field models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoqing; KHANGAOKAR Tarang

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges in effluent transport modeling in coastal tidal environments is the proper specification of initial dilution in connection with the far-field transport phenomena. An approach of external linkage of far-field and near-field effluent transport models is presented, and applied to simulating the effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor, Washington in the Strait of Juan de Fuea. A near-field plume model was used to calculate the effluent initial dilution and a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the tidal circulation and far-field effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor. The hydrodynamic model was driven by tides and surface winds. Observed water surface elevation and velocity data were used to calibrate the model over a period covering the neap-spring tidal cycle. The model was also validated with observed surface drogue trajectory data. The model successfully reproduced the tidal dynamics in the study area and good agreements between model results and observed data were obtained. It is demonstrated that the linkage between the near-field and far-field models in effluent transport modeling can be achieved through iteratively adjusting the model grid sizes such that the dilution ratio and effluent concentration in the circulation model grid cell match the concentration calculated by the near-field plume model.

  12. Analytical expressions for group delay in the far field from an optical fiber having an arbitrary index profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Per Lander

    1981-01-01

    A general and efficient model for optical fibers with a few modes and arbitrary index profiles is established. The model yields a solution of the vectorial wave equation and analytical expressions for the group delay and the far field. Convergence tests have shown that the dispersion can...

  13. Near-field and far-field engineering of semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanfang

    Plasmonics focuses on the interaction between light and metallic films or nanostructures. In the last two decades, intensive research efforts were devoted to exploring the extremely broad applications of plasmonics. My research combines the versatility of plasmonics with active light sources, i.e., quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). This thesis focuses on the application of plasmonics in near-field and far-field engineering of semiconductor lasers, specifically, subwavelength focusing in the near-field, and laser beam collimation and polarization control. The first chapter of this thesis lays out fundamental materials necessary for understanding the following chapters. Systematic simulation and experimental results are presented in Chapter 2 to demonstrate that the integration of a suitably designed one dimensional or two dimensional plasmonic structures on the facet of QCLs can reduce the beam divergence by more than one order of magnitude. The devices with optimized collimators preserve a high output power, comparable to that of the unpatterned lasers. Chapter 3 demonstrates that the polarization state of the output of semiconductor lasers can be controlled by defining plasmonic structures on the laser facet. An integrated plasmonic polarizer can project the polarization of a semiconductor laser onto other directions. By patterning a facet with two orthogonal grating-aperture structures, a QCL can produce emission consisting of a superposition of a linearly and right-circularly polarized light, a first step towards a circularly-polarized laser. Chapter 4 presents experimental work on the coupled-rod antennas and the bowtie antennas patterned on the facet of QCLs. Both designs can provide an optical field confinement on the order of lambda/50 and with peak intensity on the order of 1 GW/cm2 in the antenna gap. The bowtie devices are more advanced due to better confinement of light into a single spot. Chapter 5 and 6 discuss two side research topics. Chapter 5

  14. Far-field super-resolution imaging with a planar hyperbolic metamaterial lens beyond the Fabry-Perot resonance condition

    CERN Document Server

    Lv, Cheng; Jiang, Xunya; Cao, Juncheng

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate achieving the far-field super-resolution imaging can be realized by using a planar hyperbolic metamaterial lens (PHML), beyond the Fabry-Perot resonance condition. Although the thickness of the PHML is much larger than wavelength, the PHML not only can transmit radiative waves and evanescent waves with high transmission, but also can collect all the waves in the image region with the amplitudes of them being the same order of magnitude. We present a design for a PHML to realize the far-field super-resolution imaging, with the distance between the sources and the images 10 times larger than wavelength. We show the superresolution of our PHML is robust against losses, and the PHML can be fabricated by periodic stacking of metal and dielectric layers.

  15. Computation of Far-Field Noise from Vortex Shedding Behind a Circular Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; You, D.; Choi, M.-R.; Kang, S.-H.

    1996-11-01

    Laminar vortex sheddings behind a circular cylinder with and without splitter plates attached to the cylinder at low Reynolds numbers are simulated by solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The Strouhal number, lift and drag rapidly change with the length of the splitter plate. Far-field noise from the vortex shedding behind the cylinder is computed using the Curle's formulation of the Lighthill acoustic analogy. The acoustic source functions are obtained from the computed near-field velocity and pressure. Numerical results show that the volume quadrupole noise is small at a low Mach number, compared to the surface dipole noise from the cylinder. Variations of the far-field noise characteristics with respect to the splitter plate are being investigated and will be shown in the final presentation. ^* Supported by KOSEF under Contract No. 961-1009-075-2

  16. Far-field properties and beam quality of vectorial Hermite-Laguerre-Gaussian beams beyond the paraxial approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiaoping; He, Zhong; Lü, Baida

    2007-07-01

    The far-field properties and beam quality of vectorial nonparaxial Hermite-Laguerre-Gaussian (HLG) beams are studied in detail, where, instead of the second-order-moments-based M2 factor, the extended power in the bucket (PIB) and βparameter are used to characterize the beam quality in the far field and the intensity in the formulae is replaced by the z component of the time-averaged Poynting vector . It is found that the PIB and βparameter of vectorial nonparaxial HLG beams depend on the mode indices n, m, αparameter and waist-width-to-wavelength ratio w0/ λ and the PIB and βparameter are additionally dependent on the bucket's size taken.

  17. Emergence of spatiotemporal chaos arising from far-field breakup of spiral waves in the plankton ecological systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Quan-Xing; Sun Gui-Quan; Jin Zhen; Li Bai-Lian

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that the minimal spatially extended phytoplankton-zooplankton system exhibits both tem-poral regular/chaotic behaviour, and spatiotemporal chaos in a patchy environment. As a further investigation by means of computer simulations and theoretical analysis, in this paper we observe that the spiral waves may exist and the spatiotcmporal chaos emerge when the parameters are within the mixed Turing Hopf bifurcation region, which arises from the far-field breakup of the spiral waves over a large range of diffusion coefficients of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Moreover, the spatiotemporal chaos arising from the far-field breakup of spiral waves does not gradually invade the whole space of that region. Our results arc confirmed by nonlinear bifurcation of wave trains. We also discuss ecological implications of these spatially structured patterns.

  18. Numerical analysis of near and far field patterns of second-harmonic generation with tiling nonlinear optical crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harimoto, T [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Shiraga, H [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: harimoto@yamanashi.ac.jp

    2008-05-01

    We report numerical analysis of near- and far-field patterns of the second-harmonic wave in a large-scale high-power laser used in the laser fusion with type I KDP crystals arranged in a tiling style. The thickness and phase-matching angle of the tiling crystals are designed based on the near-field pattern of the second-harmonic wave. The tilting angle error and thickness difference of the tiling crystals are evaluated by the energy distribution included in the Airy spot of the far-field pattern at the focal point. The parallelism and flatness of the tiling crystals can also be estimated with the same method.

  19. Magnetoelectric-field microwave antennas: Far-field orbital angular momenta from chiral-topology near fields

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, M; Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    The near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations have space and time symmetry breakings. Such MDM originated fields, called magnetoelectric (ME) fields, carry both spin and orbital angular momentums. By virtue of unique topology, ME fields are strongly different from free-space electromagnetic (EM) fields. In this paper, we show that because of chiral topology of ME fields in a nearfield region, far-field orbital angular momenta (OAM) can be observed, both numerically and experimentally. In a single element antenna, we obtain a radiation pattern with an angular squint. We reveal that in far field microwave radiation a crucial role is played by the ME energy distribution in the near-field region.

  20. An Exact Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminnated by Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, Erik;

    2003-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles. The source and observation points can take on almost arbitrary positions. To illustrate the exactness and efficiency of the new line integral, numerical comparisons with the conventional surface radiation integral are carried out....

  1. Coherent addition of gratings for chirped-pulse-amplified lasers based on near-field and far-field measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuchuan Yang; Hui Luo; Xiao Wang; Fuquan Li; Xiaojun Huang; Bin Feng; Feng Jing

    2011-01-01

    @@ The development of phased-array grating compressor is a crucial issue for high-energy, ultra-short pulse petawatt-class lasers.Almost all systems have adopted a tiled-grating approach to meet the size require-ments for the compression gratings.We present a computer-control test system utilizing near-field interfer-ence and far-field focusing capable of monitoring and fast correcting tiled errors of the grating compressor.In this system, the tilt/tip errors between the two gratings are determined by the Fourier transform (FT)of the individual inteiference fringe, and the piston errors are determined by the ratio of the two primary peaks formed in the far-field pattern as a function of the piston difference.Monochromatic grating phasing is achieved experimentally and pulse compression is demonstrated with a tiled grating system.%The development of phased-array grating compressor is a crucial issue for high-energy, ultra-short pulse petawatt-class lasers. Almost all systems have adopted a tiled-grating approach to meet the size requirements for the compression gratings. We present a computer-control test system utilizing near-field interference and far-field focusing capable of monitoring and fast correcting tiled errors of the grating compressor.In this system, the tilt/tip errors between the two gratings are determined by the Fourier transform (FT)of the individual inter ference fringe, and the piston errors are determined by the ratio of the two primary peaks formed in the far-field pattern as a function of the piston difference. Monochromatic grating phasing is achieved experimentally and pulse compression is demonstrated with a tiled grating system.

  2. Optical phase cloaking of 700 nm light waves in the far field by a three-dimensional carpet cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Tolga; Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin

    2011-10-21

    Transformation optics is a design tool that connects the geometry of space and propagation of light. Invisibility cloaking is a corresponding benchmark example. Recent experiments at optical frequencies have demonstrated cloaking for the light amplitude only. In this Letter, we demonstrate far-field cloaking of the light phase by interferometric microscope-imaging experiments on the previously introduced three-dimensional carpet cloak at 700 nm wavelength and for arbitrary polarization of light.

  3. The simulation of far-field wavelets using frequency-domain air-gun array near-field wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jian-Guo; Deng Yong; Tong Xin-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Air-gun arrays are used in marine-seismic exploration. Far-field wavelets in subsurface media represent the stacking of single air-gun ideal wavelets. We derived single air-gun ideal wavelets using near-field wavelets recorded from near-field geophones and then synthesized them into far-field wavelets. This is critical for processing wavelets in marine-seismic exploration. For this purpose, several algorithms are currently used to decompose and synthesize wavelets in the time domain. If the traveltime of single air-gun wavelets is not an integral multiple of the sampling interval, the complex and error-prone resampling of the seismic signals using the time-domain method is necessary. Based on the relation between the frequency-domain phase and the time-domain time delay, we propose a method that first transforms the real near-field wavelet to the frequency domain via Fourier transforms;then, it decomposes it and composes the wavelet spectrum in the frequency domain, and then back transforms it to the time domain. Thus, the resampling problem is avoided and single air-gun wavelets and far-field wavelets can be reliably derived. The effect of ghost reflections is also considered, while decomposing the wavelet and removing the ghost reflections. Modeling and real data processing were used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. Energy flux density and angular momentum density of Pearcey-Gauss vortex beams in the far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K.; Lu, G.; Zhong, X.

    2017-02-01

    The longitudinal and transverse energy flux density (EFD) and angular momentum density (AMD) of a Pearcey-Gauss vortex beam in the far field are studied using the vector angular spectrum representation and stationary phase method, where the influence of topological charge, noncanonical strength and off-axis distance of the embedded optical vortex on far-field vectorial structures of the corresponding beam is emphasized. For comparison, the EFD and AMD of the Pearcey-Gauss beam with non-vortex in the far field are also discussed. The results show that the longitudinal EFDs of the Pearcey-Gauss vortex beam exhibit parabolic patterns, and the number of parabolic dark zones equals the absolute value of topological charge of the embedded optical vortex in the input plane. While for the Pearcey-Gauss beam, the dark zones are not found owing to the non-vortex in the input plane. The motion of zero-intensity spot of whole beam appears by varying the off-axis distance. Noncanonical strength and off-axis distance both can adjust the magnitudes and directions of transverse EFD and control the spatial energy distributions of longitudinal EFD, but not change the net AMD.

  5. Inverse extraction of interfacial tractions from elastic and elasto-plastic far-fields by nonlinear field projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Huck Beng

    2013-01-01

    Determining the tractions along a surface or interface from measurement data in the far-fields of nonlinear materials is a challenging inverse problem which has significant engineering and nanoscience applications. Previously, a field projection method was established to identify the crack-tip cohesive zone constitutive relations in an isotropic elastic solid (Hong and Kim, 2003. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 51, 1267). In this paper, the field projection method is further generalized to extracting the tractions along interfaces bounded by nonlinear materials, both with and without pre-existing cracks. The new formulation is based on Maxwell-Betti's reciprocal theorem with a reciprocity gap associated with nonlinear materials. We express the unknown normal and shear tractions along the interface in terms of the Fourier series, and use specially constructed analytical auxiliary fields in the reciprocal theorem to extract the unknown Fourier coefficients from far-field data; the reciprocity gap in the formulation is iteratively determined with a set of numerical algorithms. Our detailed numerical experiments demonstrate that this nonlinear field projection method (NFPM) is well-suited for extracting the interfacial tractions from the far-field data of any nonlinear elastic or elasto-plastic material with known constitutive laws. Applications of the NFPM to experiments and atomistic simulations are discussed.

  6. Analysis of RF Front-End Performance of Reconfigurable Antennas with RF Switches in the Far Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insu Yeom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The RF front-end performances in the far-field condition of reconfigurable antennas employing two commonly used RF switching devices (PIN diodes and RF-MEMS switches were compared. Two types of antennas (monopole and slot representing general direct/coupled feed types were used for the reconfigurable antennas to compare the excited RF power to the RF switches by the reconfigurable antenna types. For the switching operation of the antennas, a biasing circuit was designed and embedded in the same antenna board, which included a battery to emphasize the antenna’s adaptability to mobile devices. The measurement results of each reconfigurable antenna (radiation patterns and return losses are presented in this study. The receiving power of the reference antenna was measured by varying the transmitting power of the reconfigurable antennas in the far-field condition. The receiving power was analyzed using the “Friis transmission equation” and compared for two switching elements. Based on the results of these measurements and comparisons, we discuss what constitutes an appropriate switch device and antenna type for reconfigurable antennas of mobile devices in the far-field condition.

  7. Thermo-mechanical modeling of continental rift evolution over mantle upwelling in presence of far-field stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, Alexander; Burov, Evgueni; Calais, Eric; Leroy, Sylvie; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    We conducted fully-coupled high resolution rheologically consistent 3D thermo-mechanical numerical models to investigate the processes of mantle-lithosphere interaction (MLI) in presence of preexisting far-field tectonic stresses. MLI-induced topography exhibits strongly asymmetric small-scale 3D features, such as rifts, flexural flank uplifts and complex faults structures. This suggests a dominant role of continental rheological structure and intra-plate stresses in controlling continental rifting and break-up processes above mantle upwelling while reconciling the passive (far-field tectonic stresses) versus active (plume-activated) rift concepts as our experiments show both processes in action. We tested different experiments by varying two principal controlling parameters: 1) horizontal extension velocity and 2) Moho temperature used as simplified indicator of the thermal and rheological lithosphere layering. An increase in the applied extension expectedly gives less localized deformation at lithospheric scale: the growth of external velocity from 1.5 mm/years to 6 mm/years leads to enlargement of the rift zones from 75-175 km to 150-425 km width. On the contrary, increasing of the lithospheric geotherm has an opposite effect leading to narrowing of the rift zone: the change of the Moho isotherm from 600°C to 800°C causes diminution of the rift width from 175-425 km to 75-150 km. Some of these finding are contra-intuitive in terms of usual assumptions. The models refer to strongly non-linear impact of far-field extension rates on timing of break-up processes. Experiments with relatively fast far-field extension (6 mm/years) show intensive normal fault localization in crust and uppermost mantle above the plume head at 15-20 Myrs after the onset of the experiment. When plume head material reaches the bottom of the continental crust (at 25 Myrs), the latter is rapidly ruptured (crust bottom). We conclude from our modeling that localization of large-scale linear

  8. Determination of femtosecond-laser-induced refractive-index changes in an optical fiber from far-field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul; Balling, Peter

    2014-06-15

    A new method for direct writing of localized, circularly symmetric refractive-index changes in optical fibers with a femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The refractive-index changes are characterized using a novel approach employing comparison of numerical simulations to the measured far-field profiles of unmodified and modified fibers. From the analysis, a negative refractive-index change of -0.015±0.005 within a radius of (0.6±0.1)  μm is determined.

  9. Far Field Extrapolation from Near Field Interactions and Shielding Influence Investigations Based on a FE-PEEC Coupling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Meunier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding standards, it is well established that common mode currents are the main source of far field emitted by variable frequency drive (VFD-cable-motor associations. These currents are generated by the combination of floating potentials with stray capacitances between these floating potential tracks and the mechanical parts connected to the earth (the heatsink or cables are usual examples. Nowadays, due to frequency and power increases, the systematic compliance to EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility becomes increasingly difficult and costly for industrials. As a consequence, there is a well-identified need to investigate practical and low cost solutions to reduce the radiated fields of VFD-cable-motor associations. A well-adapted solution is the shielding of wound components well known as the major source of near magnetic field. However, this solution is not convenient, it is expensive and may not be efficient regarding far field reduction. Optimizing the components placement could be a better and cheaper solution. As a consequence, dedicated tools have to be developed to efficiently investigate not easy comprehendible phenomena and finally to control EMC disturbances using component placement, layout geometry, shielding design if needed. However, none of the modeling methods usually used in industry complies with large frequency range and far field models including magnetic materials, multilayer PCBs, and shielding. The contribution of this paper is to show that alternatives regarding modeling solutions exist and can be used to get in-deep analysis of such complex structures. It is shown in this paper that near field investigations can give information on far field behavior. It is illustrated by an investigation of near field interactions and shielding influence using a FE-PEEC hybrid method. The test case combining a common mode filter with the floating potentials tracks of an inverter is based on an industrial and commercialized VFD. The

  10. Towards an optical far-field measurement of higher-order multipole contributions to the scattering response of nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Thomas; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally show an all-optical multipolar decomposition of the lowest-order Eigenmodes of a single gold nanoprism using azimuthally and radially polarized cylindrical vector beams. By scanning the particle through these tailored field distributions, the multipolar character of the Eigenmodes gets encoded into 2D-scanning intensity maps even for higher-order contributions to the Eigenmode that are too weak to be discerned in the direct far-field scattering response. This method enables a detailed optical mode analysis of individual nanoparticles.

  11. Influence of the probe-sample interaction on scanning near-field optical microscopic images in the far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi; Zhang Jia-Sen; Yang Jing; Gong Qi-Huang

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the influence of probe-sample interaction in a scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) in the far field by using samples with a step structure. For a sample with a step height of ~λ/4, the SNOM image contrast between the two sides of the step changes periodically at different scan heights. For a step height of ~λ/2, the image contrast remains approximately the same. The probe-sample interaction determines the SNOM image contrast here. The influence of different refractive indices of the sample has been also analysed by using a simple theoretical model.

  12. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate

  13. Towards an optical far-field measurement of higher-order multipole contributions to the scattering response of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas; Orlov, Sergej [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bldg. 24, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstr. 7/B2, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter, E-mail: peter.banzer@mpl.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1/Bldg. 24, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstr. 7/B2, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-03-02

    We experimentally show an all-optical multipolar decomposition of the lowest-order eigenmodes of a single gold nanoprism using azimuthally and radially polarized cylindrical vector beams. By scanning the particle through these tailored field distributions, the multipolar character of the eigenmodes gets encoded into 2D-scanning intensity maps even for higher-order contributions to the eigenmode that are too weak to be discerned in the direct far-field scattering response. This method enables a detailed optical mode analysis of individual nanoparticles.

  14. Far field optical nanoscopy: How far can you go in nanometric characterization without resolving all the details?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Paul C., E-mail: paul.montgomery@unistra.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7367, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Serio, Bruno; Anstotz, Freddy; Montaner, Denis [Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l’Informatique et de l’Imagerie (ICube), UDS-CNRS, UMR 7367, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2013-09-15

    In the development of nanomaterials and biomaterials, new characterization techniques are required that overcome the challenges presented by the increasing dimensional ratio between the different entities to be studied and the growing complexity introduced by the use of heterogeneous materials and technologies. Diffraction limited far field optical nanoscopy techniques are receiving growing interest because of their ability to detect nanometer structures over very large fields and at high speed. We present a classification scheme of the different types of optical nanoscopy techniques. In particular, we highlight four categories of far field diffraction limited techniques based on increasing the contrast, measuring the phase, using deconvolution and using nano-markers. We demonstrate that by increasing the power of detectability, observability or measurability, a wealth of information concerning nanometric structures becomes available even though all the lateral details may not be resolved. For example, it is possible to determine the presence, the structure and orientation of nanostructures, to measure their density, position and 2D and 3D distribution and to measure nanometric surface roughness in bulk materials, surfaces, nano-layers, soft matter and cells. These techniques conserve all the advantages associated with classical imaging such as real time imaging, non-invasiveness, non-destructiveness and ease of use.

  15. The emergence of seismic cycles from stress feedback between intra-plate faulting and far-field tectonic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Byung-Dal; Capitanio, Fabio A.

    2016-08-01

    Using numerical modeling we show the emergence of cyclic slip behavior of faults from stress feedback through an idealized fault, its surrounding plates and far-field tectonic stress. The tectonic stress is exerted on the fault through a force applied along an idealized plate margin, acting on the fault, resulting from the interactions of viscous embedding and external plates. We find that, in such coupled system, the interaction of plates results into feedback with periodic deformation, slip along the fault and episodic plate margin motions. The viscosity of the embedding and loading plates primarily control the stress-loading time and hence the slip recurrence interval. For an Earth-like range of lithospheric viscosities, we derive a power-law with negative exponent, -0.99 to -0.5, scaling the recurrence period with loading-rate, providing an explanation for the observables from paleoseismology and geodesy. The feedback between single fault and far-field stress that arises from interactions of deforming plates provides a context to understand the earthquake cycle within continents, while reconciling the short-term seismic deformation to the long-term plate tectonics frame.

  16. Simulation of Far-Field Superresolution Fluorescence Imaging with Two-Color One-Photon Excitation of Reversible Photoactivatable Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chen; QIAO Ling-Ling; MAO Zheng-Le

    2011-01-01

    We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon (2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins. Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins, such as dronpa, the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam. The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is "engineered" by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them. Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy.%@@ We propose to achieve far-field super-resolution imaging by using offset two-color one-photon(2C1P) excitation of reversible photoactivatable fluorescence proteins.Due to the distinctive photoswitching performance of the proteins,such as dronpa,the fluorescence emission will only come from the overlapped region of activation beam and excitation beam.The analysis solution of rate equation shows that the resolution of offset 2C1P microscope is "engineered" by laser power of excitation and activation beams and the power ratio between them.Superior lateral and transverse resolution is theoretically demonstrated compared with conventional fluorescence scanning microscopy.

  17. Demonstration of a white beam far-field neutron interferometer for spatially resolved small angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hussey, Daniel S; Yuan, Guangcui; Pushin, Dmitry; Sarenac, Dusan; Huber, Michael G; Jacobson, David L; LaManna, Jacob M; Wen, Han

    2016-01-01

    We provide the first demonstration that a neutron far-field interferometer can be employed to measure the microstructure of a sample. The interferometer is based on the moir\\'e pattern of two phase modulating gratings which was previously realized in hard x-ray and visible light experiments. The autocorrelation length of this interferometer, and hence the microstructure length scale that is probed, is proportional to the grating spacing and the neutron wavelength, and can be varied over several orders of magnitude for one pair of gratings. We compare our measurements of the change in visibility from monodisperse samples with calculations which show reasonable agreement. The potential advantages of a far-field neutron interferometer include high fringe visibility in a polychromatic beam (over 30 %), no requirement for an absorbing grating to resolve the interference fringes, and the ability to measure the microstructure in the length scale range of 100 nm to 10 \\mum by varying either the grating spacing or neu...

  18. Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ge, Shijun; Chen, Zhaoxian; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yanqing

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterial-based absorbers play a significant role in applications ranging from energy harvesting and thermal emitters to sensors and imaging devices. The middle dielectric layer of conventional metamaterial absorbers has always been solid. Researchers could not detect the near field distribution in this layer or utilize it effectively. Here, we use anisotropic liquid crystal as the dielectric layer to realize electrically fast tunable terahertz metamaterial absorbers. We demonstrate strong, position-dependent terahertz near-field enhancement with sub-wavelength resolution inside the metamaterial absorber. We measure the terahertz far-field absorption as the driving voltage increases. By combining experimental results with liquid crystal simulations, we verify the near-field distribution in the middle layer indirectly and bridge the near-field and far-field observations. Our work opens new opportunities for creating high-performance, fast, tunable, terahertz metamaterial devices that can be applied in biological imaging and sensing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61225026, 61490714, 11304151, and 61435008), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20150845 and 15KJB140004), the Open Foundation Project of National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, China (Grant No. M28003), and the Research Center of Optical Communications Engineering & Technology, Jiangsu Province, China.

  19. Approach to tune near- and far-field properties of hybrid dimer nanoantennas via laser melting at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Yali; Zuev, Dmitry; Huang, Lirong; Krasnok, Alexander; Belov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric metal-dielectric nanostructures are demonstrated superior optical properties arise from the combination of strong enhancement of their near fields and controllable scattering characteristics which originate from plasmonic and high-index dielectric components. Here, being inspired by the recent experimental work [Dmitry~Zuev, \\textit{et al.}, Adv. Mater. \\textbf{28}, 3087 (2016)] on a new technique for fabrication of asymmetric hybrid nanoparticles via femtosecond laser melting at the nanoscale, we suggest and study numerically a novel type of hybrid dimer nanoantennas. The nanoantennas consist of asymmetric metal-dielectric (Au/Si) nanoparticles and can allow tuning of the near- and far-field properties via laser melting of the metal part. We demonstrate a modification of scattering properties, near electric field distribution, normalized local density of states, and power patters of radiation of the nanoantennas upon laser reshaping. The parameters used to investigate these effects correspond to e...

  20. The steady-state solution of dendritic growth from the undercooled binary alloy melt with the far field flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN MingWen; WANG ZiDong; XU JianJun

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state dendritic growth from the undercooled binary alloy melt with the far field flow is considered.By neglecting the interface energy,interface kinetics and buoyancy effects in the system,we obtaine the steady-state solution for the case of the large Schmidt number,in terms of the multiple variable expansion method.The changes of thtemperature and concentration fields,the morphology of the interface,the normalization parameter and the Peclet number of the system induced by uniform external flow are derived.The results show that,compared with the system of dendritic growth from undercooled pure melt,the convective flow in the system of growth from undercooled binary alloy has stronger effects on the morphology of the interface.Nevertheless,the shape of the interface still remains nearly a paraboloid.

  1. The steady-state solution of dendritic growth from the undercooled binary alloy melt with the far field flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state dendritic growth from the undercooled binary alloy melt with the far field flow is considered. By neglecting the interface energy, interface kinetics and buoyancy effects in the system, we obtaine the steady-state solution for the case of the large Schmidt number, in terms of the multiple variable expansion method. The changes of the temperature and concentration fields, the morphology of the interface, the normalization parameter and the Peclet number of the system induced by uniform external flow are derived. The results show that, compared with the system of dendritic growth from undercooled pure melt, the convective flow in the system of growth from undercooled binary alloy has stronger effects on the morphology of the interface. Nevertheless, the shape of the interface still remains nearly a paraboloid.

  2. Far-field linear optical superresolution via heterodyne detection in a higher-order local oscillator mode

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Moiseev, E S; Simon, Christoph; Lvovsky, A I

    2016-01-01

    The Rayleigh limit has so far applied to all microscopy techniques that rely on linear optical interaction and detection in the far field. Here we demonstrate that detecting the light emitted by an object in higher-order transverse electromagnetic modes (TEMs) can help achieving sub-Rayleigh precision for a variety of microscopy-related tasks. Using optical heterodyne detection in TEM01, we measure the position of coherently and incoherently emitting objects to within 0.0015 and 0.012 of the Rayleigh limit, respectively, and determine the distance between two incoherently emitting slits positioned within 0.28 of the Rayleigh limit with a precision of 0.019 of the Rayleigh limit. Extending our technique to higher-order TEMs enables full imaging with resolution significantly below the Rayleigh limit in a way that is reminiscent of quantum tomography of optical states.

  3. Deep geodynamics of far field intercontinental back-arc extension:Formation of Cenozoic volcanoes in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石耀霖; 张健

    2004-01-01

    There are three cases of variation of trench location possible to occur during subduction: trench fixed, trench advancing, and trench retreating. Retreat of trench may lead to back-arc extension. The Pacific plate subducts at low angle beneath the Eurasia plate, tomographic results indicate that the subducted Pacific slab does not penetrate the 670 km discontinuity, instead, it is lying flat above the interface. The flattening occurred about 28 Ma ago. Geodynamic computation suggests: when the frontier of the subducted slab reaches the phase boundary of lower and upper mantle, it may be hindered and turn flat lying above the boundary, facilitates the retreat of trench and back-arc extension. Volcanism in northeastern China is likely a product of such retreat of subduction, far field back-arc extension, and melting due to reduce of pressure while mantle upwelling.

  4. Far-Field Patterns from Dye-Doped Planar-Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystals Under nanosecond Laser Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukishova, S.G.; Lepeshkin, N.; Boyd, R.W.; Marshall, K.L.

    2006-08-18

    High-definition patterns were observed under 10-Hz-pulse-repetition-rate, nanosecond laser irradiation of azodye-doped planar-nematic liquid crystal layers at incident intensities I ~ 5-10 MW/cm^2 in a single beam configuration and without any feedback involved. An incident polarization parallel to the nematic director was used. Under periodic pulsed laser irradiation, far-field beam patterns at the output of a dye-doped liquid crystal layer changed kaleidoscopically from rings and stripes to multiple hexagons. This pattern-formation regime had a buildup time of several seconds to minutes. We explain the observed effect by diffraction of the laser beam on light-induced micrometer-size inhomogeneities inside the liquid crystal layer with absorption and refraction properties different from the surrounding area. Possible mechanisms of the formation of the inhomogeneities are discussed.

  5. Near-Field Resonance at Far-Field Anti-Resonance: Plasmonically Enhanced Light Emission with Minimum Scattering Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, S R K; Lozano, G; Omari, A; Hens, Z; Rivas, J Gomez

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that a periodic array of optical antennas sustains a resonant Near-Field (NF) and an anti-resonant Far-Field (FF) at the same energy and in-plane momentum. This phenomenon arises in the context of coupled plasmonic lattice resonances, whose bright and dark character is interchanged at a critical antenna length. The energies of these modes anti-cross in the FF, but cross in the NF. Hence, we observe an extremely narrow bandwidth emission enhancement from quantum dots in the proximity of the array, while the antennas scatter minimally into the FF. Simulations reveal that a standing wave with a quadrupolar field distribution is the origin of this dark collective resonance.

  6. Two-dimensional circulation and mixing in the far field of a surface-advected river plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Piero L. F.; Chant, Robert J.

    2016-06-01

    Field observations of the Hudson River plume are presented to discuss circulation and mixing in the far field of this coastally trapped buoyant flow. The plume was surface advected and propagated downshelf near the internal wave speed. The plume outflow was characterized by a two-layer bulge-like feature but became continuously stratified and vertically sheared in the far field, where Richardson numbers are generally below 0.5. High-frequency velocity and backscatter data from a moored ADCP revealed strong vertical and horizontal oscillatory motions at the front with a wavelength approximately 7-8 times the plume thickness, consistent with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. These motions quickly died out after 2-3 cycles. The combination of vertical shear and stratification in the plume leads to a buoyancy flux toward the nose of the plume, which competes with mixing. However, the continued salinity increase of the plume as it propagated downshelf indicates that mixing overcomes this delivery of freshwater to the plume front. A simple 2-D model is developed, which relates the time rate-of-change of the plume salinity to: (1) salt entrainment due to vertical mixing, and (2) freshwater flux and salt removal due to the vertical shear of the stratified plume. Estimates of an entrainment coefficient from this model are consistent with previous estimates from the near field of a river outflow. A scaling of the plume width is obtained by assuming that vertical shears are controlled by both thermal wind and a critical Richardson number. This scaling yields plume widths that are consistent with previous laboratory studies.

  7. Theoretical and numerical studies of crack initiation and propagation in rock masses under freezing pressure and far-field stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshui Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-bearing rocks exposed to freezing temperature can be subjected to freeze–thaw cycles leading to crack initiation and propagation, which are the main causes of frost damage to rocks. Based on the Griffith theory of brittle fracture mechanics, the crack initiation criterion, propagation direction, and crack length under freezing pressure and far-field stress are analyzed. Furthermore, a calculation method is proposed for the stress intensity factor (SIF of the crack tip under non-uniformly distributed freezing pressure. The formulae for the crack/fracture propagation direction and length of the wing crack under freezing pressure are obtained, and the mechanism for coalescence of adjacent cracks is investigated. In addition, the necessary conditions for different coalescence modes of cracks are studied. Using the topology theory, a new algorithm for frost crack propagation is proposed, which has the capability to define the crack growth path and identify and update the cracked elements. A model that incorporates multiple cracks is built by ANSYS and then imported into FLAC3D. The SIFs are then calculated using a FISH procedure, and the growth path of the freezing cracks after several calculation steps is demonstrated using the new algorithm. The proposed method can be applied to rocks containing fillings such as detritus and slurry.

  8. Phase-Based Adaptive Estimation of Magnitude-Squared Coherence Between Turbofan Internal Sensors and Far-Field Microphone Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2015-01-01

    A cross-power spectrum phase based adaptive technique is discussed which iteratively determines the time delay between two digitized signals that are coherent. The adaptive delay algorithm belongs to a class of algorithms that identifies a minimum of a pattern matching function. The algorithm uses a gradient technique to find the value of the adaptive delay that minimizes a cost function based in part on the slope of a linear function that fits the measured cross power spectrum phase and in part on the standard error of the curve fit. This procedure is applied to data from a Honeywell TECH977 static-engine test. Data was obtained using a combustor probe, two turbine exit probes, and far-field microphones. Signals from this instrumentation are used estimate the post-combustion residence time in the combustor. Comparison with previous studies of the post-combustion residence time validates this approach. In addition, the procedure removes the bias due to misalignment of signals in the calculation of coherence which is a first step in applying array processing methods to the magnitude squared coherence data. The procedure also provides an estimate of the cross-spectrum phase-offset.

  9. Optimization of Fixed Microphone Array in High Speed Train Noises Identification Based on Far-Field Acoustic Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujia Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustical holography has been widely applied for noise sources location and sound field measurement. Performance of the microphones array directly determines the sound source recognition method. Therefore, research is very important to the performance of the microphone array, its array of applications, selection, and how to design instructive. In this paper, based on acoustic holography moving sound source identification theory, the optimization method is applied in design of the microphone array, we select the main side lobe ratio and the main lobe area as the optimization objective function and then put the optimization method use in the sound source identification based on holography, and finally we designed this paper to optimize microphone array and compare the original array of equally spaced array with optimization results; by analyzing the optimization results and objectives, we get that the array can be achieved which is optimized not only to reduce the microphone but also to change objective function results, while improving the far-field acoustic holography resolving effect. Validation experiments have showed that the optimization method is suitable for high speed trains sound source identification microphone array optimization.

  10. Seismic fragility analysis of typical pre-1990 bridges due to near- and far-field ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Araliya; Razzaghi, Mehran S.; Jara, José; Varum, Humberto

    2016-03-01

    Bridge damages during the past earthquakes caused several physical and economic impacts to transportation systems. Many of the existing bridges in earthquake prone areas are pre-1990 bridges and were designed with out of date regulation codes. The occurrences of strong motions in different parts of the world show every year the vulnerability of these structures. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses were conducted to assess the seismic vulnerability of typical pre-1990 bridges. A family of existing concrete bridge representative of the most common bridges in the highway system in Iran is studied. The seismic demand consists in a set of far-field and near-field strong motions to evaluate the likelihood of exceeding the seismic capacity of the mentioned bridges. The peak ground accelerations (PGAs) were scaled and applied incrementally to the 3D models to evaluate the seismic performance of the bridges. The superstructure was assumed to remain elastic and the nonlinear behavior in piers was modeled by assigning plastic hinges in columns. In this study the displacement ductility and the PGA are selected as a seismic performance indicator and intensity measure, respectively. The results show that pre-1990 bridges subjected to near-fault ground motions reach minor and moderate damage states.

  11. Antenna Gain Far Field Testing and Calibration%天线增益远场测试及标定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    束咸荣; 董玉良; 王华; 郭先松

    2012-01-01

    The modified Friis transmission formula is put forward in this paper. Based on this, the engineering processing formulas on antenna gain 5 far field test methods are obtained. This analysis points out that, antenna gain test by"the comparative law"is no use for think about insertion loss of test cables and calculating distance between transmitting antenna and receiving antenna, thus it is conveniently for apply to engineering. At last the gain theory curves of different 5 pyramidal homs are calculated with 3 methods and advice on standard-gain horn correct design and exact calibration is given.%文中提出了改进的Friis传输公式,据此得到天线增益远场测试5种方法的工程处理公式.分析指出,其中“比较法”测量天线增益不需要考虑测试馈线的插入损耗和提供收、发天线的间距,便于工程应用.最后,以3种方法计算5种规格角锥喇叭增益的理论曲线,给出了标准增益喇叭正确设计和精确标定的建议.

  12. Near- and far-field scattering from arbitrary three-dimensional aggregates of coated spheres using parallel computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Lars; Chalut, Kevin J; Guck, Jochen

    2011-02-01

    Many scientific fields--including astronomy, climatology, and biology, among others--require the calculation of the scattered optical fields from multiparticle distributions. In the present study, we combine the established results for the scattering from clusters of homogeneous spheres and from single core-shell particles into a computationally tractable solution that is valid for irregular configurations of nonidentical, coated particles. The presented multiparticle scattering (MPS) model is based on a generalized Lorenz-Mie theory framework and the vector translation theorems for the vector spherical harmonics. We provide the MPS model in both the near and far fields, and for plane-wave and Gaussian beam illumination. A message-passing-interface protocol is used for the computational implementation of the model in a parallel computer program. The computer model is validated by verifying the accuracy of the vector translation theorems utilized in our theoretical methods and by qualitative comparison to existing multiparticle scattering data. We conclude by presenting the scattering profiles from several examples of particle distributions. This MPS model is a practicable method of calculating the optical fields arising in the scattering from particle aggregates and is straightforwardly extensible to arbitrary illumination and to more complex internal-particle structures, such as stratified spheres. Vital applications of this model include the exact computation of forces exerted on irregular objects in optical traps and the simulation of light propagation through biological tissues.

  13. Far field R-wave sensing in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1: right atrial appendage versus Bachmann's bundle region lead placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Vincenzo; Nigro, Gerardo; Antonio Papa, Andrea; Rago, Anna; Di Meo, Federica; Cristiano, Anna; Molino, Antonio; Calabrò, Raffaele; Giovanna Russo, Maria; Politano, Luisa

    2014-10-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate far field R-wave sensing (FFRS) timing and characteristics in 34 Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) patients undergoing dual chamber pacemaker implantation, comparing Bachmann's bundle (BB) stimulation (16 patients) site with the conventional right atrial appendage (RAA) pacing site (18 patients). All measurements were done during sinus rhythm and in supine position, with unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP) sensing configuration. The presence, amplitude threshold (FFRS trsh) and FFRS timing were determined. There were no differences between both atrial sites in the Pmin and Pmean values of sensed P-wave amplitudes, as well as between UP and BP sensing configurations. The FFRS trsh was lower at the BB region in comparison to the RAA site. The mean BP FFRS trsh was significantly lower than UP configuration in both atrial locations. There were no significant differences in atrial pacing threshold, sensing threshold and atrial lead impedances at the implant time and at FFRS measurements. Bachmann's bundle area is an optimal atrial lead position for signal sensing as well as conventional RAA, but it offers the advantage of reducing the oversensing of R-wave on the atrial lead, thus improving functioning of standard dual chamber pacemakers in DM1 patients.

  14. USAF bioenvironmental noise data handbook. Volume 172: Hush-noise suppressor (Aero Systems Engineering, Incorporated) far-field noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Rau, T. H.; Jones, C.

    1982-07-01

    The hush-house noise suppressor was made by Aero Systems Engineering of Texas, Inc. for acoustical suppression of various AF fighter/trainer aircraft during ground runup operations. This report provides measured and extrapolated data defining the bioacoustic environments produced by several aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house suppressor for various engine power configurations. Far-field data measured at 20 locations are normalized to standard meteorological conditions and extrapolated from 75-8000 meters to derive sets of equal-value contours for seven acoustic measures as function of angle and distance from the source. Refer to Volume 1 of this handbook, 'USAF Bioenvironmental Noise Data Handbook, Vol 1: Organization, Content and Application,' AMRL-TR-75(1) 1975, for discussion of the objective and design of the handbook, the types of data presented, measurement procedures, instrumentation, data processing, definitions of quantities, symbols, equations, applications, limitations, etc. Data are presented for the following aircraft/engines operating in the hush-house noise suppressor: F-4, F-15, F-16, F-105, F-106, F-111F and T-38 aircraft and the TF41-A-1, J79-GE-15, F100-PW-100, J75-P19, J-75-P-17 and TF30-P-100 engines.

  15. Far-field correlation of bidirectional tracking beams due to wave-front deformation in inter-satellites optical communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Zhongtian; Ma, Jing; Wu, Feng; Tan, Liying

    2015-03-23

    In some applications of optical communication systems, such as inter-satellites optical communication, the correlation of the bidirectional tracking beams changes in far-field as a result of wave-front deformation. Far-field correlation model with wave-front deformation on tracking stability is established. Far-field correlation function and factor have been obtained. Combining with parameters of typical laser communication systems, the model is corrected. It shows that deformation pointing-tracking errors θ(A) and θ(B), far-field correlation factor δ depend on RMS of deformation error rms, which decline with a increasing rms including Tilt and Coma. The principle of adjusting far-field correlation factor with wave-front deformation to compensate deformation pointing-tracking errors has been given, through which the deformation pointing-tracking error is reduced to 18.12″ (Azimuth) and 17.65″ (Elevation). Work above possesses significant reference value on optimization design in inter-satellites optical communication.

  16. Development of a numerical modelling tool for combined near field and far field wave transformations using a coupling of potential flow solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, Tim; Troch, Peter; Kortenhaus, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) need to be deployed in large numbers in an array layout in order to have a significant power production. Each WEC has an impact on the incoming wave field, diffracting, reflecting and radiating waves. Simulating the wave transformations within and around a WEC farm...... is complex; it is difficult to simulate both near field and far field effects with a single numerical model, with relatively fast computing times. Within this research a numerical tool is developed to model near-field and far-field wave transformations caused by WECs. The tool is based on the coupling...... that the coupling of the two solvers is an efficient and promising numerical tool to perform simulations on near – and far field wave elevations and kinematics nearby WEC farms....

  17. A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of 15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles.

  18. Far-field coseismic displacements associated with the great Sumatra earthquakes of December 26, 2004 and March 29, 2005 constrained by Global Positioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; ZHANG Peizhen; SHEN Zhengkang; LIU Jie; SUN Hanrong; GAN Weijun; LI Peng

    2006-01-01

    Based on continuous GPS observations within China as well as global GPS tracking network,a calculation has been made of far-field coseismic displacements associated with the December, 2004 (Mw= 9.3) and March, 2005 (Mw= 8.7) earthquakes.The far-field coseismic displacements are associated with the 2004 shock range more than 6000-7000 krn in both north-south and east-west dimensions,and depict an undulated wave pattern of contraction and extension. The coseismic displacements associated with the 2005 event, however, are distributed near the epicentral region, and the event itself may be an aftershock of the 2004 earthquake.

  19. Plane-polar Fresnel and far-field computations using the Fresnel-Wilcox and Jacobi-Bessel expansions. [for large aperture antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the computation of the Fresnel fields for large aperture antennas is significant for many applications. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for the effective utilization of the coefficients of the Jacobi-Bessel series for the far-field to obtain an analytically continuous representation of the antenna field which is valid from the Fresnel region into the far field. Attention is given to exact formulations and closed form solutions, Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, aspects of field expansion, the accuracy of the Fresnel and Fresnel small angle approximations, and the Jacobi-Bessel expansion applied to the Fresnel small angle approximation.

  20. A Line Integral Representation of the Physical Optics Far Field from Plane PEC Scatterers Illuminated by Electric or Magnetic Hertzian Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, S.; Meincke, Peter; Jørgensen, E.;

    2002-01-01

    We derive a line integral representation of the physical optics (PO) scattered far field that yields the exact same result as the conventional surface radiation integral. This representation applies to a perfectly electrically conducting plane scatterer illuminated by electric or magnetic Hertzian...... dipoles....

  1. Comparison between a near-field and a far-field indexing approach for characterization of a polycrystalline sample volume containing more than 1500 grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nervo, L.; King, A.; Wright, J.P.; Ludwig, W.; Reischig, P.; Quinta da Fonseca, J.; Preuss, M.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the performance of X-ray diffraction tomography, a near-field diffraction technique, and a far-field diffraction technique for indexing X-ray diffraction data of polycrystalline materials has been carried out by acquiring two sets of diffraction data from the same polycrystalline sam

  2. 2.5D far-field diffraction tomography inversion scheme for GPR that takes into account the planar air-soil interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A new 2.5D inversion scheme is derived for fixed-offset ground penetrating radar (GPR) that takes into account the planar air-soil interface. The inversion scheme is based upon the first Born approximation and a far-field approximation of the dyadic Green function for a two-layer medium....

  3. J-85 jet engine noise measured in the ONERA S1 wind tunnel and extrapolated to far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Paul T.; Julienne, Alain; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Noise from a J-85 turbojet with a conical, convergent nozzle was measured in simulated flight in the ONERA S1 Wind Tunnel. Data are presented for several flight speeds up to 130 m/sec and for radiation angles of 40 to 160 degrees relative to the upstream direction. The jet was operated with subsonic and sonic exhaust speeds. A moving microphone on a 2 m sideline was used to survey the radiated sound field in the acoustically treated, closed test section. The data were extrapolated to a 122 m sideline by means of a multiple-sideline source-location method, which was used to identify the acoustic source regions, directivity patterns, and near field effects. The source-location method is described along with its advantages and disadvantages. Results indicate that the effects of simulated flight on J-85 noise are significant. At the maximum forward speed of 130 m/sec, the peak overall sound levels in the aft quadrant were attentuated approximately 10 dB relative to sound levels of the engine operated statically. As expected, the simulated flight and static data tended to merge in the forward quadrant as the radiation angle approached 40 degrees. There is evidence that internal engine or shock noise was important in the forward quadrant. The data are compared with published predictions for flight effects on pure jet noise and internal engine noise. A new empirical prediction is presented that relates the variation of internally generated engine noise or broadband shock noise to forward speed. Measured near field noise extrapolated to far field agrees reasonably well with data from similar engines tested statically outdoors, in flyover, in a wind tunnel, and on the Bertin Aerotrain. Anomalies in the results for the forward quadrant and for angles above 140 degrees are discussed. The multiple-sideline method proved to be cumbersome in this application, and it did not resolve all of the uncertainties associated with measurements of jet noise close to the jet. The

  4. MARFA version 3.2.2 user's manual: migration analysis of radionuclides in the far field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott; Mancillas, James (Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States))

    2009-12-15

    The computer code Migration Analysis of Radionuclides in the Far Field (MARFA) uses a particle-based Monte Carlo method to simulate the transport of radionuclides in a sparsely fractured geological medium. Transport in sparsely fractured rock is of interest because this medium may serve as a barrier to migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The physical processes represented in MARFA include advection, longitudinal dispersion, Fickian diffusion into an infinite or finite rock matrix, equilibrium sorption, decay, and in-growth. Multiple non-branching decay chains of arbitrary length are supported. This document describes the technical basis and input requirements for MARFA Version 3.2.2. MARFA Version 3.2 included new capabilities to accommodate transient flow velocities and sorption parameters, which are assumed to be piecewise constant in time. Version 3.2.1 was a minor change from Version 3.2 to allow a more convenient input format for sorption information. New capabilities in Version 3.2.2 include an option to specify a non-zero start time for the simulation, an optional input parameter that decreases the amount of retention within a single fracture because of flow channeling, and an alternative method for sampling the radionuclide source. MARFA uses the particle on random streamline segment algorithm/Painter et al. 2006/, a Monte Carlo algorithm combining time-domain random walk methods with pathway stochastic simulation. The algorithm uses non-interacting particles to represent packets of radionuclide mass. These particles are moved through the system according to rules that mimic the underlying physical transport and retention processes. The set of times required for particles to pass through the geological barrier are then used to reconstruct discharge rates (mass or activity basis). Because the algorithm uses non-interacting particles, the transport and retention processes are limited to those that depend linearly on radionuclide

  5. On the Seismic Response of Protected and Unprotected Middle-Rise Steel Frames in Far-Field and Near-Field Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Foti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several steel moment-resisting framed buildings were seriously damaged during Northridge (1994; Kobe (1995; Kocaeli, Turkey (1999, earthquakes. Indeed, for all these cases, the earthquake source was located under the urban area and most victims were in near-field areas. In fact near-field ground motions show velocity and displacement peaks higher than far-field ones. Therefore, the importance of considering near-field ground motion effects in the seismic design of structures is clear. This study analyzes the seismic response of five-story steel moment-resisting frames subjected to Loma Prieta (1989 earthquake—Gilroy (far-field register and Santa Cruz (near-field register. The design of the frames verifies all the resistance and stability Eurocodes’ requirements and the first mode has been determined from previous shaking-table tests. In the frames two diagonal braces are installed in different positions. Therefore, ten cases with different periods are considered. Also, friction dampers are installed in substitution of the braces. The behaviour of the braced models under the far-field and the near-field records is analysed. The responses of the aforementioned frames equipped with friction dampers and subjected to the same ground motions are discussed. The maximum response of the examined model structures with and without passive dampers is analysed in terms of damage indices, acceleration amplification, base shear, and interstory drifts.

  6. The stratigraphic imprint of a mid-Telychian (Llandovery, Early Silurian glaciation on far-field shallow-water carbonates, Anticosti Island, Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Clayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The near-field stratigraphic record of the Early Silurian glaciations is well documented in the literature. Data from far-field areas are, however, sparse. One of the best far-field stratigraphic records of these Llandovery glaciations is exposed on Anticosti Island in eastern Canada. Eight shallow-water paleotropical facies are present close to the mid-Telychian Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary along the south-central coast of Anticosti Island. These can be grouped into three facies associations that include, from bottom to top: a carbonate facies association (FA-1, a mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies association (FA-2 and an encrinitic facies association (FA-3. These mid- to outer-ramp strata represent deposition mostly from episodic, high-energy storm events as evidenced by their sharp bases, hummocky cross-stratification, large wave ripples, gutter casts and wave-enhanced sediment gravity flow deposits. Superimposed on a long-term regressive trend, one main transgressive–regressive (TR sequence and four meter-scale TR cycles are evident, indicating a multi-order stratigraphic framework developed under the influence of glacio-eustasy. The Jupiter–Chicotte formational boundary, a regional discontinuity surface caused by a forced regression, corresponds to the onset of a far-field mid-Telychian glaciation.

  7. 光偶极天线的远场方向性研究%Study of far-field directivity of optical dipole antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋双凤; 孔凡敏; 李康; 高晖

    2011-01-01

    By simulating the field distributions of two optical dipole antenna models with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the variation regularity of their far-field radiation with their length increasing and the factors which can influence their far-field directivity are studied. The results show that the variation regularity of optical dipole antenna is analogous to that of classic symmetrical dipole antenna. But in the far-field directivity plot of optical dipole antenna, sidelobes occur much more quickly, owing to the existence of high-order localized surface plasmon modes. These results hold a significant promise of improving the performance of optical antennas.%用时域有限差分方法模拟了两种光偶极天线模型的场分布,研究了光偶极天线的远场辐射特性随其长度增加而变化的规律以及影响其远场方向性的因素,发现光偶极天线的远场方向性随其长度增加而变化的规律类似于经典对称振子天线的相应规律.但高阶局域表面等离激元模式的存在使得光偶极天线的远场辐射图更快地出现了旁瓣.这些发现对于提高光天线的性能具有重要意义.

  8. Inhibition of bradycardia pacing caused by far-field atrial sensing in a third-generation cardioverter defibrillator with an automatic gain feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwin, J H; Roelke, M; Ruskin, J N

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of implantable cardioverter defibrillators may be improved by automatically adjusting gain algorithms, which in general reduce the likelihood of oversensing while maintaining the ability to detect the low amplitude signals associated with ventricular fibrillation. We present a patient with a third-generation device who developed prolonged ventricular asystole arising as a complication of the automatic gain feature. During asystole the device automatically increased sensitivity in order to prevent undersensing of ventricular fibrillation, which in this case resulted in far-field sensing of atrial activity and inhibition of ventricular pacing.

  9. Breakdown of doublet recirculation and direct line drives by far-field flow in reservoirs: implications for geothermal and hydrocarbon well placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, R.; van Harmelen, A.

    2016-07-01

    An important real world application of doublet flow occurs in well design of both geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. A guiding principle for fluid management of injection and extraction wells is that mass balance is commonly assumed between the injected and produced fluid. Because the doublets are considered closed loops, the injection fluid is assumed to eventually reach the producer well and all the produced fluid ideally comes from stream tubes connected to the injector of the well pair making up the doublet. We show that when an aquifer background flow occurs, doublets will rarely retain closed loops of fluid recirculation. When the far-field flow rate increases relative to the doublet's strength, the area occupied by the doublet will diminish and eventually vanishes. Alternatively, rather than using a single injector (source) and single producer (sink), a linear array of multiple injectors separated by some distance from a parallel array of producers can be used in geothermal energy projects as well as in waterflooding of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fluid flow in such an arrangement of parallel source-sink arrays is shown to be macroscopically equivalent to that of a line doublet. Again, any far-field flow that is strong enough will breach through the line doublet, which then splits into two vortices. Apart from fundamental insight into elementary flow dynamics, our new results provide practical clues that may contribute to improve the planning and design of doublets and direct line drives commonly used for flow management of groundwater, geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  10. Humic substances in performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal: Actinide and iodine migration in the far-field. Second technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckau, G. (ed.)

    2004-07-01

    The present report describes progress within the second year of the EC-project ''Humic Substances in Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Disposal: Actinide and Iodine Migration in the Far-Field''. Without being a formal requirement of the commission or co-funding bodies, this report documents results in great technical detail. It is an open report and thus makes the detailed results available to a broad scientific community. The report contains an executive summary written by the coordinator. More detailed results are given as individual contributions in the form of 23 annexes. Not all results are discussed or referred to in the executive summary report and thus readers with a deeper interest also need to consult the annexes. (orig.)

  11. Effects of near surface soil moisture profiles during evaporation on far-field ground-penetrating radar data: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the effect of vapor flow on the drying front that develops in soils when water evaporates from the soil surface and on GPR data. The results suggest the integration of the full-wave GPR model with a coupled water, vapor, and heat flow model to accurately estimate the soil hydraulic properties. We investigated the Effects of a drying front that emerges below an evaporating soil surface on the far-field ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data. First, we performed an analysis of the width of the drying front in soils with 12 different textures by using an analytical model. Then, we numerically simulated vertical soil moisture profiles that develop during evaporation for the soil textures. We performed the simulations using a Richards flow model that considers only liquid water flow and a model that considers coupled water, vapor, and heat flows. The GPR signals were then generated from the simulated soil water content profiles taking into account the frequency dependency of apparent electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. The analytical approach indicated that the width of the drying front at the end of Stage I of the evaporation was larger in silty soils than in other soil textures and smaller in sandy soils. We also demonstrated that the analytical estimate of the width of the drying front can be considered as a proxy for the impact that a drying front could have on far-field GPR data. The numerical simulations led to the conclusion that vapor transport in soil resulted in S-shaped soil moisture profiles, which clearly influenced the GPR data. As a result, vapor flow needs to be considered when GPR data are interpreted in a coupled inversion approach. Moreover, the impact of vapor flow on the GPR data was larger for silty than for sandy soils. These Effects on the GPR data provide promising perspectives regarding the use of radars for evaporation monitoring. © Soil Science Society of America 5585 Guilford Rd., Madison, WI

  12. Humic substances in performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal: Actinide and iodine migration in the far-field. Third technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckau, G.

    2005-04-01

    The present report describes progress within the third and final year of the EC-project 'Humic Substances in Performance Assessment of Nuclear Waste Disposal: Actinide and Iodine Migration in the Far-Field'. The work conducted within the present project builds on a number of previous activities/project supported by the Commission. It finds its continuation within different EC FP 6 instruments and also provides for additional continued cooperation through network structures resulting from the broad cooperation within the project. Without being a formal requirement of the Commission or co-funding bodies, this report documents results in great technical detail and makes the results available to a broad scientific community. The report contains an executive summary written by the coordinator. More detailed results are given as individual contributions in the form of 12 annexes. Not all results are discussed or referred to in the executive summary report and thus readers with a deeper interest also need to consult the annexes. The overall objectives were to generate knowledge about the impact of humic substances on the migration of actinides and iodine in the far-field of a nuclear waste repository. In the beginning, focus was rather on the potential enhancement due to humic colloid mediated radionuclide transport. Thereby, sources, inventory, stability and mobility of dissolved humic substances in their colloidal form formed a key topic. Other key topics were the interaction with actinides and iodine, transport studies under near-natural conditions in the laboratory, rationalization of knowledge in models and application to three migration cases for visualization of the overall outcome. Changes relative to the original objectives were given by moving emphasis of natural chemical analogue studies from the question of kinetic exchange constants for different inventories in natural and laboratory systems to the study of anthropogenic actinide contaminants in the

  13. Appendix C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. A.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a model is formulated for the rotational capacity of reinforced concrete beams assuming rebar tension failure. The model is based on a classical approach and establishes the load-deflection curve of a reinforced concrete beam. The rotational capacity is then obtained as the area ...

  14. Appendix A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune; Heshe, Gert

    1999-01-01

    In this appendix a brief summary of experiments on reinforced concrete beams in three-point bending performed at Aalborg University is given. The aim of the investigation is to determine the full load-deflection curves for different beam sizes, different types of concrete and different amounts an...

  15. Verification of the NIKE3D structural analysis code by comparison against the analytic solution for a spherical cavity under a far-field uniaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansa, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    The original scope of this task was to simulate the stresses and displacements of a hard rock tunnel experimental design using a suitable three-dimensional finite element code. NIKE3D was selected as a suitable code for performing these primarily approximate linearly elastic 3D analyses, but it required modifications to include initial stress, shear traction boundary condition and excavation options. During the summer of 1988, such capabilities were installed in a special version of NIKE3D. Subsequently, we verified both the LLNL's commonly used version of NIKE3D and our private modified version against the analytic solution for a spherical cavity in an elastic material deforming under a far-field uniaxial stress. We find the results produced by the unmodified and modified versions of NIKE3D to be in good agreement with the analytic solutions, except near the cavity, where the errors in the stress field are large. As can be expected from a code based on a displacement finite element formulation, the displacements are much more accurate than the stresses calculated from the 8-noded brick elements. To reduce these errors to acceptable levels, the grid must be refined further near the cavity wall. The level of grid refinement required to simulate accurately tunneling problems that do not have spatial symmetry in three dimensions using the current NIKE3D code is likely to exceed the memory capacity of the largest CRAY 1 computers at LLNL. 8 refs., 121 figs.

  16. Far-Field Tunable Nano-focusing Based on Metallic Slits Surrounded with Nonlinear-Variant Widths and Linear-Variant Depths of Circular Dielectric Grating

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Wei-Ping; Kong, Wei-Jie; Liang, Xue-Wu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we design a new tunable nanofocusing lens by the linear-variant depths and nonlinear-variant widths of circular grating for far field practical applications. The constructively interference of cylindrical surface plasmon launched by the subwavelength metallic structure can form a subdiffraction-limited focus, and the focal length of the this structures can be adjusted if the each groove depth and width of circular grating are arranged in traced profile. According to the numerical calculation, the range of focusing points shift is much more than other plasmonic lens, and the relative phase of emitting light scattered by surface plasmon coupling circular grating can be modulated by the nonlinear-variant width and linear-variant depth. The simulation result indicates that the different relative phase of emitting light lead to variant focal length. We firstly show a unique phenomenon for the linear-variant depths and nonlinear-variant widths of circular grating that the positive change and negative ...

  17. Prediction and measurement of the electromagnetic environment of high-power medium-wave and short-wave broadcast antennas in far field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanghong; Wang, Qun; Ji, Zhijiang; Shi, Meiwu; Hou, Guoyan; Tan, Danjun; Wang, Pengqi; Qiu, Xianbo

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing city size, high-power electromagnetic radiation devices such as high-power medium-wave (MW) and short-wave (SW) antennas have been inevitably getting closer and closer to buildings, which resulted in the pollution of indoor electromagnetic radiation becoming worsened. To avoid such radiation exceeding the exposure limits by national standards, it is necessary to predict and survey the electromagnetic radiation by MW and SW antennas before constructing the buildings. In this paper, a modified prediction method for the far-field electromagnetic radiation is proposed and successfully applied to predict the electromagnetic environment of an area close to a group of typical high-power MW and SW wave antennas. Different from currently used simplified prediction method defined in the Radiation Protection Management Guidelines (H J/T 10. 3-1996), the new method in this article makes use of more information such as antennas' patterns to predict the electromagnetic environment. Therefore, it improves the prediction accuracy significantly by the new feature of resolution at different directions. At the end of this article, a comparison between the prediction data and the measured results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  18. Surface-emitting circular DFB, disk-, and ring-Bragg resonator lasers with chirped gratings. II: nonuniform pumping and far-field patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiankai; Yariv, Amnon

    2009-01-05

    This is a continuation of our previous work [Opt. Express 16, 9155 (2008)]. In this paper we investigate the effect of nonuniform pumping on the modal properties of surface-emitting chirped circular grating lasers. By numerically solving the coupled-mode equations and matching the boundaries we compare and discuss the threshold pump levels and frequency detuning factors for three pumping profiles: uniform, Gaussian, and annular. Depending on the overlap of the pumping and modal profiles, Gaussian pumping results in the lowest threshold pump levels except for the fundamental mode of ring Bragg resonator laser, and annular pumping provides larger threshold discrimination between the fundamental and first-order modes of circular DFB and ring Bragg resonator lasers, which is favorable for single-mode operation in these lasers. We also study the far-field patterns of the fundamental modes of circular DFB, disk-, and ring- Bragg resonator lasers. Circular DFB and ring Bragg resonator lasers have the first-order dominating peak, while disk Bragg resonator laser exhibits the zeroth-order dominating peak.

  19. Gain and far-field patterns for phase-correcting Fresnel zone plate antennas at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltse, James C.

    2007-04-01

    The Fresnel zone plate lens antenna, which provides advantages compared to a normal paraboloidal or spherical lens, has been extensively investigated in the millimeter-wave and terahertz regions. The advantages include reduced weight, volume, and attenuation and simplicity of design. The principal disadvantage is that the zone plate sometimes provides reduced gain compared to a true lens. Particularly at high millimeter-wave or terahertz frequencies the low loss of the zone plate more than compensates for the reduced directivity. This paper investigates the gains and far-field patterns for a number of cases and gives both the analysis and numerical results for the examples. These cases have dealt with large-angle designs, where the focal length (F) and diameter (D) are comparable (F/D = 0.3 to 2.5), unlike the typical optical examples. The antenna patterns are found to have beamwidths and first sidelobes that are similar to what one would obtain with a standard lens, given the same aperture illumination. Appropriate feed designs are also described. For best aperture efficiency the illumination taper is about 10 dB, and this gives first sidelobe levels of about -24dB for a circular aperture. Far-out average sidelobes are not as low as for a true lens, and this is where the gain is affected.

  20. Experimental Testing of Nonredundant Near-Field to Far-Field Transformations with Spherical Scanning Using Flexible Modellings for Nonvolumetric Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco D'Agostino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the experimental testing of effective probe compensated near-field-far-field (NF-FF transformations with spherical scanning requiring a minimum number of NF data. They rely on nonredundant sampling representations of the voltage measured by the probe, based on very flexible source modellings suitable for nonvolumetric antennas characterized by two dimensions very different from the other one. In particular, a cylinder ended in two half-spheres is adopted for modelling long antennas, whereas the quasi-planar ones are considered as enclosed in a rotational surface formed by two circular “bowls” having the same aperture diameter, but eventually different bending radii. The NF data needed to perform the classical spherical NF-FF transformation are then accurately and efficiently retrieved from the acquired nonredundant ones via optimal sampling interpolation formulas. A remarkable reduction of the number of the required NF data and, as a consequence, a significant measurement time saving can be so obtained. The experimental tests have been carried out at Antenna Characterization Lab of the University of Salerno and both the NF and FF reconstructions are resulted to be very good, thus confirming the accuracy and reliability of these NF-FF transformations from the experimental viewpoint too.

  1. Accurate numerical simulation of the far-field tsunami caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, including the effects of Boussinesq dispersion, seawater density stratification, elastic loading, and gravitational potential change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Toshitaka; Allgeyer, Sebastien; Hossen, Jakir; Cummins, Phil R.; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Imai, Kentaro; Yamashita, Kei; Kato, Toshihiro

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we considered the accurate calculation of far-field tsunami waveforms by using the shallow water equations and accounting for the effects of Boussinesq dispersion, seawater density stratification, elastic loading, and gravitational potential change in a finite difference scheme. By comparing numerical simulations that included and excluded each of these effects with the observed waveforms of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, we found that all of these effects are significant and resolvable in the far field by the current generation of deep ocean-bottom pressure gauges. Our calculations using previously published, high-resolution models of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami source exhibited excellent agreement with the observed waveforms to a degree that has previously been possible only with near-field or regional observations. We suggest that the ability to model far-field tsunamis with high accuracy has important implications for tsunami source and hazard studies.

  2. Far-field Characteristics of Silver Nanodisk Optical Antenna%银纳米圆盘光天线的远场方向性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏光

    2012-01-01

    The near-field distribution of silver nanodisk optical antenna was calculated with Finite-Difference Time-Domain method. The influence to the far-field characteristics by different parameters such as the distance between nanodisk and dipole, thickness and radius of nanodisk, was discussed. The research demonstrated that when the dipole was placed vertically beneath the nanodisk, the variation of thickness or radius could lead to new radiation mode in the far-field pattern and give rise to the enhancement of directivity gain. Through the observation and analysis to near-field, it could be obtained that the new radiation mode was caused by the high order localized surface plasmon(LSP) mode. The optimization results pointed out that as the background material was set as GaN, for the sake of producing high order LSP mode, the suitable distance between nanodisk and dipole was 40 nm. Furthermore, in order to effectively support the high order LSP mode, the thickness and radius of nanodisk were at least 30 nm and 100 nm respectively. These results provided a theoretical reference to master the characteristics of nanodisk optical antenna as well as the practical application in optical devices.%采用时域有限差分方法计算了银纳米圆盘光天线模型的场分布,研究了光偶极天线的远场辐射特性随距离和厚度、半径变化的规律以及影响其远场方向性的因素.研究发现,偶极子垂直放置在银纳米圆盘下方一定距离时,银盘厚度和半径的改变均可使方向性图中出现新的辐射模式,同时方向性增益得到增强.通过对其近场的观察和分析可以得知,新的辐射模式的产生来源于高阶模式的局域表面等离激元.结果表明,背景材料为GaN时,产生高阶模式局域表面等离激元的合适条件为电偶极子距银盘底部40 nm.另外,为了有效地支持高阶模式局域表面等离激元的形成,银盘厚度与半径最小分别为30 nm和100 nm.本文的研究对

  3. Far-field sorption data bases for performance assessment of a L/ILW repository in an undisturbed Palfris marl host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    A Palfris marl formation at Wellenberg (Gemeinde Wolfenschiessen, NW) has been chosen by NAGRA as a potential repository site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, L/ILW. In the coming years a series of performance assessment studies will be performed for this site. One set of key data required for such safety analysis calculations is sorption data bases (SDB) for safety relevant radionuclides in the far-field. The purpose of this report is to describe the procedures used to generate sorption data bases appropriate for the in situ conditions existing along the different potential flow paths in an undisturbed marl host rock formation. An important aim was to document the sources of sorption data used and, in particular, the processes by which data selections were mad.e. The main guiding principles here were `transparency` and `traceability`. Inherent within this whole process is also the justification for, and defensibility of, the selected values. Much of the sorption data used to generate the SDB for marl came from the open literature. A major part of this report is concerned with describing the procedures whereby these initial literature values are modified so that they apply to the actual marl mineralogies and groundwater chemistries. The resulting `reference R{sub d} values` are then further modified using so called Lab -> Field transfer factors to produce sorption values which are appropriate to the in situ bulk rock conditions. The Lab -> Field transfer factors attempt to correct for the differences in sorption site availability between the crushed rock state used in batch tests and the intact rock state existing in reality in the host rock. There are two main groundwater chemistries and five characteristic mineralogical compositions which cover the three broad types of flow paths which have been identified in the Palfris marl formation. In principle the methodology described here to construct sorption data bases for marl is applicable to any

  4. 大功率堆积型激光阵列光束的远场分布模型%Far-field distribution pattern of high diode laser stack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全华; 王晋国; 孙锋利

    2014-01-01

    为了合理地设计光学系统以整形大功率激光二极管阵列(High Diode Laser Stack)出射光束,必须准确了解HDLS的远场分布,然而对于HDLS远场分布的研究还不多。从亥姆霍兹方程出发,以激光二极管(Diode Laser)远场分布特性为基础,提出了一种新的半导体激光器阵列的远场分布模型,通过计算机仿真给出了简化DLS 模型的远场光场变化图;模型还可表示不对称的双峰结构,有一定的现实意义。%In order to design optical system to collimate laser beam,its far-field distribution should be acquired exact-ly.Based on Helmholtz equation and far-field distribution characteristic of DL(diode laser),a new far-field expression model of DLS(diode laser stack)is proposed.The changing graph of far-field intensity distribution of the simplified DLS is given by simulation. The model has some practical significance because it can express asymmetrical double-peak structure.

  5. Research and Implementation of Far Field Antenna Testing System%远场天线测试系统的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江思杰; 程照明; 江传华

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the process and requirements of antenna parameters test, we analyze the main problems in the antenna parameters test, study the influence of environmental factors on measurements in the actual test process, and propose a design of an automatic test system based on virtual instrument technology for far field antenna performance parameters. We elaborate the system components and working principles, including the control principles of a vector network analyzer, an antenna test turntable and a derrick and the timing design of data acquisition. Combined with Matlab, we realize the error compensation of affecting factors and the testing calculation methods of antenna performance parameters, use da-tabase technology to accomplish antenna test data storage, read and report printing, and verify the reliability and feasibility of the scheme through field test experiment.%针对天线参数测试过程及测试要求,分析天线参数测试中的主要问题,研究实际测试过程中环境因素对天线参数测量结果的影响,提出了一种基于虚拟仪器技术的远场天线性能参数自动测试系统的设计方案,详细阐述了该方案的系统组成部分与工作原理,包括矢量网络分析仪、天线测试转台与吊杆的控制原理以及数据采集的时序设计,结合Matlab实现了对影响因素的误差补偿与天线性能参数的测试计算方法,利用数据库技术实现天线测试数据的存储、读取与报告打印,通过现场测试试验验证了该方案的可靠性与可行性。

  6. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 °C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 °C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0

  7. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2007-08-21

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg{sup -1} is 0.25 {sup 0}C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 {sup 0}C was 4.5 W kg{sup -1} in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the

  8. Far field tsunami simulations of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake: Implications for tsunami hazard to the U.S. East Coast and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, R.; ten Brink, U.S.; Lin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The great Lisbon earthquake of November 1st, 1755 with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.5-9.0 was the most destructive earthquake in European history. The associated tsunami run-up was reported to have reached 5-15??m along the Portuguese and Moroccan coasts and the run-up was significant at the Azores and Madeira Island. Run-up reports from a trans-oceanic tsunami were documented in the Caribbean, Brazil and Newfoundland (Canada). No reports were documented along the U.S. East Coast. Many attempts have been made to characterize the 1755 Lisbon earthquake source using geophysical surveys and modeling the near-field earthquake intensity and tsunami effects. Studying far field effects, as presented in this paper, is advantageous in establishing constraints on source location and strike orientation because trans-oceanic tsunamis are less influenced by near source bathymetry and are unaffected by triggered submarine landslides at the source. Source location, fault orientation and bathymetry are the main elements governing transatlantic tsunami propagation to sites along the U.S. East Coast, much more than distance from the source and continental shelf width. Results of our far and near-field tsunami simulations based on relative amplitude comparison limit the earthquake source area to a region located south of the Gorringe Bank in the center of the Horseshoe Plain. This is in contrast with previously suggested sources such as Marqu??s de Pombal Fault, and Gulf of C??diz Fault, which are farther east of the Horseshoe Plain. The earthquake was likely to be a thrust event on a fault striking ~ 345?? and dipping to the ENE as opposed to the suggested earthquake source of the Gorringe Bank Fault, which trends NE-SW. Gorringe Bank, the Madeira-Tore Rise (MTR), and the Azores appear to have acted as topographic scatterers for tsunami energy, shielding most of the U.S. East Coast from the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Additional simulations to assess tsunami hazard to the U.S. East

  9. 非规则桥梁近、远场地震易损性对比分析%Near and far-field seismic fragility comparative analysis of irregular bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董俊; 单德山; 张二华; 马腾

    2016-01-01

    为研究高墩大跨非规则桥梁的近、远场地震易损性,建立了典型非规则公路连续刚构桥的理论地震易损性模型.考虑近、远场地震动和桥梁结构参数的不确定性,抽样并生成桥梁近、远场地震易损性分析的模型样本库,利用OpenSees软件对模型样本库进行非线性动力时程分析,获得结构动力响应.而后在确定桥梁各易损构件损伤指标的基础上,采用概率地震需求分析方法建立了桥梁各构件近、远场地震易损性曲线并进行对比分析.分析结果表明:非规则桥梁结构的易损性情况与地震动频谱特性、结构非规则性密切相关,各构件近场地震动损伤概率明显高于远场.将地震动按断层距分组进行桥梁地震易损性分析是必要的.获得的易损性曲线可用于评估非规则桥梁的抗震性能,并为震后桥梁损伤评估提供依据.%In order to carry out the near and far-field seismic vulnerability, the seismic vulnerability model of a certain typical irregular highway continuous rigid frame bridge of China was created. Considering the uncertainty of near and far-field earthquake and bridge parameters, by adopting sampling method, the model sample database was generated to carry out bridge seismic vulnerability analysis. In order to obtain the structural near and far-field dynamic response respectively, every model in the database was calculated by using nonlinear time history analysis by using the software such as OpenSees. And the pier and bearing damage index were obtained. Then based on the above studied results, and then the near and far-field fragility curves of bridge dangerous members were obtained by using the probabilistic seismic demand analysis method and then a comparative study analysis for near and far-field seismic vulnerability for the structural damage state was determined. The results showed that, the vulnerability condition of the bridge component was closely related to

  10. Near Field and Far Field Effects in the Taguchi-Optimized Design of AN InP/GaAs-BASED Double Wafer-Fused Mqw Long-Wavelength Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. S.; Kandiah, K.; Mandeep, J. S.; Shaari, S.; Apte, P. R.

    Long-wavelength VCSELs (LW-VCSEL) operating in the 1.55 μm wavelength regime offer the advantages of low dispersion and optical loss in fiber optic transmission systems which are crucial in increasing data transmission speed and reducing implementation cost of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access networks. LW-VCSELs are attractive light sources because they offer unique features such as low power consumption, narrow beam divergence and ease of fabrication for two-dimensional arrays. This paper compares the near field and far field effects of the numerically investigated LW-VCSEL for various design parameters of the device. The optical intensity profile far from the device surface, in the Fraunhofer region, is important for the optical coupling of the laser with other optical components. The near field pattern is obtained from the structure output whereas the far-field pattern is essentially a two-dimensional fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the near-field pattern. Design parameters such as the number of wells in the multi-quantum-well (MQW) region, the thickness of the MQW and the effect of using Taguchi's orthogonal array method to optimize the device design parameters on the near/far field patterns are evaluated in this paper. We have successfully increased the peak lasing power from an initial 4.84 mW to 12.38 mW at a bias voltage of 2 V and optical wavelength of 1.55 μm using Taguchi's orthogonal array. As a result of the Taguchi optimization and fine tuning, the device threshold current is found to increase along with a slight decrease in the modulation speed due to increased device widths.

  11. Analytical simulation of the far-field jet noise and the unsteady jet flow-field by a model of periodic shedding of vortex ring from the jet exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    The construction of a theoretical flow field due to shedding of vortex rings, the identification of the controlling parameters, and the determination of whether the theoretical model successfully simulated the unsteady pressure field near jet (and consequently the far field noise) was studied. The basic parameters contained in the analytic solutions were the epoch at which a vortex ring was shed near the jet exit and the eddy viscosity coefficient. These parameters were identified from the experimental data for the real-time pressure and from the spread of the mixing layer of the jet. Results of the theoretical analysis show good qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Far-Field Acoustic Power Level and Performance Analyses of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Scaled Takeoff, Nominal Takeoff, and Approach Conditions: Technical Report I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Far-field acoustic power level and performance analyses of open rotor model F31/A31 have been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated scaled takeoff, nominal takeoff, and approach flight conditions. The nonproprietary parts of the data obtained from experiments in 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (9?15 LSWT) tests were provided by NASA Glenn Research Center to perform the analyses. The tone and broadband noise components have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, angle of attack, thrust, and input shaft power have been presented and discussed. The effect of an upstream pylon on the noise levels of the model has been addressed. Empirical equations relating model's acoustic power level, thrust, and input shaft power have been developed. The far-field acoustic efficiency of the model is also determined for various simulated flight conditions. It is intended that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  13. Using submicron-resolution LiF crystal and film x-ray detectors for the near and far fields in-situ characterization of soft x-ray laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, Tatiana A.; Faenov, Anatoly Y.; Fukuda, Yuji; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kando, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Review of results, obtained by using recently proposed new imaging detector, based on formation of color centers in LiF crystal and LiF film, for in situ high performance measurements of near-field and far-field properties of soft X-ray lasers (SXRL) beams is presented. Experiments have been carried out with laser-driven transient-collision plasma SXRL and free electron SXRL beams. It was demonstrated that due to favorable combination of high spatial resolution, high dynamic range and wide field of view this technique allows measuring not only intensity distribution across the full beam and in local areas, but also permits to evaluate coherence and spectral distribution of radiation across the beam. Experimental diffraction patterns in the images of periodical structures are analyzed by comparison with the modeled ones in the last case. The estimated accuracy of measurements is between 10-20%.

  14. 远场超分辨随机光重建显微镜(STORM)研究进展%Progress in far-field super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy(STORM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 马俊领; 魏勋斌

    2011-01-01

    Understanding intracellular molecule-scale characteristic of dynamics and structures is urgently demanded to solve issues in today's life science. In order to solve this problem, a far field optical imaging obtained nanometer or sub-nanometer scale 3D resolution will be demanded. The far-field fluorescence microscopy, which broken diffraction barrier, Stochastic Optical Restructure Microscopy (STORM) is introduced. The STORM can be achieved resolution of 20 nm laterally and 50 nm axially. In theory, the STORM can be achieved single molecule location precision. Imaging foundational principle, progress of 3D and multi-color imaging, recently faced challenge as well as the direction of development about the STORM is talked in detailed.%了解细胞内分子尺度的动态和结构的特征是生命科学迫切需要解决的问题,要求远场光学成像要求纳米或亚纳米量级的空间分辨率.介绍了一种实现打破衍射极限的远场荧光显微成像技术--随机光重建显微术(STORM),其分辨率可以达到横向分辨率20 nm,轴向分辨率50 nm,理论上这种方法的空间分辨率可以达到单分子定位的精度.具体介绍了其成像的基本原理,在三维、多色成像方面的进展,和目前面临的问题及今后的发展方向.

  15. 近远场变换中探头方向图的改进与比较%Comparison and Improvement of Probe Patterns in Near-to-Far Field Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉林; 杨涛; 黄文涛

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the sidelobe precision in PNF,two new H-plane probe patterns were used in the near-to-far field transformation.The results were analyzed and compared with other two traditional H-plane probe patterns.An array antenna was measured in anechoic chamber.Two traditional methods which are Stratton-chu integral and the E-field integration method and two new methods which are the fringe current and the fringe current approaching method were used in the near-to-far field transformation.The results indicate that the sidelobe precision achieved by the two new methods is close to the international advanced level and is much higher than present level at home.Also,the method is proved to be practical.%基于进一步提高国内平面近场测量中的副瓣精度,将两种新的探头 H面方向图应用到近远场变换中,并与国内目前搭建近场测试系统所使用的两种探头方向图进行结果分析与比较。通过在微波暗室对某频段阵列天线测量,并分别用传统的 Stratton-chu积分法、E面电场法以及边缘电流法与边缘电流逼近法进行近远场变换。结果表明,新的探头方向图应用使副瓣测试精度基本接近国际先进水平,远远优于国内现有水平,具有很强的工程实用性。

  16. Far-field divergence for Gaussian beam under annular aperture diffraction%圆环孔径衍射高斯光束远场发散角研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 董科研; 江伦; 安岩

    2015-01-01

    The simple approximated analytic expression for the far-field divergence angle of Gaussian beam diffracted by an annular aperture was derived based on the Fraunhofer diffraction theory and by the approximate of the diffraction integration kernel function. For diffraction aperture with different diameters and obscuration ratios (OR), the analytic expression was compared by strict Fraunhofer diffraction expression, and the far-field divergences solved by these two expressions were nearly identical. The error was no more than 2.7%. Compared with the traditional method of getting the beam divergence by numerical integration, the troublesome integral was avoided, but a relative high precision was kept through this approximated formula. The analytic formula was effective on condition that the Gaussian beam waist diameter was more than or equal to 3.5 times the obscuration diameter, and less than or equal to the aperture diameter. In an actual engineering application, especially the space laser communication optical antenna with the characteristics of large-aperture and small-OR, the establishing conditions generally are satisfied.%基于夫琅禾费衍射理论,通过对衍射积分的核函数进行近似,推导并得出了简洁的经圆环形孔径衍射的高斯光束远场发散角的近似解析式.在不同衍射孔径外径和不同遮拦比的条件下,将该解析式与严格的夫琅禾费衍射积分进行比较,发现二者求出的远场发散角接近一致,最大误差不超过2.7%.与传统数值积分求取光束发散角相比,该近似解析式在避免繁琐的积分运算同时保持了较高的精度.该解析式成立条件为高斯光束的束腰直径大于等于3.5倍中心遮拦直径,且小于等于孔径直径;在实际工程应用中,特别是具有大口径、小遮拦比特点的空间激光通信光学天线这一应用场景,该条件一般能够被满足.

  17. Eustatic and far-field tectonic control on the development of an intra-platform carbonate-shoal complex: upper tongue of the Tanglewood Member, Upper Ordovician Lexington Limestone, central Kentucky, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Dibya Raj; Ettensohn, Frank R.; Clepper, Marta L.

    2016-11-01

    the thickest and coarsest parts of each sequence, and the shallowest depositional environments, coincide with basement fault blocks, which are known to have experienced uplift during earlier Lexington Limestone deposition. The occurrence of thick, coarse facies on the same blocks suggests that the blocks continued to experience uplift into shallow water, where tides and waves redistributed sediments during upper Tanglewood deposition. Although eustasy apparently controlled cyclicity, Taconian far-field forces generated by orogeny in the east seem to have influenced facies distribution in each cycle through reactivation of basement fault zones as synsedimentary growth faults. The example of the upper Tanglewood Member shows that tectonic far-field forces can exert important influences on the development of carbonate depositional environments, even in distal intracratonic settings like the Lexington Platform.

  18. 塑料光纤的远场辐射图和微分模式损耗研究%Far Field Pattern and Differential Mode Attenuation of POF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑史烈; 章献民; 陈抗生

    2003-01-01

    The mode coupling effect for SI-POF is studied by observing its far field radiation pattern. The results show that a transmission distance of 5 m is enough to start the mode coupling. The equilibrium mode distribution condition is established after transmitting for about 20~30 m. Differential mode attention of the same SI-POF is measured using the cut-back method. It is found that the attenuation increased with the increasing mode order. Most of the mode′s attenuation is determined to be about 150 ~180 dB/km.%通过观察塑料光纤远场辐射图,分析了阶跃型塑料光纤中的模式耦合效果.实验结果表明,阶跃型塑料光纤的模式耦合效果很明显,模式耦合从光纤传输5米左右开始发生,到传输20~30 m时,模式耦合完成,光纤末端能量分布达到稳态.采用剪断法测量了塑料光纤的微分模式损耗,发现微分模式损耗随着模阶的增加而增加,大多数模阶的微分模式损耗在150~180 dB/km范围内.

  19. Engineering Study on the CCD-based Measurement of Pulse Laser far-field Divergence Angle%基于CCD的脉冲激光器远场发散角工程化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢勇; 邢冀川; 宋艳

    2011-01-01

    简述了激光光束的基本参数及特性,并介绍了采用CCD进行激光发散角测量的基本原理和装置.用CCD测量光斑可以及时获得光斑的二维扫描结果.实际工程应用时常采用CCD来测量激光远场发散角.进一步介绍了使用CCD摄像法进行发散角测量所采用的系统软件设计,首次提出了采用图像处理的方法来捕捉脉冲激光光斑.%This paper demonstrated the basic parameters and characteristics of laser beam, and introduced the basic principles and the devices used in the CCD laser divergence angle measurement method. Using CCD to measure the beam spot can gain the two-dimensional scanned result in a real-time manager. As a result, CCD was always used to measure Far-field divergence angle of the laser beam in the real engineering applications. The paper also made a further introduction of software design in the measuring system using CCD camera method. Finally, it is the first time that by the image-processing method to acquire pulse laser spot is introduced.

  20. 开关电源远场共模电磁辐射模型及其特性研究%Common mode far field radiation model & its characteristics of a flyback power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和军平; 纪科健; 付琦; 王汝泉

    2012-01-01

    针对一台小功率反激式开关电源,从线缆共模辐射的角度辨识其主要共模电磁辐射等效激励源和辐射体结构,得出新形式的简化共模辐射模型.用Ansoft HFSS软件考察了该模型的远场辐射特性,通过与实测结果对比,验证了其有效性.最后,仿真研究了输入/输出线缆长度、电网共模射频阻抗、地平面、线缆布局等因素对共模远场辐射的作用.%In this paper, a far field common mode radiation model, including equivalent driving source, radiation structure and some other key influence factors, is identified and built up for a low-power flyback power supply based on the asymmetry line antenna theory. Then the radiation characteristics of this model are analyzed by using Ansoft HFSS finite element electromagnetic software. Further more, simulation results are compared with the experiment results to verify effectiveness of the model. In the end, the radiation role of some main influence factors, such as the length of input/output cable, the impedance of AC grid, the layout of cable position and the reflect ground, are studied in detail by simulation too.

  1. Simulation study of the effects of near- and far-field heating during focused ultrasound uterine fibroid ablation using an electronically focused phased array: A theoretical analysis of patient safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellens, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.ellens@utoronto.ca; Hynynen, Kullervo [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Assess the feasibility of using large-aperture, flat ultrasonic transducer arrays with 6500 small elements operating at 500 kHz without the use of any mechanical components for the thermal coagulation of uterine fibroids. This study examines the benefits and detriments of using a frequency that is significantly lower than that used in clinical systems (1–1.5 MHz). Methods: Ultrasound simulations were performed using the anatomies of five fibroid patients derived from 3D MRI. Using electronic steering solely, the ultrasound focus from a flat, 6500-element phased array was translated around the volume of the fibroids in various patterns to assess the feasibility of completing full treatments from fixed physical locations. Successive temperature maps were generated by numerically solving the bioheat equation. Using a thermal dose model, the bioeffects of these simulations were quantified and analyzed. Results: The simulations indicate that such an array could be used to perform fibroid treatments to 18 EM{sub 43} at an average rate of 90 ± 20 cm{sup 3}/h without physically moving the transducer array. On average, the maximum near-field thermal dose for each patient was below 4 EM{sub 43}. Fibroid tissue could be treated as close as 40 mm to the spine without reaching temperatures expected to cause pain or damage. Conclusions: Fibroids were successfully targeted and treated from a single transducer position to acceptable extents and without causing damage in the near- or far-field. Compared to clinical systems, treatment rates were good. The proposed treatment paradigm is a promising alternative to existing systems and warrants further investigation.

  2. Study of far-field pressure wavelet of air-gun bubble based on p otential flow theory%基于势流理论的气枪气泡远场压力子波特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亚龙; 李艳青; 张阿漫

    2014-01-01

    The study of far-field pressure wavelet of air-gun bubble is the basic research of air-gun sources. In this paper, a boundary element bubble model is established to simulate the dynamics of bubble, and an energy equivalent method is put forward to solve the bottleneck of bubble jet. In our simplified model, the bubble model takes into consideration the thermodynamic factors such as heat transfer and gas release, and the numerical results agree with the data of Nucleus software well. Based on the established model, the influence of heat transfer coefficient, air-gun firing time, and specific heat at constant volume on the pressure wavelet are studied. Finally, the three-dimensional bubble merging numerical method is put forward, which is an expansion of the axisymmetric model. Thus, the preliminary study of coherent air-gun is conducted, especially the influence of the space between two bubbles on the wavelet. This paper provides a reference for the research of air-gun.%气枪气泡的远场压力子波特性研究是研究气枪震源的基础,本文在前人研究基础上建立了三维边界元气泡动力学模型,并针对气泡射流这一技术瓶颈提出了能量等效算法。再在上述模型中加入了简化的热力学模型,考虑了气枪释放气体以及气泡传热等热力学因素,将上面模型计算结果和Nucleus软件模拟结果对比,两者符合良好,并以此为基础探讨了传热系数、气枪发射时间、气体等体比热容对气枪主要参数的影响规律。最后将轴对称气泡融合技术拓展到三维边界元模型,对相干枪进行初步研究,探讨了气枪间距对压力子波的影响规律,旨在为气枪的研究提供参考。

  3. 艾里光束的远场特性及其演化规律%Propagation characteristics in the far-field and evolution regular of Airy beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程振; 楚兴春; 赵尚弘; 邓博于; 张曦文

    2015-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of Airy beam in the far-field were detailly studied, which start with the theoretical foundation, including the evolution process of intensity distribution, spot diameter and Power in the Bucket (PIB). The change regular of intensity distribution was investigated with the truncation factor a and the arbitrary scale in the transverse x0 and how do a and x0 influence the propagation Distance with Keeping Non-diffraction (DKNd), the Distance in which the Evolution became similar Guassian(DEG) and Self-bending Degree(SbD). The research shows that in the evolution process of intensity distribution which transforms into similar Guassian, the DKNd, DEG and SbD increase with the increase of x0, the DKNd and DEG decrease with the increase of a and a has no effect on SbD. The evolution regular of spot diameter and PIB was also researched. The research shows that the spot diameter fistly remain unchanged and then increases, PIB firstly decreases, then increases and is 0.76 finally in the propagation progress under different values of a.%从艾里光束的理论基础出发,详细研究了艾里光束的远场传输特性,包括场强分布、光斑直径和桶中功率(Power in the Bucket,PIB)的演化过程.探讨了场强分布随截断因子a和任意横向刻度x0的变化规律,以及a和x0对艾里光束保持无衍射性质传输的距离 (Distance with Keeping Non-diffraction,DKNd)、演化成类高斯分布的距离(Distance in which the Evolution became similar Guassian, DEG)和自弯曲程度(Self-bending Degree,SbD)的影响.研究发现:场强分布在演化成类高斯分布过程中,DKNd、DEG和SbD都随着x0的增大而增大,DKNd和DEG随a的增大而减小,a对SbD无影响.研究了艾里光束的光斑直径和PIB的演化规律, 发现在a值不同的情况下,在传输过程中光斑直径先保持不变后增加,PIB先减小后增大,最终等于0.76.

  4. Exploring Optimization of Supersonic Wing Thickness Distribution Using FCE (Far-field Composite Element) Method%基于FCE方法的超声速机翼厚度分布优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关晓辉; 李占科; 宋笔锋

    2012-01-01

    远场组元(Far-field Composite Element,FCE)激波阻力优化方法是基于类别形状函数变换(Class Shape Transformation,CST)参数化方法发展出的一种超声速飞行器气动外形优化方法.文章使用CST参数化方法对超声速客机的大后掠机翼进行外形参数化,并以机翼容积和局部相对厚度为约束条件,使用FCE方法对其厚度分布进行以激波阻力最小为设计目标的快速优化.与原机翼相比,FCE优化方法使机翼激波阻力系数降低达61%,是超声速飞行器概念设计阶段降低激波阻力十分有用的优化方法.%Developed from the class shape transformation (CST) geometric parameterization method, the FCE wave drag optimization method is a new aerodynamic shape optimization method for supersonic aircraft. We use the CST parameterization method to perform the shape parameterization of a typical and large swept wing model of a supersonic aircraft. Sections 1 and 2 of the full paper explain our exploration, whose core consists of; (1) under the constraints of the total volume and local thicknesses of the swept wing, we carry out the quick optimization of the wing thickness distribution, aiming to achieve minimum wave drag; (2 ) we use the supersonic area rule to calculate the wave drag and to optimize the shape parameters of the swept wing with the Lagrange multiplier method, thus requiring no iteration and reducing computation complexity. The optimization results, given in Table 1 and Figs. 4, 5 and 6, and their analysis show preliminarily that, compared with the baseline wing model, our optimization method can reduce the wave drag coefficient by 61% , thus being a useful method for aerodynamic shape optimization so as to reduce the wave drag at the stage of the conceptual design of a supersonic aircraft.

  5. The Appendix on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, S. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: siobhanwhitley@yahoo.co.uk; Sookur, P.; McLean, A.; Power, N. [Barts and the Royal London, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Appendicitis can be a difficult clinical diagnosis to make. A negative appendicectomy rate of 20% has traditionally been accepted as the consequences of appendiceal perforation can be grave. Cross-sectional imaging is increasingly being employed in the investigation of adults with suspected appendicitis. This review will demonstrate the appearance of the normal appendix on computed tomography (CT) and its appearance in a range of inflammatory and neoplastic processes including appendicitis, Crohn's disease, infections, and benign and malignant tumour000.

  6. A case of a horseshoe appendix

    OpenAIRE

    Takabatake, Kazuya; Ikeda, Jun; Furuke, Hirotaka; Kato, Chikage; Kishimoto, Takuya; Kumano, Tatsuya; Imura, Kenichiro; Shimomura, Katsumi; Kubota, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Fumihiro; Shioaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies of the appendix are extremely rare, and a horseshoe appendix is even rarer. A literature search has revealed only five reported cases. In this report, we present a case of a horseshoe appendix. A 78-year-old man was referred for further examination following a positive fecal occult blood test. A mass in his ascending colon was detected on colonoscopy, while computed tomography showed that it was connected to the appendix. Tumor invasion derived from the ascending colon or appendix w...

  7. Design of Rotating Platform Servo System for Far-field Antenna in Microwave Darkroom%微波暗室远场天线测试转台伺服系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余亚飞; 贾平平

    2015-01-01

    高性能天线的研发离不开一套高精度的测试系统。天线测试系统主要包括转台伺服系统、测试仪器、监控系统。其中转台伺服系统的优劣直接影响到微波暗室天线测试的准确性,因此伺服系统的设计显得十分重要。文中设计的微波暗室天线测试转台伺服系统通过ARM处理器控制电机的转动,调整被测天线的姿态的同时记录天线的天线图测试数据。系统可以自动完成远场收发双向测量,降低了测试的难度。借助频谱仪,伺服系统能够准确测量天线方向图、主瓣宽度、波瓣宽度、增益等参数。该伺服系统具有测量误差小、抗干扰能力强、测量灵敏度高等特点。随着微波暗室天线测试技术广泛应用到工业项目,该转台伺服系统具有很高的实用价值。%Development of high performance antenna depends on a high-precision test system. Antenna test system includes servo system, test equipment and monitoring system. The merit of the servo system affects the accuracy of the anechoic chamber antenna test directly. Thus,the design of the servo system is significant. Put forward an antenna pattern test servo system which controls the rotation of the mo-tor through the ARM processor,in order to record the antenna test data while adjusting the measured antenna attitude. This servo system can receive bi-far-field measurements automatically and reduce the difficulty of testing. By means of spectrum analyzer,the servo system can precisely measure antenna pattern,the beam width,the side lobe width,antenna gain and other parameters,which has a small measure-ment error,strong anti-interference ability and is capable of high sensitivity measurements. As the test of microwave anechoic chamber antenna technology is widely applied to industrial projects,this rotating servo system has very high practical value.

  8. 基于三维SAR成像的RCS近远场变换方法研究%Research on Methods of Targets’ RCS Near-field-to-far-field Transformation Based on 3-D SAR Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玲; 陈明领; 廖可非; 师君; 韦顺军

    2015-01-01

    微波3维成像能够准确地从背景噪声中分离出目标的散射信息,适用于外场目标电磁(EM)散射特性的分析和研究,因而从3维合成孔径雷达(SAR)成像的角度研究目标电磁的散射特性是目前的一个新兴的热门课题。该文以此为背景,首先从Stratton-Chu积分方程出发详细推导3维SAR的近场波数域成像过程,解释3维SAR成像的物理意义;然后阐述基于3维SAR成像的雷达散射截面积(RCS)近远场变换原理,介绍3维SAR图像的散射中心提取方法,给出基于3维SAR成像的RCS近远场变换算法;最后通过FEKO软件进行了仿真实验,得到了5个点目标的RCS近远场变换的方位特性曲线和频率特性曲线,并通过与理论情况的对比,验证该算法在RCS近远场变换技术中的有效性。%Microwave 3-D imaging technique can accurately separate and extract the attractive targets from the background noise. So it can be utilized to analyze and study the ElectroMagnetic (EM) scattering characteristics of the outfield targets. Thus researching the EM scattering characteristics of targets from the perspective of 3-D SAR imaging is becoming an emerging hot field. Based on the background above, firstly, the near field 3-D imaging process in wave-number domain is deduced from the Stratton-Chu integral equation and the physical meaning of 3-D SAR imaging is explained. Then, the principle of targets’ Radar Cross Section (RCS) Near-Field-to-Far-Field Transformation (NFFFT) based on 3-D SAR imaging is elaborated and the method of scattering center extraction from 3-D SAR image is introduced and the algorithm of targets’ RCS NFFFT based on 3-D SAR imaging technique is presented. Finally, though some experiments using the FEKO software, five scattering points’ observing angle characteristic curve and frequency characteristic curve are gotten. Through the comparative experiments with the ideal situation, the effectiveness of the RCS

  9. NEAR AND FAR-FIELD EFFECTS OF TSUNAMIS GENERATED BY THE PAROXYSMAL ERUPTIONS, EXPLOSIONS, CALDERA COLLAPSES AND MASSIVE SLOPE FAILURES OF THE KRAKATAU VOLCANO IN INDONESIA ON AUGUST 26-27, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2003-01-01

    source region. It took approximately 2.5 hours for the tsunami waves to refract around Java and reach Batavia (Jakarta where the only operating tide gauge existed. Wavesof 2.4 meters in height were recorded - but with an unusually long period of 122 minutes. The long period is attributed to modification due to resonance effects and did not reflect source characteristics. The tsunami travel time to Surabaya at the eastern part of Java was 11.9 hours. The reported wave was only 0.2 meters.The far field effects of the tsunami were noticeable around the world, but insignificant. Small sea level oscillations were recorded by tide gauges at Port Blair in the Andaman Sea, at Port Elizabeth in South Africa, and as far away as Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Hawaii, Alaska, the North-American West Coast, South America, and even as far away as the English Channel. It took 12 hours for the tsunami to reach Aden on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, about 3800 nautical miles away. The wave reported at Aden, at Port Blair and at Port Elizabeth, represents the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait. There were no land boundaries on the Indian Ocean side of Krakatau to prevent the tsunami energy from spreading in that direction. The tsunami travel time of a little over 300 nautical miles per hour to Aden appears reasonable. However, it is doubtful that the waves, which were reported at distant locations in the Pacific or in the Atlantic Ocean, represented the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait. Very little, if any at all, of the tsunami energy could have escaped the surrounding inland seas to the east of the Sunda Strait. Most probably, the small waves that were observed in the Pacific as well as in the Atlantic were generated by the atmospheric pressure wave of the major Krakatoa explosion, and not from the actual tsunami generated in the Sunda Strait. The unusual flooding, which occurred at the Bay of Cardiff, in the U.K., was caused by atmospheric coupling of

  10. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S; Singh, H Manihar

    2016-03-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called "horseshoe appendix".

  11. SU(5) & A4

    CERN Document Server

    Urbano, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of a Flavour Symmetry can represent an interesting way in which one can try to find an answer to some intriguing problems in Flavour Physics, like the hierarchy between the fermion masses or the particular values of mixing angles. In the meantime the necessity to set this symmetry in a realistic context grows up; this context should be able to enlarge our incomplete knowledge of fundamental interactions as described in the framework of the Standard Model. Following this direction a merging between A(4) and SU(5) can be possible.

  12. Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) annual progress report, 1991--1992. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-07

    This report contains the following appendices: Appendix A - Requirements for Undergraduate Level; Appendix B - Requirements for Graduate Level; Appendix C - Graduate Degree In Environmental Engineering; Appendix D - Non-degree Certificate Program; Appendix E - Curriculum for Associate Degree Program; Appendix F - Curriculum for NCC Program; Appendix G - Information 1991 Teleconference Series; Appendix H - Information on 1992 Teleconference Series; Appendix I - WERC interactive Television Courses; Appendix J - WERC Research Seminar Series; Appendix K - Sites for Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Management Series; Appendix L- Summary of Technology Development of the Second Year; Appendix M - List of Major Publications Resulting from WERC; Appendix N - Types of Equipment at WERC Laboratories.

  13. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-10-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine.

  14. 激光重频对脉冲非稳腔TEA CO2激光远场传输特性的影响分析%Analysis of far-field characteristics with repetition frequency of TEA CO2 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤伟; 郭劲; 邵俊峰; 郭汝海; 王挺峰

    2013-01-01

    为了研究TEA CO2激光重复频率对远场光束特性的影响,首先采用有限元方法计算了不同重复频率下反射镜的温度场和热变形分布,然后采用协方差矩阵法对镜面热变形进行了Zernike拟合,最后结合衍射的角谱传播理论和功率谱反演法分析了不同重频TEA CO2激光经过内光路热畸变作用后的远场光束特性。研究表明:在净吸收能量相同的情况下,随着重复频率的增大,反射镜的温度逐渐升高,热变形量逐渐增大,经过内光路热畸变作用后,远场光束的Sr和平均能量密度Ed逐渐减小,参数逐渐增大,光束质量逐渐变差;对于TEA CO2激光,重频为300 Hz的Ed值仅为10 Hz的40%,远场光束的峰值光强下降了43%,光斑展宽了近60%。文中的研究结果为TEA CO2激光发射系统的优化设计提供可靠的依据。%In order to study the influence of TEA CO2 laser repetition frequency on far-field beam quality, the temperature field and thermal deformation distribution of the mirror were calculated firstly by the finite element analysis of thermodynamics instantaneous method with TEA CO2 laser irradiation of different repetition frequencies. Then, mirror thermal distortion was fitted by Zernike polynomials. Finally, far-field characteristics of different repetition frequencies TEA CO2 laser were obtained by the angular spectrum propagation theory of diffraction. The theory and simulation results show that with the increasing of laser repetition frequency, the mirror temperature and thermal deformation are gradually increasing. After thermal deformation effect, Sr and the average energy density Ed decrease, and parameter gradually increases in the far field. Comparing with 10 Hz, Ed of 300 Hz decreases 40%, peak power in the far field decreases 43% and beam waist broadens 60%. When the laser repetition frequency is greater than 100 Hz,due to the appearance of peaks and valleys on the mirror, the far-field

  15. 24 CFR Appendix Ms-2 to Part 3500 - Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Pt. 3500, App. MS-2 Appendix MS-2 to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500 MS Appendix MS-2 to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  16. 24 CFR Appendix Ms-1 to Part 3500 - Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT Pt. 3500, App. MS-1 Appendix MS-1 to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500 MS Appendix MS-1 to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  17. 43 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17 A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Race, Color, or National Origin Pt. 17, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 17...

  18. [Pinworm infestation of the appendix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, L; Berghenti, M; Cocuzza, C; Manfredini, A; Sciascia, V; Salmi, R

    2006-01-01

    The Authors present 2 cases of enterobiasis of appendix observed on a total of 186 appendicectomies. Enterobius infestation is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible without clinical suspect. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis but parasitic infection rarely causes it. It is also important considered in the differential diagnosis cases that mimic Crohn's disease.

  19. Numerical simulation and first-order hazard analysis of large co-seismic tsunamis generated in the Puerto Rico trench: near-field impact on the North shore of Puerto Rico and far-field impact on the US East Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Grilli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We perform numerical simulations of the coastal impact of large co-seismic tsunamis, initiated in the Puerto Rican trench, both in far-field areas along the upper US East coast (and other Caribbean islands, and in more detail in the near-field, along the Puerto Rico North Shore (PRNS. We first model a magnitude 9.1 extreme co-seismic source and then a smaller 8.7 magnitude source, which approximately correspond to 600 and 200 year return periods, respectively. In both cases, tsunami generation and propagation (both near- and far-field are first performed in a coarse 2′ basin scale grid, with ETOPO2 bathymetry, using a fully nonlinear and dispersive long wave tsunami model (FUNWAVE. Coastal runup and inundation are then simulated for two selected areas, using finer coastal nested grids. Thus, a 15″ (450 m grid is used to calculate detailed far-field impact along the US East Coast, from New Jersey to Maine, and a 3″ (90 m grid (for the finest resolution, encompassing the entire PRNS, is used to compute detailed near-field impact along the PRNS (runup and inundation. To perform coastal simulations in nested grids, accurate bathymetry/topography databases are constructed by combining ETOPO2 2′ data (in deep water and USGS' or NOAA's 15″ or 3″ (in shallow water data. In the far-field, runup caused by the extreme 9.1 source would be severe (over 10 m for some nearby Caribbean islands, but would only reach up to 3 m along the selected section of the East coast. A sensitivity analysis to the bathymetric resolution (for a constant 3″ model grid of runup along the PRNS, confirms the convergence of runup results for a topographic resolution 24″ or better, and thus stresses the importance of using sufficiently resolved bathymetric data, in order to accurately predict extreme runup values, particularly when bathymetric focusing is significant. Runup (10–22 m and inundation are found to be very large at most locations for the extreme 9

  20. Far Field Modeling Methods For Characterizing Surface Detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed particle samples collected during experiments that were designed to replicate tests of nuclear weapons components that involve detonation of high explosives (HE). SRNL collected the particle samples in the HE debris cloud using innovative rocket propelled samplers. SRNL used scanning electronic microscopy to determine the elemental constituents of the particles and their size distributions. Depleted uranium composed about 7% of the particle contents. SRNL used the particle size distributions and elemental composition to perform transport calculations that indicate in many terrains and atmospheric conditions the uranium bearing particles will be transported long distances downwind. This research established that HE tests specific to nuclear proliferation should be detectable at long downwind distances by sampling airborne particles created by the test detonations.

  1. Far field effects of complex noise barrier reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorf, D.; Wessels, P.W.; Eerden, F.J.M. van den; Roo, F. de

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 QUIESST project, QUIeting the Environment for a Sustainable Surface Transport, a test method is being developed for the reflectivity of noise barriers. The method needs to account for a complex shape of barriers and the use of various types of absorbing materials. The performance o

  2. Mapping molecules in scanning far-field fluorescence nanoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Haisen; Keller, Jan; Haltmeier, Markus; Saka, Sinem K.; Schmied, Jürgen; Opazo, Felipe; Tinnefeld, Philip; Munk, Axel; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-08-01

    In fluorescence microscopy, the distribution of the emitting molecule number in space is usually obtained by dividing the measured fluorescence by that of a single emitter. However, the brightness of individual emitters may vary strongly in the sample or be inaccessible. Moreover, with increasing (super-) resolution, fewer molecules are found per pixel, making this approach unreliable. Here we map the distribution of molecules by exploiting the fact that a single molecule emits only a single photon at a time. Thus, by analysing the simultaneous arrival of multiple photons during confocal imaging, we can establish the number and local brightness of typically up to 20 molecules per confocal (diffraction sized) recording volume. Subsequent recording by stimulated emission depletion microscopy provides the distribution of the number of molecules with subdiffraction resolution. The method is applied to mapping the three-dimensional nanoscale organization of internalized transferrin receptors on human HEK293 cells.

  3. A Far-Field Electro-Magnetic Tractor Beam Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — When the project began, our intention was to develop a more accurate model of the forces that could be obtained between experimentally demonstrate...

  4. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood

  5. Subwavelength far-field ultrasound drug-delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingot, Vincent; Bézagu, Marine; Errico, Claudia; Desailly, Yann; Bocheux, Romain; Tanter, Mickael; Couture, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    The theoretical diffraction-limit of resolution for ultrasound imaging has recently been bypassed in-vitro and in-vivo. However, in the context of ultrasound therapy, the precision of therapeutic beams remains bound to the half-wavelength limit. By combining acoustic vaporization of composite droplets and rapid ultrasound monitoring, we demonstrate that the ultrasound drug-delivery can be restricted to a subwavelength zone. Moreover, two release zones closer than the wavelength/4 can be distinguished both optically and through ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy. This proof-of-concept let us envision the possibility to treat specific tissues more precisely without compromising on the penetration depth of the ultrasound wave.

  6. Strong far field coherent scattering of ultraviolet radiation by holococcolithophores

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero-Torres, R; Torres, M; Estrada, M; Cros, L

    2007-01-01

    By considering the structure of holococcoliths (calcite plates that cover holococcolithophores, a haploid phase of the coccolithophore life cycle) as a photonic structure, we apply a discrete dipolar approximation to study the light backscattering properties of these algae. We show that some holococcolith structures have the ability to scatter the ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This property may represent an advantage for holococcolithophores possessing it, by allowing them to live higher in the water column than other coccolithophores.

  7. Far-Field Features of the Kelvin Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    shape and the Froude number, precisely, figure 1 depicts the real parts of the functions Assuming that differentiation under the integral sign is E+(t;x...differentiation under the integral sign in equation.(3a) is 1 - permitted, we have [)!,/III~~ I mfo E+ Kt I {+t Idt (5a)I 1+\\,y1 0 E +-E_ I I W +2...associated with then becomes the differentiation under the integral sign which was used E = exp[ix(I Ta t)(I +t2)t/2, (7) for obtaining expressions (3a,b

  8. 基于四阶累积量的近远场源多参数联合估计算法%Joint Multi-parameters Estimation of Near-field and Far-field Sources Based on the Fourth Order Cumulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐元欣; 王安国; 聂仲尔

    2011-01-01

    该文提出了一种新的基于四阶累积量的信源多参数联合估计方法,可实现信源频率、方位及距离的联合估计.该算法无需峰值搜索,适用于任意高斯噪声环境,可有效降低阵列孔径损失.算法中,通过选取特定序号阵元上的输出构造四阶累积量矩阵,有效地避免了因同时存在远场源时而出现的矩阵降秩现象,因而该算法适用于近场、远场或混合信源的参数估计.仿真结果验证了提出方法的有效性.%A new algorithm for jointly estimating multi-parameters (the frequency, Direction Of Arrival (DOA) and range) of sources is proposed. The proposed algorithm does not require spectral peak search, and can be applied to arbitrary Gaussian noise environment. It can reduce the aperture loss. Moreover, the fourth order cumulant matrices are constructed using the special sensor outputs, and the rank reduction of matrices can be avoided when the far-field sources impinging on an array of sensors. So the proposed algorithm can be used to estimate the parameters of near-field, far-field and mixed sources. The performance of the proposed method is validated by simulations.

  9. A case of a horseshoe appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Kazuya; Ikeda, Jun; Furuke, Hirotaka; Kato, Chikage; Kishimoto, Takuya; Kumano, Tatsuya; Imura, Kenichiro; Shimomura, Katsumi; Kubota, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Fumihiro; Shioaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-12-01

    Anomalies of the appendix are extremely rare, and a horseshoe appendix is even rarer. A literature search has revealed only five reported cases. In this report, we present a case of a horseshoe appendix.A 78-year-old man was referred for further examination following a positive fecal occult blood test. A mass in his ascending colon was detected on colonoscopy, while computed tomography showed that it was connected to the appendix. Tumor invasion derived from the ascending colon or appendix was suspected. We diagnosed ascending colon cancer prior to laparoscopic ileocecal resection. Macroscopic findings showed that the appendix connected to the back side of the mass, while microscopic findings showed that the mucosa and submucosa were continuous from the appendiceal orifice in the cecum to the other orifice in the ascending colon, where a type 1 tumor was observed on the orifice. We eventually diagnosed the patient with tubulovillous adenoma and a horseshoe appendix.A horseshoe appendix communicates with the colon at both ends and is supplied by a single fan-shaped mesentery. Cases are classified by the disposal of the mesentery and the location of the orifice. Anatomical anomalies should be considered despite the rarity of horseshoe appendices.

  10. Cost optimizing of large-scale offshore wind farms. Appendix E to J. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This Volume 3 contains reports prepared by SEAS Distribution A.m.b.A. and partly by Risoe National Laboratory. Appendix E: Grid connection. Appendix F: Review of potential offshore sites. Appendix G: Optimisation of wind farm layout. Appendix G.1: Evaluation of Power Production from Three Offshore Wind Farms. Appendix H: Investments, operation and maintenance costs. Appendix I: Authority approvals and environmental investigations. Appendix J: Outline description of demonstration project. Appendix G.1 has been prepared by Risoe National Laboratory. (au)

  11. 基于光导微探针的近场/远场可扫描太赫兹光谱技术∗%Near-field and far-field scanning terahertz sp ectroscopy based on photo conductive microprob e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许悦红; 张伟力; 张学迁; 王球; 田震; 谷建强; 欧阳春梅; 路鑫超; 张文涛; 韩家广

    2016-01-01

    Recently, terahertz radiation has been a branch of cutting-edge science and technology involving many fields such as public security, military defense and national economy. In the past, far-field measurements were widely carried out based on terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. But the spatial resolution is limited by far-field diffraction effect. In order to break diffraction limit and gain sub-wavelength spatial resolution in terahertz frequency region, a series of near-field detection methods came into being, such as confocal microscopy, using an aperture, guided mode, scattering, direct detection in the near-field, etc. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Using the photoconductive-antenna tip is one of the direct detection methods and it delivers the possibility of near-field measurements of terahertz waves. In this method, the photoconductive-antenna tip is a tapered photoconductive tip probe. So it can be close enough to the sample surface and receive the near-field signal on the basis of principle of photoconductivity. In this way, high spatial resolution can be gained. In this article, we introduce our recent progress of near-field and far- field scanning terahertz spectroscopy system with photoconductive-antenna in detail. Firstly, we analyze and summarize the near-field detection methods that have been developed in these years. And then, using the femtosecond laser whose center wavelength is 800 nm and the photoconductive-antenna tip detector coupled with fiber, we construct fiber near-field/far-field scanning terahertz spectroscopy (N/F-STS). The frequency bandwidth is in a range from 0.2 THz to 1.5 THz and the terahertz spot is circular and uniform indicated by performance test. Also the amplitude and phase of the terahertz field are recorded simultaneously. It has the ability to perform three-dimension scan in various experiment conditions conveniently. Finally, we introduce the real applications in our laboratory. N/F-STS can be used

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A-4 to Part 60 - Test Methods 6 through 10B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 17.0 of Method 5 is an example of a filter that has been shown to work. Where alkaline particulate.... Camann. Collaborative Study of Method for the Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Stationary... the addition of a balance to measure within 0.05 g. 7.0Reagents and Standards Note: Unless...

  13. Villous adenoma of the distal appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J V; Thomas, M G; Kelly, S; Sutton, R

    1997-04-01

    Villous adenoma confined to the distal appendix has not been previously reported in conjunction with acute apendicitis. The presence of an adenoma indicates a need for further investigation due to an association with neoplasia elsewhere.

  14. 13 CFR Appendix A to Part 1171 - Appendix A to Part 1171

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... International Trade Program Small Business Act, section 22. Technical and Management Assistance Small Business... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A to Part 1171 A Appendix A to Part 1171 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 750

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 750 A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... ACT Procedures for Rulemaking Under Section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act Pt. 750, Subpt....

  16. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart B of... - Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 205 I Appendix I to Subpart B of Part 205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix F to Part 23 - Test Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (f) of this appendix, the specimen must be mounted in metal frame so that all four...) of this appendix, the specimen must be mounted in a metal frame so that (1) in the vertical tests...

  18. First case of a vermiform appendix duplication type A volvulus: A very rare cause of acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. Peniche González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The duplication of the vermiform appendix is a rare anatomical variant. Most of the cases reported with symptomatology of appendicitis and the finding of a duplication of vermiform appendix. A seven year old female, with abdominal septic shock, plain abdominal radiography with distended transverse intestinal loop with air-fluid levels and absence of air in distal colon and rectal ampula. Emergency laparotomy was performed finding a blind loop with secondary necrosis volvulus, with the torsion being at the base of the duplication, connected at the middle portion of the vermiform appendix; desvolvulus and resection was performed in a block fashion with Parker-Kerr technique using a 4-0 polyglactin suture. There are 100 cases of duplication of appendix reported worldwide. In our case, a duplication of the vermiform appendix type A was presented, shown by the surgical findings and corroborated by pathology samples of intestinal tissue featuring smooth muscle tissue and transmural necrosis and fibrinopurulent exudate in serous.

  19. Primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphomas of appendix are extremely rare tumors. The first case of primary lymphoma of appendix was reported by Warren in the year 1898. Incidence of primary lymphoma of appendix is 0.015% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas. This is a report of primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of appendix which presented as appendicular mass. As some cases are incidentally discovered, this case emphasizes that histological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory.

  20. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant Curriculum Subjects D Appendix D... Appendix D to Part 147—Powerplant Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at least 750 hours of each powerplant curriculum, in addition to at least 400 hours in general...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 66 - Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction Manual B Appendix B to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Manual Note: For text of appendix B see appendix B to part 67....

  2. 12 CFR Appendixes A-H to Subpart A... - Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 A Appendixes A-H to Subpart A of Part 702 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Net Worth Classification Pt. 702, Apps. Appendixes A-H...

  3. Appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Thulin, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A taxonomic and floristic account of all the additional or new species in Etyhiopia and/or Eritrea that have been discovered while Vols 2 - 7 of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea were being published....

  4. Appendix to Power Dissipation in Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation of the archite......This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation...

  5. Crohn's disease limited to the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Andersen, J C

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen cases of Crohn's disease confined to the vermiform appendix were seen during a 12-year period. They constituted 16.9% of patients with primary resection of the bowel for Crohn's disease in the same period, but only 0.4% of the cases of acute appendicitis. In 10 of the 13 cases...... to approach that of recurrence after resection in other parts of the intestines. Collective review of this and three other relatively large case series gave an estimated recurrence rate of 3.5%. We conclude that in Crohn's disease initially confined to the appendix the course appears to be indolent....

  6. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 460 - Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions Appendix to Part 460 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION Pt... type and thickness of the insulation when they make a representation in an advertisement or...

  7. Energy 21. Preconditions and results. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This appendix comprises the following 5 scenarios: Reference scenario for electricity and district heating supply; Action plan scenario for electricity and district heat supply; Energy balances for reference and action plan scenarios; Investments and operating costs for user installations; Projection of CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector. (EG)

  8. TORSION OF THE VERMIFORM APPENDIX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Imtiaz Wani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of the vermiform appendix is a rare condition with few cases reported in the literature. Various factors predispose to torsion. Various factors predispose to torsion. We report a case of primary torsion of the vermiform appendix. The clinical presentation was indistinguishable from acute appendicitis and the diagnosis was made at operation. Appendix was preileal in position and the direction of torsion was anticlockwise. There was intrinsic torsion with no obvious factor for torsion identified. Appendectomy was performed.

  9. Carcinoid of the Appendix During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Unexpected Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluck, Randy; Cooney, Robert N.; Minnick, Kathleen E.; Ruggiero, Francesco; Smith, J. Stanley

    1999-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the midgut arise from the distal duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, ascending and right transverse colon. The appendix and terminal ileum are the most common location. The majority of carcinoid tumors originate from neuroendocrine cells along the gastrointestinal tract, but they are also found in the lung, ovary, and biliary tracts. We report the first case of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy in which we found a suspicious lesion at the tip of the appendix and proceeded to perform a laparoscopic appendectomy. The lesion revealed a carcinoid tumor of the appendix. PMID:10323177

  10. 15 CFR 4a.4 - Classification authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification authority. 4a.4 Section 4a.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.4 Classification authority. Authority...

  11. 22 CFR 9a.4 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State shall follow the standards in E.O. 11652 and the provisions of 22 CFR 9.5 through 9.8. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification. 9a.4 Section 9a.4 Foreign... ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.4 Classification. (a) Section 1 of E.O. 11932, August 4,...

  12. 32 CFR 383a.4 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 383a.4 Section 383a.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY (DeCA) § 383a.4 Organization. (a) The DeCA is established as an...

  13. 29 CFR 1912a.4 - Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meetings. 1912a.4 Section 1912a.4 Labor Regulations...) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.4 Meetings. (a) The Committee shall hold no fewer than two meetings during each calendar year and, it is contemplated that no more than...

  14. Appendix - A small scale research review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    A small scale research review This appendix provides an analysis of a small scale search for empirical studies regarding the efficacy of adult teacher training. The appendix is a part of a paper delivered at the ASEM conference, June 2009, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. The paper tries to shed light...... over two questions asked in the abstract concerning workshop C - Effects of teacher training in lifelong learning - at the current ASEM conference. At first it is asked what do we already know about teacher training effects in relation to adult learners? This will be identified by a search...... for systematic reviews in the international This will be identified by a search for systematic reviews in the international clearinghouses and afterwards by a small scale mapping done in the pedagogic databaseERIC. The second question sounds: which methods can be used to measure the effects of teacher...

  15. Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahlavan Payam S

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC of the appendix is a rare neoplasm that share histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor. While its malignant potential remains unclear, GCC's are more aggressive than conventional carcinoid. The clinical presentations of this neoplasm are also varied. This review summarizes the published literature on GCC of the appendix. The focus is on its diagnosis, histopathological aspects, clinical manifestations, and management. Methods Published studies in the English language between 1966 to 2004 were identified through Medline keyword search utilizing terms "goblet cell carcinoid," "adenocarcinoid", "mucinous carcinoid" and "crypt cell carcinoma" of the appendix. Results Based on the review of 57 published papers encompassing nearly 600 diagnosed patients, the mean age of presentation for GCC of the appendix was 58.89 years with equal representation in both males and females. Accurate diagnosis of this neoplasm requires astute observations within an acutely inflamed appendix as this neoplasm has a prominent pattern of submucosal growth and usually lacks the formation of a well-defined tumor mass. The mesoappendix was involved in 21.64% followed by perineural involvement in 2.06%. The most common clinical presentations in order of frequency were acute appendicitis in 22.5%; asymptomatic in 5.4%; non-localized abdominal pain in 5.15% and an appendicular mass in 3.09%. The most common surgical treatment of choice was appendectomy with right hemicolectomy in 34.70% followed by simple appendectomy in 24.57%. Concomitant distant metastasis at diagnosis was present in 11.16% of patients with the ovaries being the most common site in 3.60% followed by disseminated abdominal carcinomatosis in 1.03%. Local lymph node involvement was seen in 8.76% of patients at the time of diagnosis. The reported 5-year survival ranges from 60 % to 84%. GCC's of the appendix remains a neoplasm of unpredictable

  16. Appendix B - GPRA06 biomass program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    This appendix discusses the assumptions and methods employed in the biomass benefits analysis that is part of the fiscal year 2006 GPRA benefits analysis for all of the Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) research and deployment programs. The biomass benefits analysis focuses on the benefits of future achievements by the program and excludes retrospective benefits and benefits resulting from industry’s own initiative and funding.

  17. Unusual association of Meckel's diverticulum with double appendix – A rare finding

    OpenAIRE

    Sangram Keshari Panda; C. Prasad; Roshni Tirkey; V. Rajesh; Jagadananda Mishra; Rajesh Kumar Dora

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Appendix duplication is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that is seen in 0.004–0.009% of appendectomy specimens. Duplicated appendix may be associated with number of congenital anomalies. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case report, we are presenting a rare case of duplicated vermiform appendix with a co-existing Meckel's diverticulum. DISCUSSION: Anomalies of appendix are rare and duplication of vermiform appendix is extremely rare. In 1936, Cave classified appendiceal ...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 45 - DD Form 215

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 215 C Appendix C to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. C Appendix C to Part 45—DD Form 215 EC21OC91.050...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 436 - Goal Setting Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goal Setting Methodology B Appendix B to Part 436 Energy... Appendix B to Part 436—Goal Setting Methodology In establishing and updating agency goals for energy conservation, the following methodology or an equivalent method should be utilized: (a) For overall...

  20. 23 CFR Appendix B to Part 1327 - OMB Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB Clearance B Appendix B to Part 1327 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR PARTICIPATING..., App. B Appendix B to Part 1327—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance number of this regulation is OMB...

  1. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 226 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false B Appendix B to Part 226 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Appendix B to Part 226...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 147 - Curriculum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Curriculum Requirements A Appendix A to... to Part 147—Curriculum Requirements This appendix defines terms used in appendices B, C, and D of this part, and describes the levels of proficiency at which items under each subject in each...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 147 - General Curriculum Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Curriculum Subjects B Appendix B to... to Part 147—General Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at least 400 hours in general curriculum subjects. The number in parentheses before each item listed under...

  4. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes the districts and…

  5. 50 CFR Appendix B to Part 404 - Approved VMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved VMS B Appendix B to Part 404... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT Pt. 404, App. B Appendix B to Part 404—Approved VMS I. VMS Mobile Transceiver Unit Thrane & Thrane Sailor 3026D Gold VMS The Thrane & Thrane Sailor 3026D Gold VMS (TT-3026D)...

  6. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 138 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 138 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 138, App. A Appendix A to Part 138—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  7. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 93 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. A Appendix A to Part 93—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  8. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 82 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 82 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 82, App. A Appendix A to Part 82—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 411 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 411 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 411, App. A Appendix A to Part 411—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for...

  10. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 712 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 712, App. A Appendix A to Part 712—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  11. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to Part 45—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The undersigned...

  12. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 604 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 604, App. A Appendix A to Part 604—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 93 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 93 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 93, App. A Appendix A to Part 93—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  14. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 227 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 227 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 227, App. A Appendix A to Part 227—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for...

  15. 20 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 438 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 438, App. A Appendix A to Part 438—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants,...

  16. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1230 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1230, App. A Appendix A to Part 1230—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  17. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 311 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 311 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 311, App. A Appendix A to Part 311—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 1271 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix... ON LOBBYING Pt. 1271, App. A Appendix A to Part 1271—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  19. 18 CFR Appendix A to Part 1315 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 1315 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1315, App. A Appendix A to Part 1315—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  20. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1158 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1158, App. A Appendix A to Part 1158—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans,...

  1. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 519 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 519 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 519, App. A Appendix A to Part 519—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans,...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 28 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 28, App. A Appendix A to Part 28—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  3. 44 CFR Appendix A to Part 18 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 18 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. A Appendix A to Part 18—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  4. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 3018 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part... OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 3018, App. A Appendix A to Part 3018—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 601 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 601 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 601, App. A Appendix A to Part 601—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants,...

  6. 6 CFR Appendix A to Part 9 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... LOBBYING Pt. 9, App. A Appendix A to Part 9—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts... Standard Form—LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 20 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to Part 20 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 20, App. A Appendix A to Part 20—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  8. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1168 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A Appendix A to... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 1168, App. A Appendix A to Part 1168—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts,...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 37 - Short Form Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short Form Disclosures A Appendix A to Part 37... AND DEBT SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS Pt. 37, App. A Appendix A to Part 37—Short Form Disclosures • This... will not receive a refund. • Additional disclosures We will give you additional information before...

  10. Primary Adenocarcinoma of Appendix Presenting as Omental Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Gupta, Subhash Bhardwaj, Jyotsna Suri

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The adenocarcinoma of appendix is a rare entity The patients present usually with symptoms ofappendicitis, a palpable abdominal mass or rarely as a complication of pseudomyxoma peritonei,We report a case who presented with lump abdomen and ascitis and revealed a tiny infiltrativegrowth at the base of appendix at laparotomy

  11. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 654 - Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Part 654 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Pt. 654, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178.... 178, App. A Appendix A to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition... ladle analysis may be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15...

  13. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - Internet Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internet Addresses B Appendix B to Part 2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Pt. 2, App. B Appendix B to Part 2—Internet Addresses 1. Department of the Interior (DOI)...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix C to Part 359 - Investment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment Considerations C Appendix C to Part 359 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... BONDS, SERIES I Pt. 359, App. C Appendix C to Part 359—Investment Considerations 1. What are some...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noise Compatibility Programs B Appendix B... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT NOISE COMPATIBILITY PLANNING Pt. 150, App. B Appendix B to Part 150—Noise Compatibility Programs Sec. B150.1Scope and purpose. Sec. B150.3Requirement for noise map. Sec....

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 806 - Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms C Appendix C to Part 806 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. C Appendix C to Part 806—Terms Appellate Authority—The Office of the...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 240 - Recommended Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended Bibliography Appendix to Part 240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Pt. 240, App. Appendix to Part 240—Recommended...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix to Part 243 - Recommended Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended Bibliography Appendix to Part 243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES.... Appendix to Part 243—Recommended Bibliography 1. American National Standard Z245.1. Safety standard...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P of... - Soil Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil Classification A Appendix A to Subpart P of Part 1926..., App. A Appendix A to Subpart P of Part 1926—Soil Classification (a) Scope and application—(1) Scope... § 1926.652(c), and the use of the data is predicated on the use of the soil classification system...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 43 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false C Appendix C to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Appendix C to Part 43...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to... PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part 300—Oil Spill Response Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction. 1... response actions under the NCP. Miscellaneous oil spill control agent is any product, other than...

  2. 36 CFR Appendix D to Part 1191 - Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical D Appendix D to Part 1191 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE...; ARCHITECTURAL BARRIERS ACT (ABA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES Pt. 1191, App. D Appendix D to Part...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 67 - Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer Program C Appendix C to Part 67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) EPA APPROVAL OF STATE NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTY PROGRAM Pt. 67, App. C Appendix C to Part 67—Computer Program...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 66 - Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer Program C Appendix C to Part 66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Pt. 66, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  5. 25 CFR Appendix B to Part 276 - Financial Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial Reporting Requirements B Appendix B to Part 276...—Financial Reporting Requirements A. Purpose and scope. This appendix prescribes requirements for grantee to report financial information to the Bureau and to request advances and reimbursement when a...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 67 - Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instruction Manual B Appendix B to Part 67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Manual Note: EPA will make copies of appendix B available from: Director, Stationary Source...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 436... - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false A Appendix A to Part 436-Energy Conservation Standards for General Operations Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Appendix A to Part 436—Energy Conservation Standards for General Operations...

  8. 50 CFR Appendix B to Part 622 - Gulf Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gulf Areas B Appendix B to Part 622... Part 622—Gulf Areas Table 1 of Appendix B to Part 622—Seaward Coordinates of the Longline and Buoy Gear Restricted Area Point No. and reference location 1 North lat. West long. 1Seaward limit of Florida's...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 609 - Elderly and Handicapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elderly and Handicapped A Appendix A to Part 609..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS Pt. 609, App. A Appendix A to Part 609—Elderly and Handicapped The definitions of the term elderly and handicapped as applied...

  10. 34 CFR Appendixes A-B to Part 682 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A Appendixes A-B to Part 682 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Appendixes A-B to Part 682...

  11. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart R of... - Redelegation of Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redelegation of Functions Appendix to Subpart R of Part 0 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Pt. 0, Subpt. R, App. Appendix to Subpart R of Part...

  12. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart K of... - Unknown Title

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appendix to Subpart K of Part 0 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division Pt. 0, Subpt. K, App. Appendix to Subpart K of Part 0 Criminal Division Editorial Note: Criminal Division Directive...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4011 - Model Participant Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Model Participant Notice A Appendix A to Part 4011 Labor... DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS DISCLOSURE TO PARTICIPANTS Pt. 4011, App. A Appendix A to Part 4011—Model Participant..., the Internal Revenue Service may grant a funding waiver that permits the company to...

  14. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 5b... - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false C Appendix C to Part 5b-Delegations of Authority Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS Appendix C to Part 5b—Delegations of Authority...

  15. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  16. 40 CFR Appendixes I-Vii to Part 85 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false I Appendixes I-VII to Part 85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Appendixes I-VII to Part 85...

  17. 48 CFR Appendix to Part 1252 - Tar Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tar Matrix Appendix to Part 1252 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Pt. 1252, App. Appendix to Part 1252—Tar Matrix...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix to Part 1275 - Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research Misconduct Appendix to Part 1275 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Pt. 1275, App. Appendix to Part 1275—Research Misconduct NASA Research Disciplines and Respective Associated Enterprises...

  19. 18 CFR Appendix B to Part 2 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false B Appendix B to Part 2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Appendix B to Part 2...

  20. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 13 - Appendix A to Part 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Pt. 13, App. A Appendix A to Part 13 Proceedings covered.... Proceedings provided to a fiscal intermediary before assigning or reassigning Medicare providers to a different fiscal intermediary 42 U.S.C. 1395h(e)(1)-(3) 42 CFR 421.114, 421.128. 3. Appeals...

  1. 13 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., sec 7(b)(4). Nonfinancial Programs Women's business enterprise Executive Order 12138. Small business... 113 A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 113 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Authority Financial Programs Regular business loans Small Business Act, sec. 7(a). Handicapped...

  2. Cost optimizing of large-scale offshore wind farms. Appendix K to Q. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This Volume 4 contains reports prepared by SEAS Distribution A.m.b.A., Risoe National Laboratory, Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S (NNR), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, National Wind Power Ltd. and Stadtwerke Rostock AG. Appendix K - Wind and wave measurements; Appendix L - Establishment of design basis (wind, wave and ice loads). Appendix M - Wake effects and wind farm modelling. Appendix N - Functional requirements and optimisation of wind turbines. Appendix O - Operation and maintenance system. Appendix O.1 - Helicopter Service (alternative). Appendix P - Cost optimising of large scale offshore wind farms in UK waters. Appendix Q - Cost optimising of large scale offshore wind farms in German waters. Appendix K, L and N have been prepared by Risoe National Laboratory. Appendix M has been prepared by Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Appendix 0 has been prepared by SEAS Distribution A.m.b.A.. Appendix O.1 has been prepared by Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S. Appendix P has been prepared by National Wind Power Ltd.. Appendix Q has been prepared by Stadtwerke Rostock AG. (au)

  3. 47 CFR Appendix I to Subpart E of... - A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24... station and the characteristics of each receiver, i.e., adjacent channel susceptibility, antenna...

  4. An A4 model for neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Peinado, E

    2010-01-01

    The study of an extension of the standard model based on the flavor symmetry A4 is presented. Neutrino Majorana mass terms arise from dimension five operator and charged lepton masses from renormalizable Yukawa couplings. We introduce three Higgs doublets that belong to one triplet irreducible representation of A4. We study the most general A4-invariant scalar potential and the phenomenological consequences of the model. We find that the reactor angle could be as large as 0.03, while the atmospheric mixing angle is close to maximal.

  5. VistA 4 Product Roadmap

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VistA 4 Product Roadmap outlines how the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), under the direction of the VistA Evolution Program, will build upon the previous...

  6. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A4 to A6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeft, H.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with collection of slags for the rotary kiln experiments; overview of the thermal treatment experiments - phase 1; a journal paper with the title ''Quantification of leaching from waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln''. (Author)

  7. General Conformity Training Modules: Appendix A Sample Emissions Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendix A of the training modules gives example calculations for external and internal combustion sources, construction, fuel storage and transfer, on-road vehicles, aircraft operations, storage piles, and paved roads.

  8. 7 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 799 - Form FSA-929

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Pt. 799, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 799—Form FSA-929 EC19SE91.001...

  9. [A case of true diverticulosis of the appendix with intussusception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Toshifumi; Oki, Eiji; Kusumoto, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Koji; Kitano, Seigo

    2011-09-01

    A 50-year-old woman who was given a diagnosis of acute appendicitis was referred to our hospital. Because an abdominal enhanced CT revealed a dilated and cystic lesion in the appendix, operation was performed under the diagnosis of the suspicion of acute appendicitis or appendiceal mucocele. We performed laparoscopic cecal resection because of the intraoperative diagnosis of intussusception of the appendix. On the resected specimen, an elevated lesion was identified near the base of appendix. Histopathologically it was shown to be a true diverticulum in which the proper muscle layer are intact. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of true diverticulosis of the appendix with intussusception in the Japanese literature.

  10. Existential field 8: appendix to the report - special focus pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, Myria; Haddon, Leslie; Helsper, Ellen; Wang, Yinhan

    2010-01-01

    This appendix contains five special focus pieces on Diasporic families and media consumption, The place of mobile technology in European families, Families’ digital disadvantage and exclusion, ICT and intimate relationships, and Girl culture and Web 2.0.

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 45 - DD Form 214

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 214 A Appendix A to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. A Appendix A to Part 45—DD Form 214 EC23OC91.003 EC23OC91.004 EC23OC91.005 EC23OC91.006...

  12. Separation of gibberellin A4 from A4 and A7 mixture by selective complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Wen Hu; Yong Yao Zhang; Yun Guo; Cong Wang; Zhi Min Jin

    2010-01-01

    Gibberellin A4 is effectively separated from mixture of gibberellin A4 and its analogue gibberellin A7,in the form of its crystalline complex with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine.After removing the tetramethylethylenediamine from the crystal by dilute HCl,gibberellin A4 is obtained a purity of 98.1% and a yield of 72.7%.

  13. Visualization of the normal appendix with MR enterography in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Rosenbaum, Daniel; Brill, Paula W. [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mazumdar, Madhu; Dunning, Allison [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Department of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may provide a radiation-sparing alternative to CT in diagnosing appendicitis in children in whom US is equivocal. However, comparability with CT in the detection of the appendix remains to be established. To determine the detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI. MR imaging of 58 patients who had previously undergone MR enterography was retrospectively reviewed. Detection rate, body mass index, age and gender were recorded. The normal appendix was detected in 28 cases (48 %), with greatest detection rate on the axial fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) sequence. Children in whom the appendix was detected had significantly higher BMI compared to children in whom the appendix was not seen. Neither age nor gender demonstrated a significant association with detection rate. The detection rate of the normal appendix in children on oral and IV contrast-enhanced MRI was 48 %, which is comparable to detection rates on CT, as well as to previously reported detection rates on MR imaging with neither oral nor IV contrast agents. These findings may serve to guide the development of MRI protocols for pediatric appendicitis. (orig.)

  14. 31 CFR Appendix to Part 321 - Appendix to Department of the Treasury Circular No. 750, Fourth Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix provide for an exception, such as in cases involving a change of name by marriage, a request by a..., symbols, etc., of the officer or employee who approved or made the payment). (b) Procurement of stamps....

  15. 34 CFR Appendix A to Subpart N of... - Sample Default Prevention Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Default Prevention Plan A Appendix A to Subpart... Default Rates Pt. 668, Subpt. N, App. A Appendix A to Subpart N of Part 668—Sample Default Prevention Plan This appendix is provided as a sample plan for those institutions developing a default prevention...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 51 - Minimum Emission Monitoring Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements P Appendix P to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Pt. 51, App. P Appendix P to Part 51—Minimum Emission Monitoring Requirements 1.0 Purpose. This appendix P sets forth...

  17. 50 CFR Appendix D to Part 404 - Boundary Coordinates for Papaha

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary Coordinates for Papaha D Appendix... HAWAIIAN ISLANDS MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT Pt. 404, App. D Appendix D to Part 404—Boundary Coordinates for Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument Ship Reporting Area Appendix D—Geographical Coordinates Ship...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 571 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation J Appendix J to Part 571 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Pt. 571, App. J Appendix J to Part 571... to this Appendix J. (1) Alerts, notifications, or other warnings received from consumer...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 334 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation J Appendix J to Part 334 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Pt. 334, App. J Appendix J to... appended as Supplement A to this Appendix J. (1) Alerts, notifications, or other warnings received...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 222 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation J Appendix J to Part 222 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM..., App. J Appendix J to Part 222—Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and.... Examples of Red Flags from each of these categories are appended as Supplement A to this appendix J....

  1. 12 CFR Appendix J to Part 717 - Interagency Guidelines on Identity Theft Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation J Appendix J to Part 717 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Pt. 717, App. J Appendix J to Part 717... appended as Supplement A to this appendix J. (1) Alerts, notifications, or other warnings received...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  3. 78 FR 52457 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Appendix A, Armed Services Board of Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ...; Appendix A, Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals, Part 1--Charter CFR Correction 0 In Title 48 of the..., in Appendix A to Chapter 2, add two lines to the list immediately preceding Part 1-- Charter to read as follows: Appendix A to Chapter 2--Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals * * * * *...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 51 - Criteria for Determining the Completeness of Plan Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Completeness of Plan Submissions V Appendix V to Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PLANS Pt. 51, App. V Appendix V to Part 51—Criteria for Determining the Completeness of Plan Submissions 1.0. Purpose This appendix V sets forth the minimum criteria for determining whether a...

  5. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Principles A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 102-3—Key Points and Principles This appendix provides... principles that may be applied to situations not covered elsewhere in this subpart. The guidance follows:...

  6. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Principles A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property.... B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 102-3—Key Points and Principles This appendix provides... principles that may be applied to situations not covered elsewhere in this subpart. The guidance follows:...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix H to Subpart C of... - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Mint H Appendix H to... RECORDS Privacy Act Pt. 1, Subpt. C, App. H Appendix H to Subpart C of Part 1—United States Mint 1. In general. This appendix applies to the United States Mint. It sets forth specific notification and...

  8. Incarcerated appendix in a Spigelian hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reinke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spigelian hernias are rare, making up only 1-2% of all hernias. Like other hernias, they may contain abdominal contents but are more likely to be incarcerated due to the small size of the fascial defect.(1 We describe here the case of a 71-year-old female with a 10-year history of right lower quadrant pain that remained undiagnosed despite multiple imaging studies. Prior to presentation the patient developed a new bulge and increasing pain at this site; an ultrasound revealed the presence of a bowel-containing hernia. The patient was taken urgently to the operating room for a laparoscopic Spigelian hernia repair, and was found to have an incarcerated appendix in the hernia. After the hernia was reduced, an appendectomy was performed and the hernia was repaired with biological mesh. Postoperatively, the patient did well, and her pain resolved.

  9. Seeds in the appendix: a "fruitful" exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora, Michela; Trambaiolo Antonelli, Chiara; Grillo, Federica; Bragoni, Alberto; Cornara, Laura; Migliora, Paola; Pigozzi, Simona; Mastracci, Luca

    2017-03-10

    Our contribution aims at clarifying and underlining a possible finding which can pose an interesting twist in routine appendix diagnostics: seeds in the appendiceal lumen, their histological aspects and their differential diagnosis with parasites. We work in a training centre with a large referral practice for gastrointestinal pathology and often the most banal cases are those which pose problems to junior or non-expert pathologists. This short study aims at providing simple iconographic tables, which are not at the moment available either in publications or on the web, with the most frequent seeds encountered in our routine practice or sent for second opinion. The real importance of identifying seed type in histological sections, however is in forsensic pathology and forensic botany where the identification of seeds as stomach content may provide important clues for solving major crimes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Intussusception in Children with a Pathological Appendix Acting as a "Lead Point" - A Series of 3 Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; E, Harish; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Kola, Sivasai Krishnaprasad; K, Sundeep V

    2015-01-01

    Meckel’s diverticulum is commonest lead point for intussusception in children. Appendix is part of the intusssusception of the commonest ileocolic type but appendix as lead point for intussusception is rare. We report a series of 3 cases of intussusception in children, wherein a pathological appendix was the lead point. We would like to propose that more likely a pathological appendix, acts as a lead point leading to an appendico-caeco-colic intussusception rather than a normal appendix.

  11. Intussusception in Children with a Pathological Appendix Acting as a "Lead Point" - A Series of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; E, Harish; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Kola, Sivasai Krishnaprasad; K, Sundeep V

    2015-07-01

    Meckel's diverticulum is commonest lead point for intussusception in children. Appendix is part of the intusssusception of the commonest ileocolic type but appendix as lead point for intussusception is rare. We report a series of 3 cases of intussusception in children, wherein a pathological appendix was the lead point. We would like to propose that more likely a pathological appendix, acts as a lead point leading to an appendico-caeco-colic intussusception rather than a normal appendix.

  12. A STUDY OF ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF VERMIFORM APPENDIX IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosmani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The surgical procedures like appendicectomy, demands a precise knowledge of vascular anatomy of ileocolic region. The aim of th is study is to study the arterial supply of the appendix, findings of which may reveal more anatomica l facts about the arteries of appendix and their variations. Total 52 specimens of caecum a nd appendix with their arteries intact were collected, cleaned and dissected. The ileocolic art ery and its branches to the appendix were traced carefully and observations were recorded. Th e ileocolic artery arises independently from superior mesenteric artery in 96.88% of cases and en ds by dividing into superior and inferior division in 93.76% of cases. The appendicular artery arises from inferior division in 46.88%, ileal branch 28.13%, ileocolic artery 18.75% and fr om arterial arcade in 6.25% of cases. 21.87% of cases showed additional appendicular artery. KEYWORDS: Caecum, appendix, ileocolic artery, appendicular arter y.

  13. Rank-3 Projections of a 4-Cube

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The orthogonal projection of a 4-cube onto a uniform random 3-subspace in R^4 is a convex 3-polyhedron P with 14 vertices almost surely. Three numerical characteristics of P -- volume, surface area and mean width -- are studied. These quantities, along with the Euler characteristic, form a basis of the space of all additive continuous measures that are invariant under rigid motions in R^3. While computing statistics of {vl, ar, mw}, we encounter the generalized hypergeometric function, elliptic integrals and Catalan's constant. A new constant 7.1185587167... also arises and deserves further attention.

  14. Advanced wellbore thermal simulator GEOTEMP2. Appendix. Computer program listing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.F.

    1982-02-01

    This appendix gives the program listing of GEOTEMP2 with comments and discussion to make the program organization more understandable. This appendix is divided into an introduction and four main blocks of code: main program, program initiation, wellbore flow, and wellbore heat transfer. The purpose and use of each subprogram is discussed and the program listing is given. Flowcharts will be included to clarify code organization when needed. GEOTEMP2 was written in FORTRAN IV. Efforts have been made to keep the programing as conventional as possible so that GEOTEMP2 will run without modification on most computers.

  15. Endometriose kan medføre invagination af appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Katrine

    2015-01-01

    Intussusception of the appendix is a rare condition with an incidence of approximately 0.01%. In adults, the lead point for the intussusception is most frequently endometriosis, whereas in children, acute inflammation of the appendix is usually the cause (76%). This case report presents a 41-year......-old woman who was referred to hospital care primarily due to blood in her stool and a 1 × 3 cm polypous tumour in her caecum, observed during colonoscopy. She had no gynaecologic history and a normal exam. A right-sided hemicolectomy was performed and pathology showed endometriosis and acute and chronic...

  16. Diverticulosis and diverticulitis of the appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullgaffar, Badr

    2009-06-01

    Diverticulosis of the appendix is a relatively rare pathological finding. The majority are acquired pseudodiverticula. True congenital diverticula are very rare. Appendiceal diverticulosis is usually an incidental finding and clinically asymptomatic. When symptomatic, it is usually complicated by acute or chronic diverticulitis with or without acute appendicitis. It presents with atypical abdominal signs and symptoms, mostly in adult males. Appendiceal diverticulitis is a distinct entity with several clinical and pathological differences from acute appendicitis. It has a more rapid progression to perforation and a higher rate of mortality. Therefore, appendiceal diverticulitis should be considered in the clinical differential diagnosis, especially in adult males with chronic abdominal pain. Appendiceal diverticulosis demonstrates a significant association with obstructing or incidental appendiceal neoplasms. It may play an important role in the development of pseudomyxoma peritonei, which is associated with appendiceal mucinous tumors. Therefore, meticulous gross examination and thorough histological examination of the entire appendicectomy specimen are essential. When discovered either by preoperative radiological investigations or during an exploratory operation, prophylactic appendicectomy is advocated to prevent the risk of complications and to rule out the possibility of a coexisting neoplasm.

  17. Neuroendocrine Tumor of the Appendix in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hicks, John; Nuchtern, Jed G; Okcu, M Fatih; Venkatramani, Rajkumar

    2017-03-01

    Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the appendix is the most common gastrointestinal epithelial tumor in children. The utility of serum markers or the indication for hemicolectomy has not been established in children. In 45 children diagnosed with appendiceal NET, 89% NETs were incidentally found following appendectomy performed for suspected acute appendicitis. The median age was 12 years, and 56% patients were female. Postoperative somatostatin scan (n=5), serum chromogranin A (n=4), and urine 5-HIAA (n=9) were all within normal limits. Pathology slides of 35 patients showed mesoappendiceal invasion in 29% patients, and vascular invasion in 6% patients. Seven patients (16%) underwent hemicolectomy for invasion of mesoappendix (n=5), tumor near the resection margin (n=1), and tumor size 1.5 cm with vascular invasion (n=1). Only 2 hemicolectomy specimens showed disease: one in the appendiceal stump and the other as a micrometastasis in a mesenteric lymph node. There were no recurrences and all patients were alive and without evidence of disease at last follow-up. Pediatric appendiceal NET tends to have a benign clinical course with excellent prognosis. In the absence of carcinoid syndrome, postoperative scans and serum biomarkers do not seem to be useful. With completely resected tumors, the indication for hemicolectomy is unclear.

  18. Localizing Near and Far Field Acoustic Sources with Distributed Microhone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of acoustic source localization using distributed microphone arrays. Time differences of arrival (TDOAs) are estimated using a recently proposed method based on joint direction of arrival (DOA) and range estimation. The TDOAs are used to estimate the location...... on joint DOA and pitch estimation, using synthesized harmonic signals with varying source position. Results show a decrease in the error of the estimated position when joint DOA and range estimation is used for TDOA estimation, compared to the GCC-PHAT and joint DOA and pitch methods....

  19. Numerical simulation of the sound reflection effects of noise barriers in near and far field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de; Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Jean, P.; Ecotière, D.; Dutilleux, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the first stages of the development of a new test method for evaluating the reflectivity performance of noise barriers. The reflectivity performance describes the increase in sound level at a receiver due to the presence of the noise barrier. First the current test method for s

  20. Plasmonics of opalic surface: a combined near-and far-field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lethiec, Clotilde; Popescu, Trajan; Frederich, Hugo; Ngoc, Phan; Yraola, Eduardo; Schwob, Catherine; Charra, Fabrice; Coolen, Laurent; Douillard, Ludovic; Maître, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    An opalic plasmonic sample, constituted by a hexagonal arrangement of metallized silica spheres, presents remarkable optical properties due to the mixing of periodic arrangement and singularities at the sphere touching points. It is therefore an interesting candidate for exploiting the excitation of both localized and propagating surface plasmons. Several channels of excitation based on these properties or exploiting a certain level of disorder are evidenced, opening new routes for the efficient excitation of plasmons on a wide spectral range. The versatility of such hybrid system is evidenced in the context of two complementary experiments: specular reflective spectrometry and photoemission electron microscopy. Both techniques offer different points of view on the same physical phenomenon and the link between them is discussed. Such experiments evidence the opportunities offered by these 2D hybrid materials in the context of nanophotonics.

  1. Far-field Noise and Near-field Flow Validation of Tandem Cylinder Flow Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    今村, 太郎; Imamura, Taro; 平井, 亨; Hirai, Toru; 榎本, 俊治; Enomoto, Shunji; 山本, 一臣; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, flow around tandem cylinder is solved using UPACS-LES code developed in JAXA. Several key issues for unsteady flow simulation are investigated by changing the parameters, such as turbulence modeling and grid density. The flow field is compared with the experiment for both far- and near- field. Current results indicate that the calculation of the boundary layer and the shear layer around the cylinders plays important role especially to the near field flow structure while it is l...

  2. Near- and Far-Field Response to Compact Acoustic Sources in Stratified Convection Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Cally, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the acoustic continuum associated with compact sources in the Sun's interior wave field is explored for a simple polytropic model. The continuum produces a near-field acoustic structure -- the so-called `acoustic jacket' -- that cannot be represented by a superposition of discrete normal modes. Particular attention is paid to monochromatic point sources of various frequency and depth, and to the surface velocity power that results, both in the discrete f- and p-mode spectrum and i...

  3. Near- and Far-field Response to Compact Acoustic Sources in Stratified Convection Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cally, Paul S.

    2013-05-01

    The role of the acoustic continuum associated with compact sources in the Sun's interior wave field is explored for a simple polytropic model. The continuum produces a near-field acoustic structure—the so-called acoustic jacket—that cannot be represented by a superposition of discrete normal modes. Particular attention is paid to monochromatic point sources of various frequency and depth, and to the surface velocity power that results, both in the discrete f- and p-mode spectrum and in the continuum. It is shown that a major effect of the continuum is to heal the surface wave field produced by compact sources, and therefore to hide them from view. It is found that the continuous spectrum is not a significant contributor to observable inter-ridge seismic power.

  4. Near- and Far-Field Response to Compact Acoustic Sources in Stratified Convection Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    The role of the acoustic continuum associated with compact sources in the Sun's interior wave field is explored for a simple polytropic model. The continuum produces a near-field acoustic structure -- the so-called `acoustic jacket' -- that cannot be represented by a superposition of discrete normal modes. Particular attention is paid to monochromatic point sources of various frequency and depth, and to the surface velocity power that results, both in the discrete f- and p-mode spectrum and in the continuum. It is shown that a major effect of the continuum is to heal the surface wave field produced by compact sources, and therefore to hide them from view. It is found that the continuous spectrum is not a significant contributor to observable inter-ridge seismic power.

  5. NEAR- AND FAR-FIELD RESPONSE TO COMPACT ACOUSTIC SOURCES IN STRATIFIED CONVECTION ZONES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cally, Paul S., E-mail: paul.cally@monash.edu [Monash Centre for Astrophysics and School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    The role of the acoustic continuum associated with compact sources in the Sun's interior wave field is explored for a simple polytropic model. The continuum produces a near-field acoustic structure-the so-called acoustic jacket-that cannot be represented by a superposition of discrete normal modes. Particular attention is paid to monochromatic point sources of various frequency and depth, and to the surface velocity power that results, both in the discrete f- and p-mode spectrum and in the continuum. It is shown that a major effect of the continuum is to heal the surface wave field produced by compact sources, and therefore to hide them from view. It is found that the continuous spectrum is not a significant contributor to observable inter-ridge seismic power.

  6. Far-field radiation patterns of aperture antennas by the Winograd Fourier transform algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, R.

    1978-01-01

    A more time-efficient algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform, the Winograd Fourier transform (WFT), is described. The WFT algorithm is compared with other transform algorithms. Results indicate that the WFT algorithm in antenna analysis appears to be a very successful application. Significant savings in cpu time will improve the computer turn around time and circumvent the need to resort to weekend runs.

  7. Far field 3D localization of radioactive hot spots using a coded aperture camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifeng, Sun; Zhiming, Zhang; Lei, Shuai; Daowu, Li; Yingjie, Wang; Yantao, Liu; Xianchao, Huang; Haohui, Tang; Ting, Li; Pei, Chai; Yiwen, Zhang; Wei, Zhou; Mingjie, Yang; Cunfeng, Wei; Chuangxin, Ma; Long, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coded aperture method to remotely estimate the radioactivity of a source. The activity is estimated from the detected counts and the estimated source location, which is extracted by factoring the effect of aperture magnification. A 6mm thick tungsten-copper alloy coded aperture mask is used to modulate the incoming gamma-rays. The location of point and line sources in all three dimensions was estimated with an accuracy of less than 10% when the source-camera distance was about 4 m. The estimated activities were 17.6% smaller and 50.4% larger than the actual activities for the point and line sources, respectively.

  8. Compact resonator on leather for nonradiative inductive power transfer and far-field data links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, G.; Corchia, L.; De Benedetto, E.; Tarricone, L.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a wearable resonator suitable to be used for both power and data transmission is presented. The basic element is a complementary split ring resonator that has been optimized to operate both as a dipole-like antenna at 2.45 GHz and as the receiver of a resonant energy link operating at 915 MHz when coupled with an identical external resonator connected to a power source. Experimental data referring to a prototype fabricated by using a conductive adhesive fabric on a leather substrate are reported and discussed. With regard to the wireless resonant energy link (WREL), it is demonstrated that at 915 MHz, the RF-to-RF power transfer efficiency of the link is approximately 78.1%. As for the performance obtained when the resonator is used as an antenna, a gain of approximately -0.43 dB was obtained. Additionally, the performance of the proposed link when connected to a Power Management Unit (PMU) that converts the radio frequency (RF) energy received by the wearable resonator into DC energy that can be directly used for recharging a thin-film battery was also investigated. Experimental tests were performed in order to evaluate both the total efficiency of the wireless charger (i.e., the WREL link connected to the PMU) and the time necessary to recharge a THINERGY MEC201 battery. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of using the proposed WREL for implementing a battery charger; in particular, by providing an input power higher than 8 dBm, the time necessary to recharge the considered thin-film battery is shorter than 38 min.

  9. Plasmon assisted fluorescence emission: far-field observables and their fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Langguth

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence describes the property of matter to absorb light and shortly after emit light of another color. Fluorescent materials are found in nature, e.g. in the jelly-fish Aequorea victoria, in some plants and mushrooms, and in minerals such as Fluorite in which this property was first scientific

  10. Robustness of the far-field response of nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Zhaowei

    2016-01-01

    distribution. For a normal distribution of free-electron nanoparticles, and within the simple nonlocal hydrodynamic Drude model, both the nonlocal blueshift and the plasmon linewidth are shown to be considerably affected by ensemble averaging. Size-variance effects tend however to conceal nonlocality...... to a lesser extent when the homogeneous size-dependent broadening of individual nanoparticles is taken into account, either through a local size-dependent damping model or through the Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory. The role of ensemble averaging is further explored in realistic distributions......Contrary to classical predictions, the optical response of few-nm plasmonic particles depends on particle size due to effects such as nonlocality and electron spill-out. Ensembles of such nanoparticles are therefore expected to exhibit a nonclassical inhomogeneous spectral broadening due to size...

  11. Robustness of the far-field response of nonlocal plasmonic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan R; Liu, Zhaowei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N Asger

    2016-06-22

    Contrary to classical predictions, the optical response of few-nm plasmonic particles depends on particle size due to effects such as nonlocality and electron spill-out. Ensembles of such nanoparticles are therefore expected to exhibit a nonclassical inhomogeneous spectral broadening due to size distribution. For a normal distribution of free-electron nanoparticles, and within the simple nonlocal hydrodynamic Drude model, both the nonlocal blueshift and the plasmon linewidth are shown to be considerably affected by ensemble averaging. Size-variance effects tend however to conceal nonlocality to a lesser extent when the homogeneous size-dependent broadening of individual nanoparticles is taken into account, either through a local size-dependent damping model or through the Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory. The role of ensemble averaging is further explored in realistic distributions of isolated or weakly-interacting noble-metal nanoparticles, as encountered in experiments, while an analytical expression to evaluate the importance of inhomogeneous broadening through measurable quantities is developed. Our findings are independent of the specific nonclassical theory used, thus providing important insight into a large range of experiments on nanoscale and quantum plasmonics.

  12. Far-field noise and internal modes from a ducted propeller at simulated aircraft takeoff conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Bock, Lawrence A.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Hall, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The ducted propeller offers structural and acoustic benefits typical of conventional turbofan engines while retaining much of the aeroacoustic benefits of the unducted propeller. A model Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) was tested in the NASA Lewis Low-Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff velocity of Mach 0.2. The ADP model was designed and manufactured by the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies. The 16-blade rotor ADP was tested with 22- and 40-vane stators to achieve cut-on and cut-off criterion with respect to propagation of the fundamental rotor-stator interaction tone. Additional test parameters included three inlet lengths, three nozzle sizes, two spinner configurations, and two rotor rub strip configurations. The model was tested over a range of rotor blade setting angles and propeller axis angles-of-attack. Acoustic data were taken with a sideline translating microphone probe and with a unique inlet microphone probe which identified inlet rotating acoustic modes. The beneficial acoustic effects of cut-off were clearly demonstrated. A 5 dB fundamental tone reduction was associated with the long inlet and 40-vane sector, which may relate to inlet duct geometry. The fundamental tone level was essentially unaffected by propeller axis angle-of-attack at rotor speeds of at least 96 percent design.

  13. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the WP. This calculation supports disposal criticality analysis and has been prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref. 49). This calculation uses results from Ref. 4 on actinide accumulation in the invert and more generally does reference heavily the cited calculation. In addition to the information provided in this calculation, the reader is referred to the cited calculation for a more thorough treatment of items applying to both the invert and fracture system such as the choice of the thermodynamic database, the composition of J-13 well water, tuff composition, dissolution rate laws, Pu(OH){sub 4} solubility and also for details on the source term composition. The flow conditions (seepage rate, water velocity in fractures) in the drift and the fracture system beneath initially referred to the TSPA-VA because this work was prepared before the release of the work feeding the TSPA-SR. Some new information feeding the TSPA-SR has since been included. Similarly, the soon-to-be-qualified thermodynamic database data0.ymp has not been released yet.

  14. Far-field resonance fluorescence from a dipole-interacting laser-driven cold atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan; Saint, Reece; Olmos, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the temporal response of the fluorescence light that is emitted from a dense gas of cold atoms driven by a laser. When the average interatomic distance is comparable to the wavelength of the photons scattered by the atoms, the system exhibits strong dipolar interactions and collective dissipation. We solve the exact dynamics of small systems with different geometries and show how these collective features are manifest in the scattered light properties such as the photon emission rate, the power spectrum and the second-order correlation function. By calculating these quantities beyond the weak (linear) driving limit, we make progress in understanding the signatures of collective behavior in these many-body systems. Furthermore, we shed light on the role of disorder and averaging on the resonance fluorescence, of direct relevance for recent experimental efforts that aim at the exploration of many-body effects in dipole-dipole interacting gases of atoms.

  15. Probing the dispersion properties of 1D nanophotonic waveguides with far-field Fourier optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thomas, N.; Jágerská, J.; Houdré, R.;

    2008-01-01

    We present an advanced Fourier space imaging technique to probe guided light in nanophotonic structures with an effective numerical aperture of 2.5. This superresolution technique allows us to successfully investigate the dispersive properties of 1D nanowaveguides such as photonic crystal W1 wave...

  16. Optical tuning of near and far fields form hybrid dimer nanoantennas via laser-induced melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Stanislav A.; Sun, Yali; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Krasnok, Alexander E.; Belov, Pavel A.

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid nanophotonics based on metal-dielectric nanostructures unifies the advantages of plasmonics and all-dielectric nanophotonics providing strong localization of light, magnetic optical response and specifically designed scattering properties. Here, we propose a new method for optical properties tuning of hybrid dimer nanoantenas via laser-induced melting at the nanoscale. We demonstrate numerically that near- and farfield properties of a hybrid nanoantenna dramatically changes with fs-laser modification of Au particle. The results lay the groundwork for the fine-tuning of hybrid nanoantennas and can be applied for effective light manipulation at the nanoscale, as well as biomedical and energy applications.

  17. Efficient voice activity detection in reverberant enclosures using far field microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm suitable for voice activity detection under reverberant conditions is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of far-filed microphones the proposed solution processes speech signals of highly-varying intensity and signal to noise ratio, that are contaminated with several echoes. The c...

  18. Spectral discrete probability density function of measured wind turbine noise in the far field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Payam; Denison, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Of interest is the spectral character of wind turbine noise at typical residential set-back distances. In this paper, a spectral statistical analysis has been applied to immission measurements conducted at three locations. This method provides discrete probability density functions for the Turbine ONLY component of the measured noise. This analysis is completed for one-third octave sound levels, at integer wind speeds, and is compared to existing metrics for measuring acoustic comfort as well as previous discussions on low-frequency noise sources.

  19. New three-dimensional far-field potential repository thermomechanical calculations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, M.P.; Bai, M.; Goodrich, R.R.; Lin, M.; Carlisle, S. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bauer, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The thermomechanical effect on the exploratory ramps, drifts, and shafts as a result of high-level nuclear waste disposal is examined using a three-dimensional thermo-elastic model. The repository layout modeled is based on the use of mechanical mining of all excavations with equivalent waste emplacement areal power densities of 57 and 80 kW/acre. Predicted temperatures and stress changes for the north and south access drifts, east main drift, east-west exploratory drift, the north and south Calico Hills access ramps, the Calico Hills north-south exploratory drift, and the optional exploratory studies facility and man and materials shafts are presented for times 10, 35, 50, 100, 300, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000, and 10,000 years after the start of waste emplacement. The study indicates that the east-west exploratory drift at the repository horizon is subject to the highest thermomechanical impact because it is located closest the buried waste canisters. For most exploratory openings, the thermally induced temperatures and stresses tend to reach the maximum magnitudes at approximately 1000 years after waste emplacement.

  20. Design of super-resolving lenses in far-field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Rincón, Ninfa del C.; Ochoa, Noé Alcalá

    2017-01-01

    We outlined a method to modify the surfaces of aspheric lenses and mirrors in order to achieve super-resolution. Using a non-paraxial field propagation theory it is demonstrated that its on-axis Point Spread Function (PSF) transversal size can be reduced depending on certain pre-defined functions.

  1. An Operational Prediction for Far Field Airblast Effects: Practical Experience at Caepe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    distance equal to the height of the barricade multiplied by a factor of 4 (see reference 2). Beyond this distance, the use of barricades is useless in...ERROR SOURCES 3 - Wuther account krge uncuuinliu Wuther vadions luge unmuimiu but cm be ptnned with a good mewno- 6.6) ~PERATIONAL APPLICATION

  2. Far-Field Testing Method of Spurious Emission Produced by HF RFID

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Gvozdenovic; Ralph Prestros; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of spurious emission produced by high-frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) using carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz. HF RFID tags produce unwanted emission due to rectification and more generally due to nonlinearity of analog front end. Depending on the conducting material of an HF RFID coil and surrounding dielectric material, the coil behaves as more or less good antenna on some harmonic frequencies. Exact characterization and analysis of unwanted emission ...

  3. Far-Field Testing Method of Spurious Emission Produced by HF RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Gvozdenovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of spurious emission produced by high-frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID using carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz. HF RFID tags produce unwanted emission due to rectification and more generally due to nonlinearity of analog front end. Depending on the conducting material of an HF RFID coil and surrounding dielectric material, the coil behaves as more or less good antenna on some harmonic frequencies. Exact characterization and analysis of unwanted emission is important from the security perspective as well as from the perspective of interference with other systems. Consequently we measured the harmonics produced in the integrated circuitry and characterized radiation properties of the antenna. Finally we present the measurements of the spurious emission performed in a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM cell.

  4. Powers synthesis of array antennas using the continuation method on far field phase distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, G.; Gerini, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present a technique, based on the continuation method, to face power synthesis problems for array antennas. By using the least squares method (LSM), the power synthesis problem reduces to the minimization of an objective functional, which represents the square of the distance between the required

  5. Far-field constant-gradient laser accelerator of electrons in an ion channel

    CERN Document Server

    Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    We predict that electrons in an ion channel can gain ultra-relativistic energies by simultaneously interacting with a laser pulse and, counter-intuitively, with a decelerating electric field. The crucial role of the decelerating field is to maintain high-amplitude betatron oscillations, thereby enabling constant rate energy flow to the electrons via the direct laser acceleration mechanism. Multiple harmonics of the betatron motion can be employed. Injecting electrons into a decelerating phase of a laser wakefield accelerator is one practical implementation of the scheme.

  6. Waveguide-based ultrasonic and far-field electromagnetic sensors for downhole reservoir characterization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S. H.; Chien, H. T.; Wang, K.; Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-11-12

    This report summarizes the first year research and development effort leading to development of high-temperature sensors for enhanced geothermal systems. It covers evaluation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic (EM) techniques applied to temperature measurement and flow characterization. On temperature measurement, we have evaluated both microwave radiometry and ultrasonic techniques for temperature gradient and profile measurements. Different antenna designs are evaluated and array loop antenna design is selected for further development. We have also evaluated ultrasonic techniques for total flow characterization, which includes using speed of sound to determine flow temperature, measuring acoustic impedance to estimate fluid density, and using cross-correlation technique to determine the mass flow rate. Method to estimate the flow enthalpy is briefly discussed. At end, the need and proposed techniques to characterize the porosity and permeability of a hot dry rock resource are presented.

  7. Learning for autonomous navigation : extrapolating from underfoot to the far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Larry; Turmon, Michael; Howard, Andrew; Angelova, Anelia; Tang, Benyang; Mjolsness, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous off-road navigation of robotic ground vehicles has important applications on Earth and in space exploration. Progress in this domain has been retarded by the limited lookahead range of 3-D sensors and by the difficulty of preprogramming systems to understand the traversability of the wide variety of terrain they can encounter. Enabling robots to learn from experience may alleviate both of these problems. We define two paradigms for this, learning from 3-D geometry and learning from proprioception, and describe initial instantiations of them we have developed under DARPA and NASA programs. Field test results show promise for learning traversability of vegetated terrain, learning to extend the lookahead range of the vision system, and learning how slip varies with slope.

  8. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor...... compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we...... quantify cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific product intake fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. Combining product intake fractions with chemical mass in the product yields intake estimates for use in life cycle...

  9. Transverse distinguishability of entangled photons with arbitrarily shaped spatial near- and far-field distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Elsner, Robert; Pieplow, Gregor; Heuer, Axel; Menzel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion inside a nonlinear crystal exhibit a complex spatial photon count distribution. A quantitative description of this distribution helps with the interpretation of experiments that depend on this structure. We developed a theoretical model and an accompanying numerical calculation that includes the effects of phase matching and the crystal properties to describe a wide range of spatial effects in two-photon experiments. The numerical calculation was tested against selected analytical approximations. We furthermore performed a double-slit experiment where we measured the visibility V and the distinguishability D and obtained $D^2 + V^2 = 1.43$. The numerical model accurately predicts these experimental results.

  10. Highly directive and Gaussian far-field emission from “giant” photonic trumpets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanov, Petr; Delga, Adrien; Gregersen, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    Photonic trumpets are broadband dielectric antennas that efficiently funnel the emission of a pointlike quantum emitter—such as a semiconductor quantum dot—into a Gaussian free-space beam. After describing guidelines for the taper design, we present a “giant” photonic trumpet. The device features...

  11. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. hush house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 deg to 180 deg from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics. All the data are normalized to standard acoustic reference conditions of 59 F temperature and 70% relative humidity. Refer to Volume I of the AFAMRL-TR-73-110 report for discussion of the scope, limitations, and definitions needed to understand and use the data in this report.

  12. Far-field acoustic data for the Texas ASE, Inc. Hush-House, supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.

    1982-04-01

    This report supplements AFAMRL-TR-73-110, which describes the data base (NOISEFILE) used in the computer program (NOISEMAP) to predict the community noise exposure resulting from military aircraft operations. The results of field test measurements to define the single-event noise produced on the ground by military aircraft/engines operating in the Texas ASE Inc. hush-house are presented as a function of angle (0 to 180 from the front of the hush-house) and distance (200 ft to 2500 ft) in various acoustic metrics.

  13. Spherical-Wave Far-Field Interferometer for Hard X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Houxun; Harmon, Katherine J; Bennett, Eric E; Chedid, Nicholas; Panna, Alireza; Bhandarkar, Priya; Wen, Han

    2014-01-01

    Low dose, high contrast x-ray imaging is of general interest in medical diagnostic applications. X-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometers using collimated synchrotron beams demonstrate the highest levels of phase contrast under a given exposure dose. However, common x-ray sources emit divergent cone beams. Here, we developed a spherical-wave inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer for phase contrast imaging over an extended area with a broadband and divergent source. The first tabletop system was tested in imaging experiments of a mammographic accreditation phantom and various biological specimens. The noise level of the phase contrast images at a clinical radiation dose corresponded to a 6 nano radian bending of the x-ray wavefront. Un-resolved structures with conventional radiography and near-field interferometer techniques became visible at a fraction of the radiation dose.

  14. A two-angle far-field microscope imaging technique for spray flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmatzis, Agisilaos; Pham, Phuong X.; Masri, Assaad R.

    2017-03-01

    Backlight imaging is frequently used for the visualization of multiphase flows, where with appropriate microscope lenses, quantitative information on the spray structure can be attained. However, a key issue resides in the nature of the measurement which relies on a single viewing angle, hence preventing imaging of all liquid structures and features, such as those located behind other fragments. This paper presents results from an extensive experimental study aimed as a step forward towards resolving this problem by using a pair of high speed cameras oriented at 90 degrees to each other, and synchronized to two high-speed diode lasers. Both cameras are used with long distance microscope lenses. The images are processed as pairs allowing for identification and classification of the same liquid structure from two perspectives at high temporal (5 kHz) and spatial resolution (∼3 μm). Using a controlled mono-disperse spray, simultaneous, time-resolved visualization of the same spherical object being focused on one plane while de-focused on the other plane 90 degrees to the first has allowed for a quantification of shot-to-shot defocused size measurement error. An extensive error analysis is performed for spheroidal structures imaged from two angles and the dual angle technique is extended to measure the volume of non-spherical fragments for the first time, by ‘discretising’ a fragment into a number of constituent ellipses. Error analysis is performed based on measuring the known volumes of solid arbitrary shapes, and volume estimates were found to be within  ∼11% of the real volume for representative ‘ligament-like’ shapes. The contribution concludes by applying the ellipsoidal method to a real spray consisting of multiple non-spherical fragments. This extended approach clearly demonstrates potential to yield novel volume weighted quantities of non-spherical objects in turbulent multiphase flow applications.

  15. An energy absorbing far-field boundary condition for the elastic wave equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2008-07-15

    The authors present an energy absorbing non-reflecting boundary condition of Clayton-Engquist type for the elastic wave equation together with a discretization which is stable for any ratio of compressional to shear wave speed. They prove stability for a second order accurate finite-difference discretization of the elastic wave equation in three space dimensions together with a discretization of the proposed non-reflecting boundary condition. The stability proof is based on a discrete energy estimate and is valid for heterogeneous materials. The proof includes all six boundaries of the computational domain where special discretizations are needed at the edges and corners. The stability proof holds also when a free surface boundary condition is imposed on some sides of the computational domain.

  16. Design of loop antenna for near-field and far-field UHF RFID applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Krupali Patil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Radio-frequency-identification (RFID technology has received a lot of attention in warehouse, supply chain, industry, and commerce. As RFID deployment moves from pallet level to item level, it is necessary to identify and track objects by RFID tags at anytime and anywhere. Then, mobile RFID device has advantages in terms of cost, portability and wireless communication. By folded-dipole loop structure with parasitic element, a small antenna size can be achieved. The antenna with different parasitic element size can work on different UHF RFID bands. A novel type of radio frequency identification (RFID reader antenna is proposed for mobile ultrahigh frequency (UHF RFID device. Effects of geometrical length, effect of width of strip, effect of ground plane length on of the frequency verses S parameters and gain of antenna are analyzed.

  17. Higher degree moment tensor inversion of Mani earthquake using far-field broad- band recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Breakthrough point source model, extended earthquake source model is used to calculate more seismic source parameters in this paper. We express seismic source using higher degree moment tensors, to reduce a large number terms originally presenting in higher degree moment tensor representation, Haskell rupture model is used. We inverted the source parameters of Mani earthquake in Tibet using broad-band body wave of 32 stations of Global Seismograph Network (GSN), the results show that it is a strike-slip fault, rupture direction is 75° , rupture duration is 19 s, the fault plan is f =77° , d =88° , l =0° , the auxiliary plane is f =347° , d =90° , l =178° , and the fault dimension is 47 km′ 28 km. These results will give new quantitative data for earth dynamics and have practical meaning for seismic source tomography research.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C- to Part 544... - Appendix C- to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and Franchisees) Subject to the Reporting Requirements of Part 544 C Appendix C- to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing Companies (Including Licensees and... REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Pt. 544, App. C Appendix C— to Part 544 Motor Vehicle Rental and Leasing...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix II to Subpart V of... - Arbitration Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration Rules II Appendix II to... Subpart V of Part 85—Arbitration Rules Part A—Pre-Hearing Section 1: Initiation of Arbitration Either party may commence an arbitration under these rules by filing at any regional office of the...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 500 - Qualifying International Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifying International Institutions A Appendix A to Part 500 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Association (IDA) International Finance Corporation (IFC) International Fund for Agricultural...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 512 - OMB Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Clearance F Appendix F to Part 512 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... 512—OMB Clearance The OMB clearance number for this part 512 is 2127-0025....

  2. Torsion of an Epiploic Appendix Pretending as Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Ahmad Malik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Torsion of an epiploic appendix is a rare surgical entity. Its unusual symptomatology, wide variation in physical findings and the absence of helpful laboratory and radiological studies makes it very difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. This is a report of this rare entity found in a patient upon diagnostic laparoscopy performed for suspected acute appendicitis

  3. 15 CFR Appendix A to Part 28 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 28, App. A Appendix A to Part 28—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  4. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 87 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... Urban Development NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 87, App. A Appendix A to Part 87—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts, Grants, Loans, and Cooperative Agreements The...

  5. 43 CFR Appendix A to Part 18 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 18, App. A Appendix A to Part 18—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... ON LOBBYING Pt. 21, App. A Appendix A to Part 21—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 34 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... ASSISTANCE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Pt. 34, App. A Appendix A to Part 34—Certification Regarding Lobbying... and submit Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with...

  8. 13 CFR Appendix A to Part 146 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 146, App. A Appendix A to Part 146—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for... Standard Form-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3)...

  9. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 69 - Certification Regarding Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Regarding Lobbying A... LOBBYING Pt. 69, App. A Appendix A to Part 69—Certification Regarding Lobbying Certification for Contracts...-LLL, “Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying,” in accordance with its instructions. (3) The...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flowchart provided in Attachment C-I to this appendix shows the decision tree with the criteria to identify... feet or less. 2.0Description of Screening Criteria for the Substantial Harm Flowchart A facility that... description of the screening criteria for the substantial harm flowchart is provided below:...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 153 - Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidelines A Appendix A to Part 153 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY...—Guidelines (a) Civilians employed by the Armed Forces outside the United States who commit felony...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix I to Part 539 - Designated Foreign Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Foreign Persons I Appendix I to Part 539 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Listed Constituents I Appendix I to Part 192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Pt. 192,...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix to Part 162 - Reporting Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENHANCING CAPITAL INVESTMENT (PECI) Pt. 162, App. A Appendix to Part 162—Reporting Procedures A. General The... a funded PIF project must annually report summary PIF information. The information required for each project follows: a. Project Identification. Provide the 11-digit code for each project that has...

  15. 24 CFR Appendix E to Part 3500 - Arithmetic Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arithmetic Steps E Appendix E to Part 3500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 150 - Noise Exposure Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shells, amphitheaters Y N N N N N Nature exhibits and zoos Y Y N N N N Amusements, parks, resorts and... this appendix. Sec. A150.3Noise descriptors. (a) Airport Noise Measurement. The A-Weighted Sound Level.... (b) Airport Noise Exposure. The yearly day-night average sound level (YDNL) must be employed for...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Departmental Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Offices 1. In general. This appendix applies to the Departmental Offices as defined in 31 CFR 1.1(a)(1). 2.... Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant requests for... to deny records. (i) Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with respect to records of...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 63 - Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in section 5.4. 5.1Isotopic Spiking. This approach shall be used only for methods that require mass... using the procedures described in section 6.2. This approach shall be used when a validated method is... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Methods A Appendix A to Part...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Fracture Toughness Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lifetime. The ASME Code forms the basis for the requirements of this appendix. “ASME Code” means the... Components.” If no edition or addenda are specified, the ASME Code edition and addenda and any limitations... addenda of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specified in § 50.55a have been approved...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 356 - Bidder Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bidder Categories A Appendix A to Part 356 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... Massachusetts or Delaware business trust, to be a corporation. We use the term “corporate structure” to refer...

  1. 22 CFR Appendix I to Part 211 - Operational Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... should cover enough time for a program to become fully operational and to permit evaluation of its... shall be transmitted to the CCC.) F. Local Currency Programs (Public Law 480, Title II Section 203... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operational Plan I Appendix I to Part...

  2. 41 CFR Appendix D to Chapter 301 - Glossary of Acronyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Standards and Technology NTE: Not to Exceed OBE: Online Self-service Booking Tool OCONUS: Outside... Appendix D to Chapter 301 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...: Automated Teller Machine CAS: Commercial Aviation Service(s) CDW: Collision Damage Waiver CFR: Code...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix K to Part 25 - Extended Operations (ETOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendix C of this part with a liquid water content factor of 1.0. (iii) Ice accumulated during approach... safely conduct an ETOPS diversion with the most critical ice accretion resulting from: (i) Icing... airplane, but experience on the candidate airplane must make up a significant portion of the total...

  4. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 154 - Equivalent Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent Stress A Appendix A to Part 154 Shipping...—Equivalent Stress I. Equivalent stress (σ c) is calculated by the following formula or another formula... normal stress in “x” direction. σy=total normal stress in “y” direction. τxy=total shear stress in...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 34 - Radiographer Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiographer Certification A Appendix A to Part 34 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR... of industrial radiography; 2. Make its membership available to the general public nationwide that...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 86 - State Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Information C Appendix C to Part 86 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... State Office Building, Des Moines, IA 50319 6 Release within State, COMM: 515-281-5138. State of...

  7. Construction safety program for the National Ignition Facility, Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerruti, S.J.

    1997-06-26

    This Appendix contains material from the LLNL Health and Safety Manual as listed below. For sections not included in this list, please refer to the Manual itself. The areas covered are: asbestos, lead, fire prevention, lockout, and tag program confined space traffic safety.

  8. Appendix R. A Basic Communication Skill for Improving Interpersonal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, John L.

    This appendix contains descriptions of three exercises designed to develop basic communications skills for improving interpersonal relations. Each exercise--designed to be engaged in by teachers in dyads, triads, quadruples, or similar groups without the presence of a skilled leader--includes a statement of the problem, description of the skill…

  9. Inflamed appendix in a femoral hernial sac: de Garengeot's hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S S; Girn, H R S; Ainslie, W G

    2009-10-01

    Croissant de Garengeot's hernia is defined as the presence of an appendix in the femoral hernial sac. It is rare and occurs mostly in females. We report this hernia in a male patient along with the surgical management and review of literature.

  10. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 121 - Flight Training Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. E Appendix E to Part 121—Flight... in Command (SIC). B=PIC and SIC. F=Flight Engineer. PJ=PIC transition Jet to Jet. PP=PIC...

  11. 17 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Model Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing Pt. 248, Subpt. B, App. Appendix... such as “the group of companies.” 4. Substituting other types of affiliates covered by the notice for... Initial Opt Out Notice (Joint Notice) A-3—Model Form for Renewal Notice (Single-Affiliate Notice)...

  12. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Principles A Appendix A to Part 230 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR... Principles General Principles Table of Contents A. Basic Considerations 1. Composition of total costs...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Recommended Phonetic Alphabet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—JULIET K—KILO L—LIMA M—MIKE N—NOVEMBER O—OSCAR P—PAPA Q—QUEBEC R—ROMEO S—SIERRA T—TANGO U—UNIFORM V... appendix A of part 220 does not exist in 49 CFR parts 200 to 399, revised as of Oct. 1, 1997....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Compliance Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies (EE-2J), Forrestal Building, 1000... differing physical or functional characteristics that affect energy consumption or efficiency. Rating means... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance Certification C Appendix C to Subpart B of...

  15. 28 CFR Appendix to Subpart J of... - Unknown Title

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appendix to Subpart J of Part 0 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Rights Division Pt. 0, Subpt... 6, 1992. Delegation of Authority for Administration of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act 1....

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 33 - Term and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contractor to carry out these requirements is a material breach of this contract which may result in the termination of this contract or other legally available remedies. .... 33, App. A Appendix A to Part 33—Term and Condition Each procurement contract signed by an...

  17. Unusual association of Meckel's diverticulum with double appendix – A rare finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sangram Keshari; Prasad, C.; Tirkey, Roshni; Rajesh, V.; Mishra, Jagadananda; Dora, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Appendix duplication is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that is seen in 0.004–0.009% of appendectomy specimens. Duplicated appendix may be associated with number of congenital anomalies. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case report, we are presenting a rare case of duplicated vermiform appendix with a co-existing Meckel's diverticulum. DISCUSSION Anomalies of appendix are rare and duplication of vermiform appendix is extremely rare. In 1936, Cave classified appendiceal duplication for the first time which was modified by Wallbridge in 1963 into three types. Concomitant malformations or duplications of the large intestine or the genitourinary system may be present, especially in types B1 and C probably due to their similar embryological origin. Here we are presenting a very rare case report of type B1 appendix anomaly associated with Meckel's diverticulum. CONCLUSION Surgeons should be aware of these conditions because of the possible clinical implications. PMID:25462057

  18. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Baek Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound examination (US does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases in extracting appendix.

  19. 5 CFR Appendix C to Part 2634 - Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for Appendixes A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendixes A and B Privacy Act Statement Section 102(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 as amended (the “Ethics Act”) (5 U.S.C. App.) and subpart D of 5 CFR part 2634 of the regulations of the Office of... under the Ethics Act. The primary use of the information on this certificate is for review by...

  20. Cost optimizing of large-scale offshore wind farms. Appendix A to D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Volume 2 contains reports prepared by Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S (NNR) and NNR`s 2 sub-consultants Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) and Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI). It contains Appendix A - Geotechnical Review and Summary prepared by Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S; Appendix B - Geotechnical Investigations, factual reports for geotechnical investigations and laboratory tests prepared by Danish Geotechnical Institute; Appendix C - Hydraulic Assessment prepared by Danish Hydraulic Institute; Appendix D - Conceptual Design and Optimisation prepared by Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S. (LN)

  1. Supplementary Appendix for: Constrained Perturbation Regularization Approach for Signal Estimation Using Random Matrix Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Suliman, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this supplementary appendix we provide proofs and additional simulation results that complement the paper (constrained perturbation regularization approach for signal estimation using random matrix theory).

  2. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 157 - Procedure for Determining Distribution of Segregated Ballast Tanks To Provide Protection Against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Ramming, or Collision C Appendix C to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. C Appendix C to Part 157—Procedure for Determining...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 36 - Alternative Noise Certification Procedure for Helicopters Under Subpart H Having a Maximum...

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    ... Pounds J Appendix J to Part 36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION Pt. 36, App. J Appendix...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 275 - Obtaining Access by Administrative or Judicial Subpoena or by Formal Written Request

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    ... Subpoena or by Formal Written Request C Appendix C to Part 275 National Defense Department of Defense... INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 Pt. 275, App. C Appendix C to Part 275—Obtaining Access by... Appendix K to this part and shall: 1. State that the request is issued under 12 U.S.C. Chapter 35 and...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix G to Subpart A of... - UNEP Recommendations for Conditions Applied to Exemption for Essential Laboratory and Analytical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Applied to Exemption for Essential Laboratory and Analytical Uses G Appendix G to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. G Appendix G to Subpart A of Part.... The provisions of Appendix G, paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4), regarding purity, mixing,...

  6. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and Mucocele of the Appendix: An Unusual Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalogiannidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal mucocele is a rare clinical entity, which is however quite often associated with mucinous ovarian tumor. The coexistence of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and endometrial adenocarcinoma has not been reported before. A 49-year-old woman presented to our clinic with postmenopausal bleeding and no other symptom. Endometrial biopsy revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type (grade I. Preoperative CT scanning revealed an appendiceal mucocele, and a colonoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy. The final histopathological examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. The coexistence of appendiceal mucocele and female genital tract pathology is rare. However, gynecologists should keep a high level of suspicion for such possible coexistence. Both the diagnostic approach and the therapeutic management should be multidisciplinary, most importantly with the involvement of general surgeons.

  7. MM&T: Bibliography on Optical Testing with Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-26

    I963-A ITI to TECHNICAL REPORT RH-CR-82-6’.-4 MM&T: BIBLIOGRAPHY ON OPTICAL TESTING WITH APPENDIX A. Comejo-Rodriguez Apdo..Postal 216 Puebla , Puebla ...15 Refs.). Descriptors: LENSES; OPTICAL TESTING; INTERFEROMETERS; LIGHT REFRACTION; VISION Identifiers: TALBOT INTERFEROMETERS; MOIRE FRINGES; LENS...here described. MARTIN, S. "INFLUENCE OF SURFACE DEFECTS ON THE GLARE CHARACTERISTICS OF A NIGHT VISION SYSTEM WITH REFRACTIVE OPTICS" Opt. Acta, 25

  8. Navy Family Advocacy Program. Appendix. Analysis of Central Registry Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    2/76) 2 Suspected Abuzso/Malect/Sexua1 Assault an ae2404 65.) "Suspected Abuso /Neglect/ Sexual Assault and Rape Report" 2226 60.5 NAVMED 6320/15A...ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT REPORTS ........... 50 HAPTER V: SUMAY ANALYSIS Or rAMILY ADVOCACY PROGRAM REPORTS . 56 APPENDIX...cont’d)I PAGE CHAPTER IV: SEXUAL ASSAULT TV-1 Fore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 IV-2 Type of Maltreatment ............... 53 IV-3

  9. MM&T: Bibliography on optical testing with appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Rodriguez, A.; Caulfield, H. J.; Friday, W.

    1982-02-01

    The following is a major expansion of 'Bibliography on Various Optical Testing Methods,' by Daniel Malacara, Alejandro Cornejo, and M. V. R. K. Murty which appeared in Applied Optica, 14, 1065 - 1080(1975). It is computerized to allow for easy update and correction. The last update was in September 1979. For availability information, please contact either of the authors. The present bibliography occupies 321 pages and includes the work of Cornejo, et al. as an appendix.

  10. A case of an intussuscepted neuroendocrine carcinoma of the appendix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachel E Thomas; Karen Maude; Olorunda Rotimi

    2006-01-01

    We have described a previously unreported entity of an intussuscepted neuroendocrine carcinoma of the appendix. Our patient was a 70-year-old man whose only complaint was insipient weight loss. Colonoscopy showed a malignant cecal "polyp", and an extended right hemicolectomy was performed. We have reviewed the literature on the causes of appendiceal intussusception and their appropriate treatment options, and clarified the classification of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Real time programming environment for Windows, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-05

    This appendix contains all source code for the RTProE system. The following file contents are included: pdb.h; hgen.l; hgen.y; igen.l; igen.y; pdm.l; pdm.y; rtdata.l; rtdata.y; framegen.c; librt.c; librt.h; rtsched.c; build.tsh; sde.tcl; rtsched.def.

  12. The vermiform appendix presenting in a laparoscopic port site hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Latyf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic port site hernias (PSHs are uncommon but present a potential source of morbidity due to incarceration of the hernial contents which is usually omental fat or small bowel. We report only the third case of the vermiform appendix presenting in a symptomatic PSH; we discuss the appropriate management of this condition as well as ways in which the incidence of PSHs may be reduced.

  13. Appendix the theory of space with introduction, comments, and addenda

    CERN Document Server

    Kárteszi, F

    1987-01-01

    The epoch-making work of János Bolyai is presented here, together with a supplement outlining Hungarian political and science history to help the reader to get acquainted with the miserable fate of János Bolyai and with his intellectual world. A facsimile of a copy of Bolyai''s original 1831 Scientia Spatii (also known as the Appendix) is included, together with a translation. Comments and notes, and a survey of the effects of his work, complete the volume.

  14. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - DD Form 214ws

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    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 214ws B Appendix B to Part 45 National... CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE OR DISCHARGE FROM ACTIVE DUTY (DD FORM 214/5 SERIES) Pt. 45, App. B Appendix B to Part 45—DD Form 214ws EC23OC91.007...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 1290 - Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice

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    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805, Violation Notice A Appendix A to Part 1290 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE.... DISTRICT COURTS Pt. 1290, App. A Appendix A to Part 1290—Preparation Guide for DD Form 1805,...

  16. Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant, Baskett, Kentucky: environmental report. [Contains chapter 4 and appendix 4A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains chapter 4 and Appendix 4A which include descriptions of use of adjacent land and water (within miles of the proposed site), baseline ecology, air quality, meteorology, noise, hydrology, water quality, geology, soils and socio-economic factors. Appendix 4A includes detailed ecological surveys made in the area including the methods used. (LTN)

  17. 29 CFR Appendix to 29 Cfr Part 1404 - Arbitration Policy; Schedule of Fees

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    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration Policy; Schedule of Fees Appendix to 29 CFR Part 1404 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE ARBITRATION SERVICES Pt. 1404, App. Appendix to 29 CFR Part 1404—Arbitration Policy; Schedule of Fees...

  18. 46 CFR Appendix A to Part 404 - Ratemaking Analyses and Methodology

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    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ratemaking Analyses and Methodology A Appendix A to Part... RATEMAKING Pt. 404, App. A Appendix A to Part 404—Ratemaking Analyses and Methodology Step 1: Projection of... ratemaking methodology is to project the amount of target pilot compensation that pilotage rates...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 92 - Guidelines for Determining Equivalency Between Emission Measurement Systems

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    ... Between Emission Measurement Systems IV Appendix IV to Part 92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Measurement Systems This appendix describes a series of correlation criteria that EPA considers to... guidelines. When requested to make a finding of equivalency, EPA could base its decision on criteria...

  20. 46 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI) Guaranty Form [Form 68

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    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI) Guaranty Form C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 515 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Intermediaries Pt. 515, Subpart C, App. C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 515—Ocean Transportation...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix G6 to Part 305 - Boilers-Gas (Steam)

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    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Boilers-Gas (Steam) G6 Appendix G6 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix G6 to Part 305—Boilers—Gas (Steam) Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range...

  2. 16 CFR Appendix G4 to Part 305 - Mobile Home Furnaces

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  3. 15 CFR Appendix V to Subpart P of... - Sanctuary Preservation Areas Boundary Coordinates

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    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctuary Preservation Areas Boundary Coordinates V Appendix V to Subpart P of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. P, App. V Appendix V to Subpart P of Part...

  4. 18 CFR Appendix B to Part 1315 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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    2010-04-01

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  5. 41 CFR Appendix B to Part 105 - 69-Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  6. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 604 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  7. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 45 - Disclosure Form to Report Lobbying

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  8. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 105 - 69-Certification Regarding Lobbying

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  9. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 601 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  10. 28 CFR Appendix B to Part 69 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  11. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 712 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  12. 43 CFR Appendix B to Part 18 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  13. 20 CFR Appendix B to Part 438 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  14. 7 CFR Appendix B to Part 3018 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  15. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 1168 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  16. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 138 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  17. 13 CFR Appendix B to Part 146 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  18. 44 CFR Appendix B to Part 18 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  19. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 28 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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  20. 6 CFR Appendix B to Part 9 - Disclosure Form To Report Lobbying

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