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Sample records for appendices alameda-contra costa

  1. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  2. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  3. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  4. Support Services for Exceptional Students: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Joaquin, and Solano Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Angelica; Maloney, Patricia

    Intended for use by vocational administrators responsible for mainstreaming handicapped students into vocational education classes, the resource guide lists and describes governmental and private agencies that provide vocational programs and support services for the handicapped on a local and statewide basis in the California counties of Alameda,…

  5. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  6. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Oakland Metropolitan Area, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new geologic map at 1:50,000 scale, derived from a set of geologic map databases containing information at a resolution associated with 1:24,000 scale, and a new description of geologic map units and structural relationships in the mapped area. The map database represents the integration of previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the author (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage pi-so and the textfile pi-so.txt). The descriptive text (below) contains new ideas about the Hayward fault and other faults in the East Bay fault system, as well as new ideas about the geologic units and their relations. These new data are released in digital form in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency Project Impact in Oakland. The goal of Project Impact is to use geologic information in land-use and emergency services planning to reduce the losses occurring during earthquakes, landslides, and other hazardous geologic events. The USGS, California Division of Mines and Geology, FEMA, California Office of Emergency Services, and City of Oakland participated in the cooperative project. The geologic data in this report were provided in pre-release form to other Project Impact scientists, and served as one of the basic data layers for the analysis of hazard related to earthquake shaking, liquifaction, earthquake induced landsliding, and rainfall induced landsliding. The publication of these data provides an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others outside Project Impact who are interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map could be published. Because the database contains information about both the bedrock and surficial deposits, it has practical applications in the study of groundwater and engineering of hillside materials, as well as the study of geologic hazards and the academic research on the geologic history and development of the region.

  7. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results for all counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  8. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    This discussion of Costa Rica focuses on: geography, people and history, government, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, and relations between the US and Costa Rica. In 1985 the population totaled 2.6 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 15.2/1000; life expectancy is 67.5 years for men and 71.9 years for women. Costa Rica, the 2nd smallest Central American country, is located in a narrow strip between Panama and Nicaragua. Costa Ricans are overwhelmingly of European descent. Although preominantly Spanish, there also are many Costa Ricans of German, Dutch, and Swiss origin. The indigenous Indian population numbers about 20,000, 20% fewer than inhabited Costa Rica when the Spanish first settled in 1522. Blacks, descendants of 19th century Jamaican immigrant workers, constitute a significant English-speaking minority of 30,000. Costa Rica is a democratic republic with a strong systems of checks and balances. The president and 57 legislative assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. Costa Rica's political system has contrasted with that of its neighbors. The nation has steadily developed and maintained democratic institutions and an orderly, constitutional process of government succession. Costa Rica faces severe challenges to its economic stability, although traditionally it is one of the strongest nations in the region. Increases in government spending in the late 1970s and higher world prices for coffee and other important Costa Rican exports stimulated the economy, creating inflationary pressure. The government is pursuing a course of disciplined management. The country is an outsponken and active member of the international community. The cordial relationship between Costa Rica and the US is based on mutual respect for democratic traditions, common goals, and a relationship free from serious political disagreement.

  9. Treatment of appendiceal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure...... in total 3,772 patients. Operation for appendiceal mass was beset with a moderate to high risk of complications of up to 57% and a risk of intestinal resection of up to 25%. Major complications were observed in up to 18% of cases. Conservative treatment with or without antibiotics was associated...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  10. Appendiceal Diverticulitis Clinically Masquerading as an Appendiceal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal diverticulosis is a rare condition. Herein reported is a case of appendiceal diverticulosis and diverticulitis clinically masquerading as appendiceal carcinoma. A 62-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. US and CT showed a tumor measuring 5 × 4 × 4 cm in vermiform appendix. Colon endoscopy showed mucosal elevation and irregularity in the orifice of vermiform appendix. A biopsy of the appendiceal mucosa showed no significant changes. Clinical diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoma and wide excision of terminal ileum, appendix, cecum, and ascending colon was performed. Grossly, the appendix showed a tumor measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm. The appendiceal lumen was opened, and the appendiceal mucosa was elevated and irregular. The periappendiceal tissue showed thickening. Microscopically, the lesion was multiple appendiceal diverticula. The diverticula were penetrating the muscle layer. The mucosa showed erosions in places. Much fibrosis, abscess formations, and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the subserosa. Abscesses were also seen in the diverticular lumens. Some diverticula penetrated into the subserosa. The pathologic diagnosis was appendiceal diverticulitis. When they encounter an appendiceal mass, clinicians should consider appendiceal diverticulitis as a differential diagnosis.

  11. Treatment of appendiceal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure......-abdominal abscesses and abscesses of any cause other than appendicitis were excluded as were also studies only describing recurrent appendicitis and/or interval appendectomy. Sub-analyses were performed in children, adults, and in mixed populations. RESULTS: A total of 48 studies were found eligible; they included...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  12. Spotlight: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    3.5 million people lived in Costa Rica as of mid-1997. There were 24 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, respectively, contributing to the annual natural increase rate of 2.0%. Each woman in Costa Rica bears an average of 2.8 children during her reproductive lifespan and men and women were expected to live for 73 and 78 years, respectively. Costa Rica's low infant mortality rate and high literacy and life expectancy rates set it apart from the rest of Central America. Costa Rica is also the only country in the region which maintains no standing army. About 96% of the population is White or Mestizo, 3% is Black, and 1% is indigenous Indian. More than half of the country lives in San Jose and its metropolitan area, 6% of the country's total land area. Unemployment has run near 5% over the past 2 years, but much of the labor force is underemployed. Costa Rica's economy depends upon tourism and agricultural exports such as coffee, beef, and bananas. A large Intel factory opened in 1997. The government and Costa Rican environmentalists are planning a joint campaign to reconvert 80% of Costa Rica's pasture back to forest and tree crops. About 20% of the government's budget is spent upon education and the 93% literacy rate is the highest in the region. Government health services provide low-cost contraceptives to more than 75% of users and 75% of women use some form of family planning.

  13. Appendiceal endometriosis differentially diagnosed from acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gastón Astroza; Victor Faundes; René Nanjarí; Marcelo Fleiderman; Carlos Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis is a common disease in premenopausal women involving pelvic organs specially. However endometriosis that affects the appendix is rarely seen except appendiceal endometriosis that mimics acute appendicitis. In a patient with acute appendicitis we diagnosed and operated on, histopathological examination of the appendix revealed appendiceal endometriosis which caused symptoms.

  14. Hyperbilirubinemia as a predictor for appendiceal perforation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    Delayed or wrong diagnosis in patients with appendicitis can result in perforation and consequently increased morbidity and mortality. Serum bilirubin may be a useful marker for appendiceal perforation. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate studies investigating elevated serum...... bilirubin as a predictor for appendiceal perforation....

  15. Appendiceal mucocoeles and pseudomyxoma peritonei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anupam Dixit; John HP Robertson; Satvinder S Mudan; Charles Akle

    2007-01-01

    Mucocoele of the appendix occurs when obstruction of the appendiceal lumen results in mucus accumulation and consequent abnormal dilatation. The most important aetiology, from a surgical perspective, is either mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. In the latter, a spontaneous or iatrogenic rupture of the mucocoele can lead to mucinous intraperitoneal ascites, a syndrome known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. Optimal management of mucoceles is achieved through accurate preoperative identification and subsequent careful resection. We report two cases and subsequently discuss the clinical presentation of mucocoeles, their association with pseudomyxoma peritonei and an optimal management of both conditions.

  16. Appendiceal Hyperplastic Polyp: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Limaiem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Serrated lesions morphologically analogous to those seen in the colorectum are found in the appendix. Appendiceal hyperplastic polyps are very rare, and their true incidence is unknown. A 52-year-old male previously healthy patient with no particular past medical history, presented with a 24-h history of abdominal pain localized to the right lower quadrant. On physical examination, he was tender to palpation in the lower right quadrant. As acute appendicitis was highly suspected, laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed acute inflammation of the appendiceal wall. The crypts were focally elongated but relatively straight with serrations that were visible mainly near the luminal end of the crypts. Columnar cells with or without apical mucous vacuoles alternated with large goblet cells. The crypt bases were not serrated and were lined by regular cells with small nuclei. The muscularis mucosa was intact. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 1. The final pathological diagnosis was acute appendicitis associated with hyperplastic polyp. Hyperplastic lesions of the appendix are often incidental findings although they can be associated with acute appendicitis. They are significantly associated with adenocarcinoma elsewhere in the large intestine and the finding of mucosal hyperplasia in an appendectomy is an indication for further investigations to exclude colorectal neoplasia. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 36-38

  17. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  18. Appendice

    OpenAIRE

    junior, Antonio Gramsci

    2016-01-01

    Prima del crollo dell’Unione Sovietica, Antonio Gramsci, mio nonno, rappresentava per me una figura piuttosto vaga e sfocata, circondata da un alone di leggende. Questa circostanza era dovuta al carattere di mio padre, Giuliano, bravissimo musicista e compositore, una persona molto romantica. Era portato per gli studi di storia d’arte, soprattutto di quella italiana rinascimentale, della letteratura e della poesia classica. Il suo autore preferito era Giacomo Leopardi. Sembrava che si nascond...

  19. Perforated appendiceal diverticulitis associated with appendiceal neurofibroma in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsukada, Manabu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Kami, Masahiro; Ohira, Hiromichi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-09-07

    An appendiceal neurofibroma (ANF) is a rare neoplasm associated with neurofibromatosis type 1(NF-1), an inheritable neurocutaneous disorder that involves multiple systems including the intraabdominal organs. Appendiceal diverticulitis occasionally ruptures in the absence of intense abdominal pain, which can lead to serious consequences. Recent reports highlight the association between appendiceal diverticulum and appendiceal neoplasms; however, there is still little information on the association between appendiceal diverticulitis and ANF in NF-1. A 51-year-old Japanese male with NF-1 was referred to the division of surgery for mild right lower quadrant pain. It was suspected he had perforated acute appendicitis with periappendiceal abscess based on clinical manifestations and findings of computed tomography. An emergency appendectomy was conducted. The pathological examination revealed diffusely proliferated tumor cells of a neurofibroma, coexistent with multiple appendiceal diverticulums, leading to the diagnosis of perforated appendiceal diverticulitis associated with ANF. Although he developed a remnant abscess, he recovered with the conservative treatments of antibiotics and drainage. This case suggests that appendiceal diverticulitis might be a complication of appendiceal involvement of NF-1, and that it occasionally ruptures in the absence of intense abdominal pain. Clinicians should recognize that NF-1 can cause various abdominal manifestations.

  20. Sonographic findings of acute appendiceal diverticulitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadao Kubota; Toshihiro Omori; Joji Yamamoto; Motoki Nagai; Satoshi Tamaki; Ken Sasaki

    2006-01-01

    Preoperative images of acute appendiceal diverticulitis are rarely reported because of the difficulty of distinguishing appendiceal diverticulitis from other iliocecal diseases like acute appendicitis or cecal diverticulitis. We report a case of preoperatively diagnosed acute appendiceal diverticulitis. A 30-year-old female with a presumptive diagnosis of acute appendicitis from history and physical examination was admitted to our hospital. Ultrasound sonography showed inflamed appendiceal diverticula and inflammatory changes of the surrounding tissue.The swollen appendix was detected but its findings were slightly different from those of typical acute appendicitis in the following points. One difference was the thickened wall of the appendix, the other difference was the presence of air in the appendix. The patient underwent appendectomy and the pathological specimen revealed inflammatory changes of diverticula within the appendix.

  1. Slurry combustion. Volume 2: Appendices, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-06-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: coal analyses and slurryability characteristics; listings of programs used to call and file experimental data, and to reduce data in enthalpy and efficiency calculations; and tabulated data sets.

  2. Costa Rica. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C; Adams, J

    1985-05-01

    Costa Rica's demographic and economic characteristics are highlighted. Costa Rica's demographic situation is unique in certain respects. Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s, the total fertility rate declined from about 7 to 4 and then stabilized instead of continuing to decline to 2 as expected. This is especially surprising since the level of contraceptive use is similar to that of most European countries. Approximately 2/3 of all couples practice contraception. It is possible that the rate will slowly decline to the expected level, but a delayed decline will ultimately produce a much larger population than initially expected. The demographic situation in Costa Rica is being carefully monitored for insights which might be useful in predicting future fertility patterns in other developing countries. The government of Costa Rica recognizes that family planning is a necessary component of maternal and child health care; however, most family planning services are provided by private organizations. In 1982, population size was 2.6 million, the crude birth rate was 30.7, the crude death rate was 3.9, infant mortality was 19.3, and the rate of natural increase was 2.7%. The population is predominantly Spanish, and the indigenous population totals only 20,000. 48% of the population is urban. Costa Rica has a relatively stable deomocratic government. It relationshiops with other countries are generally peaceful, but tensions between Nicaragua and Costa Rica are increasing. The country's economic situation deteriorated in recent years due primarily to a decline in the price of coffee, the country's principle export commodity. The trade deficit increased markedly, unemployment increased, and income fell sharply. The economic slowdown is now showing signs of a reversal. In 1983 exports, consisting primarily of coffee, bananas, beef, sugar, cane and cacao, totalled US$871 million, and imports, consisting mainly of manufactured goods and equipment, chemicals, fuel, food

  3. Clinical and CT findings in appendiceal diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Abhijit Y; Levine, Marc S; Grujic, Edina; Goren, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Appendiceal diverticulitis is a rare pathologic entity that is difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds because of an indolent course and atypical presenting symptoms. However, the characteristic computed tomographic (CT) features should suggest the correct diagnosis, and an appendectomy should be performed. Despite its rarity, radiologists should be aware of this condition and the findings on CT because of the higher risk of perforation than in appendicitis and the potential association with appendiceal neoplasms.

  4. Appendiceal Carcinoids In Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier investigations demonstrate an increased risk for colon cancer in Crohn's disease. For other intestinal neoplasms, such as carcinoids, studies are limited. In Crohn's disease, repeated endoscopic and imaging studies along with intestinal resections may facilitate clinical recognition of neoplastic diseases, including appendiceal neoplasms. To date, however, only sporadic cases of appendiceal carcinoids have been described in Crohn's disease. In the present study, in a single clinician database of 1000 Crohn's disease patients, three of the 441 patients who had undergone intestinal resection had appendiceal carcinoids, all of which were pathologically confirmed. All were observed in female patients and were not suspected before surgical treatment. In one case, even though management was not altered, the tumour had already invaded serosal fat indicating a potential for more advanced disease. In this series, a carcinoid tumour was found in a resection specimen during a later clinical case review and another was a microcarcinoid, implying that these tumours may be overlooked in Crohn's disease. The percentage detected in the entire database (0.3% exceeds the reported rates of detection of appendiceal carcinoids after removal of the appendix for appendicitis, as well as the rate of detection of appendiceal carcinoids in autopsy studies. This percentage would be higher if only those having an intestinal resection were considered (0.68%. Additional studies are needed to further define this risk of appendiceal carcinoids in Crohn's disease.

  5. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe petrográfica y genéticamente, una serie de hallazgos de peperitas como ejemplos de coexistencia espacial y temporal del magmatismo con la sedimentación en Costa Rica. Los casos se presentan en complejos ígneos básicos (ofiolitas variando desde mezclas incompletas (megabloques de radiolaritas con diabasas en el Complejo de Nicoya hasta mezclas completas en varios grados de calizas pelágicas del Maastrictiano-Paleoceno (Formación Golfito o del Paleoceno con basaltos (Subcomplejo Quepos o Formación Tulín para dar peperitas brechoides y bulbosas. Dentro del arco Oligo-Mioceno, se tienen ejemplos a lo largo de la cordillera de Talamanca y sus estribaciones, así como en las llanuras de Sarapiquí, representados por peperitas brechoides, fluidales y bulbosas en cuerpos de lava latiandesíticos (Formación Pacacua o chimeneas peperíticas brechoides en ignimbritas (Miembro Mata de Limón, o posibles peperitas brechoides en los depósitos de flujos de lava del prospecto minero de Crucitas (Formación Cureña, o simples posibles peperitas brechoides en flujos de lava andesíticas (Formación Pacacua en Talamanca, o como brechas hidroclásticas con fragmentos de composición dacítica de Carbonal en Guanacaste, justamente entre las playas Cabuyal y Naranjo. Todas ellas serían los equivalentes proximales del vulcanismo explosivo, efusivo y subvolcánico (domos endógenos y criptodomos y su concomitancia con la sedimentación fluvial. En el Cuaternario, un ejemplo se da en la base de la Formación Tiribí al contacto con el lacustre de Palmares. Se incluyen en el presente trabajo, además, casos posibles o potenciales. Se espera que la descripción e interpretación de este tipo de rocas ayude a su identificación en otras regiones de Costa Rica y Centroamérica en general, así como una fuente potencial para la prospección de metales valiosos.This paper describes petrographically and genetically, a number of

  6. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular and the aristocr......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...... and the aristocratic tradition. Romanza, opera, operetta, popular folk songs. He became famous thankfully to this last one, when the easy listening music industry was starting its productions. This is the first published biography on the artist and is based on original documents and sources....

  7. Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma Presenting as a Rectal Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Fitzgerald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal adenocarcinoma typically presents as an incidentally noted appendiceal mass, or with symptoms of right lower quadrant pain that can mimic appendicitis, but local involvement of adjacent organs is uncommon, particularly as the presenting sign. We report on a case of a primary appendiceal cancer initially diagnosed as a rectal polyp based on its appearance in the rectal lumen. The management of the patient was in keeping with standard practice for a rectal polyp, and the diagnosis of appendiceal adenocarcinoma was made intraoperatively. The operative strategy had to be adjusted due to this unexpected finding. Although there are published cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma inducing intussusception and thus mimicking a cecal polyp, there are no reports in the literature describing invasion of the appendix through the rectal wall and thus mimicking a rectal polyp. The patient is a 75-year-old female who presented with spontaneous hematochezia and, on colonoscopy, was noted to have a rectal polyp that appeared to be located within a diverticulum. When endoscopic mucosal resection was not successful, she was referred to colorectal surgery for a low anterior resection. Preoperative imaging was notable for an enlarged appendix adjacent to the rectum. Intraoperatively, the appendix was found to be densely adherent to the right lateral rectal wall. An en bloc resection of the distal sigmoid colon, proximal rectum and appendix was performed, with pathology demonstrating appendiceal adenocarcinoma that invaded through the rectal wall. The prognosis in this type of malignancy weighs heavily on whether or not perforation and spread throughout the peritoneal cavity have occurred. In this unusual presentation, an en bloc resection is required for a complete resection and to minimize the risk of peritoneal spread. Unusual appearing polyps do not always originate from the bowel wall. Abnormal radiographic findings adjacent to an area of

  8. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  9. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  10. Area Assessment. Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    de la Muerte Oscar Aguilar R. Estereo S Sari Jo;; c Nicolasa Rojas i\\ . S e n d a s A Volcnri Irazu F.stereo Continent K. Estereo...Cart ago , Carlos La.fuente R. Runibc Volcnn I7:n2u >U;lt Vision de CT. ]•;. S i 3 t U n ■ Cerro c’c la Muerte Cad EtTiis...Quesada rL. Ultraso;: VolcSn Irazu -h Min de Cultura "■> Kaciona’:. Lii;i5n U de Costa Rica R. U n i V e I’s ’^ - San

  11. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Neher; K. Shawn Smallwood; Bell, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds second...

  12. Gastrointestinal Kaposi sarcoma with appendiceal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwuonwu, Steve; Gatto-Weis, Cara; Miranda, Roberto; Casas, Luis De Las

    2011-04-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor manifesting as nodular lesions on skin, mucous membranes, or internal organs. This is a case of a 42-year-old human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV) positive bisexual male, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since diagnosis four years ago. He presented with a three-day history of abdominal pains, fever, vomiting, and a one-week history of melena stools. Endoscopy revealed Kaposi sarcoma in the stomach and duodenum. Postendoscopy, he developed acute abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy revealed extensive Kaposi sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract with appendiceal involvement. The patient underwent appendectomy and had an uneventful recovery. A review of the literature discusses appendiceal Kaposi sarcoma with appendicitis, a rare but critical manifestation of gastrointestinal Kaposi sarcoma.

  13. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S; Singh, H Manihar

    2016-03-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called "horseshoe appendix".

  14. null Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  15. Costa Rica saves infants’ lives

    OpenAIRE

    ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    1988-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1988 Costa Rica covers an area of about 50 000 square kilometres. Approximately half of its 2.5 million inhabitants live in rural areas. The economy is based on exports of tropical products, predominantly coffee and bananas. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$ 1020. The country is more developed socially than economically. The increased life expectancy seen ...

  16. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 2. Appendices. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, James L.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 is comprised of appendices: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Existing Facilities; Ecology; Civic Involvement; Social Analysis; Population Projections; Toxicity of Air Pollutants to Biota at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and Assessment of Noise Effects of an Add-On to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. (LK)

  17. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  18. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  19. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  20. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  1. International Photovoltaic Program Plan. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    This second volume of a two-part report on the International Photovoltaic Program Plan contains appendices summarizing the results of analyses conducted in preparation of the plan. These analyses include compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about how US government actions could affect this market; international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  2. Rectal and appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoddami, Maliheh; Sanae, Shahram; Nikkhoo, Bahram

    2006-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are neoplasms characterized by spindle cell proliferation and a fiboinflammatory vascular stroma. Herein, we presented the successful treatment of a rectal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an 11-year-old boy who presented with diarrhea and abdominal pain of 1(1/2) months duration and an appendiceal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a 29-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain of two months duration with associated tenderness and rebound tenderness in the right lower abdomen. Histologically, our cases had inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors very similar to that of other sites; the spindle cells were positive for vimentin and muscle-specific actin.

  3. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-23

    The DART II is a data acquisition system that can be used with air pollution monitoring equipment. This volume contains appendices that deal with the following topics: adjustment and calibration procedures (power supply adjustment procedure, ADC calibration procedure, analog multiplexer calibration procedure); mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets (microprocessor, asynchronous receiver/transmitter, analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic processing unit, 5-volt power supply, +- 15-volt power supply, 24-volt power supply, floppy disk formater/controller, random access static memory); ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction set, octal listing; and cable lists. (RR)

  4. Actinomycosis of the appendix mimicking appendiceal tumor:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Yun; Lee; Hee-Jin; Kwon; Jin-Han; Cho; Jong-Young; Oh; Kyung-Jin; Nam; Jin-Hwa; Lee; Seong-Kuk; Yoon; Myong-Jin; Kang; Jin-Sook; Jeong

    2010-01-01

    Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic infectious disease. Common sites of involvement include the cervicofacial, thoracic and abdominopelvic regions. In abdominopelvic actinomycosis, the ileocecal region, including the appendix, is the most commonly involved site. In some reports, limited appendiceal actinomycosis has revealed a thickened appendiceal wall with peri-appendiceal inflammation as acute appendicitis or perforated appendicitis. We experienced pathologically confirmed intraluminal limited appendice...

  5. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  6. Costa Rica; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Costa Rica during 1995–97. Costa Rica faced a slump in economic activity in 1995–96 following a sharp deterioration in the public finances and higher inflation associated with the 1993–94 political–economic cycle. To avert a balance-of-payments crisis in early 1995, the authorities increased interest rates, imposed temporary import surcharges, and raised excise taxes, while tightening expenditure and shifting some outlays to 1996. The econom...

  7. ACOSO LABORAL EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    VARGAS MORÚA, ELIZARDA

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo constituye un análisis descriptivo de las resoluciones judiciales de Costa Rica respecto al acoso laboral. De acuerdo con el Sistema Costarricense de Información Jurídica son 23 resoluciones clasificadas bajo el tema de “acoso laboral” relativas a procesos iniciados desde el año 1998 al presente. También se analiza la información suministrada por el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de las denuncias que se tramitaron por la vía administrativa. Aunque el ordenamiento costa...

  8. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  9. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  10. [Torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices of the large bowel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, M E; Fedorov, E D; Krechetova, A P; Shapoval'iants, S G

    2014-01-01

    The features of the clinical symptoms was studied, the possibility of laparoscopy in modern diagnosis and treatment of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel was assessed in the article. It was done the retrospective analysis of the medical records of 87 patients with a diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel. The patients had laparoscopic operations in our hospital in the period from January 1995 to December 2012. The clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental datas in cases of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis were scarce and nonspecific. An abdominal pain preferentially localized in the lower divisions was the main symptom (97.7%). The instrumental methods did not allow to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in the majority of cases and all these techniques were used for the differential diagnosis with other diseases. The assumption of the presence of appendices torsion and necrosis occured just in 34.5% of cases before the operation. Diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis present significant difficulties on prehospital and preoperative stages. The diagnostic laparoscopy is the method of choice in unclear situations and it allows to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in 96.6% of cases. Successful surgical treatment by using laparoscopic approach is possible in 90.8% of cases.

  11. Canton hydroelectric project: feasibility study. Final report, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    These appendices contain legal, environmental, regulatory, technical and economic information used in evaluating the feasibility of redeveloping the hydroelectric power generating facilities at the Upper and Lower Dams of the Farmington River at Collinsville, CT. (LCL)

  12. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  13. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  14. Jubilados en la costa alicantina

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Cascales, Rosario Isabel; Ribera Domene, Dolores; Reig Ferrer, Abilio

    1997-01-01

    La costa alicantina es uno de los lugares del mundo donde reside el mayor porcentaje de personas mayores en relación a la población total; encontramos en ella jubilados autóctonos, jubilados de otras regiones españolas con un clima menos benigno, y jubilados extranjeros procedentes en su mayoría de los países europeos.

  15. Appendiceal immunoglobulin G4-related disease mimicking appendiceal tumor or appendicitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Won Kyung; Chung, Dong Jin [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an autoimmune disease that forms tumorous lesions. Several cases involving various organs are reported, however, IgG4-related disease involving appendix has not been reported yet. In this report, we presented a case of IgG4-related disease of appendix, which raised a suspicion of appendiceal tumor or usual appendicitis and, therefore, led to unnecessary surgical resection. IgG4-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a mass-like swelling of the appendix, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  16. Appendiceal diverticulitis and acute appendicitis: differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lobo-Machín

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute appendiceal diverticulitis is an unusual cause of acute abdomen, considered clinically indistinguishable from acute appendicitis. Material and methods: In a historic cohort study with 27 cases of appendiceal diverticulitis and 54 cases of acute appendicitis, we compared clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests and pathology findings of the two processes. Results: Mean age at presentation was lower in acute appendicitis (37.24 ± 19.98 vs. 54.81 ± 17.55 years, p < 0.001, with significant differences between men (33.33 ± 15.89 vs. 57 ± 18.02 years, p < 0.001 but not between women (41.76 ± 24.87 vs. 50.44 ± 16.69 years, p = 0.34. In the diverticulitis group, 48.15 % had leukocytosis vs. 81.48 % in the appendicitis group (p = 0.02; there was no difference in leukocyte count (13770.37 ± 4382.55 vs. 14279.63 ± 4268.59, p = 0.61. Patients with appendiceal diverticulitis had a higher incidence of appendiceal mucocele (p = 0.01 and a lower proportion of appendiceal gangrene (p = 0.03. There were no differences in appendiceal perforation or ulceration. Symptom duration before emergency department attendance (71.61 ± 85.25 hours vs. 36.84 ± 33.59 hours; Z = -3.1 p = 0.002, duration of surgery (85 ± 40 minutes vs. 60 ± 21 minutes, Z = -3.2, p = 0.001 and the presence of appendicular plastron was higher in patients with diverticulitis vs. appendicitis (8 vs. 5 patients (p = 0.01, Odds ratio 2.2. Conclusions: Appendiceal diverticulitis presents a series of clinical, epidemiological and pathological differences with respect to acute appendicitis. The former shows a more indolent course with delayed diagnosis.

  17. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  18. Clinical experience in appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Caglar K.; Bozdogan, Nazan; Dibekoglu, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To analyse the incidence of appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms in appendectomy specimens and establish the epidemiological and histopathological features, treatment, and clinical course. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2013, 975 patients who underwent appendectomy in Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital were retrospectively analysed. Results Neuroendocrine neoplasm was detected in the nine of 975 (0.9%) patients. Neuroendocrine neoplasms were diagnosed in eight patients by appendectomy, which was performed because of the prediagnosis of acute appendicitis, and in one patient by the suspicious mass detection during surgical procedures that were done in the appendix for a different reason. Eight of the patients’ tumours were in the tip of the appendix, and one of the patients’ tumours was at the base of appendix. Tumour size in 77.8% of patients was equal or less than 1 cm, in 22.2% patients it was 1–2 cm. There was tumour invasion in the muscularis propria layer in four patients, in the serosa layer in three patients, and in the deep mesoappendix in two patients. Patients were followed for a median of 78 months. In the follow-up of patients who were operated because of colon cancer, metachronous colon tumour evolved. This patient died due to progressive disease. Other patients are still disease-free. Conclusions The diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasm is often incidentally done after appendectomy. Tumour size is important in determining the extent of disease and in the selection of the surgical method during operation. PMID:26793027

  19. [Appendiceal peritonitis in childhood, antibiotic treatment with cefoxitin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristegui, J; de la Fuente, E; Pérez Legorburu, A; de Gárate, J

    1982-11-01

    Twenty one cases of appendiceal peritonitis in children are reviewed. An antibiotic (sodium cefoxitine) has been used during the post-operative course to decrease the risk of suppurative complications. Cultures obtained from peritoneal exudate yielded "E. coli" and "Bacteroides" sp. as the most commonly isolated bacteria. External drainage was placed as a rutine and the percentage of suppurative complications was 14%. No patient showed evidence of adverse reactions to the antibiotic and the mortality of the serie was zero. Obtained results allow to state that cefoxitine is effective in the management of appendiceal peritonitis in children.

  20. Discursos literarios en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pacheco Solórzano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El título del presente artículo es pretencioso, “Discursos literarios en Costa Rica”. Sin embargo, se trata de mostrar que hay referentes históricos y literarios que son consulta obligada para las investigaciones en el campo de la literatura como Historia de la literatura costarricense (Abelardo Bonilla; el papel de la imprenta en Costa Rica, el Archivo Nacional y el texto del maestro Álvaro Quesada Soto Uno y los otros. Así, esta primera parte se subtitula como Tradición histórica y literaria. La segunda parte se ha titulado Espejo de las vanguardias, que da cuenta de los principales movimientos vanguardistas de Europa y de América Latina y su influencia en el discurso literario costarricense. Un tercer subtítulo, Renovación discursiva, presenta una heterogeneidad de voces literarias posvanguardista e incorporación de la literatura gótica y de ciencia ficción en la producción literariacostarricense de nuestros días.

  1. 24 CFR 904.309 - Use of appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or (2) with approval of HUD. The By-Laws of the Homebuyers Association is provided as a guide for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of appendices. 904.309 Section 904.309 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  2. Appendices for: Improper Signaling in Two-Path Relay Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    This document contains the appendices for the work in “Improper Signaling in Two-Path Relay Channels,” which is submitted to 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) Workshop on Full-Duplex Communications for Future Wireless Networks, Paris, France.

  3. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  4. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  5. Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the technical appendices accompanying the report, "Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System." Included are: (1) Revenue Limit Calculation and Decomposition; (2) Data and Methods; and (3) Base Funding Alternative Simulation Results. (Contains 5 tables and 26 footnotes.) [For the main report, "Funding California…

  6. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  7. Analysis and design of residential load centers. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Lamders, R.; Obrien, G.; Tully, G. F.; Parker, J.

    1982-03-01

    These three appendices present information on residential load center classification information. Emphasis is given to: residential development trends and residential housing classifications; detached house site layout alternatives; and legal and institional issues, including condominium ownership, commercial ownership of photovoltaic systems in mobile homes, and utility ownership of photovoltaic systems.

  8. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  9. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  10. Incidental parasitic infestations in surgically removed appendices: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Özgür

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendiceal parasites can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. Patients/Methods Pathology department records were reviewed for all patients who required an operation for symptoms of acute appendicitis between 2000 and 2006. The specimens which were pathologically diagnosed to contain parasites were reevaluated for features of acute inflamation, and parasite type. The medical records were reviewed in detail to achieve a diagnostic score(Eskelinen. Radiologic imaging findings were correlated, if present. Results Of the 190 appendectomies performed, 6 specimens (3,15% were found to contain parasites(4 Enterobius vermicularis, 2 Taenia subspecies. Appendectomies with Taenia showed acute inflamation, while acute inflamation was absent in the ones with Enterobius vermicularis. The Eskelinen score was higher than the treshold in two cases with an acute inflamation, and in two without. Ultrasound scans, and a computed tomography scan were performed in 5 patients. In 3 of 4 bland appendices, results favored acute appendicitis. Conclusion The diagnosis of gastrointestinal parasites is not only made by examining the stool but the diagnosis can be made by histology from surgical specimens. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy might prevent probable future complications that may necessitate surgical procedures, at least in some of the patients. The clinical management of these infections is different from that for classical appendicitis.

  11. Appendiceal mass: Is interval appendicectomy "something of the past"?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul-Wahed Nasir Meshikhes

    2011-01-01

    The need for interval appendicectomy (I.A) after successful conservative management of appendiceal mass has recently been questioned. Furthermore, emergency appendicectomy for appendiceal mass is increasingly performed with equal success and safety to that performed in non-mass forming acute appendicitis. There is an increasing volume of evidence -although mostly retrospective- that if traditional conservative management is adopted, there is no need for routine I.A except for a small number of patients who continue to develop recurrent symptoms. On the other hand, the routine adoption of emergency laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) in patients presenting with appendiceal mass obviates the need for a second admission and an operation for I.A with a considerable complication rate. It also abolishes misdiagnoses and deals promptly with any unexpected ileo-cecal pathology. Moreover, it may prove to be more cost-effective than conservative treatment even without I.A due to a much shorter hospital stay and a shorter period of intravenous antibiotic administration. If emergency LA is to become the standard of care for appendiceal mass, I.A will certainly become 'something' of the past.

  12. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  13. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits tha...

  14. High-level microsatellite instability in appendiceal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Melissa W; Galbincea, John; Mansfield, Paul F; Fournier, Keith F; Royal, Richard E; Overman, Michael J; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C

    2013-08-01

    High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 2% to 3% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only 4 MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and 1 MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from MD Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch-repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high, and 1 was MSI-low. The 3 MSI-high cases included: (1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; (2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and (3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid tumors, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI

  15. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  16. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  17. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 casos reportados de mesotelioma pleural, durante el período comprendido entre 1972 y 2002. Se estimó una tasa para 2002, de 1 caso por cada 2 millones de habitantes. Quince casos estudiados fueron mujeres y 14, hombres, con una edad promedio de 54 años. La presentación clínica fue, en 20 casos, derrame pleural, y los síntomas más frecuentes fueron disnea, dolor torácico, tos, fiebre y deterioro del estado general. La enfermedad se detectó en todos los pacientes por radiografía de tórax y el método para obtener la muestra para diagnóstico histológico, en 15 casos, fue la toracotomía; en 8, la biopsia pleural; en 4, la toracoscopía, y en 2, la autopsia. En 5 casos la biopsia pleural fue reportada inicialmente como adenocarcinoma. El diagnóstico histológico fue de mesoteliomas fibrosos en 16, (10 malignos y 6 benignos; 11 mesoteliomas epiteliales, todos malignos, y 2 mesoteliomas mixtos malignos. El tratamiento en los casos benignos fue cirugía y ninguno recidivó. Dos casos de mesoteliomas malignos se resecaron, uno de ellos con una neumonectomía extrapleural con pericardiectomía y resección del diafragma, pero la supervivencia no fue mejor que del resto de los malignos, ya que ningún caso superó los 6 meses. La quimioterapia y la radioterapia tampoco demostraron mejorar significativamente la evolución de la enfermedad.

  18. Diagnostic Dilemma in Appendiceal Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka Akhilesh, Sali; Kamal Sunder, Yadav; Prasad, Pande; Asha, George Mary; Mohan, Agarwal; Hitesh, Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening infection seen in immunocompromised patients. It is usually seen in chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, the symptoms and signs may be masked due to ongoing corticosteroids. The condition may mimic bacterial appendicitis and the less serious condition, typhlitis. The disease demands prompt surgical debulking and aggressive antifungal treatment. However, surgery is delayed due to the poor performance status and severe neutropenia. This may lead to perforative peritonitis and further dissemination. The survival rates of such disease are dismal. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be confirmed only on histological examination of the surgically excised tissue. Very few cases have been reported so far. We present here once such a fatal case of appendiceal mucormycosis in a 14-year-old boy who was immunosuppressed due to intensive induction therapy for Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia.

  19. Treatment of appendiceal mass– a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Arnold; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure......-abdominal abscesses and abscesses of any cause other than appendicitis were excluded as were also studies only describing recurrent appendicitis and/or interval appendectomy. Sub-analyses were performed in children, adults, and in mixed populations. RESULTS: A total of 48 studies were found eligible; they included...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  20. Diagnostic Dilemma in Appendiceal Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Pande; Asha, George Mary; Mohan, Agarwal; Hitesh, Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening infection seen in immunocompromised patients. It is usually seen in chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, the symptoms and signs may be masked due to ongoing corticosteroids. The condition may mimic bacterial appendicitis and the less serious condition, typhlitis. The disease demands prompt surgical debulking and aggressive antifungal treatment. However, surgery is delayed due to the poor performance status and severe neutropenia. This may lead to perforative peritonitis and further dissemination. The survival rates of such disease are dismal. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be confirmed only on histological examination of the surgically excised tissue. Very few cases have been reported so far. We present here once such a fatal case of appendiceal mucormycosis in a 14-year-old boy who was immunosuppressed due to intensive induction therapy for Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia. PMID:27635276

  1. A rare presentation of appendiceal diverticulitis associated with pelvic pseudocyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with episodic right lower quadrant abdominal pain. With the diagnosis of either acute appendicitis or tuba-ovarian abscess, she was treated with antibiotics, which successfully relieved the pain and the inflammatory findings. She repeated the clinical condition a few times and antibiotics worked each time. In a year, her subjective symptoms became milder, however, a giant pelvic cyst appeared. She had an exploratory laparotomy to confirm this diagnosis. Histopathological studies revealed herniated appendiceal mucosa through the muscular layer associated with chronic inflammation and marked fibrosis. Gynecological disorders such as endometriosis or lutein cyst rupture was denied. These findings represent appendiceal diverticulitis. We discuss the clinical features of the disease and its relation with the pelvic pseudocyst.

  2. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant design validation: Final report, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    This volume is comprised of the following appendices: DOE stipulated agreement with State of New Mexico (partial); geologic correlations; mathematical simulation of underground in situ behavior; C and SH shaft geologic logs and maps; waste shaft geologic logs and maps; exhaust shaft geologic log; test rooms geologic maps and sections; drift cross sections; facility level geologic core hole logs; geomechanical instrumentation data plots; and analytical data plots.

  4. Value of routine histopathological examination of appendices in Hong Kong.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, W; Fu, K H

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the histopathological findings of more than 11,443 appendices submitted as surgical specimens over 14 years was performed in this department. In most cases routine histopathological examination added little clinically important information to other clinical and operative gross findings, but a variety of interesting and uncommon lesions were identified. In 85 cases clinically important pathological findings were first discovered on routine histopathological examination...

  5. Appendiceal Mucocele in an Elderly Patient: How Much Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kim-Fuchs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal mucoceles are rare cystic lesions with an incidence of 0.3–0.7% of all appendectomies. They are divided into four subgroups according to their histology. Even though the symptoms may vary – depending on the level of complication – from right lower quadrant pain, signs of intussusception, gastrointestinal bleeding to an acute abdomen with sepsis, most mucoceles are asymptomatic and found incidentally. We present the case of a 70-year-old patient with an incidentally found appendiceal mucocele. He was seen at the hospital for backache. The CT scan showed a vertebral fracture and a 7-cm appendiceal mass. A preoperative colonoscopy displayed several synchronous adenomas in the transverse and left colon with high-grade dysplasia. In order to lower the cancer risk of this patient, we performed a subtotal colectomy. The appendiceal mass showed no histopathological evidence of malignancy and no sign of perforation. The follow-up was therefore limited to 2 months. In this case, appendectomy would have been sufficient to treat the mucocele alone. The synchronous high-grade dysplastic adenomas were detected in the preoperative colonoscopy and determined the therapeutic approach. Generally, in the presence of positive lymph nodes, a right colectomy is the treatment of choice. In the histological presence of mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis, cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is indicated. In conclusion, mucoceles of the appendix are detected with high sensitivity by CT scan. If there is no evidence of synchronous tumor preoperatively and no peritoneal spillage, invasion or positive sentinel lymph nodes during surgery, a mucocele is adequately treated by appendectomy.

  6. Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type with perforating peritonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguch H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is rare, especially the colonic type. We report a case of appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type associated with perforating peritonitis after aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery. A 79-year-old woman presented with fever and pain in the right lower abdomen. She had undergone aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery due to arteriosclerosis obliterans 6 months earlier. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a suspected pool of fluid surrounding the artificial vessel and a mass lesion in the upper end of the fluid collection. These findings suggested localized peritonitis due to appendiceal perforation. Emergency laparotomy showed a pool of pus around the artificial vessel and inflamed appendix, which adhered to the surrounding tissue. The mass was excised in combination with an ileocaecal resection, followed by an ileocolic anastomosis. The histological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the appendix, colonic type. The tumour had infiltrated and obstructed the lumen of the orifice of the appendix, which may have caused perforation of the appendix. She was examined at regular periodic follow-ups and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was noted in the 12-month postoperative period. These findings indicate that, in cases of acute appendicitis, especially with perforation, the possibility of appendiceal adenocarcinoma should be considered.

  7. Type 4 appendiceal diverticulum within a de Garengeot hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S H; Coveney, E

    2016-09-01

    A de Garengeot hernia is defined as an incarcerated femoral hernia containing the vermiform appendix. We describe the case of a patient with a type 4 appendiceal diverticulum within a de Garengeot hernia and delineate valuable learning points. A 76-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of a non-reducible painless femoral mass. Outpatient ultrasonography demonstrated a 36mm × 20mm smooth walled, multiloculated, partially cystic lesion anterior to the right inguinal ligament in keeping with an incarcerated femoral hernia. Intraoperatively, the appendix was found to be incarcerated in the sac of the femoral hernia and appendicectomy was performed. Histopathology demonstrated no evidence of inflammation in the appendix. However, an incidental appendiceal diverticulum was identified. It is widely recognised that a de Garengeot hernia may present with concomitant appendicitis, secondary to raised intraluminal pressure in the incarcerated appendix. Appendiceal diverticulosis is also believed to develop in response to raised pressure in the appendix and may therefore develop secondary to incarceration in a de Garengeot hernia. To our knowledge, only one such case has been described in the literature. A de Garengeot hernia is a rare entity, which poses significant diagnostic challenges. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary as these hernias are at particularly high risk of perforation and so prompt surgical management is paramount.

  8. Monitoraggio del relitto della nave Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Toppi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In seguito al disastro della Costa Concordia, le autorità locali e la Protezione Civile, che guidarono le operazioni di salvataggio, contattano il topografo Mauro Alessandroni e gli conferiscono l’incarico di monitorare gli eventuali movimenti della nave, per garantire l’incolumità delle squadre di soccorso durante la ricerca di superstiti intrappolati nel relitto.Costa Concordia wreck monitoringIn the aftermath of the Costa Concordia disaster, local authoritiesand the Civil Protection, leading the rescue operation,contacted the surveyor Mauro Alessandroni to monitor anymovement of the ship, to ensure the safety of teams assistanceduring the search for survivors trapped in the wreck.

  9. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  10. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 casos reportados de mesotelioma pleural, durante el período comprendido entre 1972 y 2002. Se estimó una tasa para 2002, de 1 caso por cada 2 millones de habitantes. Quince casos estudiados fueron mujeres y 14, hombres, con una edad promedio de 54 años. La presentación clínica fue, en 20 casos, derrame pleural, y los síntomas más frecuentes fueron disnea, dolor torácico, tos, fiebre y deterioro del estado general. La enfermedad se detectó en todos los pacientes por radiografía de tórax y el método para obtener la muestra para diagnóstico histológico, en 15 casos, fue la toracotomía; en 8, la biopsia pleural; en 4, la toracoscopía, y en 2, la autopsia. En 5 casos la biopsia pleural fue reportada inicialmente como adenocarcinoma. El diagnóstico histológico fue de mesoteliomas fibrosos en 16, (10 malignos y 6 benignos; 11 mesoteliomas epiteliales, todos malignos, y 2 mesoteliomas mixtos malignos. El tratamiento en los casos benignos fue cirugía y ninguno recidivó. Dos casos de mesoteliomas malignos se resecaron, uno de ellos con una neumonectomía extrapleural con pericardiectomía y resección del diafragma, pero la supervivencia no fue mejor que del resto de los malignos, ya que ningún caso superó los 6 meses. La quimioterapia y la radioterapia tampoco demostraron mejorar significativamente la evolución de la enfermedad.After reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costarrican Social

  11. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  12. Mujer inmigrante: de Nicaragua a Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el proceso migratorio de la mujer nicaragüense en Costa Rica. Se hace un recuentohistórico del fenómeno migratorio femenino nicaragüense; así como expone el caso de la inmigración enla región pacífica, del país.

  13. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  14. Musgos de Costa Rica : nuevos registros

    OpenAIRE

    Arrocha, Clotilde

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of mosses are reported as new to Costa Rica, five of those are new to Central America. These are: Paraleucobryum albicans (Schwaegr.) Loeske, Philonotis elongata (Dism.) Crum & Steere, Leskeodon cubensis (Mitt.) Thér., Hookeriopsis dimorpha (C.M.) Broth. and Isopterygium machrisianum (Crum) Irel.

  15. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of... publishes with the Agency's systems of records under the Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes...

  16. The need for interval appendectomy after resolution of an appendiceal mass questioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, PJ; Hoorntje, LE; Eddes, EH; Ploeg, RJ

    2002-01-01

    Background. Our current treatment of an appendiceal mass is initially conservative, followed by an interval appendectomy. The necessity of this routine interval appendectomy is debatable. A study was conducted to evaluate whether surgical factors and pathological features of the excised appendices s

  17. Low-Income Students and School Meal Programs in California. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    These technical appendices are intended to accompany the study, "Low-Income Students and School Meal Programs in California." Two appendices are included. Appendix A provides tables detailing: (1) the variables included in the main models and the datasets(s) used to construct each; (2) observations in each dataset and categorizes them…

  18. [Giant appendiceal mucocele during laparotomy for acute abdomen. Report of a case and brief review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, P; Comentale, A; Rampone, B; Di Lascio, P; Morlino, A; Pastore, M; Del Vecchio, G; Tramutoli, P R

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a case of giant appendiceal mucocele, secondary to a mucinous neoplasm of the appendix, diagnosed during laparotomy for acute abdomen. By a review of the literature they stress the rarity of this lesion, the particular onset in their case as acute complication of appendiceal neoplasm with rupture of the intestinal wall, the difficulties of diagnosis and management in emergency.

  19. Acute abdominal pain presenting as a rare appendiceal duplication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Appendiceal duplication is a rare anomaly that can manifest as right lower quadrant pain. There are several variations described for this condition. We recommend aggressive operative management should this anatomical variation present in the presence of acute appendicitis. Case presentation We report the case of a 15-year-old African American girl who presented to our hospital with right lower quadrant pain and was subsequently found to have appendiceal duplication. Conclusion There are two categorical systems that have described and stratified appendiceal duplication. Both classification systems have been outlined and referenced in this case report. A computed tomography scan has been included to provide a visual aid to help identify true vermiform appendiceal duplication. The presence of this anatomical abnormality is not a reason for surgical intervention; however, should this be found in the setting of acute appendicitis, aggressive resection of both appendices is mandatory.

  20. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  1. Analysis of the California solar resource. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, P.; Grether, D.; Martin, M.; Wahlig, M.

    1978-11-01

    The following appendices are included: summaries of conferences with solar data users; solar data user questionnaire and sample formats; evaluation of the solar data user questionnaire; remarks stimulated by the solar data user questionnaire; effects of solar data accuracy on the performance and economics of solar energy systems; summary of solar data measurements; reports of site visits to solar data measurement stations; data correction factors; the regionalization of California for solar monitoring; participants at the Solar Data Management Conference, 19 November 1976; and rehabilitation techniques for daily solar radiation data. (MHR)

  2. Combination of CT imaging and endoscopy in diagnosis of appendicovesical fistula caused by appendiceal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenying; Wang, Li; Xu, Jianfeng; Shi, Shufang; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The appendiceal diseases, particularly appendicitis, are the most common disorders in the digestive system localized at the right lower quadrant area. However, appendiceal carcinoma with vesico-appendiceal fistula is a rare clinical phenomenon. Lacking specific symptoms, appendiceal carcinomas with fistula formations are often misdiagnosed as acute appendicitis cases. The purpose of this study is to increase awareness of appendiceal neoplasms and appendicovesical fistulas. We reported our experiences in three complex cases related to digestive and urological systems, and reviewed the literature on diagnosis with various X-ray imaging techniques for this lesion. In this report, the first case failed to be diagnosed. The other two patients with appendicovesical fistulas secondary to appendiceal adenocarcinomas were successfully detected with computed tomography (CT) and cystoscopy. The patients recovered after right hemicolectomies and en bloc partial cystectomies and survived without tumor metastasis up to 7-year follow-up. In conclusion, a combined use of CT imaging and endoscopy techniques provides an accurate diagnostic alternative for appendicovesical fistula secondary to appendiceal adenocarcinoma.

  3. Planning for tourism in Costa Smeralda

    OpenAIRE

    Cappai, Alesandra

    2012-01-01

    Studying tourism planning means understanding and assuming that tourism is not just a flux of tourists who move without leaving a trace, but a motor that physically transforms the territory due to the need to build infrastructure and tourist accommodation like hotels, second homes, attractions etc, which have contributed to major changes in previously untouched territories. Among them, the Costa Smeralda resort represents the most iconic and best known tourist destination of Sardinia. In...

  4. Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de diseño de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.

  5. What is the optimal treatment for appendiceal mass formed after acute perforated appendicitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enver Zerem; Goran Imamovi(c); Farid Ljuca; Jasmina Alid(z)anovi(c)

    2012-01-01

    We read with great interest the editorial article by Meshikhes AWN published in issue 25 of World J Gastroenterol 2011.The article described the advantages of emergency laparoscopic appendectomy compared with interval appendectomy as a new safe treatment modality for the appendiceal mass.The author concluded that the emergency laparoscopic appendectomy was a safe treatment modality for the appendiceal mass,and might prove to be more cost-effective than conservative treatment,with no need for interval appendectomy.However,we would like to highlight certain issues regarding the possibility of percutaneous catheter drainage to successfully treat the appendiceal mass,with no need for appendectomy,too.

  6. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  7. Giant appendiceal mucocele: Report of a case and brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernardino Rampone; Franco Roviello; Daniele Marrelli; Enrico Pinto

    2005-01-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is a rare lesion, characterized by distension of the lumen due to accumulation of mucoid substance. This disease is often asymptomatic and pre-operative diagnosis is rare. If untreated, one type of mucocele may rupture producing a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. The type of surgical treatment is related to the dimensions and to histology of the mucocele. Appendectomy is used for simple mucocele or for cystadenoma. Right hemi-colectomy is recommended for cystadenocarcinoma. In this paper, we report a case of a 51-year-old woman with a mobile, painless mass in the right lower quadrant of abdomen caused by a giant appendiceal mucocele. Imaging showed a large, tubular,cystic structure extending below from the inferior wall of the cecum. Surgery revealed a giant retro-cecal appendix measuring 17 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. The final pathologic diagnosis was mucocele caused by mucinous cystadenoma.

  8. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the appendices to the NESC assessment report. NASA/TM-2013-217380, Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events supersedes this document.

  9. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  10. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

  11. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  12. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  13. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  14. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

  15. Economic evaluation of the annual cycle energy system (ACES). Final report. Volume III, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume consists of seven appendices related to ACES, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs. The appendices are entitled: (A) ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; (B) Typical Inputs and Outputs of ACESIM; (C) CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; (D) Typical Weather-Year Selection Requirements; (E) Building Characteristics; (F) List of Major Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and (G) Bibliography. 79 references.

  16. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  17. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby Dolz; Leyda Ábrego; Luis E Romero; Liliana Campos-Calderón; Laura Bouza-Mora; Ana E Jiménez-Rocha

    2013-01-01

    La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Vete...

  18. Litispendencia internacional y costas del proceso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FRANCISCO CARRILLO POZO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The decision on costs of proceedings in cases of international lis pendens can not be an automatic result of the application of the rule that costs follow the event, but must take into account the regulatory environment in which it arises, because there are so many rules on lis pendens as disciplines on international jurisdiction. La condena en costas en los casos de litispendencia internacional no puede ser resultado automático del criterio del vencimiento, sino que debe tener en cuenta el ámbito normativo en el que se plantea, porque existen tantas reglas sobre litispendencia como disciplinas sobre competencia judicial internacional.

  19. Entrevista com Alberto da Costa e Silva

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Eliane Veras; Mutzenberg,Remo

    2014-01-01

    Alberto da Costa e Silva é membro da Academia Brasileira de Letras, escritor, historiador e diplomata, Doutor Honoris Causa em Letras pela Universidade Obafemi Awolowo (ex-Universidade de Ifé), da Nigéria, em 1986, e em História pela Universidade Federal Fluminense em 2009. Como diplomata, entre outras atividades, representou o Brasil em numerosas reuniões internacionais, tendo sido delegado do Brasil na reunião da Comissão Econômica das Nações Unidas para a África, em Adis Abeba, em 1961. Fo...

  20. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  1. LA DEUDA PUBLICA INTERNA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conejo Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El déficit fiscal es una de las variables macroeconómicas que ha adquirido mayor importancia desde la década de los años ochenta y particularmente en los años noventa, en la economía costarricense. Una consecuencia directa de la existencia de déficits fiscales sostenidos es la acumulación de una deuda pública creciente.Antes de los años ochenta el déficit fiscal en Costa Rica se cubrió fundamentalmente con deduda externa; la cual era de fácil acceso en los mercados financieros internacionales, ante la existencia de una sobre oferta de fondos prestables, generado por los petrodólares. Sin embargo, con la crisis económica que experimentó Costa Rica en los primeros años de la década pasada y con el endurecimiento del acceso al financiamiento externo, el país empezó a recurrir cada vez con más frecuencia al endeudamiento interno.

  2. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dolz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Veterinaria. A continuación se brinda una revisión sobre los hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en el país para determinar la presencia y distribución de Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Costa Rica. Ehrlichia canis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la especie predominante en perros y garrapatas (Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adicionalmente, se ha detectado, aunque en menor porcentaje, la presencia de Anaplasma platys y Anaplsma phagocytophilum en perros y sus garrapatas. También se ha determinado la presencia de A. phagocytophilum en un venado cola blanca, y de E. canis en humanos donadores de bancos de sangre mediante técnica serológica y molecular.

  3. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  4. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  5. Heating plan for Denmark. Appendices; Varmeplan Danmark. Bilagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    Today, district heating supplies 46% of the Danish net heating demand. The present report analyses whether it will be feasible for Denmark to extend the share of district heating or whether other alternatives are better. The analysis relates to the government's and parliament's plans to reduce Denmark's CO{sub 2} emission in the short term as well as to transfer the energy supply to be based fully on renewable energy sources in the long term. The appendix volume contains 15 appendices: 1) Heating map; 2) The potential of a future district heating extension; 3) The characteristics of the district heat distribution system; 4) Model for the Danish district heat distribution net; 5) Heating savings through extra insulation; 6) Supply to new built-up areas with district heating; 7) Supply to new built-up areas from central heating plants; 8) The potential of using waste heat; 9) The potential of using biogas; 10) The potential of using large scale solar heat; 11) Use of local straw resources; 12) Cogeneration optimization; 13) Scenario analyses; 14) The potential of cost effective heating savings; 15) Model of heating plan for Denmark (ln)

  6. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  7. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  8. Historia de la dermatología en Costa Rica History of dermatology in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo Antillón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la historia de la medicina, la dermatología tiene grandes contribuciones, sin embargo, para nuestro país existen pocos datos que documenten los apartes de estos excelentes dermatólogos en la salud pública costarricense. Se realizó este estudio, con el objetivo de presentar una revisión histórica del desarrollo de la dermatología en Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron entrevistas personales y a familiares de los que se mencionan en el documento. Se revisaron memorias de congresos y publicaciones de revistas nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: La dermatología clínica en Costa Rica,se inició en el Hospital San Juan de Dios. El Dr. Emilio Echeverría y Aguilar fue el primer dermatólogo en Costa Rica. El que más influencia tuvo en el desarrollo de la dermatología tropical fue el Dr. Antonio Peña Chavarría. El Dr. Julio César Ovares Arias se destacó como primer Presidente del Colegio de Médicos y Cirujano y primer Director Médico de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. El Dr. Elfrén Solano Aguilar fue el primer profesor de dermatología, en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El Dr. Orlando Jaramillo Antillón creó el primer programa de posgrado en dermatología. Conclusiones: La dermatología ha cambiado mucho, se inició luchando contra las enfermedades tropicales y nutricionales, actualmente luchamos con el alarmante aumento del cáncer de la piel, enfermedades autoinmunes, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y enfermedades iatrogénicas medicamentosas. Hemos aprendido de aquellos que nos precedieron en esta especialidad y debemos aprender para poder practicar la ciencia y el arte de la dermatología modernaIntroduction: Throughout medical history, dermatology has made great contributions, although for our country there is little data concerning the contributions made by the excellent dermatologists in Costa Rican public health care. Materials and methods: In order to obtain this

  9. Normal patterns of 18F-FDG appendiceal uptake in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavey, Hamilton E. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine Molecular Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alazraki, Adina L.; Simoneaux, Stephen F. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Prior to interpreting PET/CT, it is crucial to understand the normal biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). It is also important to realize that the normal biodistribution can vary between adults and children. Although many studies have defined normal patterns of pediatric FDG uptake in structures like the thymus, brown fat and bone marrow, patterns of normal pediatric bowel activity, specifically uptake within the appendix, have not been well described. Active lymphoid tissue has increased FDG uptake when compared with inactive tissue. Since children have more active lymphoid tissue than adults, and because the appendix contains aggregated lymphoid tissue, we postulated that appendiceal uptake may be increased in pediatric patients. To define the normal level of appendiceal FDG activity in children by evaluating a series of consecutive FDG PET/CT scans performed for other indications. After obtaining IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed 128 consecutive whole-body pediatric FDG PET/CT examinations obtained for a variety of clinical indications. CT scans on which the appendix could not be visualized were excluded from analysis. CT scans on which the appendix could be visualized were evaluated for underlying appendiceal pathology. Studies with appendiceal or periappendiceal pathology by CT criteria were excluded. A region of interest (ROI) was placed over a portion of each appendix and appendiceal maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. If an adjacent loop of bowel activity interfered with accurate measurements of the appendix SUVmax, the scan was excluded from the analysis. A chart review was performed on patients with elevated appendiceal SUVmax values to ensure that the patients did not have clinical symptomatology suggestive of acute appendicitis. When the appendix or a portion of the appendix could be visualized and accurately measured, the SUVmax was determined. SUVmax of the appendix was compared to the SUVmax of normal liver and

  10. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 2; Appendices-Design Methodologies for Aerodynamics, Structures, Weight, and Thermodynamic Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; delaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Lovegren, J.; Mody, P.; Pertuze, J. A.; Sato, S.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Tan, C. S.; Hollman, J. S.; Duda, J. E.; Fitzgerald, N.; Houghton, J.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Kiwada, G. F.; Kordonowy, D.; Parrish, J. C.; Tylko, J.; Wen, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    Appendices A to F present the theory behind the TASOPT methodology and code. Appendix A describes the bulk of the formulation, while Appendices B to F develop the major sub-models for the engine, fuselage drag, BLI accounting, etc.

  11. Catalog of crater lakes from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.

    2010-12-01

    Costa Rica has a diversity of volcanic crater lakes that can be classified into two groups: hot and cold lakes. The country contains at least 5% of the world's hot lakes. Costa Rica has 2 hot hyperacidic lakes, both of them on active volcanoes, the Rincón de la Vieja (38.0°C, pH = 0 - 1) and the Poás Laguna Caliente (36.1°C - 56°C, pH = 0.55 - 0.74), nowadays the Poás hot lake is the most active crater lake in the world, with more than 200 eruptions only on 2010. One of the most studied cold crater lakes is Irazú (13°C, pH = 3.5), that used to contain bubbling and clear areas of upwelling involving CO2 liberation and subaqueous fumaroles with temperatures up to 50°C, but since 2005 the lake presents an important descend until April 2010 when it disappeared. On February 9, 2003, Irazú's lake underwent a drastic change of color, from clear green to mustard with reddish loops, similar to the color of the waters of Lake Nyos after the gas burst of August 1986. Other studied cold lakes include Botos, Chato, and Tenorio, all at the summit of Quaternary volcanoes as well as Barva and Danta, located in recent pyroclastic cones. Some cold lakes are located in Holocene maar-type explosion craters, among them are Congo, Bosque Alegre, Hule, and Río Cuarto. These last two have undergone repeated rapid reddish color changes over the last 10 years, in association with fish kills and the liberation of apparently sulfurous scents. On March 2010, University of Costa Rica was the host of the 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, part of the Commission of Volcanic Lakes of the IAVCEI, 51 participants from 14 countries attended the workshop; they presented 27 talks and 17 posters, also they visited and sample 4 of the lakes mentioned above (Botos, Irazú, Río Cuarto and Hule). Level of Study: 1: few or no data, 2: regular, 3: acceptable

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Mucinous Appendiceal Neoplasm Presented as Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kehagias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal mucocele is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Mucinous appendiceal neoplasms represent 0.2–0.7% of all appendix specimens. The aim of this study is to report a case of a mucinous appendiceal neoplasm presented as acute appendicitis, discussing the clinical and surgical approach in the emergency setting. A 72-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency department with a clinical examination indicative of acute abdomen. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography scan which revealed a cystic lesion in the right iliac fossa measuring 8.3 × 5.2 × 4.1 cm, with calcified walls, and a mean density indicative of high protein content. The patient was taken to the operating room and a right hemicolectomy was performed. The postoperative course was unremarkable. The histopathological examination revealed a low-grade mucinous appendiceal neoplasm with negative regional lymph nodes. Ultrasound and CT are useful in diagnosing appendiceal mucocele and synchronous cancers in the emergency setting. The initial operation should include appendectomy and resection of the appendicular mesenteric fat along with any fluid collection for cytologic examination. During urgent appendectomy it is important to consider every mucocele as malignant in order to avoid iatrogenic perforation causing pseudomyxoma peritonei. Although laparotomy is recommended, the laparoscopic approach is not contraindicated.

  13. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  14. The 2008 Trade Fairs of China in Costa Rica Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Trade Fairs of the People's Republic of China in Costa Rica, host-ed by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, opened grandly on September 11 local time in San Jose International Confer-ence Center.

  15. Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyo, Adriana; Álvarez, Danilo; Taylor, Lizeth; Abdalla, Gabriela; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Zambrano, Maria L.; Dasch, Gregory A.; Lindblade, Kim; Hun, Laya; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Estévez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsia felis is an emerging human pathogen associated primarily with the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. In this study, we investigated the presence of Rickettsia felis in C. felis from Guatemala and Costa Rica. Ctenocephalides felis were collected directly from dogs and cats, and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for Rickettsia-specific fragments of 17-kDa protein, OmpA, and citrate synthase genes. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 64% (55 of 86) and 58% (47 of 81) of flea pools in Guatemala and Costa Rica, respectively. Sequencing of gltA fragments identified R. felis genotype URRWXCal2 in samples from both countries, and genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. This is the first report of R. felis in Guatemala and of genotype Rf2125 in Costa Rica. The extensive presence of this pathogen in countries of Central America stresses the need for increased awareness and diagnosis. PMID:22665618

  16. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  17. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  18. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  19. [The bathymetry of Coco's Island, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizano, O G

    2001-12-01

    The bathymetry of Coco's Island (UNESCO Natural and Cultural World Patrimony), located approximately 500 km from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is not well known. It has a high marine biodiversity and also represents a meeting site for many species traveling throughout the Pacific Ocean. The insular shelf is irregular in extension and also in bathymetric features. The northeast limit is defined by the 109.8-128.1 m contours (60-70 fathoms) while the 183 m contour (100 fathoms) practically defines the rest of the island, from which the depth gradient is steep. The maximum extension is to the northeast with a longitude of 13 km. In this context the present limits of the marine park (5 km), are insufficient to protect the whole insular shelf. Current regulation should be modified to prevent fishing activities less than 15 km from the Island.

  20. Perfil de salud ocupacional Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Costa Rica limita al norte con Nicaragua, al sur con Panamá, al oeste con el Océano Pacífico y al este con el Mar Caribe. Su población es de 4 614 489 personas y el 2,4% está compuesta por 8 grupos étnicos que hablan 6 idiomas indígenas. La densidad poblacional es de 84,2 habitantes por km2, siendo la tercera de Centroamérica. Su población urbana representa un 63,5%, con una tasa de migración de 1,1 por mil habitantes, lo que corresponde a la segunda más baja de la región, por encima de Panam...

  1. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El riesgo de muerte es parte de la vivencia cotidiana de muchas mujeres, 58% han sentido peligro de morir en manos de su agresor, 47% han pensado suicidarse, 48% ha tenido que dejar su hogar por miedo de morir. En el presente estudio se detectan 44 homicidios de mujeres (Femicidio, que no aparecen en los anuarios del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, haciendo del subregistro de agresiones otra forma de hacer violencia contra las mujeres.For many women and young girls, the family circle is the most violent and harmful enviroment to be in. Contrasting more than 70000 women died in their own homes to the 57685 american soldiers who died in Vietnan during the war, we realize this is a big issue. In Costa Rica, land of peace, from all the women to go to CEFEMINA for help, 15% were harmed with gums, 31 % with knifes, 24% with others objects. The risk of dying is part of the daily life of many women, 58% have felt the danger of dying in the hands of their aggressor, 47% consider suicide, 48% have lo leave their homes from fear of dying. In this study we detect 44 cases of homicide of women (Femicide which were not inciuded in the yearbook of the Organismo de lnvestigacion Judicial, thus, making this subregistry, another way to make violence against women.

  2. Principios generales de UNIDROIT. El caso de costa rica

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Pérez, Jorge Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The article will discuss aspects related to UNIDROIT’s principles within the respective juridical framework and the acceptance that these principles have had in Costa Rica during this introductory and consolidation phase. Se indicará lo relativo a los principios UNIDROIT en el marcojurídico respetivo y la recepción que ha tenido Costa Rica a estosprincipios, en esta fase de introducción y consolidación.

  3. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by J. F. Hornbeck and CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues...successful social protection programs that have been implemented elsewhere in Latin America, such as Oportunidades in Mexico and Bolsa Familia in Brazil, and...28, 2010. 15 “ Pobreza y el desempleo siguen agobiando en Costa Rica (sondeo oficial),” Agence France Presse, October 29, 2009. . Costa Rica

  4. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez; Fernando Garc\\u00EDa-Santamar\\u00EDa

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la ...

  5. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  6. Developmental Enamel Lesions, classification in Costa Rican Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose and classify developmental enamel lesions in patients examined at the School of Dentistry of the University of Costa Rica and the community of Llano Grande, Cartago. A total of 15 children (age range 9-17) and 2 adults from Costa Rican families were recruited. General medical and dental histories were elicited. Clinical examination was undertaken; dental radiographs and clinical photographs were obtained. Dental defects were classified according to po...

  7. Linkage between Graduate Medical Education Training Practice Profiles in Psychiatry, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Family Practice. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SysteMetrics, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA.

    Provided are appendices for a study which examined the relationship between graduate medical education (GME) and practice profiles in three specialties: family practice, psychiatry, and obstetrics/gynecology. Appendix A includes materials related to methodology of the study. Appendices B-D include supplementary materials for family practice,…

  8. The appendiceal stump closure during laparoscopy: historical, surgical, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Nunes, Tarcizo Afonso; Soares, Cleber; Gomes, Camila Couto

    2012-02-01

    During a laparoscopic appendectomy, the closure of the appendiceal stump is an important step because of postoperative complications from its inappropriate management. The development of life-threatening events such as stercoral fistulas, postoperative peritonitis, and sepsis is feared and unwanted. The tactical modification of the appendiceal stump closure with a single endoligature, replacing the invaginating suture, adjusted very well to laparoscopic appendectomy, and nowadays is the procedure of choice, whenever possible. Among the alternatives that do not make use of an invaginating suture, studies advocate the use of an endostapler, endoligature (endo-loop), metal clips, bipolar endocoagulation, and polymeric clips. All alternatives have advantages and disadvantages against the different clinical stages of acute appendicitis, and it should be noted that the different forms of appendiceal stump closure have never been assessed in prospective randomized studies. Knowledge about and appropriate use of all of them are important for a safe and more cost-effective procedure.

  9. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  10. Synchronous occurrence of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma, with colon adenocarcinoma and tubulovillous rectal adenoma: Management and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Nakos, Georgios; Katikaridis, Ilias; Zografidis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare clinical entity comprising 8% of all appendiceal tumors, and it is seen in 0.2-0.3% of all appendectomy specimens. Apart from sporadic cases, there are no enough published data about the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors in patients with colorectal cancer. We describe a very rare case of synchronous occurrence of AM, colon adenocarcinoma, and tubulovillous adenoma of the rectum and review the relevant literature. We conclude that thorough preoperative and perioperative evaluations are mandatory in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer to exclude a synchronous colon or an appendiceal primary tumor. Larger prospective studies are necessary to accurately determine the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors and colorectal cancer.

  11. Metastatic appendiceal adenocarcinoma presenting late as epididymo-orchitis: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kershaw John B

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas testicular metastases are in themselves a rare entity, testicular secondaries from an appendiceal carcinoma have not yet been described. The case also illustrates the diagnostic dilemma of a tumour presenting as epididymo-orchitis. Case presentation The authors present a case of an appendiceal carcinoma that, two years after radical therapy, manifested as a secondary in the testis. It was misdiagnosed as an epididymo-orchitis and was only revealed through histology. Conclusions Practitioners need to remember that long-standing testicular inflammation may result form secondary tumours. Even "exotic" primary tumours in the medical history of the patient must give rise to an increased suspicion threshold.

  12. Florecimientos de dinoflagelados nocivos en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribelle Vargas Montero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1979 se han reportado florecimientos de especies de microalgas nocivas (FAN en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, reconociéndose hasta el 2005 al menos 13 taxa de dinoflagelados. En años recientes estos fenómenos se han intensificado tanto espacial como temporalmente, produciéndose discoloraciones casi ininterrumpidas que se extienden por toda la costa produciendo mortalidad de peces y fetidez en el agua. Tales FAN masivos se iniciaron con Pyrodinium bahamense en el 2000, quien perduró por más de un año y en el cual se observaron morfotipos correspondientes a las dos variedades de la especie, coexistiendo junto a Gymnodinium catenatum y ocasionando serios casos de Intoxicación Paralizante por Consumo de Mariscos (IPM. Posteriormente, de septiembre del 2003 hasta junio del 2004, Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides produjo discoloraciones en toda la costa Pacífica, seguidas por manchas extensas de Akasiwo sanguinea y Gymnodinium instriatum. El evento más reciente se observó en junio del 2005 cuando Alexandrium monilatum produjo extensas discoloraciones con cadenas formadas por más de 100 células. Los FAN de dinoflagelados ahora son comunes en las costas de Costa Rica, posiblemente como resultado de las condiciones ambientales actuales que favorecen la proliferación masiva de especies invasivas (agresivas, las cuales incluso pueden afectar otros sitios del Pacífico americano como es el caso de P. bahamense var. compressum que puede desplazarse hasta México, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico centroamericano a través de la Corriente Costera de Costa Rica y la Corriente Occidental Mexicana.Since 1979 has been reported harmful microalgae blooms (HAB on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it was identified until 2005 at least 13 taxa of dinoflagellates. In recent years these phenomena have intensified both spatially and temporarily, discolorations occur almost uninterrupted; they are distributed for months and which extend along the

  13. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  14. El primer equipo interdisciplinario de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Navarro Villalobos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El abuso sexual es un conjunto de actitudes de un sujeto que realiza en detrimento de otro, generalmente menor, para su autosatisfacción. Las estadísticas de los diferentes países apuntan a que se está convirtiendo en una epidemia que nos está asfixiando. La prevención de la revictimización, una política establecida en el Poder Judicial de Costa Rica desde hace más de diez años, dio como fruto la conformación de los equipos interdisciplinarios. Al inicio, estos abarcaron una serie de disciplinas tan disímiles entre sí, que comprendían tanto el derecho, como la medicina, la psicología, el trabajo social y la psiquiatría. Con el paso de los años los equipos se fueron reduciendo hasta quedar conformados por el psicólogo, el trabajador social y el médico forense, que asiste a una reunión semanal con ellos y en donde se discuten las diferentes conclusiones de las tres disciplinas. Hoy en día son equipos establecidos prácticamente en todas las cabeceras de provincia de nuestro país con funciones periciales muy específicas en el tratamiento legal de las causas de los delitos sexuales.Sexual Abuse is series of actitudes of a subject, Which he realize in detriment of other, usually younger, for his self satisfaction. The statistics of differents countries shows that this issue is torning into epidemics amounts ant its suffocating us. Prevention in revictimation is a policy established in Costa Rica for over a decade and for this we has had form interdisciplinary teams. In early times those temas had a lot of uncompatible disciplines soch as team is formed by only three members: the forensic doctor, the psychologist and the social worker, ehom attent to a weekly metting to analize the different conclusions of each especiallist. Actually there are teams established in almost all head of province in our country with percial function well established in the legal treatment of the causes of these crimes.

  15. Costa rican international cooperative biodiversity group: using insects and other arthropods in biodiversity prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Sittenfeld-Appel, Ana; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Jiménez, Allan; Hurtado, Priscilla; Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero-Bermúdez, Olga Marta; Mora, María Auxiliadora; Rojas, Miguel; Blanco, Roger; Alvarado, Eugenio; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, José María; Janzen, Daniel Hunt

    1999-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica. Facultad de Microbiología. Departmento Parasitología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto Clodomiro Picado, 1999. Este documento es privado debido a limitaciones de derechos de autor. This paper describes the Costa Rican International Collaborative Biodiversity Group (ICBG), which was designed to introduce insects and other arthropods as a source of pharmaceutical compounds, and to generate knowledge and...

  16. 50 CFR 23.4 - What are Appendices I, II, and III?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Introduction § 23.4 What are Appendices I, II, and III? Species are listed by the Parties... volume and type of trade to ensure trade is legal and not detrimental to the survival of the......

  17. Production development of organic nonflammable spacecraft potting, encapsulating and conformal coating compounds. Volume 3: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include: statement of work; material vendor contacts; formulation/processing data sheet; upward propagation test; flammability test conditions/results sheet; odor test; vacuum stability requirements; flammability test facility; determination of offgassing products and carbon monoxide test; and pneumatic and mechanical impact test guidelines.

  18. Is there still a benefit to operate appendiceal abscess on board French nuclear submarines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornez, Emmanuel; Gellie, Gabriel; Entine, Fabrice; Ottomani, Sébastien; Monchal, Tristan; Meusnier, François; Platel, Jean Philippe; de Carbonnieres, Hubert; Thouard, Hervé

    2009-08-01

    Appendicular abscess occurred in 14.2% of patients presenting acute appendicitis. Management of these patients remains controversial, ranging from an emergency appendectomy to a nonoperative treatment. On board French nuclear submarines, the usual treatment for all cases of appendiceal masses, including both appendicitis and appendiceal abscess, is an appendectomy. In the past 5 years, the introduction of ultrasonography (US) on board has enabled the diagnosis of appendiceal abscess with a high rate of accuracy, and the latest studies show that nonoperative treatment is an alternative approach. This nonsurgical treatment, based on intravenous administration of antibiotics, is successful in about 93% of the patients. Failure of nonsurgical treatment is a reliable indication of percutaneous drainage. The proportion of adult patients who need percutaneous drainage of abscesses is about 27%. A successful primary nonoperative treatment may or may not be followed by interval appendectomy at the conclusion of the patrol. Nonsurgical treatment is associated with a significantly lower morbidity than surgery. Considering that the on-board surgical facility is limited, nonsurgical treatment appears to be the best approach for treating a sailor with an appendiceal abscess during a submarine patrol mission.

  19. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Konzek, G.J.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Detailed appendices are presented under the following headings: reference PWR facility description, reference PWR site description, estimates of residual radioactivity, alternative methods for financing decommissioning, radiation dose methodology, generic decommissioning activities, intermediate dismantlement activities, safe storage and deferred dismantlement activities, compilation of unit cost factors, and safety assessment details.

  20. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume IV. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Services operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. This volume contains all technical appendices and is intended as a resource document. The Methodology Appendix is included…

  1. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  2. No-migration variance petition. Appendices C--J: Volume 5, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Volume V contains the appendices for: closure and post-closure plans; RCRA ground water monitoring waver; Waste Isolation Division Quality Program Manual; water quality sampling plan; WIPP Environmental Procedures Manual; sample handling and laboratory procedures; data analysis; and Annual Site Environmental Monitoring Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

  3. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) baseline large module time estimates, (2) baseline intermediate module time estimates, (3) baseline small module time estimates, (4) alternate concept estimates, (5) maintenance equipment concepts, (6) additional reactor design definition, and (7) TOCOMO supplements. (MOW)

  4. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendices B1-B4. [HYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    These four appendices to the report on the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) report contain information on: HYBRID computer program documentation; material substitution study for advanced hybrid vehicles; NTHV market potential; battery compartment weight distribution; and vehicle handling dynamics. (LCL)

  5. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    These appendices to the master plan study on district heating in the municipality of Sillamae (Estonia) present data referring to technology assessment with the emphasis on pipes, degree days, load duration curves, cost tables, heat losses, temperature gradients, maintenance and renovation costs. (ARW)

  6. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report, 1992. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Latham, A.R.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    These appendices contain 1992 NTS onsite and offsite environmental monitoring results. The onsite data presented are accompanied by summaries of statistical evaluations of the data. Other offsite data collected by the EPA are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada.

  7. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on the cogenerating district heating system in the municipality of Sillamae (Estonia) gives technical and costs data on existing conditions and on possible new facilities. The data relates to energy output, the energy budget, heat load duration curves, and to suggestions for improvement. (ARW)

  8. Analysis of petroleum company investments in nonpetroleum energy sources. Book II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P. Jr.; Ryan, T.C.

    1979-12-12

    Financial data from the analysis of investment strategies of US oil companies and the depth of their present and future investments in nonpetroleum energy sources are tabulated in these appendices. The nonpetroleum energy sources included in the study are: coal, oil shale, geothermal, and solar.

  9. Diabetes mellitus neonatal en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ruiz-Salazar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus neonatal es un raro desorden metabólico usualmente desarrollado en las primeras 6 semanas de vida, secundario a un grupo de mutaciones y defectos del desarrollo pancreático que puede desembocar en una catástrofe clínica si no se identifica tempranamente; se divide en una variante transitoria y una permanente, siendo la primera la más frecuente, con cerca de un 60% de los casos. El manejo inicial de ambas variantes es la insulinoterapia intensiva, que en la variante transitoria puede suspenderse usualmente en los primeros meses de vida. El síndrome de disregulación inmunológica, poliendocrinopatía y enteropatía ligada a X (IPEX por sus siglas en inglés, es una causa extremadamente rara de la variante permanente, casi siempre mortal, caracterizada por un inmunocompromiso severo, enteropatía, diabetes y dermatitis. En el estudio se describen 4 casos de diabetes mellitus neonatal diagnosticados en el Hospital Nacional de Niños de San José, Costa Rica: 2 correspondientes a una diabetes mellitus neonatal transitoria, 2 a una diabetes mellitus neonatal permanente y 1 de ellos correspondiente a un síndrome de IPEX.

  10. Cultivo protegido de hortalizas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La horticultura en Costa Rica se ha desarrollado principalmente a campo abierto y se ha concentrado en el Valle Central donde predominan las actividades de expansión urbanística y comercial. Muchos de los problemas asociados a la producción hortícola se centran en la alta presencia de plagas y enfermedades que obligan al productor a utilizar plaguicidas químicos con consecuencias nocivas para el ambiente: la horticultura a campo abierto se vuelve muy contaminante e insostenible. Una alternativa productiva pueden ser los sistemas de cultivos protegidos, en los que se usan estructuras, materiales y equipo; posibilitan la producción de hortalizas en climas adversos y facilitan el control de plagas y enfermedades. Estos sistemas se han usado ampliamente a nivel mundial con gran éxito, pero a nivel del trópico es necesaria la investigación en este campo con el objetivo de implementar o modificar el sistema para que favorezca la producción sostenible de hortalizas.

  11. los parques nacionales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poas es el más visitado de Costa Rica, dado su fácil acceso, cercanía relativa a los grandes centros de población del país y buenas carreteras. Entre Marzo y Abril del 2006 producto de unas erupciones intra-cratéricas el parque tuvo que ser cerrado por tres semanas. El estudio reportado estima el impacto económico del cierre del parque en los negocios que sirven a los turistas en las comunidades vecinas, durante las tres semanas que el parque permaneció cerrado. Los resultados presentados son producto de un censo económico efectuado a los 28 negocios directamente afectados. Esta clase de información y metodología permite a las comunidades que pasará en términos de impacto económico en pequeñas comunidades y así evitar frustraciones en las mismas en materia de beneficios económicos esperados y no materializados.

  12. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  13. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems: Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, G. W. S. V.

    A case study of Costa Rica's Universidad Estatal a Distancia, an Open University school with a distance learning system, is presented. Areas of discussion include characteristics of the country, the educational system of Costa Rica, and the university. Specific topics include: the physical setting of Costa Rica; the population; the economy;…

  14. Notes on Costa Rican Pterichis (Orchidaceae) – new taxa and additions to national orchid flora

    OpenAIRE

    Kolanowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the orchid genus Pterichis, P. herrerae, and a new variety of P. habenarioides, P. habenarioides var. costaricensis, are described and illustrated based on Costa Rican material. Information about new Costa Rican records of P. pauciflora and P. parvifolia is provided. An updated key to Costa Rican species of Pterichis is presented.

  15. Extra-appendiceal findings in pediatric abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark; Delgado, Jorge; Mahboubi, Soroosh [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Much has been written regarding the incidence, types, importance and management of abdominal CT incidental findings in adults, but there is a paucity of literature on incidental findings in children. We sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of extra-appendiceal and incidental findings in pediatric abdominal CT performed for suspected appendicitis. A retrospective review was performed of abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis in a pediatric emergency department from July 2010 to June 2012. Extra-appendiceal findings were recorded. Any subsequent imaging was noted. Extra-appendiceal findings were divided into incidental findings of doubtful clinical significance, alternative diagnostic findings potentially providing a diagnosis other than appendicitis explaining the symptoms, and incidental findings that were abnormalities requiring clinical correlation and sometimes requiring further evaluation but not likely related to the patient symptoms. One hundred sixty-five children had abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis. Seventy-seven extra-appendiceal findings were found in 57 (34.5%) patients. Most findings (64 of 77) were discovered in children who did not have appendicitis. Forty-one of these findings (53%) could potentially help explain the patient's symptoms, while 30 of the findings (39%) were abnormalities that were unlikely to be related to the symptoms but required clinical correlation and sometimes further work-up. Six of the findings (8%) had doubtful or no clinical significance. Extra-appendiceal findings are common in children who undergo abdominal CT in the setting of suspected appendicitis. A significant percentage of these patients have findings that help explain their symptoms. Knowledge of the types and prevalence of these findings may help radiologists in the planning and interpretation of CT examinations in this patient population. (orig.)

  16. Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artibano Micali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.

  17. Muertes relacionadas con cocaina en Costa Rica durante 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cocaína en Costa Rica es un problema creciente y muchas de lasmuertes pueden ser causadas por situaciones en las cuales la droga está involucrada. En este estudio todas las autopsias médico legales hechas en 1996 en este país fueron analizadas con el objeto de determinar la mortalidad y por lo tanto el impacto que ella genera en la sociedad costarricense.The cocaine consumption in Costa Rica is a growing problem and a lot of deaths can be caused by the situations in wich the drug is involved. In this study all the medicolegal autopsies done in 1996 in this country were analized to figure out the mortality and therefore, the impact it generates in Costa Rican society.

  18. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  19. Fecundidad y uso de anticonceptivo en Costa Rica, 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Oberle, Mark W.; Sosa, Doris; Madrigal Pana, Johnny; Becker, Stan; Morris, Leo; ROSERO-BIXBY, LUIS

    1989-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1989 La prevalencia de anticonceptivos en Costa Rica es una de las más altas de América Latina: el 70 por ciento de las mujeres actualmente casadas utilizan algún método anticonceptivo. Los diferenciales en el uso de anticonceptivos en función del nivel educativo y entre las zonas rurales y urbanas resultan en efecto muy reducidos en comparación con otros países latinoamericanos. Si bien los niveles de...

  20. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández; Ana Maricela Carballo Alfaro

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo) en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos ...

  1. SOLID WASTE RECYCLIN IN COSTA RICA: BALANCE AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Pujol, Rosendo; Solano, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Reciclaje en Costa Rica: Balance y perspectivas.Este artículo explora las realidades del reciclaje en Costa Rica, así como su evolución es los últimos años. Se concentra en evaluar los flujos de materiales y los aspectos económicos de dos productos: papel y vidrio. Brevemente evalúa los mismos aspectos para el plástico y el acero. Muestra las siguientes tazas de recuperación: Para papel el 22,22% y para el vidrio 15.5%. Hay tres factores que dificultan el mejoramiento de estas tasas de recupe...

  2. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-01-01

    La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laborato...

  3. Hemoglobinopatías poco comunes en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Entre las hemoglobinopatías poco comunes detectadas en Costa Rica se encuentran las de cadenas alfa, beta y delta. Dentro de ellas se destaca en particular la Hb Cubujuquí como una variante hemoglobínica no descrita hasta el momento. Existe una asociación entre los diversos síndromes talasémicos y sus combinaciones con hemoglobinas anormales presentes en nuestra población. Among the rare hemoglobinopathies found in Costa Riea are those of the Alfa, Beta, and Delta chains. Among these, Hb C...

  4. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  5. ¿QUIEN CREA MIPYMES EN COSTA RICA? (¿Who are the SME creators in Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características más relevantes de los emprendedores que crearos sus propias empresas en Costa Rica, así como el entorno en el cual lo hicieron. Esto a partir de los datos emanados del segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses efectuado por el Observatorio de Mipymes durante el año 2011. ABSTRACT This paper presents the most relevant characteristics of the entrepreneurs that created companies in Costa Rica and the country’s entrepreneurial environment. This analysis was done using data from the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies made by the SME Observatory during 2011.

  6. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of county maps showing locations of well data across the state; a computerized tabulation of the wells depicted; an explanation of the computer coding procedures; and a selected bibliography on heat flow and geothermics. (MHR)

  7. Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation, topical report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-19

    The appendices for the water resources evaluation report are included for the Imperial Valley KGRA's, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Wendell Amedee, Glass Mountain, Lassen, Puna, and for power plant case studies. (MHR)

  8. Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Initiative FY 2013 Annual Report and FY 2014 Work Plan Regional Appendices

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These regional appendices describes implementation of the National Wildlife Refuge System's I results from all eight regions and the I&M Branch of the Natural...

  9. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  10. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 7 of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) present technical data on production units, also with regard to new facilities. (ARW)

  11. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  12. Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins. Water and Related Land Resources Study. Blackstone River Watershed. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    weee ir noww md Id I b Wock number) --The eight appendices to the main report provides descriptive material abbut the Blackstone River Basin. Appendices...PNB area). The team concentrated on water supply, water quality, recreation, marine management, flooding and erosion, minerals extraction and the...basin consists of gently rolling wooded hills. Peters River originates in Bellingham, Massachusetts, just north of Silver Lake. It flows southwesterly

  13. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices A--L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of appendices A-L of the final environmental impact statement for the Bonneville Power Administration. The appendices provide information on the following: Ninth circuit Court opinion in Forelaws on Board v. Johnson; guide to Northwest Power act contracts; guide to hydro operations; glossary; affected environment supporting documentation; environmental impacts of generic resource types; information on models used; technical information on analysis; public involvement activities; bibliography; Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act; and biological assessment. (CBS)

  14. 巨大阑尾黏液性囊腺瘤1例%1 case of huge appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 刘雯雯

    2016-01-01

    Huge appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is rare in clinic,and the preoperative misdiagnosis rate is high.The data of 1 case of huge appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma was introduced in this paper.%巨大阑尾黏液性囊腺瘤临床较少见,术前误诊率高。本文对巨大阑尾黏液性囊腺瘤1例的病例资料进行介绍。

  15. Technology transfer for the US Department of Energy's Energy Storage Program: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, C.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1988-10-01

    This document contains the appendices to Technology Transfer Recommendations for the US Department of Energy's Storage Program (PNL-6484, Vol. 1). These appendices are a list of projects, publications, and presentations connected with the Energy Storage (STOR) program. In Volume 1, the technology transfer activities of the STOR program are examined and mechanisms for increasing the effectiveness of those activities are recommended.

  16. Rural equity in Costa Rica: myth or reality?

    OpenAIRE

    Peek P; Raabe C

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on nature and trends of rural area poverty and income distribution in Costa Rica - briefly outlines historical background to the agricultural economy; discusses recent trends in agricultural production, agricultural mechanization, farm size, etc.; examines land reform, effect of economic recession in the 1970s and agricultural income. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  17. Capital Inflows in a Small Open Economy: Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This document illustrates the inflows of capital to a small and open economy such as Costa Rica using the Metzler Diagram. The simplicity of the Metzler Diagram provides clarity to understand the motivation for the inflows of capital, as well as a framework to analyze the policy options available to the policy-makers.

  18. Interdisciplinary Team Teaching on Sustainable Development in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessor, Roberta; Reeves, Margaret; Andrade, Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of an interdisciplinary field course in Costa Rica focused on sustainable development. The semester-long curriculum integrated sociology, political economy, and agricultural ecology. The curriculum was empirically based and involved faculty members and students working collaboratively on different…

  19. Science and Mathematics Education Research in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berty, Rolando; Esquivel, Juan M.

    Increased emphasis on science and mathematics education research in Costa Rica since 1973 is reported. The majority of the studies carried out in the past 12 years have been diagnostic studies. General findings are listed, under the headings of certification, supervision, basic skills, teaching methods, attitudes, and curriculum. The diagnostic…

  20. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  1. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces.

  2. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  3. Area Handbook Series: Costa Rica, a Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Costarricense de Electricidad -ICE) furnishes electricity either directly or ,4 through sale to private or government companies. Authority in each canton...34 San Jos6: 1979. Costa Rica. Servicio Nacional de Electricidad . Estadistica elkc- trica, 1972. n. pl.: n. d. * Estadistica elctrica, 1978. n. pl

  4. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall V

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC and the drug information services (DIS. Objective: To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods: Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results: In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions: The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened.

  5. Costa Rica: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    by Richard F. Grimmett and Mark P. Sullivan and CRS Report RS20892, Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, by Richard F. Grimmett...Department of Commerce statistics, as presented by Global Trade Atlas, 2009. 56 John McPhaul, “ Entrevista —Costa Rica está en recesión pero destaca Cafta: Arias,” Reuters, May 13, 2009.

  6. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  7. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  8. An Appendiceal Neoplastic Lesion: Case Report and Implications for Colonoscopic Screening and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man with a history of previously resected colonic adenomas had an apparent cecal lesion detected during colonoscopy. The polyp proved to be a tubulovillous adenoma with high-grade dysplasia involving most of the body of the appendix along with the base of the cecum. The appendiceal mucosa is biologically similar to the colonic mucosa, yet remains relatively ‘hidden’ in screening and surveillance studies, which suggests important implications for evolving detection strategies in the follow-up of patients with a previous colon polyp or cancer resections. Although endoscopic removal of the appendix has been reported, treatment of these localized appendiceal lesions requires a wide surgical excision.

  9. An Unusual Case of Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Rectal Bleeding and Haematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Murphy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarcinoma of the appendix is rare, usually being diagnosed intraoperatively when performing appendicectomy or at subsequent histological examination. Here we report a case with acute abdominal pain, rectal bleeding with haematuria being the presenting symptoms. Subsequent computerised tomography demonstrated a complex mass involving the ileum, right colon, sigmoid colon and bladder with inflammatory bowel disease being the most likely cause. At laparotomy a right hemicolectomy, sigmoid colectomy and partial cystectomy was performed with pathological specimens confirming an appendiceal adenocarcinoma as the primary source of the abdominal mass fistulating into adjacent structures. We conclude that although appendiceal tumours are rare – usually diagnosed at appendicectomy, they should be considered in the diagnosis of complex abdominal masses involving small bowel, large bowel and adjacent pelvic structures.

  10. Recommendations for a Department of Energy Nuclear Energy R and D Agenda Volume 2 Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The current US nuclear energy policy is primarily formulated as part of the nation`s overall energy policy. In addition, nuclear energy policy is impacted by other US policies, such as those for defense and environment, and by international obligations through their effects on nuclear weapons dismantlement and stewardship, continued reliance on space and naval nuclear power sources, defense waste cleanup, and on nuclear nonproliferation. This volume is composed of the following appendices: Appendix 1--Objectives of the Federal Government Nuclear Energy Related Policies and Research and Development Programs; Appendix 2--Nuclear Energy and Related R and D in the US; Appendix 3--Summary of Issues That Drive Nuclear Energy Research and Development; Appendix 4: Options for Policy and Research and Development; Appendix 5--Pros and Cons of Objectives and Options; and Appendices 6--Recommendations.

  11. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  12. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River, Appendices, 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Vella, John J.

    1991-03-01

    This report is a compilation of the seven appendices to DOE/BP/39339--4 the annual report for FY 1990. These appendices contain the supporting numerical data for the study. The purpose of this study was to assess the fishery improvement opportunities on the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreilla River. This three year study was initiated as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This report contains the findings of the third and final year of the study. The objectives of the third year of the study were to determine the relative abundance of each species in the river and sloughs; the population levels in five selected tributaries and, if possible, for fish in the river and sloughs; each species growth rate, feeding habits, abundance of preferred prey, and migration patterns; and the seasonal movement patterns and habitat utilization of largemouth bass.

  13. Comparative Performance of High Efficiency Ship Propulsion Systems for Destroyer Hull Types. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-06

    Best Available Copy ., AD-A007 341 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL...PERFORMANCE OF HIGH EFFICIENCY SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR DESTROYER HULL TYPES VOLUME II APPENDICES By Alan J. Stev/crt 6 December 1974 Approved...of the comparative performance of high eflic.icncy ship propulsion systems, four arrangement drawings have been prepared. Each drawing shows the

  14. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  15. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  16. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  17. Necrotizing Fasciitis Arising From an Enterocutaneous Fistula in a Case of an Appendiceal Mucocele

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Keun Young; Park, Won Cheol

    2015-01-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare tumorous condition of the appendix. Many patients with AM are admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain or discomfort, and many cases are found incidentally. Although the rate of complications in patients with AM is very low, if left untreated, a mucocele may rupture and produce a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. In this paper, we report a case of an 80-year-old man with necrotizing fasciitis arising from an enterocutaneous fi...

  18. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  19. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  20. Intra-appendiceal air at CT: Is it a seful or a onfusing sign for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hye Suk; Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Lee, Yul; Yang, Ik; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Han Myun; Kim, Jeong Won [Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To investigate the significance of intra-appendiceal air at CT for the evaluation of appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed 458 patients (216 men, 242 women; age range, 18-91 years) who underwent CT for suspected appendicitis. Two independent readers reviewed the CT. Prevalence, amount, and appearance of intra-appendiceal air were assessed and compared between the patients with and without appendicitis. Performance of CT diagnosis was evaluated in two reading strategies: once ignoring appendiceal air (strategy 1), and the other time considering presence of appendiceal air as indicative of no appendicitis in otherwise indeterminate cases (strategy 2), using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Of the 458 patients, 102 had confirmed appendicitis. The prevalence of intra-appendiceal air was significantly different between patients with (13.2%) and without (79.8%) appendicitis (p < 0.001). The amount of appendiceal air was significantly lesser in patients having appendicitis as compared with the normal group, for both reader 1 (p = 0.011) and reader 2 (p = 0.002). Stool-like appearance and air-fluid levels were more common in the appendicitis group than in the normal appendix for both readers (p < 0.05). Areas under the ROC curves were not significantly different between strategies 1 and 2 in reader 1 (0.971 vs. 0.985, respectively; p = 0.056), but showed a small difference in reader 2 (0.969 vs. 0.986, respectively; p = 0.042). Although significant differences were seen in the prevalence, amount, and appearance of intra-appendiceal air between patients with and without appendicitis, it has a limited incremental value for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

  1. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laboratorio, según esta revisión e la literatura reciente. Los principales hallazgos postmortem son rigidez cadavérica precoz e intensa y síndrome asfíctico. Los registros de la Sección de Patología Forense del Organismo de Investigación Judicial de Costa Rica presentan desde 1990, únicamente dos casos de muerte por intoxicación con estricnina. Se trata de mujeres, que presentaron la rigidez anotada, corroborándose por la escena de muerte y en el laboratorio. La baja frecuencia se debe a la dificultad para conseguir la estricnina.Strychinine is an alcaloid of plant origin and convulsive effect which has beenused in Costa Rica as a pesticide androdenticide, as well as adulterant in abused drugs. Its therapeutic use has been rejected. Poisoning with this substance is not common because n Costa Rica its use is currently restricted to the elimination of street dogs practiced by sanitary personnel. The symptons, basically neuroogic and cardiorespiratory, require clinical and laboratory analysis, according to the present review of recent literature. The main post-mortem findings are early rigor mortis and an asfictic syndrome. The records of the Forensic Pathology section of the Costa Rican Criminal Bureau only include, since 1990, two deaths caused by strychnine. The victims were women that presentd the mentioned rigor mortis, and the cause was corroborated by the scene of death and the laboratory. The diffculty of obtaining the substance explains the

  2. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  3. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morera, Jorge A.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pue...

  4. Statistical analysis of abstentionism in the presidential elections of Costa Rica, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Araya Alpízar, Carlomagno

    2015-01-01

    This paper statistically analyzes the electoral abstention by districts and provinces in the presidential elections of Costa Rica 2014. The author studies the importance of socioeconomic variables as the Social Development Index (IDS), with the aim of studying the factors that originate and represent a problem of legitimacy of the Costa Rican political system. It was found that voter abstention in the districts of Costa Rica is distributed unequally in relation to demographic and economic...

  5. Entrepreneurship in Costa Rica: stagnation in the transition to innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chaves Núñez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica is stuck in a transition phase between an efficiency-based economy and an innovation-based economy and is not promoting the necessary entrepreneurial conditions that would lead to the required transformation.  Meanwhile, other countries in the region are in a better position to encourage entrepreneurship. In this situation, it is important to ask which are the conditions regarding entrepreneurship in Costa Rica that could improve the transition to an innovation-based economy. To improve this situation, the country must develop an inter-institutional support program that attracts direct foreign investment and linkages between businesses, improve human capital, provide training, incubation and funding, and have better articulation of public policy.

  6. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  7. The Orbiniidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Pacific Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2015-05-08

    Seven species of Orbiniidae are described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica including two new species. Leodamas hamatus n. sp., a commonly occurring species on the coast of Pacific Costa Rica, is described from 11‒18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and Bahia Culebra. This species is unusual in that the neuropodial uncini differ morphologically from anterior to posterior in the thorax. Scoloplos cryptospinigerus n. sp. is described from 18-22 m in the Gulf of Nicoya and has only a few short, toothed spines amidst numerous capillary setae in most of the thoracic neuropodia. This arrangement of thoracic neurosetae is unusual and has been seen only in one other described species of Scoloplos from Australia.

  8. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Silva Pena

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie.

  9. A physical-oceanographic study of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Harald; Rosland, Rune; Myking, Steiner; Vargas, José A; Lizano, Omar G.; Alfaro, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    A physical-oceanographic investigation based on field experiments and applications of a numerical model was carried out in Golfo Dulce, a fjord-like gulf at the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Due to the nearness to equator the effect of the Coriolis force on the circulation is negligible. Cross gulf gradients are therefore mainly related to the runoff pattern, local wind and topographic effects. The upper layer is characterized by low salinity and high temperature. Local wind effects and topogr...

  10. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  11. Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica (1966-1999)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier; Cubero-Pardo,Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica are reported for a period of 33 years, with a total of 35 strandings, 13 species and 247 individuals involved. The vast majority of documented strandings occurred on the Pacific coast and correspond to single individuals (32 and 28 strandings respectively). The highest stranding number was in the period from 1990 to 1999 (n=24). Physeter catodon (cachalot or sperm whale) is the species with the highest frequency of strandings (n=8) and the family Delphinidae ...

  12. Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  13. First Report of Hepatozoon procyonis in Raccoons from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study reports for the first time the detection of Hepatozoon procyonis in raccoons, Procyon lotor from Costa Rica. Blood smears of naturally infected raccoons were taken to characterize the gametocytes. Gametocyts consistent with Hepatozoon procyonis were observed in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, and their morphology, which is similar to the one reported in raccoons throughout the Americas, is described. El estudio muestra, por primera vez, la detección de Hepatozoon procyonis en proc...

  14. Las lecciones aprendidas del caso Intel de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Alvarado, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo es una investigación sobre el Caso Intel de Costa Rica, donde se puede apreciar una estrategia global de Intel y la visión compartida del gobierno de todo un país para generar una ventaja competitiva frente a posibles mercados emergentes para de esta forma poder sentar las bases de una economía más y mejor integrada, sostenida en una capacitación de sus recursos humanos.

  15. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  16. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  17. Determinación de la estructura poblacional de litopenaeus vannamei mediante issrs a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    Fresneda Rodríguez, Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Determinación de la estructura poblacional de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante ISSRs a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana Muestras de Litopenaeus vannamei fueron colectadas en siete localidades a lo largo de la costa ecuatoriana desde Esmeraldas hasta Machala.

  18. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  19. Potential actionable targets in appendiceal cancer detected by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and mutational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Sherri Z.; Kimbrough, Jeffery; Doll, Nancy; Von Hoff, Daniel; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Appendiceal cancers are rare and consist of carcinoid, mucocele, pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), goblet cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma histologies. Current treatment involves surgical resection or debulking, but no standard exists for adjuvant chemotherapy or treatment for metastatic disease. Methods Samples were identified from approximately 60,000 global tumors analyzed at a referral molecular profiling CLIA-certified laboratory. A total of 588 samples with appendix primary tumor sites were identified (male/female ratio of 2:3; mean age =55). Sixty-two percent of samples were adenocarcinomas (used for analysis); the rest consisted of 9% goblet cell, 15% mucinous; 6% pseudomyxoma, and less than 5% carcinoids and 2% neuroendocrine. Tests included sequencing [Sanger, next generation sequencing (NGS)], protein expression/immunohistochemistry (IHC), and gene amplification [fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or CISH]. Results Profiling across all appendiceal cancer histological subtypes for IHC revealed: 97% BRCP, 81% MRP1, 81% COX-2, 71% MGMT, 56% TOPO1, 5% PTEN, 52% EGFR, 40% ERCC1, 38% SPARC, 35% PDGFR, 35% TOPO2A, 25% RRM1, 21% TS, 16% cKIT, and 12% for TLE3. NGS revealed mutations in the following genes: 50.4% KRAS, 21.9% P53, 17.6% GNAS, 16.5% SMAD4, 10% APC, 7.5% ATM, 5.5% PIK3CA, 5.0% FBXW7, and 1.8% BRAF. Conclusions Appendiceal cancers show considerable heterogeneity with high levels of drug resistance proteins (BCRP and MRP1), which highlight the difficulty in treating these tumors and suggest an individualized approach to treatment. The incidence of low TS (79%) could be used as a backbone of therapy (using inhibitors such as 5FU/capecitabine or newer agents). Therapeutic options includeTOPO1 inhibitors (irinotecan/topotecan), EGFR inhibitors (erlotinib, cetuximab), PDGFR antagonists (regorafenib, axitinib), MGMT (temozolomide). Clinical trials targeting pathways involving KRAS, p53, GNAS, SMAD4, APC, ATM, PIK3CA, FBXW7, and

  20. Fatigue Technology Assessment and Strategies for Fatigue Avoidance in Marine Structures. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    not always be effective. The advantage of shrouds over strakes is that their drag penalty is not as great; for all Reynold’s numbers, C0 - 0.9 based on...avoidance strategies based upon variables that contribute to the uncertainties of fatigue life. This set of Appendices includes more in-depth presentations...and Scott-Wiegel Spectra A.4 SELECTING A WAVE SPECTRUM A.4.1 Wave Hindcasting A.4.2 Direct Wave Measurements A.5 WAVE SCATTER DIAGRAM A.6 WAVE

  1. Energy conservation in existing office buildings. Appendices to report, Phase I, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A blank form of Questionnaire No. 1 is first presented, followed by data compiled from that questionnaire. Then data are presented on the analyses of the 436 buildings, statistical validation for selection of the 44 building sample, and some examples of the matching buildings for the 44 building sample. Questionnaire No. 2 is then given, followed by additional data collected from the study concerning energy consumption and building characteristics. To complete the appendices, a simulation of a typical building and a hypothetical building is included. (MCW)

  2. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  3. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  4. All Source Analysis System (ASAS). Block 1. Abbreviated HARDMAN analysis. Appendices to Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    8217 APPENDICES A. TSE WCG Maintenance Data B. TSE DPS Maintenance Data C. CCS Maintenance Data D. TCAE Workstation Maintenance Data E. TCAC Maintenance Data...Division TCAE G(3) SUP - 3 Light Division TSE G(4) SUP - 4 Light Division TCAE H. Unit Maintenance Data Summary I. Heavy Division Maintenance Data J...V u Appendix D TCAE W/S Maintenance Data c a a -0 C 0 coca46 Ci a a a a c a a 0 a a 0 coca01009P 0 IRMO. : C!000110 1 N 010 4#41111114 1 Im *lq##4CC

  5. Moving toward security: strategies for reducing California's vulnerability to energy shortages. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    This document includes appendices on: California's energy production and distribution system; energy and security, relative to the Persian Gulf; Federal energy emergency authorities; theory of California's gasoline shortages; Complexities of the gasoline shortage system; a critique of DOE report, Domestic and International Energy Emergency Preparedness; NPC report critique; oil allocation supply test; The International Energy Agency, National Commitments and State Contingency Planning; Testimony of Commissioner Gene Varanini before Assembly Revenue and Taxation Committee; Energy Contingency planning for local governments; and Federal emergency natural gas supply laws. (PSB)

  6. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan figs., ills., refs. Prepared for Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  7. Necrotizing Fasciitis Arising From an Enterocutaneous Fistula in a Case of an Appendiceal Mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun Young; Park, Won Cheol

    2015-12-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare tumorous condition of the appendix. Many patients with AM are admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain or discomfort, and many cases are found incidentally. Although the rate of complications in patients with AM is very low, if left untreated, a mucocele may rupture and produce a potentially fatal entity known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. In this paper, we report a case of an 80-year-old man with necrotizing fasciitis arising from an enterocutaneous fistula caused by AM.

  8. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  9. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.H. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    These Appendices describe various technologies that may be applicable to the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (MWTP) Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). These technologies were identified by the CPTS Technical Support Group (TSG) as potentially applicable to a variety of separation, volume reduction, and decontamination requirements. The purpose was to identify all available and developing technologies, and their characteristics, for subsequent evaluation for specific requirements identified for the CPTS. However, the technologies described herein are not necessarily all inclusive, nor are they necessarily all applicable.

  10. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Vanessa Nielsen-Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as w...

  11. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Volume 2. Appendices A-M. Cannon AFB, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    VOLUME 2-APPENDICES A-M CANNON AFB, NEW MEXICO 88103 RADIAN CORPORATION 8501 MO-PAC BLVD. RO. BOX 9948 AUSTIN, TEXAS 78766 September 1986 FINAL REPORT FOR...QUANTIFICATION STAGE 1 FINAL REPORT FOR CANNON APB, NEW MEXICO VOLUME 2. APPENDICES A-M HEADQUARTERS TACTICAL AIR COMMAND COMMAND SURGEON’S OFFICE (HQ TAC...C. 0~ 0 -E 0 < a. c- C L CL C L C -a CD F- c - -4 c 0 0 =3-L44 0 - C - a- L a. a _ C. a - ZEE L.j "N nU - c -C r) -n -- --.----- 01 -) I <i z < "U ca

  12. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  13. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  14. The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.Received: 04.06.2012Accepted: 13.07.2012

  15. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Weerd, van J.H.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher

  16. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue distr

  17. Laparoscopic Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC in Patients with Limited Pseudomyxoma Peritonei of Appendiceal Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Jesus; Averbach, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Increasing numbers of patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) of appendiceal origin are being evaluated with a low tumor burden. We explored a minimally invasive approach for this group of patients. Materials and Methods. We designed a protocol in which patients with a PMP diagnosis would have a diagnostic laparoscopy. If limited carcinomatosis (PCI ≤ 10) is identified, the procedure will continue laparoscopically. If extensive carcinomatosis (PCI > 10) is found, then the procedure will be converted to an open approach. Results. From December 2008 to December 2011, 19 patients had a complete cytoreduction and HIPEC: 18 of them (95%) were done laparoscopically and 1 of them (5%) was converted to an open procedure. Mean PCI was 4.2. Grade 3 morbidity was 0, and one patient (5%) experienced a grade 4 complication, needing a reoperation for an internal hernia. There were no mortalities. Mean length of hospital stay was 5.3 days. At a mean follow-up of 17 months (1-37) all 19 patients are alive and free of disease. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC via the laparoscopic route is feasible and safe and should be offered to patients with limited pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin.

  18. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  19. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  20. Appendiceal pus in a hernia sac simulating strangulated femoral hernia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tien-Fa; Chou, Yenn-Hwei

    2011-03-23

    Acute appendicitis involving the hernia sac is infrequent but well-documented in medical literature. In most instances, it occurs within the right inguinal (Amyand's hernia) or right femoral hernia (de Garengeot hernia). The diagnosis is always mistaken for incarcerated groin hernia. During surgery, the appendix itself, either perforated or strangulated, is most commonly encountered within the hernia sac. In very rare occasions, only appendiceal pus is found in the hernia sac. In this paper, we report the case of a 90-year-old woman with acute appendicitis and a tender mass in the right groin. Typical findings of acute appendicitis by computed tomography (CT) and incarcerated femoral hernia with groin cellulitis misled us into preoperative diagnosis of strangulated femoral hernia. Acute phlegmonous inflammation of the incarcerated femoral hernia sac containing pus only and acute suppurative appendicitis were found intraoperatively. This case presents a rare complication of acute appendicitis and the first report of CT-documented appendiceal pus-contained femoral hernia. Knowledge of this rare condition is helpful in establishing preoperative diagnosis and patient management decisions.

  1. Costa Rica's 'White legend': how racial narratives undermine its health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Meagher, Karen

    2011-08-01

    A dominant cultural narrative within Costa Rica describes Costa Ricans not only as different from their Central American neighbours, but it also exalts them as better: specifically, as more white, peaceful, egalitarian and democratic. This notion of Costa Rican exceptionalism played a key role in the creation of their health care system, which is based on the four core principles of equity, universality, solidarity and obligation. While the political justification and design of the current health care system does, in part, realize this ideal, we argue that the narrative of Costa Rican exceptionalism prevents the full actualization of these principles by marginalizing and excluding disadvantaged groups, especially indigenous and black citizens and the substantial Nicaraguan minority. We offer three suggestions to mitigate the self-undermining effects of the dominant national narrative: 1) encouragement and development of counternarratives; 2) support of an emerging field of Costa Rican bioethics; and 3) decoupling health and national successes.

  2. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  3. Determinantes de la fecundidad masculina en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes Castro, Abelardo; González Ortega, Alfonso; Sandoval Aguilar, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Utilizando datos derivados de una encuesta realizada en 1980 a nivel nacional. se ponen a prueba hipótesis rivales derivadas de la teoría de la modernización y la teoría de la heterogeneidad estructural. El propósito de esta contestación es determinar cuál de estos enfoques es más valido para explicar el descenso que se dio en los niveles de fecundidad en Costa Rica a partir de la década de 1960. Después de revisar la literatura pertinente, se construye un modelo explicativo que ...

  4. Origen de los manantiales de la Costa Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Rubén; Montoya, Modesto; Mamani, Enoc; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Maguiña, José; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo trata de determinar el origen los manantiales de la playa Costa Verde, situada en los distritos de Barranco, Miraflores y Magdalena de la provincia de Lima, Perú. Esos manantiales, cerca y a nivel del mar, sobreviven al proceso de urbanización de los terrenos de cultivo, iniciado en la década de los años 70, el que mermó el nivel freático del acuífero de Lima e hizo desaparecer las filtraciones de agua en los acantilados. Para identificar el origen se ha efectuado análisis isotóp...

  5. Hispines (chrysomelidae, cassidinae) of la selva biological station, costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Survey work from 1992-2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7%) followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%). The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3%) of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, Alurnus salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni.

  6. Analysis of the solid waste management of Guacimo, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rooel; Soto-Córdoba, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper its shows the results about the analysis of the solid waste management in the “Municipalidad of Guacimo” located in Limón, Costa Rica. The Municipalidad of Guacimo doesn’t have the basic records and enough information that is necessary for improve the management of the solid waste. Because of that, this investigation provides the inputs for begin to design the solid waste management for the Municipalidad of Guacimo. We search quotes bibliographic about the situation and ...

  7. El contrato de leasing financiero en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    La palabra leasing se ha ido introduciendo en el mundo de los negocios y de la producción en Costa Rica. Aunque se le ha querido asociar con algunas de las formas típicas de contratación existentes, como el arrendamiento, lo cierto es que el contrato leasing es una forma atípica de contratación, formando parte de los nuevos y  modernos contratos del mundo globalizado. Entre los beneficios que se le atribuyen están el de la posibilidad de adquirir bienes que en algunos casos no son financiable...

  8. Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica (1966-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fonseca, J; Cubero-Pardo, P

    2001-06-01

    Cetacean strandings in Costa Rica are reported for a period of 33 years, with a total of 35 strandings, 13 species and 247 individuals involved. The vast majority of documented strandings occurred on the Pacific coast and correspond to single individuals (32 and 28 strandings respectively). The highest stranding number was in the period from 1990 to 1999 (n = 24). Physeter catodon (cachalot or sperm whale) is the species with the highest frequency of strandings (n = 8) and the family Delphinidae has the majority of species (n = 8) and strandings (n = 22). No other general tendencies were determined with the existing data.

  9. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Llorca Castro; Vicente Ortún Rubio

    2010-01-01

    Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE) para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. M...

  10. Teatina-Quincha Shelter: Desierto costa sur, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Este refugio aborda un punto central en la discusión sobre la arquitectura para la emergencia: ¿cómo articular una solución temporal con sus repercusiones en el largo plazo? Cercano a las maisons murondins de Le Corbusier y aprovechando mano de obra y el clima seco de la costa peruana, esta estructura de bambú tejido y barro provee un albergue transitorio que mejora las condiciones de una tienda de campaña pero mantiene su ligereza. El uso de materiales orgánicos facilita la reutilización de ...

  11. An Improved Scalar Costa Scheme Based on Watson Perceptual Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Kai-yue; CHEN Jian-bo; ZHOU Yi

    2008-01-01

    An improved scalar Costa scheme (SCS) was proposed by using improved Watson perceptual model to adaptively decide quantization step size and scaling factor. The improved scheme equals to embed hiding data based on an actual image. In order to withstand amplitude scaling attack, the Watson perceptual model was redefined, and the improved scheme using the new definition can insure quantization step size in decoder that is proportional to amplitude scaling attack factor. The performance of the improved scheme outperforms that of SCS with fixed quantization step size. The improved scheme combines information theory and visual model.

  12. Effectiveness of the Costa Rican Central Bank forex intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Espinoza Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an empirical approach to assess the effectiveness of foreign exchange interventions following the criteria by K. Domínguez (1998 using a GARCH model based on the work by C. Broto (2012. Analyses are conducted to evaluate the FOREX rules of intervention followed by the BCCR, and the probability of occurrence of an intervention is estimated using a LOGIT model.  In addition, the paper attempts to analyze what happened to the exchange arrangements applied in Costa Rica as a result of the 2006 exchange rate flexibility and transition to inflation targets.

  13. Miasis gastrointestinal por Eristalis tenax en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Barquero, Ángelo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Las miasis gastrointestinales son infestaciones poco frecuentes y de difícil identificación por su sintomatología inespecífica y por requerir la expulsión de las larvas para hacer un diagnóstico certero. Se presenta el primer caso reportado de miasis gastrointestinal por Eristalis tenax en Costa Rica. La paciente es una mujer de 45 años, que reside en una zona rural con problemas de abastecimiento de agua potable. Presenta un cuadro de diarrea crónica, dolor abdominal, y sensación de cuerpo e...

  14. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  15. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  16. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

  17. Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Volume I. Introduction, technical summaries, list of publications, etc. , Appendices A-K. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, R. E.; Byrne, R. N.; Catto, P. J.

    1979-12-01

    An abstract was prepared for the progress summary on transport theory for open and closed magnetic configurations. Seven abstracts were prepared for included appendices of more detailed work on individual devices. Also included is a list of publications, technical presentations, and DOE program contributions. (MOW)

  18. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 8 of the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) presents technical data with the emphasis on district heating pipes, heat losses, prices, retrofitting, economics, costs and heat load duration. (ARW)

  19. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices E through H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of maps showing lineaments perceived across the state; an index and critique of the Landsat images used in perceiving the lineaments; a selected bibliography on lineaments; and a discussion of area-specific assessments of geothermal resources near military bases in Bexar, Travis, and Val Verde Counties. (MHR)

  20. Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena (PNMB, en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica, mediante tres transectos por sitio, de 10 m de largo cada uno y paralelos a la costa, utilizando una cuadrícula de 1 m2. Se encontró un total de 15 especies de corales (11 hermatípicas y 4 ahermatípicas, las que sumadas a informes previos para el parque hacen un total de 18 especies. El coral Porites lobata presentó la mayor cobertura coralina (36.5 ± 3.7% y fue el único presente en todos los sitios. Las otras especies de coral presentaron bajas coberturas (<10% y sólo fueron observadas en pocos sitios. El porcentaje de coral muerto fue de 1.8 ± 0.6% y el porcentaje de blanqueamiento (0.7 ± 0.2% está dado por P. lobata en un solo sitio. El PNMB y la Isla del Caño poseen el mayor número de especies de coral (18 especies de la región sur de Costa Rica; sin embargo, difieren en su composición. La baja diversidad y la baja cobertura coralina de varios sitios del parque se atribuyen al impacto del fenómeno de El Niño en los últimos años, a la sedimentación y a la dilución de las aguas en época de lluvias. Se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un monitoreo a largo plazo sobre estos ecosistemas y determinar futuras estrategias de manejo y conservación.

  1. Estado actual de la leishmaniosis en Costa Rica Current status of Leishmaniosis in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo-Antillón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó esta investigación, para conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico de esta enfermedad, los vectores relacionados y las especies de leishmanias causantes. Métodos: fuentes de información fueron los boletines epidemiológicos del Ministerio de Salud del 2001 al 2007 y el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos. Se calcularon tasas de incidencia por sexo, grupos de edad, provincia y cantón. Las tasas del último trienio se compararon con una investigación que describe la situación epidemiológica de 1973 a 1975, para identificar cambios epidemiológicos de la enfermedad. La revisión bibliográfica permitió describir las formas clínicas y la distribución geográfica de los vectores que la ocasionan. Resultados y conclusión: la incidencia aumentó de 10,5 del 2001 a 40,7 x100.000 habitantes en el 2007. Los menores de 19 años fueron los más afectados. Talamanca presentó la mayor incidencia cantonal. El agente etiológico más frecuente de la leishmaniosis cutánea es la Leishmania (Viannia panamensis, aunque también existe la L. (V. braziliensis. Los mosquitos trasmisores fueron Lutzomyia ylephiletor y L. trapidoi. Los reservorios del parásito son los perezosos: Bradypus griseus y Choloepus hoffmanni y un roedor Heteromys desmarestianus. Existe también la leishmaniosis cutánea atípica, producida por Leishmania infantum (= Leishmania chagasi, productora responsable de un caso de leishmaniosis visceral. L.longipalpis, esta asociada a la transmisión de estas dos últimas formas de leishmaniosis. Debe entrenarse al personal de salud, en la detección de esta enfermedad, y educar a la población.Justification and aim: We conducted an investigation to study the epidemiological behavior of the disease, its related vectors and the species that cause leishmania. Methods: As sources of information we used epidemiological bulletins from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health covering the years 2001 to 2007 and also those from the

  2. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  3. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S Wehrtmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as well as Solenocera agassizii, the latter one being the most important in terms of annual landings. Here we compile the information available from Costa Rica about each of the three target species. Furthermore, we describe research activities related to the Costa Rican deepwater resources and present available data about by-catch and discards in this fishery. Finally, the current situation of the administration and management of these resources in Costa Rica is described. Strengthening collaboration between governmental agencies, the fishery sector, non-governmental organizations, and the academic sector is recommended to avoid an uncontrolled overfishing of these valuable deepwater resources along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.Las capturas globales de los recursos marinos pesqueros disminuyeron durante las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, se ha observado una tendencia de aumento en la explotación de los recursos de aguas profundas, los cuales son especialmente vulnerables a la extracción. Esta tendencia ha sido notable también en la pesca a lo largo del Pacífico de Latino América. En Costa Rica, la mayoría de las actividades pesqueras comerciales se concentran en la costa del Pacífico. Las especies objetivo de la pesca de aguas profundas en Costa Rica son los dos pandálidos Heterocarpus affinis y H vicarius así como Solenocera agassizii, siendo esta última la más importante respecto a las capturas anuales. Se compila la información disponible

  4. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; differences by gender are also analyzed. Based on an ex post facto design, a standardized instrument was used to measure five types of aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal-emotional, physical, sexual, relational and threats in a sample of 468 adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica. Results show that most participants had committed or suffered aggressions in dating relationships, especially verbal-emotional or both verbal-emotional and sexual abuse, but the mean frequency of reported aggression was low; some significant intersex differences were also found. Results obtained indicate that adolescents have difficulties to deal with conflicts in their romantic relationship; thus this problem needs to be addressed holistically in order to increase the impact of prevention programs for youth.

  5. Labor force growth and the environment in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, D G; Rodriguez, A G; Shortle, J S

    1998-10-01

    The introduction to this report of a study that examines the potential environmental impacts of labor force growth (LFG) in Costa Rica under LFG scenarios notes that LFG is an economically critical aspect of population growth that can affect the environment by expanding the economy's production possibilities frontier and/or by increasing consumption. The introduction also explains why Costa Rica is ideal for this study and identifies the study as unique because it constructs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model using 10 environmental indicators and because it models uncertainty regarding the values of the economic parameters. The report continues by reviewing the literature linking population and environmental issues; detailing the CGE model; discussing the 10 environmental indicators (deforestation, erosion, pesticide use, overfishing, hazardous wastes, inorganic wastes, organic wastes, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water/sewer usage) used in the model; and explaining the method used to simulate the impacts of LFG. The major conclusions that emerged from the results of this study are that 1) the economy-wide impacts of LFG (and, thus, population growth) on the environment are important and vary significantly according to the amounts of physical and human capital present in the labor force and 2) the impacts of LFG vary substantially among environmental indicators.

  6. LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA EN TRÁNSITO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Badilla Saxe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM ("todo", "entero", "universal" superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.

  7. Box-Jenkins analysis for shark landings in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Roger; Chavarría, Juan B

    2004-12-01

    Sharks are highly vulnerable to intense and prolonged fishery extraction. This article analyzes the data on shark landings from the artisan fishing fleet on Costa Rica's Pacific coast between 1988 and 1997. The data come from an invoicing system administered by the Costa Rican Fisheries Institute (Instituto Costarricense de la Pesca y Acuacultura, INCOPESCA). Pacific coast shark fishing during the period under study represented approximately 20% of the total national fisheries volume. According to data from the invoicing system, the Northern Pacific region was the most productive, reporting 58% of the shark catch nationwide. Within this region, shark fishing in Papagayo Gulf represented 91% and 53% of the landings by fishery region and nationwide, respectively. The mid-sized and advanced (length of boat > 10 meters) artisan fishing fleets reported 96% of the shark catches in the zone. The study of shark fisheries in the Papagayo Gulf zone is crucial for an understanding of fishery dynamics for this resource at the national level. A monthly chronological series was constructed with the landings in the Papagayo Gulf zone, and a Univariate Box-Jenkins (UBJ) Model was estimated for first-order moving averages MA(1) with a seasonal component of the Yt = lamda(t-1) + gammaS12 + a(t) type.

  8. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  9. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: “Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable” La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos mayores que poseen un diagnóstico previo de hipercolesterolemia, el 68% resultó con niveles de colesterol total de 200 mg/dl o más en las mediciones del estudio. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. La diferencia resultó significativa. Los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia son el ser hombre, el tener diagnóstico de diabetes e hipertensión, la actividad física y tomar medicamentos para controlar el nivel lipídico. La interacción entre medicamentos no resultó significativa en el estudio.

  10. Workplace carcinogen and pesticide exposures in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Timo; Chaves, Jorge; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Aragón, Aurora; Kogevinas, Manolis; Hogstedt, Christer; Kauppinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    The CAREX data system converts national workforce volumes and proportions of workers exposed to workplace carcinogens into numbers of exposed in 55 industrial categories. CAREX was adapted for Costa Rica for 27 carcinogens and seven groups of pesticides. Widespread workplace carcinogens in the 1.3 million workforce of Costa Rica are solar radiation (333,000 workers), diesel engine exhaust (278,000), environmental tobacco smoke (71,000), hexavalent chromium compounds (55,000), benzene (52,000), wood dust (32,000), silica dust (27,000), lead and inorganic lead compounds (19,000), and polycyclic aromatic compounds (17,000). The most ubiquitous pesticides were paraquat and diquat (175,000), mancozeb, maneb, and zineb (49,000), chlorothalonil (38,000), benomyl (19,000), and chlorophenoxy herbicides (11,000). Among women, formaldehyde, radon, and methylene chloride overrode pesticides, chromium, wood dust, and silica dust in numbers of exposed. High-risk sectors included agriculture, construction, personal and household services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, woodworks, mining, forestry and logging, fishing, manufacturing of electrical machinery, and bar and restaurant personnel.

  11. La maestra Alda Costa: un mártir antifascista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cagnolati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un sector interesante al que aplicar nuevas categorías de la investigación histórica y social es, sin duda, el de la educación de las mujeres. Maestras, educadoras, pedagogas fueron revolucionarias en diversas épocas de la historia dedicando su existencia a la difusión de conocimientos que pudiesen ser aprovechados por otras mujeres. Para ello fundaron escuelas, escribieron libros y publicaron periódicos. En este sentido las maestras socialistas italianas fueron pioneras al difundir palabras claves como derechos, democracia e igualdad de sueldo. Una figura muy importante fue la maestra antifascista Alda Costa (1876-1944, que luchó contra el militarismo italiano antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial y asumió encargos de gran relevancia en el Partido Socialista. Además fue amiga de Giacomo Matteotti, asesinado por los fascistas en Roma en junio de 1925. Alda Costa fue encarcelada, por su oposición al régimen, y los sufrimientos padecidos precipitaron su muerte.

  12. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  13. Prevalencia de Hipercolesterolemia en adultos mayores de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguilar Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo el estudio de la prevalencia de la hipercolesterolemia (con y sin diagnóstico previo en adultos mayores de Costa Rica e identificar los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia dado que se tiene un diagnóstico previo. Los datos sometidos a estudio provienen de una muestra nacional del proyecto CRELES: "Costa Rica. Estudio de Longevidad y Envejecimiento Saludable" La prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia es de 59,5%. Dentro de los 890 adultos mayores que poseen un diagnóstico previo de hipercolesterolemia, el 68% resultó con niveles de colesterol total de 200 mg/dl o más en las mediciones del estudio. La prevalencia es mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres. La diferencia resultó significativa. Los factores asociados con el control de la hipercolesterolemia son el ser hombre, el tener diagnóstico de diabetes e hipertensión, la actividad física y tomar medicamentos para controlar el nivel lipídico. La interacción entremedicamentos no resultó significativa en el estudio.

  14. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  15. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  16. Colonoscopic diagnosis of appendiceal intussusception in a patient with intermittent abdominal pain: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Tavakkoli; Sayed Mohammad Sadrkabir; Parvin Mahzouni

    2007-01-01

    Intussusception of the appendix is a rare condition.Most cases are diagnosed during operation of the patients suspected to have appendicitis. In this report we present a seventy one year-old man with a history of periumbilical intermittent abdominal pain for several months. None of the paraclinical tests were useful for determining the diagnosis. Colonoscopy performed during the last episode of abdominal pain revealed the prolapsed appendix in the cecum and the patient was sent to the operating room. Macroscopic appearance of the appendix was normal and microscopic examination revealed follicular hyperplasia and acute focal appendicitis. Appendiceal intussusception should be considered in differential diagnosis of intermittent abdominal pain and colonoscopic diagnosis could be very important to avoid dangerous or unnecessary decision making.

  17. [Appendiceal orifice inflammation in distal ulcerative colitis. Report of a case and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Martin; Scavino, Yolanda; Luna, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with an 18 month diagnosis of distal ulcerative colitis (proctosigmoiditis) of 18 months, who presented initially with allergy to salicylates, for which the disease was managed with corticosteroids and azathioprine and subsequently with Infliximab infusions, entering in remission. When she was about to receive her fifth Infliximab infusion she presented an exacerbation of her underlying disease with frequent stools with mucus, blood and tenesmus. Given that her initial diagnosis was made with a sigmoidoscopy we scheduled a total colonoscopy showing marked inflammation, erythema and friability limited to the recto-sigmoid mucosa, like at the disease onset, and when we reached the cecum an erythematous area circumscribed to the appendiceal orifice was observed, with a mucosal aspect identical to the described for the recto-sigmoid mucosa. The biopsies taken from that area were compatible with ulcerative colitis. We herein describe the details of the case and review the literature.

  18. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Part 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The appendices to Volume I of the report are contained in this document.

  19. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report: 1993. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Glines, W.M.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1994-09-01

    This report is comprised of appendices which support monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during 1993. Appendix A contains onsite Pu-238, gross beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides in air. Appendix B contains onsite tritium in air. Appendix C contains onsite Pu-238, Sr-90, gross alpha and beta, gamma-emitting radionuclides, Ra-226, Ra-228 and tritium in water. A summary of 1993 results of offsite radiological monitoring is included in Appendix D. Appendix E contains radioactive noble gases in air onsite. Appendix F contains onsite thermoluminescent dosimeter data. Historical trends in onsite thermoluminescent dosimeter data are contained in Appendix G. Appendix H summarizes 1993 compliance at the DOE/NV NTS and non-NTS facilities. Appendix I summarizes the 1993 results of non radiological monitoring.

  20. Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) annual progress report, 1992--1993. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-15

    This report contains the following appendices: Appendix A - Requirements for Undergraduate Level; Appendix B - Requirements for Graduate Level; Appendix C - Graduate Degree In Environmental Engineeringat New Mexico State University; Appendix D - Non-degree Certificate program; Appendix E - Curriculum for Associate Degree Program in Radioactive & Hazardous Waste Materials; Appendix F - Curriculum for NCC Program in Earth & Environmental Sciences; Appendix G - Brochure of 1992 Teleconference Series; Appendix H - Sites for Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Management Series; Appendix I - WERC Interactive Television Courses; Appendix J - WERC Research Seminar Series Brochures; Appendix K - Summary of Technology Development of the Third Year; Appendix L - List of Major Publications Resulting From WERC; Appendix M - Types of Equipment at WERC Laboratories; and Appendix N - WERC Newsletter Examples.

  1. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.

    1993-04-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  2. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ney Meziat Filho; Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTA...

  3. Problemas fitosanitarios del ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El ciprés (Cupressus lusitanica Mill) es una especie forestal introducida en Costa Rica, utilizada para madera de construcción, como cortina rompevientos, para árboles de navidad, etc. En las bases de datos del Laboratorio de Protección Forestal del Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, se informa que en Costa Rica, hasta el año 2008, se reportan 28 agentes causales que provocan daños en ciprés, de los cuales 14 son insectos (50%), 11 patógenos (39%) y 3 vertebrados (11%). El 32% de los daños ...

  4. Myth, Gender and Enterprise: Three Foundational Images of Costa Rican Contemporary Drama

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article describes three fragmentary images on the origin of the Costa Rican drama from a contemporary point of view. Through these images it is shown that the Costa Rican theater lacks a native mythology, that female production comes late in its history, and that the Costa Rican theater emerges more as a political  and a entertainment necessity, than in relation to the development of the national dramatic literature. Se presenta en este artículo tres imágenes fragmentarias sobre el or...

  5. ON THE IDENTITY OF SCUTIGERA VESUVIANA [O. G. COSTA], 1839 (Chilopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zapparoli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new synonymy “Scutigera Vesuviana” [O. G. Costa], 1839 = Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758 syn. nov. is proposed. “Lithobius vesuvianus”, a name erroneously attributed to Achille instead of Oronzio Gabriele Costa and by the authors of a species named but never described different from “Scutigera Vesuviana” [O. G. Costa], 1839, is equated to this latter. The few records of “Scutigera Vesuviana” quoted by the authors after the original description, critically revised, must be referred to Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758.

  6. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: an uncertain nosological entity. Report of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGRUSA, A.; ROMANO, G.; GALIA, M.; CUCINELLA, G.; SORCE, V.; DI BUONO, G.; GULOTTA, L.; AGNELLO, F.; AMATO, G.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Appendiceal mucocele is a relatively rare condition characterized by progressive dilation of the appendix caused by intra-luminal accumulation of mucoid substance. Its incidence is 0.07 – 0,63% of all appendectomies performed. Case report We report the case of a 70-year-old man who came to our observation with gravative pain in right lower abdominal region. A computed tomography abdominal scan revealed a cystic/tubular structure like an appendicular mass with wall enhancement but without calcifications suggestive of a mucocele. Into peritoneal cavity we found profuse mucinous material with a 1,5 cm size parietal nodule. We also identified a free perforation of the cecum with consensual spillage of gelatinous material mimicking a pseudomyxoma peritonei. We decided to perform a right hemicolectomy with excision of peritoneal lesion. Discussion The controversy in the pathologic terminology can give rise to a clinical dilemma in terms of the management and follow-up plans. For mucosal hyperplasia and cystadenoma simple appendectomy is curative. Only in case of large base of implantation it may be necessary the resection of the ileum and caecum or right hemicolectomy. In case of mucinous cystoadenocarcinoma authors perform a right hemicolectomy. Conclusion Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms are different pathological entities. The correct surgical management depends on size and location of lesion. A preoperative diagnosis is obviously needed in order to perform the correct treatment. CT abdominal scan is the better diagnostic tool, but different authors show their inability to reach a preoperative diagnosis in the larger majority of cases. PMID:27381696

  7. Primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma alongside with situs inversus totalis: a unique clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelou Konstantinos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and one of the three major histological subtypes of the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. The most common type of presentation is that of acute appendicitis and the diagnosis is usually occurred after appendectomy. The accurate preoperative diagnosis and management of the above condition represents a real challenge when uncommon anatomic anomalies such intestinal malrotation and situs inversus take place. Situs inversus totalis with an incidence of 0.01% is an uncommon condition caused by a single autosomal recessive gene of incomplete penetration in which the major visceral organs are mirrored from their normal positions. Case presentation We present an unusual case of a 59 years old, previously healthy man presented with a left lower quadrant abdominal pain, accompanied with low fever, leukocytosis, anorexia and constipation. A chest radiograph demonstrated dextrocardia with a right side positioned stomach bubble. Both preoperative US and CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis declared situs inversus, with a characteristic thickening in its wall, appendix situated in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. These findings reached to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with situs inversus and a standard appendicectomy was performed. Pathologic evaluation established primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and three months afterwards the patient underwent a subsequent extended left hemicolectomy. Conclusion In conclusion, the occurrence of primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma along with situs inversus, definitely accounts as a unique clinical case. Even synchronous manifestation of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anatomo-pathological entity, all physicians should be familiar having the knowledge to make an appropriate and accurate diagnosis that will lead to prompt and correct

  8. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.

  9. Solar production of industrial process steam ranging in temperature from 300/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F (Phase I). Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) equipment requisitions, (2) instrument list, (3) mechanical subcontract requisition, (4) electrical subcontract requisition, (5) site preparation and subcontract requisition, (6) building subcontract requisition, and (7) job specifications. (MOW)

  10. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuicios sobre las víctimas en la sociedad. Se explora el hecho de que la información sobre este fenómeno en Costa Rica es escasa y el abordaje psicológico lo es aún más. La investigación tiene sus bases en la metodología cualitativa descriptiva; se propone un diseño fenomenológico que parte de la teoría humanista del Análisis Transaccional de Berne (1976 para efectuar estudio múltiple de casos. La muestra estuvo constituida por un grupo de cinco mujeres, que se encontraron en proceso de restauración en la ONG bajo las categorías de análisis “Trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial nacional” (dentro de Costa Rica, “Avasallamientos” y “Desarrollo personal”. Los resultados identificaron avasallamientos, a los que fueron sometidas las mujeres de esta muestra, antes, durante y después de ser captadas en la trata. Asimismo, se analiza cómo el desarrollo de las mujeres víctimas de trata en este estudio se ve obstaculizado por dichos avasallamientos y cómo algunas lograron obtener el crecimiento personal a pesar de lo sucedido.

  11. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  12. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast

  13. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  14. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  15. Productive chains in Costa Rica: an application from data matrix input-output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2016-05-01

    Results confirm not only the consolidation process experienced by the activities and products related to the services sector as a motor of the Costa Rican economic activity, but also the idea that these activities generate the highest forward linkages.

  16. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  17. Natural history of whitefly in Costa Rica: an evolutionary starting point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.M.S.; Gort, G.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. To understand evolution of foraging behaviour in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), natural densities and distributions of whitefly (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) were quantified in E. formosa's presumed area of origin, the Neotropics. 2. Leaves were collected in Costa

  18. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  19. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector.  A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.

  20. [Variation of thermohaline properties in the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C L; Léon, S; Chaves, J

    2001-12-01

    The time-space behavior of thermohaline properties of the water masses in the Gulf of Nicoya, a tropical estuary in the Costa Rican Pacific coast, was studied by sampling monthly from April 1992 to April 1993. The saline field has a seasonal maximum during April, a month before the maximum temperature is observed. Minimun values were observed during October and November, in the rainy season. A defined surface saline front is located towards the east of Negritos Islands; it is produced by the interaction of freshwater from the Tarcoles River and the oceanic waters that enter through the occidental coast of the gulf. The vertical distribution of temperature and salinity indicates a gulf whose internal area is highly stratified in the rainy season, and much less stratified, or even well mixed in the dry season. The outer area of the Gulf is stratified throughout the year.

  1. Emission inventory of criteria pollutants Costa Rica in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criteria pollutant emissions were determined in Costa Rica in 2011, from the application of emission factors, measurement sources, the application of mechanistic models and material balance. A total of 1,898,591 tons of criteria pollutants which were recorded, mobile sources are the main contributions with nearly 61%, followed by the area and stationary sources, with 21 and 18 % respectively. The most abundant pollutant in weight, anthropogenically generated during 2011 was the carbon monoxide ( CO , issuing into the atmosphere about 856 264 tonnes per year, mainly for mobile sources; next in order of importance emissions of total organic gases (GOT with more than 434 777 tonnes per year, with mobile sources which generate 40 %.

  2. El envejecimiento en Costa Rica: una perspectiva actual y futura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morales-Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo es descriptivo sobre el envejecimiento en su definición, alcances demográficos, organizativos, red de cuido y perspectivas de la realidad actual y futura en la que está inmersa Costa Rica, como un fenómeno poblacional explosivo, dadas sus altas esperanzas de vida, especialmente en el grupo poblacional de 80 y más. Se analiza el estado actual de la Red de Atención Integral a la Persona Adulta Mayor dentro de la Seguridad Social, así como acciones por realizar de parte de las diferentes instancias públicas y privadas, tomando muy en cuenta su integralidad. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre las necesidades inminentes que planteará una población envejecida, y las estrategias para enfrentarlas adecuadamente.

  3. SEX DETERMINATION IN DACTYLOPIUS COCCUS COSTA (HEMIPTERA: DACTYLOPIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The coccids have different sex-determining mechanisms, including the heterochromatinization haplodiploidy of chromosomes of paternal origin, characteristic of the family Dactylopiidae. The heterochromatinization in coccids seems to be a mechanism by which part of a chromosome, the entire chromosome, or several chromosomes will become genetically inactive during development of the individual. In the first division immediately after fertilization, the chromosomes of embryos appear euchromatic (E; shortly after the blastocyst stage, almost half of the chromosomes become heterochromatic (H in embryos that are destined to be male, while in the female all the chromosomic set remain euchromatic. The objective of this study is to determine the heterochromatinization process in the sex determination of Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1935 embryos. The method used to identify chromosomes has been the conventional 2% lacto-acetic orcein protocol. In D. coccus it was observed that during embryogenesis, heterochromatinization occurs in the set of chromosomes from paternal origin, while those of maternal origin remain euchromatic.

  4. Recent surface marine sediments of Cocos Island in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey A. SIBAJA-CORDERO; Jess S. TRONCOSO; Eddy GMEZ-RAMREZ

    2014-01-01

    Subtidal sediments of Isla del Coco (Cocos Island), Costa Rica were described in their grain size, sorting, organic matter, and carbonates from 27 dredge samples (3-75 m), collected in April 2010. The organic matter range between 1.37-3.31% and carbonates presented a mean of 74±17%. The sorting was moderately or poorly. The grain size ranged between 0.1-1.1mm. The pattern is that sediment change from inner to mouth of bays. Carbonates and gravel fractions increased offshore and organic matter have high values inner the bays. Input of vegetal debris and mud was from the rivers of this island covered with rain and cloud forest.

  5. Health care in Costa Rica: boom and crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Lago, C

    1985-01-01

    In 1960-1980 Costa Rica experienced a health boom, achieving significant improvements which moved that country into the number two position in Latin America for indicators such as population coverage, infant mortality, life expectancy and health services. In addition, there was a gradual process of integration of health services. But in the same period, the cost of health care as a percentage of GNP increased almost 5-fold and in 1980 was the fourth highest in the region. The economic crisis of the 1980s aggravated the financial difficulties; to cope with them, the government introduced an austere program to reduce costs and plans to transform the current model of health care into a more efficient one capable of maintaining Costa Rica's high health standards in the future. The paper is divided into five sections: summary of the historical development of health care, and description of its current organization and of its gradual process of integration; estimation of population coverage and its trends, evaluation of inequalities in coverage, and identification of the non-covered group; analysis of health-care financing and its sources, as well of the recent financial desequilibrium, its causes and measures to restore the equilibrium; description of health care benefits and their differences among groups and regions, analysis of the country's advances in health-care facilities and standards, and measurement of the impact of the health care system in income distribution; and description of the rising cost of health care and the current crisis, analysis of the causes of both phenomena, and review of the measures that have been and should be implemented to solve these problems.

  6. [Nutritional anemia in nursing women in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A; Rodríguez, S; Cunningham, L

    2003-03-01

    It is reported the prevalence, magnitude and determinant factors of nutritional anaemia in a sample of nursing women (NW), collected during the National Nutrition Survey, of Costa Rica done in 1996. Nutritional anaemia was determinate through measurements of haemoglobin, and plasma ferritin, folates, cianocobalamin and retinol. Methodologies used were cianometahaemoglobin, solid phase immunoradiometric assay, solid phase radioimmunoassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography. WHO cut-off points were used. Anaemia was present in 22.1% of the women. Iron and folate deficiency were found in 48.7 and 84.2% NW, respectively. The magnitude of anaemia was mild and iron and folate deficiencies were severe. Vitamin B12 and A deficiencies were 5.3 and 4.9%, respectively and did not represent a public health problem in this group. Prevalent deficiency was mixed (iron and folates, 46.6%) followed by exclusive folates deficiency (32%). Anaemia was caused by a combined deficiency of iron and folates (61.1%) and most iron deficiencies were accompanied by folates (92%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low socio-economic level of NW and their families was the principal factor determining the appearance of nutritional anaemia, and educative interventions to the mother are possibly recommended. In conclusion anaemia in NW is a moderate health problem of nutritional type, that is more important when severe folates and iron deficiencies are present in Costa Rica. These problems have remained constant throughout the last three decades; although recently, possibly an improvement has occurred because the prevalence of neural tube defects in the infant population has reduced, maybe due to food iron and folates fortification public health policies implementation.

  7. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  8. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  9. Partitioning of Seismogenic Strain in the Offshore Costa Rica Forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Bilek, S.

    2002-12-01

    We examine non-recoverable strain in the offshore forearc crust between the Osa and Nicoya Peninsulas of Costa Rica. Treating the crust as a micropolar continuum we use new and published earthquake focal mechanisms to invert for best-fitting partial strain-rate tensors. Our preliminary results for new focal mechanisms west northwest of the Osa Peninsula indicate a shallow northwest-plunging maximum stretching axis and a subvertical minimum stretching axis. This strain geometry suggests thinning of the forearc and extension nearly parallel to the Middle America Trench. The earthquakes used to constrain this deformation geometry occurred at depths less than 5.1 kilometers in hanging wall crust adjacent to substantial topographic relief on the downgoing Cocos plate. To date evidence for trench-parallel stretching has only come from observations of brittle faults in coastal and inland exposures in Miocene sediments and Quaternary fluvial deposits. Our inversions of existing data from southeast of the Nicoya Peninsula yield results that are in accord with previous findings. Here, events ranging in depth between about 12 and 31 kilometers indicate nearly trench-normal shortening and crustal thickening. Earthquakes at similar depths just west northwest of the Osa Peninsula, however, reveal subhorizontal maximum and minimum stretching axes with the former trending south. This strain geometry is consistent with strike slip faulting and suggests partitioning of seismogenic strain with depth in the forearc offshore Osa Peninsula. In total, our findings suggest variations in the 3-dimensional pattern of non-recoverable strain in the Costa Rica forearc. A quantitative description of this sort of variation is necessary in order to better understand geodetic observations, and ultimately, the relation between coupling across the seismogenic zone and forearc strain.

  10. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  11. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Llorca Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. Mediante el empleo de el Indicador de Desarrollo Socioeconómico (IDSE establecido por economistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, previa estandarización de la población, se ordenaron los cantones en grupos por quintiles (I el más rico, Vel más pobre. Resultados: Se encontraron como causas principales de mortalidad MIPSE la enfermedad isquémica del corazón (19,55% causas MIPSE, accidentes de tránsito con vehículos a motor (11,60%, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (6,95%, perinatal (6,92% y suicidios (5,14%. Conclusión: La mortalidad por HIVy el Sida, el cáncer de mamá en mujeres, cáncer de cuerpo de útero, cáncer de piel y por hepatitis secundaria al consumo de alcohol, afectan más a los cantones con mayores ingresos. La mortalidad por hiperplasia benigna de próstata, la materna asociada al embarazo, parto o puerperio y la hernia abdominal afectan más a los de menor nivel económico. Se identificaron dos grupos de MIPSE con desigualdad equidistribuida: leucemia y enfermedades cardiovasculares congénitas.

  12. The ecological library science: a necessary change in Costa Rican libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Ugalde Víquez, Máster Aracelly; Vallejos Vásquez, Máster Sheily; Rodríguez Segura, Licda. Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This research is a novel knowledge about the library contribution because it proposes to create a new branch discipline the "green library". Analysis is a proposal from the college to address before the society and academia collective experience accumulated by the Costa Rican specialized libraries in these areas throughout their years of service and information management practices using front to the country's needs.Costa Rica is a country with a broad global recognition in the ecological the...

  13. El complejo de Campyloneurum angustifolium (Sw.) Fée (Polypodiaceae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Alvarado, Alexander Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Se analiza el complejo de Campyloneurum angustifolium en Costa Rica. Como resultado, se describe una nueva especie (C. gracile A.Rojas) y se ofrece un cuadro comparativo y una clave para el grupo.  The Campyloneurum angustifolium complex in Costa Rica is analyzed. As a result, a new species is described (C. gracile A.Rojas), a comparative table and a key are included for the group. 

  14. Role of bacterial and genetic factors in gastric cancer in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio A Con; Hiroaki Takeuchi; Gil R Con-Chin; Vicky G Con-Chin; Nobufumi Yasuda; Reinaldo Con-Wong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate several risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) in Costa Rican regions with contrasting GC incidence rate (GCIR). METHODS: According to GCIR, 191 Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)-positive patients were classified into groups A (high GCIR, n = 101) and B (low GCIR, n = 90). Human DNA obtained from biopsy specimens was used in the determination of polymorphisms of the genes coding for interleukin (IL)-1o play a major role in GCIR variability in Costa Rica.

  15. [The importance of genealogy applied to genetic research in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez Obando, Mauricio O

    2004-09-01

    The extensive development of genealogical studies based on archival documents has provided powerful support for genetic research in Costa Rica over the past quarter century. As a result, several questions of population history have been answered, such as those involving hereditary illnesses, suggesting additional avenues and questions as well. Similarly, the preservation of massive amounts of historical documentation highlights the major advantages that the Costa Rican population offers to genetic research.

  16. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  17. The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo S Wehrtmann; Nielsen Muñoz, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limonología (CIMAR), 2009 Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin America, too.In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coas...

  18. Primer aislamiento de Clostridium tetani a partir de suelos de la Meseta Central de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Evelyn; Gamboa, María del Mar; Fernández, Bernal

    2016-01-01

    Clínical evidence has long pointed to the existence of Clostridium tetani in Costa Rica. Thirty soil samples were studied for clostridia, and two yielded six strains of C. tetani, four of which proved to be toxigenic when mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with the culture supemates, These four isolates could be neutralized when their toxic supemates were admixed with tetanus antitoxin. Clínical evidence has long pointed to the existence of Clostridium tetani in Costa Rica. Thirty soil...

  19. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  20. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  1. Comment Hobbes tente de rendre son matérialisme acceptable dans les appendices du Léviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Staquet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Léviathan de Hobbes [1651] a subi de nombreuses attaques, au point qu’il est jugé responsable de la grande peste de 1665 et de l’incendie de Londres l’année suivante et que le parlement ouvre une procédure contre l’ouvrage. Aussi, lorsqu’en 1666, Thomas Hobbes veut publier la traduction latine de ce livre, il y adjoint trois appendices. La version latine de l’œuvre est généralement jugée plus acceptable que le texte originaire anglais. En étudiant la manière dont Hobbes traite de son matérialisme dans ces appendices, je tente de montrer que les addenda latins ne constituent en aucune manière un retour en arrière du texte, mais que le philosophe enrobe simplement davantage des propos que, par ailleurs, il rend plus radicaux.Hobbes’s Leviathan [1651] has been critiqued so much that it was held responsible for the Great Plague of 1665 and the Fire of London during the following year, resulting in the Parliament instituting proceedings against the book. Therefore, when in 1666 Thomas Hobbes wanted to publish a Latin translation of this book, he added three appendices. Generally, the Latin version of the work is considered more acceptable than the English original text. By studying how Hobbes deals with his materialism in these appendices, I try to show that the Latin additions are in no way a reversal of the text, but that the philosopher simply veiled more propositions, while at the same time making them more radical.

  2. Appendiceal diverticulitis in a femoral hernia causing necrotizing fasciitis of the right inguinal region: report of a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, G K; Bali, C; Theodorou, S J; Zioga, A; Fatouros, M

    2013-02-01

    De Garengeot's hernia--a rare finding occurring mostly in women--is defined by the presence of the vermiform appendix within the sac of a femoral hernia. The incidence of appendicitis is rarer still, with less than a 100 cases reported to date. We present a unique case of an 84-year-old male patient with perforated appendiceal diverticulitis within a De Garengeot's hernia causing abscess and necrotizing infection of the overlying soft tissues.

  3. Constellation Program (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) Independent Design Reliability Assessment. Volume 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This document contains the Appendices to the report documenting the activities, findings, and NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) recommendations of a multidiscipline team to independently assess the Constellation Program (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Parachute Assembly System (CPAS). The assessment occurred during a period of 15 noncontiguous months between December 2008 and April 2010, prior to the CPAS Project's Preliminary Design Review (PDR) in August 2010.

  4. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 5. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume V of the five-volume report consists of appendices, which provide supplementary information, with emphasis on characteristics of geologic formations that might be used for final storage or disposal. Appendix titles are: selected glossary; conversion factors; geologic isolation, including, (a) site selection factors for repositories of wastes in geologic media, (b) rock types--geologic occurrence, (c) glossary of geohydrologic terms, and (d) 217 references; the ocean floor; and, government regulations pertaining to the management of radioactive materials. (JGB)

  5. Estudio de la estacionalidad del dengue en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica (1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Wong- McClure

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue constituye la causa más común de enfermedades por arbovirus en el mundo. El estudio analiza el comportamiento estacional del dengue en la región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004. Materiales y métodos: La información fue tomada del Ministerio de Salud de Costa Rica y del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Para el análisis de la estacionalidad de dengue se utilizaron el número de casos de esta enfermedad para la estimación de promedios móviles y las características de los brotes epidémicos. Se definió como brote epidémico un total de 20 ó más casos de dengue por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Durante el período analizado se observó un incremento en el número de casos de dengue por año. Al observar la distribución de los casos incidentes del dengue cada año se resaltó un patrón anual estacional. Los brotes del dengue se presentaron al menos una vez al año, entre las semanas epidemiológicas 18-29 (abril-julio, que coincidían con la estación lluviosa. Discusión: Se evidencia que en la región Pacífico Central, el dengue es una enfermedad predecible en cuanto a su comportamiento estacional, por lo que se recomienda intensificar las medidas de prevención para combatirla, así como preparar los servicios para la atención de pacientes, en las semanas epidemiológica previas a las de mayor promedio en el número de casos, según el patrón estacional.Aim: This study analyzed the Dengue’s seasonal behaviour in the Central Pacific Region of Costa Rica, during the period from 1999 to 2004. It is known that the dengue virus is the most common cause of arbovirus diseases in the world. Material and methods: We got the data from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health and the National Meteorological Institute. From this data, moving averages were calculated to evaluate its seasonal behaviour and the features of the outbreaks. In this study an outbreak of dengue

  6. Diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington en Costa Rica Molecular diagnosis of Huntington´s disease in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Vásquez-Cerdas; Fernando Morales-Montero; Húbert Fernández-Morales; Gerardo el Valle-Carazo; Jaime Fornaguera-Trías; Patricia Cuenca-Berger

    2008-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 2008 Justificación y objetivo. Este estudio representa un esfuerzo para establecer por primera vez en Costa Rica el diagnóstico molecular de la enfermedad de Huntington; esto favorecerá un mejor manejo clínico de los pacientes y podrá ser traducido en un incremento de la calidad de vida de las familias. Se pretende determinar el número de repeticiones CAG en personas con la enfermedad de Huntington y f...

  7. Três espécies novas de Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae da Costa Rica, Panamá e Guiana Francesa Three new species of Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae from Costa Rica, Panama and French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies novas de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta são descritas: L. danuncia sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e Panamá, L. mourei sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e L. glaberrima sp. nov. (da Guiana Francesa. Todas essas espécies foram identificadas anteriormente como Lestrimelitta limao Smith.Three new species of bees of the genus Lestrimelitta are described: L. danuncia sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and Panama, L. mourei sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and L. glaberrima sp. nov. (from French Guiana. All of these new species were previously identified as Lestrimelitta limao Smith.

  8. Comparative cytogenetics of two of the smallest Amazonian fishes: Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 and Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965 is comprized of five valid species (F. pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, F. zonatus, F. simplex, F. obscurus Costa, 1996, and F. palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999, which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type F. pygmaeus have been described in late 1990’s, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of F. zonatus and F. simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and F. simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but F. zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic.

  9. FIRST RECORD OF THE GENUS Ocyochterus FROM COLOMBIA AND NEW RECORDS OF OCHTERIDAE FROM COSTA RICA (HEMIPTERA:HETEROPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico HERRERA MADRIGAL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez Ocyochterus para Colombia, con lo cual se expande el rango de distribución conocido hasta el momento. Además, se proveen registros para dos especies de Ochterus en Costa Rica. El material examinado se encuentra depositado en el Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.

  10. Species diversity and activity of insectivorous bats in three habitats in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Pineapple farms make up 45 000ha of Costa Rican landscape and are the second most exported crop. This is economically beneficial for the Costa Ricans, but greatly affects the natural flora and fauna because it is such a low growing crop. This study examined the differences in insectivorous bat species diversity and activity in the habitat gradient between the forest in Tirimbina Biological Reserve in La Virgen de Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica and the nearby pineapple farm called Finca Corsic...

  11. Growth inhibitory effects produced by the cypress, Cupressus lusitanica (Cupressaceae) in Bosque de La Hoja, Heredia, Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Growth inhibitory effects produced by the cypress, Cupressus lusitanica (Cupressaceae) in Bosque de La Hoja, Heredia, Costa Rica. In Costa Rica, Cupressus lusitanica is an introduced tree that may produce negative effects in the plants surrounding it. This study sought to compare light, soil humidity and acidity provided by cypress trees and the effect on the distribution and growth of pioneer and dicotyledonous plants around them in El Bosque de la Hoja, Heredia Province, Costa Ric...

  12. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  13. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Appendices to final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-20

    NOAA/DOE has selected three concepts for a baseline design of the cold water pipe (CWP) for OTEC plants: (1) a FRP CWP of sandwich wall construction suspended from the Applied Physical Laboratory/John Hopkins University (APL/JHU) barge at a site 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil using a horizontal deployment scheme; (2) an elastomer CWP suspended from the APL/JHU barge off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico using either a horizontal or vertical deployment scheme; and (3) a polyethylene CWP (single or multiple pipe) suspended from the Gibbs and Cox spar at the Puerto Rico site using a horizontal deployment scheme. TRW has developed a baseline design for each of these configurations. This volume of the report includes the following appendices: (A) fiberglass reinforced plastic cold water pipe (specification and drawingss); (B) specification for polyethylene CWP; (C) elastomer pipe drawings; (D) drawings for OTEC 10/40 hull/CWP transitions; (E) structural design of OTEC 10/40 CWP support and CWP transitions; (F) universal transition joint for CWP; (G) dynamic spherical seal of CWP; (H) at-sea deployment loads - surface towing loads; (I) OTEC 10/40 CWP deployment up-ending loads; (J) cost estimates for OTEC 10/40 hull/CWP transitions; and (K) OTEC 10/40 CWP deployment scenario and cost estimate. (WHK)

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the developed computer models, water system dynamic studies, miscellaneous performance analysis, materials and processes, detailed equipment lists, turbine design studies, tube cleaner design, ammonia leak detection, and heat exchanger design supporting data. (WHK)

  15. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  16. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs.

  17. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  18. Zimmer slipstream magnesium hydroxide recovery demonstration. Volume II of II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Dravo Lime has for many years supplied magnesium containing lime in the ranges of 3-6% MgO. Several years ago Dravo Lime realized the potential operating savings its FGD customers could benefit from if magnesium could be recovered from FGD waste streams. As a result, several different proprietary processes have been developed for the recovery of magnesium hydroxide. These recovery processes include steps for magnesium hydroxide separation, purification, and crystal growth. The process implemented at The Cincinnati Gas Electric Company`s Wm. H. Zimmer Station was piloted by Dravo Lime Company at Allegheny Power System`s Mitchell Station near Monongahela, PA during the fourth quarter in 1989 and first quarter in 1990. This pilot work was the foundation for further development of the ThioClear process at Dravo`s pilot plant at CG&E Miami Fort Station. The ThioClear process is a closed loop version of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process with the same unit operations and products but also including an absorber tower for scrubbing flue gas. Testing at Miami Fort of the ThioClear process led to improvements in separation of magnesium hydroxide from gypsum that are part of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process installed at Zimmer Station. This document contains the Appendices for this report.

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  20. Feasibility evaluation solar heated textile process water. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    The general objectives of this study are to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the use of solar energy for heating waters in the textile industry and to develop a plan for efforts beyond this feasibility study phase. Specific objectives include (1) determine the industry requirements for heated process water, (2) assess particular schemes and their economic impact, (3) study the total cost environment for solar water heating in this industry, and (4) recommend future experiments. This volume contains the appendices: (A) fiber distribution and end use data; (B) computer model description for textile plant energy balances; (C) computer model description to generate local solar potential; (D) computer model description for system synthesis and analysis; (E) computer model to determine pressure drop, flow distribution and plumbing components; (F) area requirement plots for various use rates, temperature levels, seasons, orientations and collector types for textile operations; (G) computer model description of economic variables for COSMO1 and COSMO2; (H) rate of return plots for various textile applications and energy cost scenerios; and (I) data base for efficiency curves for six collector types. (WHK)

  1. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  2. OTEC modular experiment cold water pipe concept evaluation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The Cold Water Pipe System Design Study was undertaken to evaluate the diverse CWP concepts, recommend the most viable alternatives for a 1984 deployment of the 10 to 40 MWe MEP, and carry out preliminary designs of three concepts. The concept evaluation phase reported involved a systems analysis of design alternatives in the broad categories of rigid walled (with hinges), compliant walled, stockade and bottom mounted buoyant. Quantitative evaluations were made of concept performance, availability, deployment schedule, technical feasibility and cost. CWP concepts were analyzed to determine if they met or could be made to meet established system requirements and could be deployed by 1984. Fabrication, construction and installation plans were developed for successful concepts, and costs were determined in a WBS format. Evaluations were performed on the basis of technical and cost risk. This volume includes the following appendices: (A) materials and associated design criteria; (B) summary of results of dynamic flow and transportation analysis; (C) CWP sizing analysis; (D) CWP thermal performance; and (E) investigation of the APL/ABAM CWP design. (WHK)

  3. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) project conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA Program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. This volume contains the Appendices, which include listings of the FORTRAN code and Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide. 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Power system development: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Preliminary design report: appendices, Part 2 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the electrical system, instrumentation and control, ammonia pump evaluation study, ammonia and nitrogen support subsystems, piping and support design calculations, and plant availability. (WHK)

  5. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives. (DMC)

  6. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  7. CADENA DEL CAFÉ DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Carranza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La operación de las actividades económicas y su competitividad, analizadas desde una perspectiva de cadenas globales de mercancías, dependen del funcionamiento de los mercados de crédito, tanto nacionales como internacionales. La operación normal de los negocios requiere crédito para fortalecer sus recursos propios y hacer las compras de materia prima, insumos, pago de salarios e inversión. En todos los casos, el crédito puede ser utilizado para mejorar el diseño de productos, impulsar el acceso a nuevos mercados y aumentar la competitividad. A los productores de la región de Los Santos en Costa Rica se les reconoce por innovadores, y al café de la zona por ser un café de altura y de gran calidad. El artículo explora las necesidades de financiamiento de productores, beneficiadores y exportadores de café de Los Santos, sus fuentes de financiamiento y el uso dado a los recursos obtenidos. Entre las necesidades orientadas al mejoramiento de la competitividad se encontraron la renovación de cafetales entre los productores, el mantenimiento de proyectos y tecnología entre los beneficios y la generación de microbeneficios y búsqueda de nichos de mercado entre los exportadores. Abstract From a global commodity chains perspective, economic activities and their competitiveness depend upon the functioning of credit markets, both international and domestic. Current businesses operations require credit to enhance their own resources in order to buy raw material and inputs, pay wages and make investment. Credit may also be used to improve product design, enter new markets and boost competitiveness as a result. High altitude grown coffee from Los Santos, Costa Rica is widely known for its quality, and their growers as innovative. This paper addresses credit needs of coffee growers, processors and exporters in Los Santos, the credit sources they have access to, and the kind of uses the credit is given. Improving competitiveness uses

  8. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  9. VIABILIDAD DEL SEGURO DE DEPÓSITOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Durán V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es estimar si el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito en Costa Rica es viable o no, así como, exponer las principales características de dicho sistema de protección.Adicionalmente, se considera oportuno iniciar el debate sobre un tema que ha sido postergado y que debería ser de interés en el ámbito financiero nacional. Por tanto, es necesario animar la discusión de este tema en foros bancarios para ir generando ideas alternativas y conclusiones que contribuyan con el fortalecimiento y desarrollo del sistema financiero y no esperar hasta que la crisis sistémica (peligro latente de contagio sobre el resto del sistema se muestre a la vuelta de la esquina.El riesgo de las crisis sistémicas ha llevado a muchos países a estudiar e implementar sistemas de seguro de depósitos (SSD, con el interés de minimizar el efecto dominó o contagio que podría generar una corrida de fondos bancarios, dada una situación de desconfianza en los depositantes por la pérdida de sus recursos, producto de la quiebra de un banco.En Costa Rica, el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito debe formar parte de la agenda de estudio de las Reformas del Sistema Financiero, puesto que el SSD junto con la función de prestamista de última instancia y la supervisión prudencial conforman los cimientos de seguridad básica de un sistema financiero moderno e inmerso en la globalización.Por su parte, los resultados de la estimación del seguro de depósitos para nuestro país, mostraron que la implementación es viable desde el punto de vista financiero, según criterio de expertos. Además, el impacto estimado sobre el margen financiero se considera insignificante para los participantes en el sistema bancario. Por tanto, se estaría rompiendo con el mito de que el seguro de los depósitos vendría a ser un impuesto adicional importante, sino más bien un beneficio, en el sentido de la mayor confianza y

  10. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  11. August 13-Global Families Get Ready for Summer Fun——100 families will be invited to enjoy the pleasure of the luxury cruise ship Costa Allegra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Italian liner Costa Allegra will start its maiden voyage on the northern route this August.China Merchants International Travel,the general agent for Costa Allegra in north China,has made a block booking of the most popu-

  12. ACTIVIDADES RECREATIVAS Y SUS BENEFICIOS PARA PERSONAS NICARAGÜENSES RESIDENTES EN COSTA RICA (RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND THEIR BENEFITS FOR NICARAGUANS WHO LIVE IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Salas Carmen Grace

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Costa Rica se ha convertido en un país multicultural. Muchas personas han migrado a él en busca de mejores condiciones de vida. La mayoría de estas personas son nicaragüenses, quienes conforman alrededor de tres cuartas partes del grupo total inmigrante en el país. En el año 2007, se realizó un proyecto de investigación en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica que tuvo la finalidad de estudiar cómo se recreaba esta población antes y, especialmente, después de la inmigración a Costa Rica. La investigación fue cualitativa, fenomenológica, e incluyó 13 personas nicaragüenses residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información que se presenta en este artículo fue recolectada mediante entrevistas y observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa. Los datos fueron analizados en forma individual y se triangularon. Los resultados generales indican que: (1 la población investigada realizaba once tipos de actividades recreativas en Nicaragua, entre semana y fines de semana, antes de venir a Costa Rica; (2 esa misma población participaba en diez categorías de actividades recreativas en Costa Rica, entre semana y fines de semana, y (3 ese grupo percibió siete beneficios que le ofrecía la recreación.Abstract:Costa Rica has become a multicultural country. Many people immigrated to it looking for a better lifestyle. Most of these people are Nicaraguans, who are three quarters of the total amount of immigrants in Costa Rica. In 2007, the School of Physical Education and Sports at the University of Costa Rica conducted a research to study how this Nicaraguans recreated before and after they immigrated to Costa Rica. The research conducted was qualitative, phenomenological, and included 13 Nicaraguans, who lived in the Metropolitan Area. This article is the first of several papers that will report the result of the research. The information of this article was collected with

  13. Synchronous Low-grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm and Primary Peritoneal Low-grade Serous Carcinoma: A First Description of These 2 Neoplasms Presenting Together as Suspected Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Pichler Sekulic, Simona; Movahedi-Lankarani, Saeid

    2016-09-28

    Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is a neoplasm typically of appendiceal origin, which is characterized by diffuse peritoneal involvement by pools of mucin with mucinous epithelium lacking high-grade cytologic atypia, and clinically presents as suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. A similar clinical presentation can sometimes be seen with disseminated low-grade serous carcinomas of the peritoneum, fallopian tubes, or ovaries; however, this neoplasm is histologically characterized by tubal-type epithelium and invasive or confluent growth. In this case report, we describe a patient presenting with a clinical examination and radiologic features suggestive of peritoneal carcinomatosis and a prominent pelvic mass; however, after pathologic review, the patient was proven to have peritoneal involvement by both low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin and a low-grade peritoneal primary serous carcinoma. In short, we present the first description of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and serous carcinoma of the peritoneum presenting synchronously, providing morphologic characterization and immunohistochemical studies supporting the diagnosis, and illustrating a rare instance in which 2 neoplastic processes are underlying clinically suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  14. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  15. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea in Costa Rica: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Morales-Ramírez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species, which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic. By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin. Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  16. Program home visit Costa Rica's health system: guidelines for improvement

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    Katherine Solís Cordero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home visit is the main strategy of primary care by bringing health services to the homes and workplaces of people, which allows knowing the needs of the population firsthand. Thus, home visit by the ATAP represents the first contact of the individual, family and community with the health system, with significant benefits both individually and collectively. This research responds to the need to identify the elements that the home visiting program needs to improve modify or replace in order to maximize the provision of this service.Method. It is a qualitative, observational analytic study. Data were collected through documentary research, key informant interviews and focus group. The analysis was performed from the grounded theory.Results. The main results showed the existence of elements at the level of the health system, home visiting program and the figure of the ATAP that should be reviewed, modified or replaced to the home visit, thus it has bigger and better results for the population and the health system.Conclusion. The Home Visiting Program is strength of the Costa Rican health system to address health inequities. However, it is imperative to make decisions and implementation of actions that promote the improvement and increased results of the home visit at a family and community level.

  17. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

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    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  18. A clandestine burial in Costa Rica: prospection and excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congram, Derek R

    2008-07-01

    This case report describes the search for a clandestine grave in Costa Rica for which the police sought the assistance of an archaeologist. An anonymous informant suggested that the victim had been kidnapped and murdered, placed in a shallow grave in the woods, then covered with lime and cement. A search of the area to detect conventional signs of burial (e.g., slumping, different plant growth) resulted in excavation of unrelated features of past disturbance. Different aspects of the grave including the deposition of cement powder over the body prevented its initial discovery. Improvisation of conventional archaeological excavation methods and use of police familiar with archaeological excavation resulted in the location of the grave and exhumation of the victim without loss of important contextual evidence that supported testimony on the cause of death. The taphonomic effects of high-lying ground water and lime in the tropical burial environment are briefly discussed. Recommendations such as the construction of a temporary sump to lower the ground water level in the grave during excavation are made to assist in similar investigations in the future.

  19. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONOMICO EN 1996

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    Edwin Ramirez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional (2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.

  20. Actividad Sísmica en Costa Rica Durante el 2013

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    Lepolt Linkimer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el 2013 la Red Sismológica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE localizó 2547 sismos de los cuales 261 fueron sentidos por la población. Se percibieron en Costa Rica siete sismos con magnitud Mw ≥ 5,0. La mayoría (85% de los sismos percibidos fueron superficiales (< 30 km y el 56% tuvo una magnitud baja (Mw 3,0-3,9. El fallamiento local y regional provocó el 52% de los sismos, seguido por el proceso de subducción de la placa del Coco bajo la placa Caribe y la microplaca de Panamá que originó el 45%. La intensidad máxima observada en el 2013 fue de VI (Mercalli Modificada, MM para la zona de Sixaola (Limón debido al sismo del 27 de mayo (Mw 5,6 con epicentro en el occidente de Panamá.

  1. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women's health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women's rights to life and health.

  2. de La Ciénega, costa sur de Jalisco

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    Peter R. W. Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy día la producción agroindustrial de alimentos es una actividad que está causando gran impacto tanto en los recursos naturales como en las culturas y los tejidos sociales; mientras que el modo campesino, opuesto al agroindustrial, propone una agricultura justa con base en las prácticas y experiencias campesinas generando así alternativas sustentables de producción.En este artículo se analizan cuatro estudios de caso de agricultores en el ejido de La Ciénega en la costa sur de Jalisco, los cuales se ubican en estos dos sistemas de producción. Los resultados exponen las técnicas de producción y estrategias campesinas que se desarrollan, así como la relación de los sistemas de producción ante las políticas agropecuarias. Terminamos resaltando la importancia de las prácticas y experiencias endógenas para el fortalecimiento de un desarrollo rural sustentable

  3. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica

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    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.

  4. Perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2003

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    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2003 se predijo que existiría un pequeño incremento en la cantidad de lluvia que caería en Costa Rica. El presente estudio analiza el comportamiento meteorológico durante el primer semestre del año, sobre las causas del aumento en patrón lluvioso y el pronóstico para el resto de los meses. Se muestra un mapa centroamericano sobre la probabilidad de que ocurran lluvias por debajo de lo normal, normales o arriba de lo normal, generado en el Foro Climático Centroamericano, así como una tabla comparativa entre la cantidad de tormentas tropicales, huracanes y ciclones del año 2002, el primer semestre 2003 y un promedio histórico (1950-2000. Como último punto se analiza la probabilidad del desarrollo del fenómeno de La Niña y la evolución del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, según las proyecciones de doce modelos climáticos de distintos centros climáticos especializados

  5. [Trace metals in coastal sediments from Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Céspedes, Jairo; Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A

    2004-12-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moín Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 microg/g, respectively) and lower in Moín Bay (3.4% and 52 microg/g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 microg/g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 microg/g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moín Bay (6.4 microg/g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 microg/g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moín Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition.

  6. [A biogeochemical model for the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In agreement with the Broecker and Penn two-boxes model, I generated a biogeochemical balance model for the Gulf of Nicoya (Guanacaste, Costa Rica) using two nutrient reservoirs: surface water and deep water. The mixing zone was located at a depth of 20 m. There is a balance between surface waters descending to the bottom and upwelling waters that carry nutrients and other chemical elements to the surface. The main source of nitrogen (nitrate), was the outlet of the Tempisque and Tárcoles rivers. The Gulf of Nicoya is a net source of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) with an availability rate of 87 x 10(3) mol day(-1) in the dry season and 3044 x 10(3) mol day(-1)in the rainy season. Dissolved Inorganic Phosphate (DIP) was estimated in 27 mol day(-1) in the dry season and 207 mol day(-1) in the rainy season. The dynamics of these biolimited nutrients, in relation to runoff seasonal variations, fits the biological processes reported for the gulf, for example, for variations in primary productivity levels, and maturity and reproduction seasons for species with short and long life cycles.

  7. [The phytoplankton community of Punta Morales, Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnoli Olivera, E; Morales Ramirez, A

    2001-12-01

    Three daily samplings of the phytoplankton community were made at two consecutive days in March, April, May, September, October, November and December 1997, at Punta Morales, Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Samples were collected during each tide at depths of 50% and 10% of light penetration using a Niskin bottle. A total of 43 taxa were identified. Centric diatoms, pennates and flagellates represented 90% of total phytoplankton abundance. In the phytoplankton fraction (cells > 30 microm), diatoms were the most abundant group, and Skeletonema costatum (32%) dominated. In nannophytoplankton (cells < 30 microm), Chaetoceros (23.7%) was the most abundant taxon, followed by flagellates (23%) and Cylindrotheca closterium (13.1%). These results agree with previous surveys and suggest that a typical net phytoplankton community persist through time in the Punta Morales zone. The number of nannophytoplankton fraction cells varied seasonally and suggests quantitative changes in species abundance, with possible modifications of cellular size or chain length in filamentous species. The codominance between S. costatum and Chaetoceros spp. during the rainy season suggested the ocurrence of an early ecological sucession, and nutrients could be the factor generating such population changes.

  8. Referéndum en Costa Rica: la primera experiencia

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    Max Alberto Esquivel Faerron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los distintos mecanismos de democracia directa regulados en el ordenamiento jurídico costarricense, profundizando en el instituto del referéndum. Se centra en analizar, con apoyo en datos estadísticos, la primera experiencia de la aplicación del referéndum en Costa Rica, relativo a la aprobación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos. Como parte de este estudio, el autor desarrolla, desde el punto de vista doctrinario y de derecho comparado, temas medulares del referéndum que fueron motivo de amplia discusión, tales como: el carácter excepcional de este instituto -contra poniéndolo con el listado de las solicitudes de recolección de firmas presentadas ante el Tribunal-, la fiscalización del proceso, la posición del Poder Ejecutivo a favor de una de las tesis en contienda, el financiamiento de las campañas propagandísticas, la información ciudadana sobre el tema de la consulta y la participación de los medios de comunicación.

  9. Ocular disease in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Millichamp, Nicholas J; Barrantes, Luz Denia Barrantes; Barr, Brady R; Montero, Juan R Bolaños; Platt, Steven G; Abel, Mike T; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A

    2011-04-01

    Beginning in early 2006, an ocular disease of unknown etiology was routinely observed in American crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus) inhabiting the highly polluted Tarcoles River in west-central Costa Rica. We examined the nature and incidence of ocular disease in Tarcoles crocodiles and assessed the possible association between the disease and accumulation of chemical pollutants in diseased individuals. During 12-15 September and 12-13 December 2007, crocodiles were captured and examined for ocular disease and sampled to determine environmental contaminant accumulation. Three of 11 (27.3%) crocodiles captured (all males) exhibited unilateral ocular disease, primarily characterized by corneal opacity and scarring, anterior synechia, and phthisis bulbi. Multiple pollutants were detected in crocodile caudal scutes (organochlorine pesticides [OCPs] and metals), crocodile blood (OCPs), and sediments (OCPs and metals) from the Tarcoles, but no associations were found between contaminant accumulation and the incidence of eye disease. On the basis of the limited number of diseased animals examined and the potential exposure of crocodiles to pathogens and other pollutants not targeted in this study, we cannot rule out infection or chemical toxicosis as causes of the eye lesions. However, circumstantial evidence suggests that the observed ocular disease is likely the result of injury-induced trauma (and possibly secondary infection) inflicted during aggressive encounters (e.g., territorial combat) among large adult crocodiles living at relatively high densities.

  10. Conversion or conservation? Understanding wetland change in northwest Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Amy E; Cumming, Graeme S

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands are more threatened than any other ecosystem type, with losses exceeding 50% of their original extent worldwide. Despite the small portion of the Earth's surface that they comprise, wetlands contribute significantly to global ecosystem services. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the location and rate of change in wetland amount in the Tempisque Basin of northwest Costa Rica is predictable from landscape setting. Our results demonstrate that a strong potential exists for developing predictive models of wetland conversion based on an understanding of wetland location and surrounding trends of land use. We found that topography was the single most important predictor of wetland conversion in this area, entraining other conversion processes, and that spatial patterns of wetland loss could consistently be predicted from landscape-level variables. Areas with highest probabilities of conversion were found in the most accessible, non-protected regions of the landscape. While Palo Verde National Park made a substantial contribution to wetland conservation, our results highlight the dependence of lower-lying protected areas on upland processes, adding a little-addressed dimension of complexity to the dialogue about protected area management. Conservation strategies aimed at reducing wetland loss in tropical habitats will benefit from careful analysis of the dominant land use system(s) at a relatively broad scale, and the subsequent development of management and policy responses that take into account dynamic opportunities and constraints in the landscape.

  11. Modelo de sostenibilidad para Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes de Costa Rica

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    Susan Chen Mok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo de trabajo que permitirá dar sostenibilidad a los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes (CECI, con el fin de continuar con los procesos de apropiación de la tecnología por parte de las comunidades en donde se ubican, y por lo tanto disminuir la brecha digital. Antes de presentar el modelo, se ofrecen los antecedentes conceptuales que fundamentan el proyecto de CECI. Para la creación del modelo, en el 2014 se realizó un diagnóstico del funcionamiento y administración de algunos CECI existentes en el Cantón Central de Puntarenas, que se encuentran en un radio máximo de 12 km de la Sede de Pacífico de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y se indagó sobre los actores locales que podrían intervenir. Se considera que el modelo es replicable para todos los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes existentes en todo el país, con la diferencia de las necesidades propias de cada comunidad en donde estos se encuentran.

  12. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chinchilla [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  13. Estudio de la estacionalidad del dengue en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica (1999-2004

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    Roy Wong- McClure

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue constituye la causa más común de enfermedades por arbovirus en el mundo. El estudio analiza el comportamiento estacional del dengue en la región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004. Materiales y métodos: La información fue tomada del Ministerio de Salud de Costa Rica y del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Para el análisis de la estacionalidad de dengue se utilizaron el número de casos de esta enfermedad para la estimación de promedios móviles y las características de los brotes epidémicos. Se definió como brote epidémico un total de 20 ó más casos de dengue por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Durante el período analizado se observó un incremento en el número de casos de dengue por año. Al observar la distribución de los casos incidentes del dengue cada año se resaltó un patrón anual estacional. Los brotes del dengue se presentaron al menos una vez al año, entre las semanas epidemiológicas 18-29 (abril-julio, que coincidían con la estación lluviosa. Discusión: Se evidencia que en la región Pacífico Central, el dengue es una enfermedad predecible en cuanto a su comportamiento estacional, por lo que se recomienda intensificar las medidas de prevención para combatirla, así como preparar los servicios para la atención de pacientes, en las semanas epidemiológica previas a las de mayor promedio en el número de casos, según el patrón estacional.

  14. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica Lyme disease in Costa Rica, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a zoonosis transmitted by the Ixodes ticks and caused by a spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been reported mostly in North America, Europe and Asia and is clinically characterized by a presentation on 3 stages, starting with erythema migrans that begins around the tick bite. Disseminated infection with fever, migratory arthritis, lymphadenopathy, neurological alterations and hepatitis and the chronic phase characterized by arthritis, periostitis, chronic encephalomielitis, polyradiculopathy amongst other manifestations. In Costa Rica, we know of no reports of patients with this disease, so we herein present the case of an woman who, after a trip to the state of Florida, presented clinical and serological alterations compatible with the mild form of Lyme disease. The findings are discussed and also we alert to the possibility of diagnosing

  15. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica Spotted fever and their importance in Costa Rica

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    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.Rocky Mountain Spotted fever is a tick vector disease caused by an obligated intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii. It is a severe systemic illness caused by the infection of endothelial cells of small vessels of most organs and tissues of the human body. It is the most lethal tick-born disease and since its discovery more than 100 years ago it still appears sporadically, but persistently. Although there is treatment with effective antibiotics, mortality rates are near 10% and infected patients require intensive care when the illness is misdiagnosed and there is a delay in treatment. Other species of ticks and new species of rickettsia have been

  16. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  17. The Galapagos-OIB signature of the central Costa Rican volcanic front: arc-hotspot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, E.; Carr, M. J.; Hoernle, K.; Feigenson, M. D.; Hauff, F.; Szymanski, D.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2008-12-01

    Although most Central American magmas have a typical arc geochemical signature, magmas in southern Central America have isotopic and trace element compositions with an OIB affinity, similar to the Galapagos hotspot lavas. Our new data for Costa Rica suggest that this signature, unusual for a convergent margin, has a relatively recent origin (Late Miocene-Pliocene ca. 6 Ma). We also show that there was a transition from typical arc magmas (analogous to the modern Nicaraguan volcanic front) to OIB-like magmas. The geographic distribution of the Galapagos signature in recent lavas from southern Central America is present landward from the subduction of the Galapagos hotspot tracks (the Seamount Province and the Cocos/Coiba Ridges) at the Middle American Trench. The higher Pb isotopic ratios, relatively low Nd isotopic ratios and enriched geochemical signature of central Costa Rican magmas can be explained by arc-hotspot interaction. The isotopic ratios of central Costa Rican lavas require the subducting Seamount Province (Northern Galapagos Domain) component, whereas the isotopic ratios of the adakites and alkaline basalts from southern Costa Rica and Panama are in the geochemical range of the subducting Cocos/Coiba Ridges (Central Galapagos Domain). Geological, geochemical, and isotopic evidence collectively indicate that the relatively recent Galapagos-OIB signature in southern Central America represents a geochemical signal from subducting Galapagos hotspot tracks, which started to collide with the margin ~8 Ma ago. The Galapagos hotspot contribution decreases systematically along the volcanic front from central Costa Rica to NW Nicaragua.

  18. PRIMER REPORTE DE Panicum repens L. COMO POTENCIAL MALEZA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Retana-S\\u00E1nchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue brindar información de Panicum repens como potencial maleza en Costa Rica y la taxonomía asociada a esta especie para su correcta identificación. En abril del año 2012 se recibieron en el Laboratorio de Arvenses de la Universidad de Costa Rica y en la Universidad EARTH muestras de una poácea no identificada, procedentes de una orilla de camino frente a una finca ganadera del cantón de San Carlos, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Al analizar las características taxonómicas de las espiguillas y del sistema radical, no concordaban con las especies registradas en el país. Se identificó la especie como Panicum repens L., la cual no se encuentra registrada en Costa Rica, como lo hace constar la ausencia de especímenes en el Herbario Nacional y en el Herbario de la Escuela de Biología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, así como en la literatura especializada en el tema. Se detallan las características taxonómicas de Panicum repens para su identificación.

  19. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pueda satisfacer la demanda creciente de alimentos y otros productos agrícolas; evitando el acelerado proceso de degradación que sufren nuestros suelos y bosques. El proceso de agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica y otros países de la región, presenta un incremento en la demanda de tierras y recursos naturales; lo cual suscita competencias y agudos conflictos sociales, económicos y ecológicos. Costa Rica debe plantearse una estrategia de desarrollo sostenible que contemple los efectos asociados del crecimiento demográfico, la seguridad alimentaria, la protección de la biodiversidad, la regeneración de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo de tecnologías amigables con el ambiente, la regulación sobre el acceso a los recursos naturales y la formación de capital humano

  20. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles, Costa Rica.

  1. Description of a new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Espinoza Sanabria; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs; J. Bolling Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species and subspecies of Idalus Walker are described from Costa Rica, Honduras and Guatemala. Images of males and females and their genitalia are provided. Locality information and distribution maps for Costa Rica and for Guatemala are included. The biology and phylogeny of Idalus are discussed.

  2. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that th

  3. Algunos aspectos relacionados con la imposición de costas en el proceso civil en el derecho comparado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valiño Arcos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Introducción: sus precedentes en derecho romano. Presupuestos para su imposición en el derecho italiano. Exámen de la condena en costas en el derecho alemán y austríaco. Referencia a la condena en costas en derecho español

  4. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  5. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 2, Appendices A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NW, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this EN there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constricting Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER, which consists of Appendices A, B, and C, assesses the potential geologic impacts of the proposed Section 8B construction, presents the results of the Section 8B soil survey, and describes the water quality studies and analyses performed for the ER. The following summary sections provide information for geology, soils, and water quality.

  6. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  7. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  8. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  9. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  10. Le ultime tecnologie hanno aiutato i primi soccorsi alla Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Faccioli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grazie alla geomatica e alle tecnologie più avanzate è stato ricostruito in poche ore un rilievo tridimensionale - sopra e sott’acqua - dello scafo e del fondale relativo al naufragio della nave Costa Concordia utilizzando un sonar Multibeam Reson 7125 e un laser scanner Optech ILRIS HD con interventi condotti in condizioni di estrema sicurezza, garantendo la protezione sia dei soccorritori che del delicato ambiente naturale. Geomatics assists early intervention on the Costa ConcordiaThanks to the Geomatics, the Costa Concordia operations are conducted in conditions of extreme security to protect both the lives of rescue workers and the delicate environment.All technologies involved (Lidar, Multibeam, GNSS, INS, ecc…, while having a primary role in real life, have always worked quietly behind the scenes. 

  11. Le ultime tecnologie hanno aiutato i primi soccorsi alla Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Faccioli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Grazie alla geomatica e alle tecnologie più avanzate è stato ricostruito in poche ore un rilievo tridimensionale - sopra e sott’acqua - dello scafo e del fondale relativo al naufragio della nave Costa Concordia utilizzando un sonar Multibeam Reson 7125 e un laser scanner Optech ILRIS HD con interventi condotti in condizioni di estrema sicurezza, garantendo la protezione sia dei soccorritori che del delicato ambiente naturale. Geomatics assists early intervention on the Costa ConcordiaThanks to the Geomatics, the Costa Concordia operations are conducted in conditions of extreme security to protect both the lives of rescue workers and the delicate environment.All technologies involved (Lidar, Multibeam, GNSS, INS, ecc…, while having a primary role in real life, have always worked quietly behind the scenes. 

  12. CT and MR imaging findings of appendiceal and hepatic mucormycosis in a patient with acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seo Youn; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha; Chin, Su Sie; Park, Seong Kyu; Chung, Jun Chul [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Fungal infections occur in severely immunocompromised patients having profound and prolonged neutropenia. Here, we report a case of a 41-year-old female who, at the conclusion of induction chemotherapy for acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia, developed angioinvasive mucormycosis involving the appendix and liver, which presented as abdominal pain. This case is the first to provide detailed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of angioinvasive appendiceal and hepatic mucormycosis. The implications of these findings as well as the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis, is further discussed.

  13. Program evaluation: Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership (WRAP) Program. Volume 3, Appendices D, E, F, and G: [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The ``Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,`` or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities` low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with surveys, participant list, and computers program to examine and predict potential energy savings.

  14. The potential for using disused coastal mineshafts to exploit wave energy : Vol. 1: Main report; Vol. 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholes, H.; Millar, D.L.; Eyre, J.M.; Dibley, R.; Davey, G.; Haywood, M.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the potential use of abandoned mine shafts in Cornwall as oscillating water column wave power generation devices, and assesses the Waveshaft concept in phase 1 prior to further examination of selected sites in phase 2. Details are given of the criteria for the mine shafts, identification of candidate shafts, remediation/enhancement requirements, and wave climate along with power conversion issues, overall estimated waveshaft resource in Cornwall, environmental impacts and legal protection, and an economic appraisal. Inspection and safety protocols, mine location maps, and wave power data are presented in appendices.

  15. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  16. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Meziat Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTADOS: A dor nas costas idiopática foi a primeira causa de invalidez entre as aposentadorias previdenciárias e acidentárias. A maioria dos beneficiários residia em área urbana e era comerciário. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez no Brasil foi de 29,96 por 100.000 contribuintes. Esse valor foi mais elevado entre os homens e entre as pessoas mais velhas. Rondônia exibiu taxa quatro vezes superior ao esperado (RT = 4,05 e a segunda maior taxa, referente à Bahia, foi de aproximadamente duas vezes o esperado (RT = 2,07. Os comerciários foram responsáveis por 96,9% dos dias perdidos por invalidez. CONCLUSÕES: A dor nas costas foi uma importante causa de invalidez em 2007, sobretudo entre comerciários, com grandes diferenças entre os estados.

  17. Evolution and Innovations of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Céspedes, Carlos; Saborío, Manual; Trejos, Rafael; Abarca, Gabriela; Sánchez, Avelino; Rojas, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We present the evolution, organization and results of the National Neonatal and High Risk Screening Program in Costa Rica (PNT). This program has been working uninterruptedly for more than fourteen years. Costa Rica currently has a literacy rate of 95%. To August 2004 the rate of infant mortality was 9.74 per 1000 births and to 2003, life expectancy was 76.3 years for men and 81.1 years for women. The control of infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as of severe malnutrition, has given r...

  18. Aplicaciones geofísicas a la hidrogeología en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Salguero, Mario Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Se pretende dar una visión global de la aplicabilidad de algunos métodos geofísicos de uso frecuente en Costa Rica, por lo que se expone de una manera muy general los principios básicos de los métodoseléctricos y se presentan cuatro ejemplos de aplicación utilizando la geoeléctrica y la testificación geofísica enel campo de la hidrogeología. We pretend to give a global vision of the application of some geophysics methods of frecuent usein Costa Rica. The basic principles of the electric me...

  19. Costa Rica During the Global Recession: Fiscal Stimulus with Tight Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Antonio Cordero

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that, in spite of a reasonably sized fiscal stimulus package, Costa Rica’s economy continues on a downward path, partly because fiscal policy is being offset by a tightening of monetary policy. The paper notes that the International Monetary Fund has insisted that Costa Rica’s monetary policy remain tight due to worries over inflation targets and a perceived risk of a balance of payments crisis. However, the author notes that the IMF could help prevent a balance of payments c...

  20. Las actividades económicas de la provincia de Costa Rica. 1569-1610

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    ResumenAnaliza las primeras actividades económicas que desarrollaron en la Provincia de Costa Rica los conquistadores-pobladores-encomenderos. La comercialización del tributo en especie y la ganadería fueron el fundamento de la economía colonial durante el período de estudio (1569-1610).AbstractStudies the economic activities carried out in the Province of Costa Rica be the conqueror- settler- “encomenderos”. Marketing of tribute in kind and livestock were the basis of the Colonial economy du...

  1. Monitoreo del arrecife coralino Meager Shoal, Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca E., Ana C.; Salas, Eva; Cortés, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Los arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Cahuita, en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica, específicamente en el sitio CARICOMP llamado Meager Shoal, han sido monitoreados desde 1999. Bases de datos completas de los años 2000 y 2004, muestran que la cobertura de coral viva se mantuvo baja con un aumento menor al 3% (15-17 %), pero la cobertura de algas no coralinas aumentó mucho (63-74%) y la cobertura de algas coralinas disminuyó significativamente (17-5 %) (p

  2. The multilinguistic and the identity of the afrolimonenses of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Herzfeld, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In the XIX century, a mostly Afro-Jamaican linguistic minority settled down on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, a Spanish-speaking country. They went there to work for Minor C. Keith, an enterprising U.S. engineer who had been commissioned by the Costa Rica government to build a railroad that would join an eastern port to the Central Valley capital, San Jose. Later, to help finance that enterprise, he founded the United Fruit Company and the Jamaican workers remained in the Province of Lim...

  3. El multilingüismo y la identidad de los afro-limonenses de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Herzfeld

    2003-01-01

    In the XIX century, a mostly Afro-Jamaican linguistic minority settled down on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, a Spanish-speaking country. They went there to work for Minor C. Keith, an enterprising U.S. engineer who had been commissioned by the Costa Rica government to build a railroad that would join an eastern port to the Central Valley capital, San Jose. Later, to help finance that enterprise, he founded the United Fruit Company and the Jamaican workers remained in the Province of Lim...

  4. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  5. COSTA RICAN MEAT VALUE CHAIN DESCRIPTION: PRICE TRANSMISSION AS A TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rodríguez Lizano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Price transmission analysis is an increasing research topic, especially for price taking countries such as Costa Rica. We describe the beef supply chain and provide a numerical implementation of Vector Error Correction Model (VECM of price transmission for the meat market in order to observe the relationship between import prices of meat and their effects on national retail prices. To restore equilibrium, retail prices correct 8% of the error term monthly. Since the meat imports market of Costa Rica is complex, the analysis of others business partners as Nicaragua should be included in order to compare the influence of these in local retail prices

  6. Proposal to Disseminate the Knowledge of Tsunamis in the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica, Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Arce, Mario; Solís Arce, Daniel; González Ilama, Gino; Porras, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    Artículo científico--Universidad de Costa Rica, Vicerrectoría de Acción Social, Extensión Docente. 2014. Para mayor información puede escribir a This work is a proposal to spread the knowledge of tsunamis in the schools of the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Ignorance of basic information about tsunamis and the existing threat, could result in deaths in areas where tsunami occur. For this reason, we have implemented this project which is intended to inform t...

  7. Aspectos de la elaboración del queso blanco en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Jiménez, Randall

    1992-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Centro Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología de Alimentos, 1992 En Costa Rica el “Queso Blanco” es el queso de mayor consumo popular. Se estima 14 076 toneladas métricas al año, cerca del 70% del total de quesos consumidos. Como queso blanco se conocen principalmente tres tipos: 1)El queso blanco fresco “Tipo Turrialba”, 2) El queso semiduro y de menos contenido de humedad que el anterior, 3) El queso duro salado “tipo Bagaces”. Su forma de elabora...

  8. Tendencia de la mortalidad por casos de intoxicaciones en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Yorleny Arroyo; Ana Elvira Sala; Freddy Arias Mora

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir las muertes por intoxicación producidas en Costa Rica en el periodo 2007-2011, según la frecuencia, sexo, grupo de edad, intencionalidad y lugar de ocurrencia. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de las 497 defunciones producidas por intoxicaciones en Costa Rica durante el período comprendido entre 2007-2011 que se registraron en la Sección de Patología Forense del Departamento de Medicina Legal del Organismo de Investigación Judicial. Se analizó el sexo, el grupo d...

  9. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Spongberg, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica.Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7...

  10. Costa Rica, superstar? some reflections on the global drivers and bottlenecks of the happy planet index

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2011-01-01

    For some years now, the Happy Planet Organization presents the so-called ‘Happy Planet Index’ (HPI), which is an index of measuring the trade-off between ecological footprint data and life quality (Happy Life Years, HLYE). Costa Rica emerges from these comparisons as the world’s ‘best practice nation’, using a minimum amount of natural resources to achieve a maximum of human happiness. So is Costa Rica the pathway for humanity? There are shortcomings in the formula, with which the index is ca...

  11. Auto-reporte de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Chinnock; Miriam León Solís

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición auto reportados en diferentes comunidades de Costa Rica entre 1994 y 2012. Métodos: se analiza datos recolectados entre 1994 y 2012 por estudiantes de la Escuela de Nutrición, Universidad de Costa Rica. Las familias encuestadas fueron seleccionadas por muestra probabilística de tipo aleatorio simple y por medio de entrevistas a las madres u otro adulto de la familia, se recolectó datos sobre 12 problemas de sal...

  12. Sinister and Changing Political Model in Costa Rica. Three Plays by Contemporary Female Playwrights.

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    In this text three recent Costa Rican plays of contemporary female writers with political content are analyzed. The plays are analyzed in the light of the notions of the sinister (Schelling, Freud) and what I have elsewhere called the “myth of Costa Rican exceptionalism”. The works considered are: La Loca, Ana Istarú monologue, Dicen las paredes, by Ailyn Morera, y Pentadrama, by Claudia Barrionuevo and Walter Fernández.  En el presente texto se analizan tres obras dramáticas costarricense...

  13. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises were measured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34 months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1 mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurements were correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight h...

  14. Gross morphometry of young Geochelone sulcata (Testudines: Testudinidae) in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Merchán, Manuel; Coll, Marta; Fournier, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The African Spur tortoise, Geochelone sulcata, has been introduced to Costa Rica. A total of 31 tortoises weremeasured for 26 gross morphometry parameters. All individuals measured were inmature, aged from 5 to 34months, and were born in captivity in La Garita de Alajuela, Costa Rica. Mean straight carapace length was 83.1mm, mean straight plastron length was 68.3 mm and mean maximum height was 46.2 mm. All the measurementswere correlated, except tail length and cloacal distance. Weight had t...

  15. Inocuidad microbiológica de los alimentos para animales en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Alvarado, Andrea; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    En esta revisión se analizan 3 contaminantes distintos que afectan directamente la inocuidad alimentaria y que están siendo investigados constantemente en Costa Rica y forman parte de programas de vigilancia a nivel nacional e internacional. Los mismos debido a su importancia en salud humana y animal han sido investigados en alimentos para animales comercializados en Costa Rica por investigadores del Centro de Investigación en Nutrición Animal (CINA) en conjunto con otros grupos de investigac...

  16. A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Alvarado, Alexander Fco.; Palacios Ríos, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica. The new fern species Pteris herrerae A. Rojas & M. Palacios, endemic to Costa Rica, is described. It differs from P. decurrens C. Presl in basal segments reduced to 1/5-1/2 of the next segment (vs. 2/3-3/4), basal pinnae not bifurcated (vs. bifurcated), pinnae apex mucronate (vs. acuminate) and segment apex undulate (vs. dentate). It differs from Pteris consanguinea in the elliptic pinnae (vs. ...

  17. Organochlorine chemicals and neurodegeneration among elderly subjects in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.M.; Barr, D.B.; Juncos, J.; Roman, N.; Wesseling, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background We previously screened 400 elderly Costa Ricans for neurodegenerative disease. Those reporting occupational pesticide exposure (18%) had an increased Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk (OR 2.57, 95% CI 0.91–7.26), and worse cognition (Mini-Mental States Exam (MMSE) 24.5 versus 25.9 points, p=0.01). We subsequently measured long-lasting organochlorine pesticides (β-HCH, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin) in a sub-sample (n=89). Dieldrin and β-HCH have been linked to PD, and DDE to Alzheimer’s disease. Methods We ran regression models for MMSE and tremor-at-rest to assess associations with pesticides in 89 subjects. Results The percent of β-HCH, DDE, DDT (parent compound for DDE), and dieldrin above their limit of detection (LOD) were 100%, 93%, 75%, and 57%, respectively. Tremor-at-rest was found in 21 subjects, and the mean MMSE was 25. Those who reported occupational pesticide exposure (n=36) had more detectable dieldrin samples (p=0.005), and higher mean levels of dieldrin (p=0.01), than those not reporting exposure. Other pesticides did not differ between those with and without self-reported occupational exposure. There was a positive but non-significant trend of higher risk for tremor-at-rest with higher dieldrin (p=0.10 for linear trend). Neither DDE nor DDT showed a relationship with MMSE. However, after excluding two outliers with the lowest MMSE scores, higher DDT levels showed some modest association with lower MMSE (p=0.09 for linear trend). Conclusions Our data are limited by small sample size. However, dieldrin was high in our population, has been previously linked to PD, and could be partly responsible for the excess PD risk seen in our population. PMID:25173053

  18. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  19. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONÓMICO EN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ramírez Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional(2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.El nivel de divisas en poder del Banco Central se contrajo ligeramente a contrapelo de la meta del programa de estabilización. Los precios, sin embargo, mostraron una desaceleración en su ritmo de crecimiento; así, la inflación disminuyó hasta ubicarse en un 13,9%, medida por la variación anual del índice de precios al consumidor (IPC a diciembre.

  20. manejo de parques nacionales en Costa Rica, Honduras y Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El rápido crecimiento en él numero de nuevos visitantes, que se prevé ocurrirá en los parques nacionales de la América Central en los próximos años, hace necesario que los administradores de parques de la región consideren cada vez mas el nivel de satisfacción de los visitantes, por lo que se les ofrece a los visitantes en materia de infraestructura, servicios y opciones recreativas, en sus procesos de planificación y manejo de los parques. Un estudio basado en 915 encuestas, 312 a visitantes de origen local y 603 a visitantes de origen extranjero fue realizado en Honduras, Nicaragua y Costa Rica, con el fin de determinar la brecha en satisfacción de los visitantes con la infraestructura, los servicios y las opciones recreativas, utilizando una forma modificada del modelo de brecha basado en la teoría de las expectativas-desconfirmacion. El estudio encontró que había diferencias y semejanzas significativas al nivel de 95% de probabilidad entre las caracterizas socio-demográficas y los niveles de satisfacción de los visitantes locales y extranjeros a los diferentes parques y entre los visitantes locales y extranjeros en cada parque. Modelos estandarizados fueron identificados para cada parque en cada categoría de visitante los cuales permitieron identificar aquellas variables que más influenciaban la brecha en satisfacción. El material anterior permitió además identificar aquellas áreas más importantes a las cuales se les deberían asignar recursos financieros para mejorar en el corto plazo los niveles de satisfacción de los visitantes.

  1. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  2. Genetic diversity in cattle of eight regions in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Cordero-Solórzano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the extent of inter-regional genetic diversity present in the cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected (year 2013 from eight different regions within the country. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters were determined for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance was also carried out and genetic distances were calculated between cattle from different regions. At the national level, a high allelic diversity was found, with an average of 14.6±1.01 observed alleles and 5.6+0.37 effective alleles per marker. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosities were 0.76±0.01 and 0.81±01, respectively. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC and Coefficient of Inbreeding (FIS were 0.79±0.06 and 0.06±0.004, respectively. At the regional level, Ho ranged between 0.73±0.02 in the South Central region to 0.78±0.01 in the North Huetar region. The dendrogram showed three clearly distinct groups, Metropolitan Central and West Central regions in one group, Caribbean Huetar, South Central, Central Pacific and Chorotega regions in a second group; and North Huetar and Brunca regions in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation (RST were significant between regions from different groups and non-significant for regions within the same group. Genetic differences between regions are related to differential proliferation of breed groups based on their adaptability to the agro-ecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region.

  3. Accumulation of atmospheric sulfur in some Costa Rican soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the macronutrient elements whose sources to terrestrial ecosystems should shift from dominance by rock-weathering to atmospheric deposition as soils and underlying substrate undergo progressive weathering and leaching. However, the nature and timing of this transition is not well known. We investigated sources of sulfur to tropical rain forests growing on basalt-derived soils in the Osa Peninsula region of Costa Rica. Sulfur sources were examined using stable isotope ratios (δ34S) and compared to chemical indices of soil development. The most weathered soils, and the forests they supported, are dominated by atmospheric sulfur, while a less weathered soil type contains both rock-derived and atmospheric sulfur. Patterns of increasing δ34S with increasing soil sulfur concentration across the landscape suggest atmospheric sulfur is accumulating, and little rock-derived sulfur has been retained. Soil sulfur, minus adsorbed sulfate, is correlated with carbon and nitrogen, implying that sulfur accumulation occurs as plants and microbes incorporate sulfur into organic matter. Only the lower depth increments of the more weathered soils contained significant adsorbed sulfate. The evidence suggests a pattern of soil development in which sulfur-bearing minerals in rock, such as sulfides, weather early relative to other minerals, and the released sulfate is leached away. Sulfur added via atmospheric deposition is retained as organic matter accumulates in the soil profile. Adsorbed sulfate accumulates later, driven by changes in soil chemistry and mineralogy. These aspects of sulfur behavior during pedogenesis in this environment may hasten the transition to dominance by atmospheric sources.

  4. Uncertainty in future global energy use and fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions 1975 to 2075: Appendices C--F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J.A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Washington, DC (United States); Reilly, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Washington, DC (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brenkert, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1985-12-01

    In constructing the model, creating variable names, and linking the model to the Monte Carlo program various naming conventions have been used. These appendices attempt to provide a concise, useful guide linking conceptual variable to model variable to Monte Carlo variables designations. Tables give the basic characteristics of the output distributions for each of the 95 output VALs. These appendices describe in technical detail the Monte Carlo techniques used in the uncertainty analysis. The choice of Latin Hypercube sampling and the methodology employed to attribute output variability to input uncertainty is documented. A complete listing of the software and data base used to generate the Monte Carlo analysis is included.

  5. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  6. Prevalencia de lepra en Costa Rica, de 1998-2003 Prevalence of leprosy in Costa Rica between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de prevalencia de lepra durante el período 1998 al año 2003, con el objetivo de caracterizar la distribución de esta enfermedad en el país. Los casos fueron pacientes con un diagnostico de lepra o enfermedad de Hansen confirmado por un médico, que estuviera consultando en los establecimientos de salud de la Caja Costarricense Seguro Social (CCSS durante el período de estudio y pacientes que abandonaron el tratamiento sin curarse. Se excluyeron los casos curados, fallecidos y extranjeros no residentes en el país. Mediante búsqueda activa en la CCSS se identificaron los expedientes de los pacientes de 1998 al 2003 y los reportes de laboratorio de biopsia de piel y linfa cutánea confirmados por lepra. Del Ministerio de Salud (MS se obtuvieron los casos notificados y del Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos los datos de población. Se elaboró un formulario que incluyó variables clínicas, epidemiológicas, de laboratorio y socioeconómicas. El análisis se realizó según provincia, cantón, grupos de edad y sexo. Se calculó la tasa de prevalencia, de detección de casos y porcentajes. Se identificaron, 114 expedientes en los servicios de salud pero sólo 89 casos, que representaron una prevalencia de 0,3 casos por diez mil habitantes. La enfermedad afectó a los mayores de 15 años, y a los hombres un 65% (58. Puntarenas presentó la prevalencia por provincia más alta: 0,6x10.000 habitantes (23. Todos recibieron medicamentos para el tipo lepromatoso y en el Hospital San Juan de Dios se atendieron el 60% de ellos. El 28% reingresó a los servicios. Desde 1998, el MS no había realizado investigaciones epidemiológicas de los casos, ni seguimiento a sus contactos. El personal de los servicios de salud no cuenta con protocolos, ni normas de tratamiento clínico. Costa Rica eliminó la lepra como problema de salud pública (menos de 1 caso por diez mil habitantes desde 1995. Se recomendó iniciar

  7. Review of two 1998 Mathematical Appendices Primary to Continuum Theory: Deflection Scattering and Redshift by a Particle-tied Aether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    My development of Continuum Theory rests importantly on two mathematical treatments and calculations which I wrote in 1994 and were published in 1998 as Appendices A and B to my PIRT V paper presented in London in 1996. In view of their continuing scientific relevance, this contribution to the V9 conference proceedings is a republication of those Appendices, subject to minimal re-editing. Appendix B, presented first, tackles our 1959 finding that the daylight sky brightness distribution at high altitude shows the presence of an additional contribution whose intensity and distribution which, on careful analysis, I identified as having come from a deflection scattering mechanism due to transmission by an (atmospheric) `particle-tied aether'. Appendix A shows that redshift is one of the consequences of such transmission. The parameters involved are then used to analyse the 1968 radio ground-wave caesium clock redshift observations of Sadeh et al and to extrapolate them to the intergalactic transmission paths pertinent to the cosmic redshift as a transmission effect, not a velocity. It finds this to be a reasonable evaluation within observational uncertainties, notably those of density and degree of ionization. In that case, there being no Big Bang, the temperature is precisely known from the CMBR, identified as synchrotron-type radiation from the randomly moving aether along the path, but slightly elevated where the path has traversed a heat-generating cluster.

  8. Passagens para o Estado-nação: a tese de Costa Pinto Passages to the nation-state: the Costa Pinto's thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma pesquisa clássica da tradição sociológica brasileira: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, de Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. O objetivo principal é evidenciar e analisar sua significação teórica mais ampla para o entendimento da formação do Estado-nação no Brasil. Mostra como Lutas de famílias no Brasil contribui para desestabilizar a oposição dualista com que a relação entre público e privado vinha sendo interpretada no pensamento social brasileiro.The article discusses a classical research of Brazilian sociological tradition: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, by Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. The main objective is to demonstrate and analyze their theoretical meaning for understanding the formation of the Nation-state in Brazil. It shows how Costa Pinto's research contributes to destabilize the dualistic opposition between public and private on the Brazilian social thought.

  9. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) Drainages should be bridged rather than leveled with cut and fill; (4) For areas of steep slopes and potential erosion

  10. Taavet võidab Koljati targalt tegutsedes / Costas Markides ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Markides, Costas

    2007-01-01

    London Business Schooli professor Costas Markides vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema raamatus "Fast Second" esitatud väidet, mille kohaselt esimesena uuele turule tulnud ettevõttest saab harva pikas perspektiivis turuliider, kuid samas on edukad just teisena turule sisenevad ettevõtted

  11. Partial reconstruction and palaeoecology of Sphenophyllum costae (Middle Pennsylvanian, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashforth, Arden Roy; Zodrow, Erwin L

    2007-01-01

    Recovery of a large, articulate portion of Sphenophyllum costae Sterzel from lower Cantabrian strata of the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, demonstrates that it is the largest sphenophyll yet known to inhabit clastic substrates of Euramerica. The specimen shows four orders of branching, wi...

  12. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary Autom

  13. Two new species of the Hagnagora anicata complex (Geometridae, Larentiinae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bolling Sullivan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the lectotype (here designated reveals that Hagnagora anicata (Felder & Rogenhofer does not occur in Costa Rica. Instead two new species are described, H. elianne sp. n. and H. unnia sp. n., and their distribution is discussed. The previous treatment of H. anicata as a single widespread species ranging from Jamaica and Mexico to Bolivia needs to be critically evaluated.

  14. A new species of Erythrodiplax breeding in bromeliads in Costa Rica (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, William A; Wagner, David L; De La Rosa, Carlos

    2015-04-16

    We describe a new species, Erythrodiplax laselva (Libellulidae), that breeds in bromeliads and Cochliostema (Commelinaceae) in the eastern lowlands of Costa Rica. The closest known relative is thought to be E. castanea, widespread in Central and South America, and not E. bromeliicola, which is known to breed in bromeliads in Cuba and Jamaica. The male, female, genitalia, and larva are described and illustrated.

  15. Pesticide exposure and respiratory health of indigenous women in Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, K.B.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.J.J.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the relation between pesticide exposure and respiratory health in a population of indigenous women in Costa Rica. Exposed women (n = 69) all worked at plantain plantations. Unexposed women (n = 58) worked at organic banana plantations or othe

  16. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Area, the central and south Delta, and service areas of San Francisco Bay Area water agencies....

  17. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  18. South-South Remittances: Importance of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    Report commissioned by MIF and produced by consultant Ricardo Monge-González: First Study on Remittance senders and recipients from Costa Rica to Nicaragua. It includes size of remittances and economic assesment on the impact on the Economy and poverty reduction of Nicaragua .

  19. Preliminary study of river- and beach processes in the Matina region of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, V.J.E.; Joosten, D.A.W.; Melman, F.C.R.; Post, S.

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this project are the severe erosion problems at the Pacuare Nature Reserve, situated on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The Reserve’s installations are situated next to a lagoon which is separated from the open sea by a barrier beach. The lagoon is connected on the landward

  20. Um Tocqueville avant la lettre: Hipólito da Costa como founding father do americanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Almeida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo busca tem como tema as contribuições do jornalista Hipólito José da Costa para o desenvolvimento da linha de pensamento hoje conhecida como americanismo, precedendo, até mesmo, a Alexis de Tocqueville.

  1. Free-living nematodes from nature reserves in Costa Rica. 4. Cephalobina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Esquivel, A.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Four species of Cephalobina: Geraldius bakeri, Diastolaimus croca, Trualaimus culeatus and Tricirronema tentaculatum are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected in Costa Rica. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of G. bakeri is given for the first time. Diastolaimus croca

  2. Science Achievement of Costa Rican Sixth Grade Students and Its Relationship with Selected Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Alfaro, Juan Manuel; Diaz-Solis, Sofia Maria

    This study had three purposes. First, to develop and validate a criterion-referenced test to measure science knowledge of students who finished the second cycle of the Basic General Education (6th grade). Second, to assess the performance of the entire Costa Rican population of sixth graders and, third, to analyze the results according to some…

  3. Free living nematodes from nature reserves in Costa Rica. 5. Bunonematoidea (Rhabditida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Esquivel, A.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Three species of Bunonematoidea, Pterygorhabditis panoplus, Rhodolaimus arboreus sp. n. and Rhodolaimus dimorphus are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected in Costa Rica. SEM studies and details of the labial region structure in R panoplus and R. arboreus sp. n. are given. Rho

  4. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of fres

  5. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration.

  6. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry of Costa Rica represents 7.5% of GNP, 21% of total exports earning and of that contribution the food and beverages subsector represents 28%. The purpose of this research was to indentify, potential elements and obstacles in young university culinary arts students in Costa Rica, largest culinary arts students. The study was conducted among culinary arts students at the Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, the interviews conducted were 237 the entire enrollment of the culinary arts school. The findings indicate that .Absence of tradition, culture among the young students and need of family and peers supports appear to be relevant and a source of need by the group. Lack of general business and entrepreneurship training is recognize by both groups a weakness and as a need. Coaching and support for women entrepreneurs is very relevant in both theadministrative and technical aspects of the young students of culinary arts The consideration of this information is important if we are to create with culinary arts training , the new breed of professional chefs entrepreneurs needs for the industry expansion in the years to come in Costa Rica and the region

  7. Appraisal of the Epidemiology of Neospora caninum Infection in Costa Rican Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero Zúñiga, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica, milk production has increased gradually during the twentieth century, in which the activity developed from a non-technical to a technical activity. Together with the evolution of the dairy sector, the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases increas

  8. Effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Breda, van S.; Vargas, B.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of neosporosis on productive and reproductive parameters in dairy cows. Cows (n = 2743) from 94 farms located in the most important dairy areas in Costa Rica were used in the study. The size of the herds ranged from 32 to 379 females (mean =

  9. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  10. A new isidiate species of Arthonia (Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Umaña-Tenorio, Loengrin

    2004-01-01

    The new corticolous species Arthonia isidiata is described from the Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica. A. isidiata is characterized by minute, cylindrical to coralloid isidia produced on the thallus surface. The species currently is known only from the type locality in Corcovado National Park, where it occurs abundantly in the coastal rainforest around Sirena Biological Station.

  11. Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Joenje, M.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation rates in developing countries are often regarded as excessive, despite the lack of a satisfactory economic benchmark to evaluate this claim. This paper provides such a benchmark for a particular region in Costa Rica. The monetary value of the various functions performed by tropical rai

  12. Active Subduction on Both Coasts of Costa Rica Does not Represent an Important Tsunami Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2007-05-01

    Costa Rica, on the southern terminus of the Middle American Trench is being affected by active subduction on both, along the Pacific coast as well as on its Caribbean coast. Three main subduction segments can be recognized along the Pacific coast: 1) under northwestern Costa Rica, off Papagayo Gulf and Nicoya peninsula, the Cocos plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate; 2) under southern Costa Rica (Osa and Burica peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under the Panama Block and 3) in the central Pacific coast (between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas) the Cocos plate subducts under a shear zone that marks the transition between the Caribbean and the Cocos plate. Along the Caribbean coast, south of Puerto Limon, the Caribbean plate subducts under the Panama block. Large subduction earthquakes occur under the Nicoya peninsula, Osa peninsula and south of Limon. Most of the rupture area of these large events lies below land so the deformation of the ocean floor is minimal and therefore the tsunamis they generate are small. No large subduction earthquakes occur under the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica due to the subduction of small sea mounts that act as small asperities without potential to accumulate large amounts of slip. For this reason the region between Nicoya and Osa peninsulas is not an important tsunamigenic zone.

  13. Intelligent Behavior, Art Costa, and the Role of the Library Media Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Dina

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Art Costa's 14 Intelligent Behavior Characteristics and gives examples of picture books that apply to each characteristic, including persistence, decreasing impulsivity, listening, cooperative thinking, flexibility, metacognition, accuracy and precision, sense of humor, questioning, using past knowledge, risk taking, using all senses,…

  14. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escamilla, MA; Spesny, M; Reus, [No Value; Gallegos, A; Meza, L; Molina, J; Sandkuijl, LA; Fournier, E; Leon, PE; Smith, LB; Freimer, NB

    1996-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP), As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, s

  15. Ecoturismo y desarrollo rural en el Parque Nacional La Cangreja, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz González, E.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Breitling, J.; Camino, de R.

    2005-01-01

    El ecoturismo se viene perfilando como un elemento conciliador entre las estrategias de conservación de la naturaleza y el desarrollo rural comunitario. Costa Rica, por su parte, emerge en la esfera latinoamericana y mundial como un líder en esta faceta de la industria turística, particularmente deb

  16. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John

    2008-01-01

    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  17. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with s

  18. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of an observa

  19. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  20. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  1. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  2. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  3. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  4. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  5. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  6. An Emerging Institution: The University for Peace in Costa Rica. Discussion Paper Series, No. 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Margaret A.

    A new United Nations college, the University for Peace in Costa Rica, is discussed. After providing a brief historical sketch on peace efforts since the Ancient Greeks, the objectives of the United Nations University are identified. The University for Peace is a new international university that is part of the United Nations University network, a…

  7. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  8. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  9. Partial reconstruction and palaeoecology of Sphenophyllum costae (Middle Pennsylvanian, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashforth, Arden Roy; Zodrow, Erwin L

    2007-01-01

    Recovery of a large, articulate portion of Sphenophyllum costae Sterzel from lower Cantabrian strata of the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, demonstrates that it is the largest sphenophyll yet known to inhabit clastic substrates of Euramerica. The specimen shows four orders of branching...

  10. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  11. San Jerónimo de Moravia, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinar en forma sostenible el patrimonio histórico cultural, el desarrollo turístico y la calidad ambiental es sin duda alguna el reto que enfrentan muchas comunidades latinoamericanas que en años recientes han hecho toda clase de esfuerzos por atraer turistas. El estudio aquí reportado analizó las condiciones socio-económicas de tres comunidades vecinas al Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo (PNBC, en Costa Rica, identificó los problemas ambientales de los residentes de las mismas que se podrían agravar por causa del desarrollo turístico y determinó cómo y bajo qué condiciones los habitantes de la zona querían que se realizara el desarrollo turístico de las comunidades. Se entrevistaron 123 de un total de un total de 155 casas en las tres comunidades, y se utilizó una combinación de componentes principales y análisis factorial para analizar los datos. Los resultados indican que los vecinos entrevistados desean que el desarrollo turístico sea hecho sosteniblemente, y que además, se planifique, se establezcan requisitos claros, que la comunidad sea periódicamente informada, que sus lideres comunales participen activamente en el proceso, se establezcan programas para ayudar al desarrollo de micro-empresas eco-turísticas, y que se les brinde asistencia técnica y capacite en el desarrollo de proyectos eco-turísticos. Los problemas eventuales asociados a la calidad ambiental que habría que prestarles atención preferente son: ruido y tráfico excesivo, manejo de aguas negras y deforestación. El desarrollo turístico sostenible relacionado con el primer componente implicaría que este es un requisito básico de la calidad ambiental, la conservación y el uso sostenible del patrimonio histórico.

  12. procedentes de las costas de Galicia (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carbonell Martín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se han analizado las concentraciones de dos metales pesados (Hg y Pb en el tejido hepático de dos especies de aves marinas (cormorán moñudo, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, y alcatraz, Morus bassanus, empleando para ello animales aparecidos muertos o moribundos a lo largo de la costa de Galicia. Los ejemplares considerados fueron divididos en dos grupos en función de si habían sido afectados o no por la marea negra causada por el vertido del “Prestige” en noviembre de 2002, a fin de determinar si dicho vertido había afectado al contenido metálico de estas especies. Tras la digestión de las muestras por vía húmeda, el contenido de ambos metales fue determinado por medio de voltamperometría de redisolución anódica (Pb y de un analizador directo de mercurio (DMA (Hg. Considerando la diferencia interespecífica para el Hg total, las concentraciones en cormorán moñudo (media: 4,2-7,6 ppm fueron siempre mayores que en alcatraz (media: 1,6-1,8 ppm, con un valor máximo superior a 20 ppm (peso húmedo, correspondiente a un animal afectado por la marea negra. Con respecto al Pb, el resultado fue contrario, con niveles ligeramente superiores en los alcatraces con respecto a los cormoranes moñudos, pero en ningún caso superándose el nivel de 0,01 ppm (peso húmedo. Al considerar los dos grupos establecidos (afectados o no por el accidente del “Prestige”, se pudo evidenciar que el vertido de crudo no afectó de una manera estadísticamente significativa a los niveles de ambos contaminantes metálicos en el tejido hepático de los animales considerados.

  13. The Costa Maya:  Evolution of a Touristic Landscape La Costa Maya : évolution d'un paysage touristique La Costa Maya : evolución de un paisaje turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La Costa Maya est une région côtière du sud du Quintana Roo (Mexique, proche de l'îlet Ambergris au Bélize. Contrairement à la côte caribéenne du Mexique qui a souffert du développement du tourisme de masse à Cancun et le long de la Riviera Maya, la Costa Maya s'est orientée vers un développement durable avec notamment une faible densité de construction et le développement de l'écotourisme.Le développement s'est concentré autour de Puerto Costa Maya où un terminal de croisière a été construit en 2001. La station balnéaire (balneario de Majahual est devenue dépendante des 10-12 bateaux de touristes qui débarquaient chaque semaine. En dépit d'importants plans de développement, les plages reculées de la Costa Maya accueillaient tout au plus des écotouristes aisés et du tourisme lié à la plongée sous-marine.Le cyclone Dean, de catégorie 5, a dévasté le paysage en août 2007 et le rétablissement économique n'a pu être entamé que fin 2008, après la réouverture du terminal de croisière et la reconstruction de Majahual. Fin 2009, le trafic de croisière n'a pas retrouvé son niveau d'avant Dean et la récession mondiale couplée avec la grippe porcine et les violences liées à la drogue ont fait diminuer le tourisme en provenance des Etats-Unis. On ignore à quel niveau les nouvelles infrastructures tels l'aéroport international de Tulum qui propose un itinéraire de Chetumal à la plage et le nouveau complexe hôtelier à Xahuayxel, stimuleront la Costa Maya mexicaine créant peut-être une autoroute côtière reliée à San Pedro au Bélize.The Costa Maya is a vernacular coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo (Mexico and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize.  As Mexico’s Caribbean coast suffered many growth pains associated with mass tourism development in Cancun and along the Riviera Maya, the Costa Maya by contrast was projected for more sustainable development including low-density housing and

  14. Seismogenic zone structure along the Middle America subduction zone, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshon, Heather Rene

    Most large (MW > 7.0) underthrusting earthquakes nucleate along a shallow region of unstable frictional stability on or near the subducting plate interface termed the seismogenic zone. The studies presented here investigate along-strike spatial and temporal variability in microseismicity and seismic velocity and provide spatial constraints on the updip and downdip limits of microseismicity within the Middle America subduction offshore western Costa Rica. All chapters utilize data recorded by the Costa Rica Seismogenic Zone Experiment (CRSEIZE), a collaborative seismic and geodetic study undertaken from September 1999--June 2001 to better understand subduction zone behavior near the Osa and Nicoya Peninsulas, Costa Rica. Chapter 1 serves as a broad introduction to the thesis while Chapter 2 provides an overview of Costa Rica seismicity, the CRSEIZE experiment setup, data processing, and data quality. Chapter 3 discusses simultaneous inversion for 1D P- and S-wave velocity models, station corrections, and hypocenter parameters for both the Nicoya and Osa experiments and presents a refined location for the continental Moho in northern Costa Rica. Chapter 4 presents absolute and relative relocations of ˜300 aftershocks of the 1999 Quepos, Costa Rica, underthrusting earthquake and analyzes seismogenic zone structure offshore central Costa Rica during a period of increased seismicity rate. Subduction of highly disrupted seafloor north of the Osa Peninsula has established a set of conditions that presently limit the seismogenic zone to be between 10--35 km below sea level, 30--95 km from the trench axis. Chapter 5 presents high resolution earthquake locations and P-wave and P-wave/S-wave 3D velocity models for the locked Nicoya Peninsula segment of the Middle America subduction zone calculated using an iterative, damped least squares local tomography method. In the southern Nicoya Peninsula, microseismicity along the plate interface extends from 12--26 km depth, 73

  15. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Granados Zúñiga

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunolog��a, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 1994 la "Ley de Bienestar de los Animales", pero sin embargo esta Ley deja sin definir importantes aspectos técnicos y de control del uso de los animales de experimentación. Debería de existir un manual de referencia, aprobado por una Autoridad Nacional competente, sobre el manejo y uso de animales de laboratorio y, principalmente, cursos sobre ética y técnica del uso de este reactivo biológico dirigido a los investigadores. La legislación sobre el uso de animales de laboratorio en algunos países como los Estdos Unidos, Inglaterra, Canadá, Suecia, Colombia, Australia y Alemania son más estrictas. Sin embargo en Costa Rica desde 1992 se presentó un proyecto de Ley que pretendía regular los derechos de los animales proclamados en la Declaración Universal de los derechos del animal, pero en la actualidad se encuentra archivado. Sin embargo en 1993 fue publicado en la Gaceta No 242 del 20 de diciembre de 1993 el proyecto "Ley de Bienestar y Etiología de los Animales", que no tiene ningún antecedente directo en realción al uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica pero desarrolla el marco jurídico de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Animal, proclamada por las Ligas Nacionales afiliadas a la ONU y aun no suscrita por Costa Rica.Laboratory animals are used like analogs to the human diseases, just as much in gnotobiology, dental investigation, embriology and teratology, oncology, gerontology, cardiovascular

  16. Historia del desarrollo de las ciencias del mar en la Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    La Escuela de Biología de la Universidad de Costa Rica ha contribuido significativamente al avance de las ciencias del mar en Costa Rica. Esto lo ha logrado mediante la formación de recursos humanos y, conjuntamente con el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (CIMAR), mediante la generación de información científica sobre los organismos, ambientes y procesos marinos en el país. La Escuela de Biología (School of Biology) of the Universidad de Costa Rica has contributed s...

  17. Estrategias de uso del espacio por grupos cazadores recolectores en la costa norte de Santa Cruz y su interior inmediato

    OpenAIRE

    Zubimendi, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos generales 1. Conocer los rangos espaciales y temporales del uso del espacio por parte de las poblaciones humanas del pasado de los distintos sectores de la Costa Norte de Santa Cruz. 2. Conocer la variabilidad en las formas de uso de la costa y el interior inmediato en la Costa Norte de Santa Cruz durante el Holoceno medio y tardío. 3. Reconocer las formas de uso del espacio costero y el interior inmediato. 4. Interpretar las estrategias de movilidad desarrolladas por l...

  18. Technical study for the chemical cleaning of Dresden-1 DNS-D1-016. Volume VII. Appendices IX thru XIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-15

    Appendices are presented which contain information concerning the decontamination of Dresden-1; consultant's opinions; proceedings of the American Power Conference, Volume 37, 1975; health physics reports; toxicological properties and industrial handling hazards of Dow solvent NS-1; and expected radiation dose rates in the new Dresden station radioactive waste processing building.

  19. Should Student Employment Be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the Outcomes of Work-Study Participation: Appendices A and B. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith; Minaya, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of federal employment subsidies, and one of the oldest forms of student aid. Yet it is unclear whether they help or harm students' long term outcomes. This document contains the appendices to the report "Should Student Employment Be Subsidized? Conditional Counterfactuals and the…

  20. The double ring sign in ultrasound of appendiceal mucocele. A case. Signo del doble anillo en la ecografia del mucocele apendicular. Presentacion de un caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menarques Irles, M.A.; Garcia Aguayo, F.J.; Esquitino Jaime, D.; Morales Sanchez, S.

    1993-10-01

    The combination of the findings of a sac-like anechoic mass in right iliac fossa (RIF) with the double ring sign in ultrasound together with an extrinsic, somooth-edged impression at the cecal pole, with no sign of the appendix in barium enema (BE) indicates a diagnosis of appendiceal mucocele. Author (11 refs.)