WorldWideScience

Sample records for appendices alameda-contra costa

  1. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  2. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  3. Geologic map and map database of parts of Marin, San Francisco, Alameda, Contra Costa, and Sonoma counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, M.C.; Jones, D.L.; Graymer, R.W.; digital database by Soule, Adam

    2000-01-01

    This digital map database, compiled from previously published and unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (mageo.txt, mageo.pdf, or mageo.ps), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller general distribution of bedrock and surficial deposits in the mapped area. Together with the accompanying text file (mageo.txt, mageo.pdf, or mageo.ps), it provides current information on the geologic structure and stratigraphy of the area covered. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:62,500 or smaller.

  4. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  5. 78 FR 9727 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... California tiger salamander (central DPS) (Ambystoma californiense) in Napa, Solano, Contra Costa, Alameda...) the California tiger salamander (central DPS) (Ambystoma californiense) in conjunction with survey and scientific research activities throughout the range of each species in Alameda, Contra Costa, Fresno,...

  6. 77 FR 73545 - Implementation of the Local Community Radio Act of 2010; Revision of Service and Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... market (consisting of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo and Solano Counties... the central core of the market; and (3) additional applications being prosecuted under this...

  7. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results for all counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  8. Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The Republic of Costa Rica is one of the most stable and strongest countries in Central America. It is bordered by Nicaragua and Panama to the north and south and the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific ocean to the east and west and has a total land size slightly smaller than West Virginia. Costa Ricans enjoy a high life expectancy and literacy rate. As well, schools have an attendance rate of nearly 100%. The predominant ethnic group is white, and the predominant spoken language is Spanish. The work force is divided up as follows: 32% agriculture, 25% industry and commerce, 38% services and government, and 5% finance and banking. The country's climate is tropical and subtropical, and the geography of Costa Rica is composed of rugged terrain, mountains, large forest areas, some lowlands and 3 volcanic mountain ranges. The great majority of Costa Ricans are of European descent with only small numbers of the indigenous Indian population surviving today. The government of Costa Rica is democratic, holding periodic elections. The electoral process is monitored by the Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Other bodies of government include the Supreme Court of Justice and the Legislative Assembly. The National Liberation Party has been in power since 1948 and represents socialist ideals. Many factors such as: an influx of enlightened leaders and officials, flexible class lines, economic prosperity and the absence of military force have allowed Costa Rica to progress and maintain a stable economy and government amidst an unstable region. Costa Rica's relations with other countries and international organizations are excellent. PMID:12177991

  9. Treatment of appendiceal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure...... in total 3,772 patients. Operation for appendiceal mass was beset with a moderate to high risk of complications of up to 57% and a risk of intestinal resection of up to 25%. Major complications were observed in up to 18% of cases. Conservative treatment with or without antibiotics was associated...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  10. Appendiceal Diverticulitis Clinically Masquerading as an Appendiceal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal diverticulosis is a rare condition. Herein reported is a case of appendiceal diverticulosis and diverticulitis clinically masquerading as appendiceal carcinoma. A 62-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain. US and CT showed a tumor measuring 5 × 4 × 4 cm in vermiform appendix. Colon endoscopy showed mucosal elevation and irregularity in the orifice of vermiform appendix. A biopsy of the appendiceal mucosa showed no significant changes. Clinical diagnosis was appendiceal carcinoma and wide excision of terminal ileum, appendix, cecum, and ascending colon was performed. Grossly, the appendix showed a tumor measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm. The appendiceal lumen was opened, and the appendiceal mucosa was elevated and irregular. The periappendiceal tissue showed thickening. Microscopically, the lesion was multiple appendiceal diverticula. The diverticula were penetrating the muscle layer. The mucosa showed erosions in places. Much fibrosis, abscess formations, and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in the subserosa. Abscesses were also seen in the diverticular lumens. Some diverticula penetrated into the subserosa. The pathologic diagnosis was appendiceal diverticulitis. When they encounter an appendiceal mass, clinicians should consider appendiceal diverticulitis as a differential diagnosis.

  11. 50 CFR 226.211 - Critical habitat for Seven Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Solano, Colusa, Yuba, Sutter, Trinity, Alameda, San Joaquin, and Contra Costa. (7) Central Valley..., Lake, Glenn, Colusa, and Tehama. (3) Central California Coast Steelhead CA—Lake, Mendocino, Sonoma, Napa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San...

  12. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  13. Appendiceal mucocoeles and pseudomyxoma peritonei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anupam Dixit; John HP Robertson; Satvinder S Mudan; Charles Akle

    2007-01-01

    Mucocoele of the appendix occurs when obstruction of the appendiceal lumen results in mucus accumulation and consequent abnormal dilatation. The most important aetiology, from a surgical perspective, is either mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. In the latter, a spontaneous or iatrogenic rupture of the mucocoele can lead to mucinous intraperitoneal ascites, a syndrome known as pseudomyxoma peritonei. Optimal management of mucoceles is achieved through accurate preoperative identification and subsequent careful resection. We report two cases and subsequently discuss the clinical presentation of mucocoeles, their association with pseudomyxoma peritonei and an optimal management of both conditions.

  14. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of nuclear materials seized on the territory of Slovak Republic as well as survey of main economic indicators of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) in 1995 are presented. Graphic presentation of the operation history of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 reactors as well as statistically data are given

  15. Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    APPENDIX I. ORGANIZATIONS/INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA WITH RESEARCH INTEREST IN THE URBAN SECTOR 1. Centre for African Settlement Studies and Development (CASSAD) Director/Chief Executive/Head : Prof. A.G. Onibokun Address : No. 3, Ayo Adekunle Close, New Bodija Estate, P.O.Box 20775, U.I., Ibadan Year Established : 1990 Activities : Research, in-service training, advocacy and community development and information and documentation Themes : All aspects of the built environment including urban stu...

  16. Appendices

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    APPENDIX I. IGBO COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION, SUPPLEMENTARY CONSTITUTION, SELECTION AND CODE OF CONDUCT OF EZE IGBO IN KANO (as amended) 1. This shall be cited as Selection and Code of Conduct of Eze Igbo Kano Instrument and shall be a part of the Constitution of the Igbo Community Association Kano. 2. EZESHIP (1) There shall be a member of the Association to be called and recognized as Eze Igbo Kano, the traditional Head of Igbos, Kano. (2) The office or post of Eze is not hereditary but it is ope...

  17. Hyperbilirubinemia as a predictor for appendiceal perforation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, H C; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    Delayed or wrong diagnosis in patients with appendicitis can result in perforation and consequently increased morbidity and mortality. Serum bilirubin may be a useful marker for appendiceal perforation. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate studies investigating elevated serum...... bilirubin as a predictor for appendiceal perforation....

  18. Appendiceal endometriosis differentially diagnosed from acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gastón Astroza; Victor Faundes; René Nanjarí; Marcelo Fleiderman; Carlos Rodriguez

    2010-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis is a common disease in premenopausal women involving pelvic organs specially. However endometriosis that affects the appendix is rarely seen except appendiceal endometriosis that mimics acute appendicitis. In a patient with acute appendicitis we diagnosed and operated on, histopathological examination of the appendix revealed appendiceal endometriosis which caused symptoms.

  19. Peperitas en Costa Rica Costa Rican peperites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe petrográfica y genéticamente, una serie de hallazgos de peperitas como ejemplos de coexistencia espacial y temporal del magmatismo con la sedimentación en Costa Rica. Los casos se presentan en complejos ígneos básicos (ofiolitas variando desde mezclas incompletas (megabloques de radiolaritas con diabasas en el Complejo de Nicoya hasta mezclas completas en varios grados de calizas pelágicas del Maastrictiano-Paleoceno (Formación Golfito o del Paleoceno con basaltos (Subcomplejo Quepos o Formación Tulín para dar peperitas brechoides y bulbosas. Dentro del arco Oligo-Mioceno, se tienen ejemplos a lo largo de la cordillera de Talamanca y sus estribaciones, así como en las llanuras de Sarapiquí, representados por peperitas brechoides, fluidales y bulbosas en cuerpos de lava latiandesíticos (Formación Pacacua o chimeneas peperíticas brechoides en ignimbritas (Miembro Mata de Limón, o posibles peperitas brechoides en los depósitos de flujos de lava del prospecto minero de Crucitas (Formación Cureña, o simples posibles peperitas brechoides en flujos de lava andesíticas (Formación Pacacua en Talamanca, o como brechas hidroclásticas con fragmentos de composición dacítica de Carbonal en Guanacaste, justamente entre las playas Cabuyal y Naranjo. Todas ellas serían los equivalentes proximales del vulcanismo explosivo, efusivo y subvolcánico (domos endógenos y criptodomos y su concomitancia con la sedimentación fluvial. En el Cuaternario, un ejemplo se da en la base de la Formación Tiribí al contacto con el lacustre de Palmares. Se incluyen en el presente trabajo, además, casos posibles o potenciales. Se espera que la descripción e interpretación de este tipo de rocas ayude a su identificación en otras regiones de Costa Rica y Centroamérica en general, así como una fuente potencial para la prospección de metales valiosos.This paper describes petrographically and genetically, a number of

  20. Mario Costa tarantino napoletano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    and the aristocratic tradition. Romanza, opera, operetta, popular folk songs. He became famous thankfully to this last one, when the easy listening music industry was starting its productions. This is the first published biography on the artist and is based on original documents and sources.......Mario Costa was born in Taranto, a town in the sunny south of Italy, but early in his childhood moved to Naples, the cultural capital of southern Italy between the last two centuries. He became a musician, composer and poet and he tried many different genres of music: the popular...

  1. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Presentación (en español) Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  2. Giant Appendiceal Leiomyosarcoma: A Rare and Unusual Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Christine; Koh, Cherry E.; Lee, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Appendiceal tumours are uncommon but may be present in 0.9–1.4% of all appendicectomy specimens. While carcinoid tumours and adenocarcinomas comprise the majority of appendiceal tumours, rarely, lymphomas or sarcomas may also present in the appendix. Appendiceal leiomyosarcomas are rare, and to date, only a handful of cases have been reported. The current paper presents a case of giant appendiceal leiomyosarcoma followed by a review of the literature. PMID:22606577

  3. 1986 resource strategy technical appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following appendices are included: Decision Analysis Model Documentation; WNP-1 and WNP-3 Preservation Cost Analysis; Regional Costs vs. Net Benefits; Supplemental Conservation Results; National Science Foundation (NSF) Definition of Research and Development; Research and Development: ''Short-Term'' Need and ''Long-Term'' Capability Building; and Value of Energy

  4. Jabiluka project - Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Appendices provide various technical data in support of studies presented in the Main Report, including the guidelines for an EIS at Jabiluka, environmental requirements, waste management plan, water management system criteria, water quality data, transport licensing and security procedures, rehabilitation plus specialist studies into ore characteristics, noise issues and haulage risk assessment. Copyright (1996) Energy Resources of Australia Limited

  5. Good Discipline: Legislation for Education Reform. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the appendices included in the "Good Discipline: Legislation for Education Reform" report. Appended are: (1) Federal Data Requirements; (2) Maryland State Law Requiring Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Program when suspension rates exceed a certain level; (3) The Act's provisions focused on training and development…

  6. San Jose, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    San Jose, capital city of Costa Rica, fills the valley between two steep mountain ranges. In this image made from data collected by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite, visible, shortwave, and near-infrared wavelengths of light that the sensor observed have been combined to produce a false-color version of the scene in which vegetation is red, urban areas are silvery gray, water is dark blue, and clouds are white. The image was captured on February 8, 2007. San Jose is in the center of the image. The Rio Torres winds through downtown San Jose. Cartago, the much smaller colonial capital, sits in the lower right corner, while the city of Alajuela appears across the river, northwest of San Jose. The cities' manmade surfaces contrast sharply with the lushly vegetated landscape surrounding the city. Greenhouses are common in the region, and their glass roofs may be the brilliant white spots around the outer edges the cities. The long, straight runway of the Tobias Bolanos International Airport is visible as a dark line southeast of Alajuela. The landscape around the two cities shown here is rugged. Steep mountain peaks cast dark shadows across their leeward slopes. Patches of dark red vegetation on the mountains north of San Jose may be rainforest. Coffee plantations also cover the slopes of the mountains around the city. February is the dry season in Costa Rica. During the rainy season, from about April to November, clouds usually block the satellite's view of this tropical location. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of Asaf Ullah and Tim Gubbels, SERVIR project.

  7. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  8. Costa Ricat vapustavad ekspresidendi kuriteod / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Riikide Organisatsiooni juhiks vannutatud Costa Rica endine president Miguel Angel Rodriguez leiti olevat süüdi korruptiivsetes tehingutes. Teisigi Costa Rica endisi presidente on süüdistatud korruptsioonis

  9. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S; Singh, H Manihar

    2016-03-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called "horseshoe appendix".

  10. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  11. Mesotelioma pleural en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    José Alberto Maineri-Hidalgo; Vladimir Putvinsky; Giovanna Mainieri-Breedy

    2006-01-01

    El mesotelioma es una neoplasia originada en las membranas serosas que tapizan las cavidades celómicas y recubren las vísceras que contienen, cuyo desarrollo se ha relacionado con la exposición al asbesto. El presente estudio describe las características de los casos de mesotelioma pleural diagnosticados en los 3 hospitales nacionales de adultos de Costa Rica. Se revisaron los archivos de patología de los 3 hospitales nacionales generales del Seguro Social de Costa Rica y se encontraron 29 ca...

  12. Frequent GNAS mutations in low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, G; Sekine, S; Ogawa, R; Matsubara, A.; Mori, T; Taniguchi, H; Kushima, R; Hiraoka, N.; Tsuta, K; Tsuda, H.; Kanai, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The molecular basis for the development of appendiceal mucinous tumours, which can be a cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei, remains largely unknown. Methods: Thirty-five appendiceal mucinous neoplasms were analysed for GNAS and KRAS mutations. A functional analysis of mutant GNAS was performed using a colorectal cancer cell line. Results: A mutational analysis identified activating GNAS mutations in 16 of 32 low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (LAMNs) but in none of three mucino...

  13. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 2. Appendices. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, James L.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 is comprised of appendices: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Existing Facilities; Ecology; Civic Involvement; Social Analysis; Population Projections; Toxicity of Air Pollutants to Biota at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and Assessment of Noise Effects of an Add-On to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. (LK)

  14. International Photovoltaic Program Plan. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    This second volume of a two-part report on the International Photovoltaic Program Plan contains appendices summarizing the results of analyses conducted in preparation of the plan. These analyses include compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about how US government actions could affect this market; international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  15. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-23

    The DART II is a data acquisition system that can be used with air pollution monitoring equipment. This volume contains appendices that deal with the following topics: adjustment and calibration procedures (power supply adjustment procedure, ADC calibration procedure, analog multiplexer calibration procedure); mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets (microprocessor, asynchronous receiver/transmitter, analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic processing unit, 5-volt power supply, +- 15-volt power supply, 24-volt power supply, floppy disk formater/controller, random access static memory); ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction set, octal listing; and cable lists. (RR)

  16. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  17. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  18. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  19. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  20. Mercury Contamination in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J. C.; Haynes, A.; Balcom, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent measurements of Hg in air in the central valley of Costa Rica produced some remarkably high values (up to 700 ng Hg/m3;Castillo et al., 2011), raising concerns for public health. We made a broad assessment of Hg as an environmental contaminant in Costa Rica, and sampled and analyzed lake and wetland sediment and soils to derive atmospheric Hg deposition rates. We also measured Hg(0) in air in three locations, and sampled local fish that were analyzed for Hg. We set up a sampling program of Hg in hair of Costa Ricans, sampling hair from a broad crossection of the population, in combination with dietary and personal information. The lake sediments had Hg concentrations between 34 and 316 ppb Hg, with several lakes at common natural background concentrations (20-100 ppb Hg). Some lakes showed a Hg contamination component with concentrations well above simple background values. These sediments also were very rich in organic matter, and the high Hg concentrations may be a result of Hg focusing from the watersheds into the lake depositional environments. Deduced atmospheric deposition rates of Hg range from 0.16-0.25 ng Hg/cm2 per year, which is at the low end of the global range of measured wet atmospheric deposition rates. The observed Hg concentrations in sediment and soils thus can be characterized as natural background to mildly contaminated, but nothing that would indicate Hg inventories as expected from the reported high Hg air burdens. Some of our Hg(0) in air measurements were done at the same locations as those done earlier and yielded values between 0.6-4.2 ng Hg/m3; these values are similar to the low range measurements of Castillo et al. (their night time values), but we found no evidence in 2011 for their high daytime values. The range of a few ng Hg/m3 in air is compatible with global Hg dispersion modeling. Fish tissue of Trout and Tilapia gave a range of 68-112 ppb Hg (wet weight base), well below the 300 ppb Hg EPA alert level. Overall, these

  1. Canton hydroelectric project: feasibility study. Final report, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    These appendices contain legal, environmental, regulatory, technical and economic information used in evaluating the feasibility of redeveloping the hydroelectric power generating facilities at the Upper and Lower Dams of the Farmington River at Collinsville, CT. (LCL)

  2. Gobierno Corporativo en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    (Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo se analizan las prácticas de conducción empresarial en Costa Rica. En primer lugar, se calculan las medidas de conducción empresarial constitutivas empleando datos específicos de 87 compañías costarricenses, y se analizan sus efectos en su desempeño; aquí, la media de la conducción empresarial constitutiva de compañías cotizadas en bolsa es igual a 56. 14. En segundo lugar, se presentan nuevos elementos de juicio sobre las medidas const...

  3. Historia doble de la Costa

    OpenAIRE

    Fals Borda, Orlando

    2002-01-01

    En esta segunda parte de la Historia doble de la Costa, Orlando Fals Borda prosigue el análisis histórico y social iniciado en el primer tomo: Mompox y Loba. Utilizando el método de cotejar el examen científico de la realidad con el punto de vista del pueblo y de ligar la actualidad con el pasado, el autor esclarece el sentido de la violencia en Colombia, representada en la simbología popular por la mariapalito o mantis, ese insecto de apariencia piadosa pero de acción certeramente cruel. E...

  4. Uranium milling: Draft generic environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains appendices supporting the discussions in Volume 1. In some cases, the appendices expound upon arguments developed in the main document; in other cases, supplementary material considered to be relevant but not presented in Volume 1 is included. A third category encompasses reprinting of pertinent documents felt to be necessary for a comprehensive presentation of the current situation, e.g., Public Law 95-604

  5. Computed tomography of appendiceal mucocele and peritoneal pseudomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peritoneal pseudomyxoma is a colloidal growth, which develops on the peritoneum, often secondary to an ovarian tumor or mucocele of the appendix. The conventional radiographic findings of appendiceal mucocele were described by Akerlund, and the CT-pseudomyxoma have been reported by Seshul and Coulam. The present case illustrates the CT-findings of an appendiceal mucocele as well as the complicating peritoneal pseudomyxoma. (orig.)

  6. Appendiceal immunoglobulin G4-related disease mimicking appendiceal tumor or appendicitis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Won Kyung; Chung, Dong Jin [Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an autoimmune disease that forms tumorous lesions. Several cases involving various organs are reported, however, IgG4-related disease involving appendix has not been reported yet. In this report, we presented a case of IgG4-related disease of appendix, which raised a suspicion of appendiceal tumor or usual appendicitis and, therefore, led to unnecessary surgical resection. IgG4-related disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a mass-like swelling of the appendix, in order to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  7. Single mothers and poverty in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T H; Oviedo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing average real family incomes in Costa Rica in the late 1990s and early 2000s, poverty rates did not fall. In this paper, we argue that during this period economic growth in Costa Rica did not translate into reduced poverty because of changes in family structure and in the labor market, and that these changes had an important gender dimension. Specifically, an increase in the proportion of Costa Rican households headed by single mothers led to an increase in the number of wom...

  8. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: a clinicopathologic analysis of 107 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdraji, Joseph; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Graeme-Cook, Fiona M; Balis, Ulysses J; Young, Robert H

    2003-08-01

    The classification of appendiceal mucinous tumors is controversial and terminology used for them inconsistent, particularly when they lack overtly malignant features but are associated with extra-appendiceal spread. We reviewed 107 appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and classified them as low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) (n = 88), mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACAs) (n = 16), or discordant (n = 3) based on architectural and cytologic features. LAMNs were characterized by a villous or flat proliferation of mucinous epithelium with low-grade atypia. Thirty-nine tumors were confined to the appendix, but 49 had extra-appendiceal tumor spread, including 39 with peritoneal tumor characterized by mucin pools harboring low-grade mucinous epithelium, usually dissecting in a hyalinized stroma. Eight of the 16 MACAs lacked destructive invasion of the appendiceal wall and eight showed an infiltrative pattern of invasion. Extra-appendiceal tumor spread was present in 12 MACAs (four peritoneum, seven peritoneum and ovaries; one ovaries only). In MACAs with an infiltrative pattern, peritoneal tumor consisted of glands and single cells in a desmoplastic stroma. The peritoneal tumor in the remaining cases consisted of mucin pools that contained mucinous epithelium with high-grade atypia and, in some cases, increased cellularity compared with that seen in peritoneal spread in cases of LAMN. Three cases were classified as discordant because the appendiceal tumors were LAMNs but the peritoneal tumors were high-grade. Follow-up was available for 49 LAMNs, 15 MACAs, and 2 discordant cases. None of the patients with LAMNs confined to the appendix experienced recurrence (median follow-up 6 years). LAMNs with extra-appendiceal spread were associated with 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates of 100%, 86%, and 45%, respectively. Patients with MACA had 3- and 5-year survival rates of 90% and 44%, respectively (p = 0.04). The bulk of peritoneal disease correlated with prognosis among

  9. Appendiceal diverticulitis and acute appendicitis: differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lobo-Machín

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute appendiceal diverticulitis is an unusual cause of acute abdomen, considered clinically indistinguishable from acute appendicitis. Material and methods: In a historic cohort study with 27 cases of appendiceal diverticulitis and 54 cases of acute appendicitis, we compared clinical characteristics, diagnostic tests and pathology findings of the two processes. Results: Mean age at presentation was lower in acute appendicitis (37.24 ± 19.98 vs. 54.81 ± 17.55 years, p < 0.001, with significant differences between men (33.33 ± 15.89 vs. 57 ± 18.02 years, p < 0.001 but not between women (41.76 ± 24.87 vs. 50.44 ± 16.69 years, p = 0.34. In the diverticulitis group, 48.15 % had leukocytosis vs. 81.48 % in the appendicitis group (p = 0.02; there was no difference in leukocyte count (13770.37 ± 4382.55 vs. 14279.63 ± 4268.59, p = 0.61. Patients with appendiceal diverticulitis had a higher incidence of appendiceal mucocele (p = 0.01 and a lower proportion of appendiceal gangrene (p = 0.03. There were no differences in appendiceal perforation or ulceration. Symptom duration before emergency department attendance (71.61 ± 85.25 hours vs. 36.84 ± 33.59 hours; Z = -3.1 p = 0.002, duration of surgery (85 ± 40 minutes vs. 60 ± 21 minutes, Z = -3.2, p = 0.001 and the presence of appendicular plastron was higher in patients with diverticulitis vs. appendicitis (8 vs. 5 patients (p = 0.01, Odds ratio 2.2. Conclusions: Appendiceal diverticulitis presents a series of clinical, epidemiological and pathological differences with respect to acute appendicitis. The former shows a more indolent course with delayed diagnosis.

  10. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author)

  11. Costos de Transacciones en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge; Rodríguez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we carry out the first formal estimation of the social cost of transactions in Costa Rica. The estimation considers transactions in cash and cards, covers the 2008- 2011 years and is based on the methodology applied by Bergman, Guibourg and Segendorf (2007) for Sweden, with adaptations specific for Costa Rica. We estimate that the social cost of transactions has remained relatively stable as a share of GDP during the years included. We assess that the importance of costs s...

  12. Costs of transactions in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Jorge; Rodríguez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we carry out the first formal estimation of the social cost of transactions in Costa Rica. The estimation considers transactions in cash and cards, covers the 2008- 2011 years and is based on the methodology applied by Bergman, Guibourg and Segendorf (2007) for Sweden, with adaptations specific for Costa Rica. We estimate that the social cost of transactions has remained relatively stable as a share of GDP during the years included. We assess that the importance of costs stemmin...

  13. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits tha...

  14. [Appendiceal peritonitis in childhood, antibiotic treatment with cefoxitin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristegui, J; de la Fuente, E; Pérez Legorburu, A; de Gárate, J

    1982-11-01

    Twenty one cases of appendiceal peritonitis in children are reviewed. An antibiotic (sodium cefoxitine) has been used during the post-operative course to decrease the risk of suppurative complications. Cultures obtained from peritoneal exudate yielded "E. coli" and "Bacteroides" sp. as the most commonly isolated bacteria. External drainage was placed as a rutine and the percentage of suppurative complications was 14%. No patient showed evidence of adverse reactions to the antibiotic and the mortality of the serie was zero. Obtained results allow to state that cefoxitine is effective in the management of appendiceal peritonitis in children.

  15. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  16. Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the technical appendices accompanying the report, "Funding California Schools: The Revenue Limit System." Included are: (1) Revenue Limit Calculation and Decomposition; (2) Data and Methods; and (3) Base Funding Alternative Simulation Results. (Contains 5 tables and 26 footnotes.) [For the main report, "Funding California…

  17. Appendiceal mass: Is interval appendicectomy "something of the past"?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul-Wahed Nasir Meshikhes

    2011-01-01

    The need for interval appendicectomy (I.A) after successful conservative management of appendiceal mass has recently been questioned. Furthermore, emergency appendicectomy for appendiceal mass is increasingly performed with equal success and safety to that performed in non-mass forming acute appendicitis. There is an increasing volume of evidence -although mostly retrospective- that if traditional conservative management is adopted, there is no need for routine I.A except for a small number of patients who continue to develop recurrent symptoms. On the other hand, the routine adoption of emergency laparoscopic appendicectomy (LA) in patients presenting with appendiceal mass obviates the need for a second admission and an operation for I.A with a considerable complication rate. It also abolishes misdiagnoses and deals promptly with any unexpected ileo-cecal pathology. Moreover, it may prove to be more cost-effective than conservative treatment even without I.A due to a much shorter hospital stay and a shorter period of intravenous antibiotic administration. If emergency LA is to become the standard of care for appendiceal mass, I.A will certainly become 'something' of the past.

  18. 24 CFR 904.309 - Use of appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or (2) with approval of HUD. The By-Laws of the Homebuyers Association is provided as a guide for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of appendices. 904.309 Section 904.309 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  19. Transmission System Vegetation Management Program. Draft Environmental Impact Statement - Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appendices covered in this Draft Environmental Impact Statement are: Appendix A--Public involvement; Appendix B--Biological weed control agents; Appendix C--BPA herbicide licensing plan; Appendix D--Sample educational information; Appendix E--Clearance criteria; Appendix F--USFS mitigation measures and background; Appendix G--BLM mitigation measures and background and Appendix H--Pesticide fact sheets

  20. Assessment of accident risks in the CRBRP. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-01

    Appendices to Volume I include core-related accident-sequence definition, CRBRP risk-assessment sequence-probability determinations, failure-probability data, accident scenario evaluation, radioactive material release analysis, ex-core accident analysis, safety philosophy and design features, calculation of reactor accident consequences, sensitivity study, and risk from fires.

  1. Business plan: Supplemental draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS

  2. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  3. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  4. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  5. The environmental energy sector programme. Poland: Appendices to feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contain Energy Law, Act of 10 April 1997 and also more specific details from the feasibility study for the procurement of a financial solution to the modernisation of the combined heat and power plant in the city of Zielona Gora, Poland. (EHS)

  6. Structural analysis of testicular appendices in patients with cryptorchidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme D. Tostes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Report the incidence and structure of testicular appendices (TAs in patients with cryptorchidism, comparing their incidence with epididymal anomalies (EA and patency of the vaginal process (PVP and analyzes the structure of TAs. Material and Methods We studied 72 testes of patients with cryptorchidism (average of 6 years, and 8 testes from patients with hydroceles (average of 9 years. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and PVP and prevalence and histology of the TAs. The appendices of 10 patients with cryptorchidism and 8 with hydrocele were dissected and embedded in paraffin and stained with Masson trichrome; Weigert and Picro-Sirius Red with polarization and immunohistochemistry analysis of the collagen type III fibers to observe collagen. The stereological analysis was done with the software Image Pro and Image J, using a grid to determine volumetric densities (Vv. Means were statistically compared using the ANOVA and unpaired T test (p < 0.05. Results Of the 72 testes with cryptorchidism, 20 (27.77% presented EA, 41 (56.9% had PVP and 44 (61.1% had TAs. Of the 44 testes with cryptorchidism and appendices, 30 (68.18% presented PVP and 11 (25% presented EA. There was no alteration of the epithelium in the appendices of patients in both groups. Stereological analysis documented the prevalence of ESFs (mean of 1.48%, prevalence of veins (mean of 10.11% and decrease (p = 0.14 of SMCs in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism (mean = 4.93%. Collagen III prevailed in the TAs of patients with cryptorchidism. Conclusion The testicular appendices presented significant structural alteration in the patients with cryptorchidism, indicating that TAs present a structural remodeling.

  7. Monitoraggio del relitto della nave Costa Concordia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Toppi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In seguito al disastro della Costa Concordia, le autorità locali e la Protezione Civile, che guidarono le operazioni di salvataggio, contattano il topografo Mauro Alessandroni e gli conferiscono l’incarico di monitorare gli eventuali movimenti della nave, per garantire l’incolumità delle squadre di soccorso durante la ricerca di superstiti intrappolati nel relitto.Costa Concordia wreck monitoringIn the aftermath of the Costa Concordia disaster, local authoritiesand the Civil Protection, leading the rescue operation,contacted the surveyor Mauro Alessandroni to monitor anymovement of the ship, to ensure the safety of teams assistanceduring the search for survivors trapped in the wreck.

  8. High-level microsatellite instability in appendiceal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Melissa W; Galbincea, John; Mansfield, Paul F; Fournier, Keith F; Royal, Richard E; Overman, Michael J; Rashid, Asif; Abraham, Susan C

    2013-08-01

    High-level microsatellite instability (MSI-high) is found in approximately 15% of all colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRCs) and in at least 20% of right-sided cancers. It is most commonly due to somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter region, with familial cases (Lynch syndrome) representing only 2% to 3% of CRCs overall. In contrast to CRC, MSI-high in appendiceal adenocarcinomas is rare. Only 4 MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas and 1 MSI-high appendiceal serrated adenoma have been previously reported, and the prevalence of MSI in the appendix is unknown. We identified 108 appendiceal carcinomas from MD Anderson Cancer Center in which MSI status had been assessed by immunohistochemistry for the DNA mismatch-repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 (n=83), polymerase chain reaction (n=7), or both (n=18). Three cases (2.8%) were MSI-high, and 1 was MSI-low. The 3 MSI-high cases included: (1) a poorly differentiated nonmucinous adenocarcinoma with loss of MLH1/PMS2 expression, lack of MLH1 promoter methylation, and lack of BRAF gene mutation, but no detected germline mutation in MLH1 from a 39-year-old man; (2) an undifferentiated carcinoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6, but no detected germline mutation in MSH2 or TACSTD1, from a 59-year-old woman; and (3) a moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenoma with loss of MSH2/MSH6 expression, in a 38-year-old man with a strong family history of CRC who declined germline testing. When the overall group of appendiceal carcinomas was classified according to histologic features and precursor lesions, the frequencies of MSI-high were: 3 of 108 (2.8%) invasive carcinomas, 3 of 96 (3.1%) invasive carcinomas that did not arise from a background of goblet cell carcinoid tumors, and 0 of 12 (0%) signet ring and mucinous carcinomas arising in goblet cell carcinoid tumors. These findings, in conjunction with the previously reported MSI-high appendiceal carcinomas, highlight the low prevalence of MSI

  9. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  10. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  11. Metates and Hallucinogens in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jones

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Metates are grinding stones on which corn and other substances are ground with hand-held stones called manos. A clue that grinding stones were associated with mushroom rituals is, for example, provided by a tripod metate from NW Costa Rica belonging to the period of the 2nd or 3rd century AD.

  12. Treatment of appendiceal mass– a qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Arnold; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: The analysis was based on the principles of a qualitative systematic review. The literature was searched in PubMed for the period from 1966 to March 2014. The articles were reviewed with respect to complications, treatment failure and hospital stay. Papers on post-operative intra...... in total 3,772 patients. Operation for appendiceal mass was beset with a moderate to high risk of complications of up to 57% and a risk of intestinal resection of up to 25%. Major complications were observed in up to 18% of cases. Conservative treatment with or without antibiotics was associated...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  13. Diagnostic Dilemma in Appendiceal Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka Akhilesh, Sali; Kamal Sunder, Yadav; Prasad, Pande; Asha, George Mary; Mohan, Agarwal; Hitesh, Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening infection seen in immunocompromised patients. It is usually seen in chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, the symptoms and signs may be masked due to ongoing corticosteroids. The condition may mimic bacterial appendicitis and the less serious condition, typhlitis. The disease demands prompt surgical debulking and aggressive antifungal treatment. However, surgery is delayed due to the poor performance status and severe neutropenia. This may lead to perforative peritonitis and further dissemination. The survival rates of such disease are dismal. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be confirmed only on histological examination of the surgically excised tissue. Very few cases have been reported so far. We present here once such a fatal case of appendiceal mucormycosis in a 14-year-old boy who was immunosuppressed due to intensive induction therapy for Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia.

  14. Diagnostic Dilemma in Appendiceal Mucormycosis: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka Akhilesh, Sali; Kamal Sunder, Yadav; Prasad, Pande; Asha, George Mary; Mohan, Agarwal; Hitesh, Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening infection seen in immunocompromised patients. It is usually seen in chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, the symptoms and signs may be masked due to ongoing corticosteroids. The condition may mimic bacterial appendicitis and the less serious condition, typhlitis. The disease demands prompt surgical debulking and aggressive antifungal treatment. However, surgery is delayed due to the poor performance status and severe neutropenia. This may lead to perforative peritonitis and further dissemination. The survival rates of such disease are dismal. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be confirmed only on histological examination of the surgically excised tissue. Very few cases have been reported so far. We present here once such a fatal case of appendiceal mucormycosis in a 14-year-old boy who was immunosuppressed due to intensive induction therapy for Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia. PMID:27635276

  15. Analysis of some nuclear waste management options. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, L.E.; Ensminger, D.A.; Giuffre, M.S.; Koplik, C.M.; Oston, S.G.; Pollak, G.D.; Ross, B.I.

    1978-10-10

    This report describes risk analyses performed on that portion of a nuclear fuel cycle which begins following solidification of high-level waste. Risks associated with handling, interim storage and transportation of the waste are assessed, as well as the long term implications of disposal in deep mined cavities. The risk is expressed in terms of expected dose to the general population and peak dose to individuals in the population. This volume consists of appendices which provide technical details of the work performed.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant design validation: Final report, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    This volume is comprised of the following appendices: DOE stipulated agreement with State of New Mexico (partial); geologic correlations; mathematical simulation of underground in situ behavior; C and SH shaft geologic logs and maps; waste shaft geologic logs and maps; exhaust shaft geologic log; test rooms geologic maps and sections; drift cross sections; facility level geologic core hole logs; geomechanical instrumentation data plots; and analytical data plots.

  17. Primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type with perforating peritonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguch H

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix is rare, especially the colonic type. We report a case of appendiceal adenocarcinoma of colonic type associated with perforating peritonitis after aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery. A 79-year-old woman presented with fever and pain in the right lower abdomen. She had undergone aorto-femoral artery bypass surgery due to arteriosclerosis obliterans 6 months earlier. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a suspected pool of fluid surrounding the artificial vessel and a mass lesion in the upper end of the fluid collection. These findings suggested localized peritonitis due to appendiceal perforation. Emergency laparotomy showed a pool of pus around the artificial vessel and inflamed appendix, which adhered to the surrounding tissue. The mass was excised in combination with an ileocaecal resection, followed by an ileocolic anastomosis. The histological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the appendix, colonic type. The tumour had infiltrated and obstructed the lumen of the orifice of the appendix, which may have caused perforation of the appendix. She was examined at regular periodic follow-ups and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was noted in the 12-month postoperative period. These findings indicate that, in cases of acute appendicitis, especially with perforation, the possibility of appendiceal adenocarcinoma should be considered.

  18. Costa Rica - An Army-less Nation Facing External Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Dall, Nana; Hammer Holm, Lasse; Kaas-Claesson, Kristina; McCay Martinez, Eamonn

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to explain how Costa Rica deal with external threats. Having abolished their military in 1948, the small state of Costa Rica situated in the conflict-ridden region of Central America, is internationally portrayed as an inspirational nation upholding peace and high morality. This has raised questions in regards to how Costa Rica upholds security in the event of threat. The project applies the International Relations theories of neo-liberalism and neo-realism to two cases: the...

  19. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: the phyla Sipuncula and Echiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, H K

    2001-12-01

    Fourteen species of Sipuncula belonging to 9 genera have been reported from Costa Rican waters, mostly from the Pacific coast. Three of these species are new records for Costa Rica (Phascolion strombus (Montagu 1804), Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) muelleri Diesing 1851, and Aspidosiphon (Aspidosiphon) gracilis schnehageni (W. Fisher 1946)). One species of Echiura, Thalassema steinbecki Fisher 1946, in the order Echiuroinea, has been reported from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:15264522

  20. Planning for tourism in Costa Smeralda

    OpenAIRE

    Cappai, Alesandra

    2012-01-01

    Studying tourism planning means understanding and assuming that tourism is not just a flux of tourists who move without leaving a trace, but a motor that physically transforms the territory due to the need to build infrastructure and tourist accommodation like hotels, second homes, attractions etc, which have contributed to major changes in previously untouched territories. Among them, the Costa Smeralda resort represents the most iconic and best known tourist destination of Sardinia. In...

  1. [Costa Rica mangroves: the north Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla; Cortés, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    Costa Rica has mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. In this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from Bahía Salinas, on the border with Nicaragua, to the tip of the Peninsula de Nicoya at Cabo Blanco. We provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. These mangrove communities are smaller in extension and tree sizes, and have lower diversity compared to the mangroves on the southern section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The dominant species are Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa along the canal edges, backed by Avicennia germinans, and farther inland Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. At Potrero Grande a healthy population of Pelliciera rhizophorae, a rare species, has been reported. We recognized 38 mangrove communities in this part of the country, based on the National Wetland Inventory, published papers, field observations, theses, technical reports, and the national topographic maps (1:50,000, Instituto Geográfico Nacional). Relatively detailed information could be found for only five mangrove forests, for 14 more only prelimary and incomplete lists of plants and in some cases of animal species are available, for nine there is even less information, and for nine more only their location is known, which in some cases was not correct. Detail mapping, characterization of the vegetation and fauna, physiological studies, analyses of biogeochemical and physical processes, economic valuations, and determination of the health status of the mangrove of the northern Pacific coast, as well as for the rest of Costa Rica, are neccesary and urgent. PMID:19928448

  2. Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Hernández Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de diseño de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.

  3. Analysis of the California solar resource. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, P.; Grether, D.; Martin, M.; Wahlig, M.

    1978-11-01

    The following appendices are included: summaries of conferences with solar data users; solar data user questionnaire and sample formats; evaluation of the solar data user questionnaire; remarks stimulated by the solar data user questionnaire; effects of solar data accuracy on the performance and economics of solar energy systems; summary of solar data measurements; reports of site visits to solar data measurement stations; data correction factors; the regionalization of California for solar monitoring; participants at the Solar Data Management Conference, 19 November 1976; and rehabilitation techniques for daily solar radiation data. (MHR)

  4. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  5. Low-Income Students and School Meal Programs in California. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    These technical appendices are intended to accompany the study, "Low-Income Students and School Meal Programs in California." Two appendices are included. Appendix A provides tables detailing: (1) the variables included in the main models and the datasets(s) used to construct each; (2) observations in each dataset and categorizes them…

  6. Students' Cognitive Processes While Learning from Teaching. Final Report: Appendices. (Volume Two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winne, Philip H.; Marx, Ronald W.

    These appendices present the protocols used in research (reported in Volume 1) on the cognitive processes of students while learning from teaching. Curriculum outlines are given for the videotaped lessons used in the second and third studies: lessons in sleep and elementary psychology. Included in the appendices are: (1) the illustrative script…

  7. Research reactor core conversion guidebook. V. 4: Fuels (Appendices I-K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 4 consists of detailed Appendices I-K, which contain useful information on the properties, irradiation testing, and specifications and inspection procedures for fuels with reduced uranium enrichments. Summaries of these appendices can be found in Chapters 9-11 of Volume 1 of this guidebook. Refs, figs, tabs and samples

  8. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System of... publishes with the Agency's systems of records under the Privacy Act of 1974. This notice publishes...

  9. Mark-up fluctuations and fiscal policy stabilization in a monetary union: Technical appendices not for publication

    OpenAIRE

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Jensen, H

    2003-01-01

    Technical appendices not for publication. Appendices belonging to: "Mark-up Fluctuations and Fiscal Policy Stabilization in a Monetary Union" (with Henrik Jensen), Journal of Macroeconomics, Vol.26, pp.357-376, 2004.

  10. Evaluation, engineering and development of advanced cyclone processes. Final separating media evaluation and test report (FSMER). Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report consists of appendices pertaining to the separating media evaluation (calcium nitrate solution) and testing for an advanced cyclone process. Appendices include: materials safety data, aqueous medium regeneration, pH control strategy, and other notes and data.

  11. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  12. GPS Monitoring of Subduction Zone Deformation in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The subduction of the Cocos plate beneath Costa Rica is among the highest convergence rates in the world. The high subduction rate and nearness of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica to the Middle America Trench (MAT) provide a unique opportunity to map variations in interseismic strain of the crust above the seismogenic zone in response to variations in seismic coupling.

  13. Acute abdominal pain presenting as a rare appendiceal duplication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Appendiceal duplication is a rare anomaly that can manifest as right lower quadrant pain. There are several variations described for this condition. We recommend aggressive operative management should this anatomical variation present in the presence of acute appendicitis. Case presentation We report the case of a 15-year-old African American girl who presented to our hospital with right lower quadrant pain and was subsequently found to have appendiceal duplication. Conclusion There are two categorical systems that have described and stratified appendiceal duplication. Both classification systems have been outlined and referenced in this case report. A computed tomography scan has been included to provide a visual aid to help identify true vermiform appendiceal duplication. The presence of this anatomical abnormality is not a reason for surgical intervention; however, should this be found in the setting of acute appendicitis, aggressive resection of both appendices is mandatory.

  14. Edificio Playa, en la Costa del Sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, Fernando

    1964-02-01

    Full Text Available This apartment block has been built on the Costa del Sol, in Almeria, only a few metres from the seashore. It is meant to provide the following facilities. Changing rooms for bathers, and a night club, in the basement. Restaurant and bar on the ground floor. Twelve living apartments on the six standard floor levels; two apartments per storey. Porter's house in the attic. As the foundations are in the sand, and the building is exposed to strong coastal winds, the structural design has, as interesting features, the foundation ribbed slab and the transversal portal frames, which are W shaped on the ground level. This arrangement makes the edifice look lighter and it acquires a more dynamic plasticity.En la Costa del Sol de Almería y a muy pocos metros de la orilla del mar, se ha construido este edificio de apartamentos. Su programa es el siguiente: casetas de baño y sala de fiestas, en sótano; restaurante-bar, en planta baja; doce viviendas, en las seis plantas tipo, con dos viviendas por planta; y vivienda del portero en ático. Cimentado sobre arena y expuesto a los fuertes vientos que azotan la costa, la solución estructural ofrece el interés de su tipo de cimentación por placa nervada, y de sus pórticos transversales que en planta baja adoptan forma de W, con lo que el edificio adquiere un aspecto de mayor ligereza y de dinamismo plástico.

  15. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas; Monserrat Sagot Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El r...

  16. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby Dolz; Leyda Ábrego; Luis E Romero; Liliana Campos-Calderón; Laura Bouza-Mora; Ana E Jiménez-Rocha

    2013-01-01

    La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Vete...

  17. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  18. Tiger Team Assessment of the Savannah River Site: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS), located in three countries (Aiken, Barnwell and Allendale), South Carolina. The Assessment was directed by the Department's Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) and was conducted from January 29 to March 23, 1990. The Savannah River Site Tiger Team Compliance Assessment was broad in scope covering the Environment, Safety and Health, and Management areas and was designed to determine the site's compliance with applicable Federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. The scope of the Environmental assessment was sitewide while the Safety and Health assessments included site operating facilities (except reactors), and the sitewide elements of Aviation Safety, Emergency Preparedness, Medical Services, and Packaging and Transportation. This report contains the appendices to the assessment

  19. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 2 Report. Volume 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Chiodini, Robert; Nelson, Richard A.; Huang, PoTien; Kruhm, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV), Orbital Space Plane, Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG) and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures. ECT was a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. RISM identified the three advance communication technologies investigated under ECT. These were Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Ultra Wideband (UWB). Due to the report s size, it has been broken into three volumes: 1) Main Report 2) Appendices 3) UWB

  20. Ehrlichiosis y anaplasmosis en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Dolz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La ehrlichiosis y la anaplasmosis son enfermedades infecciosas producidas por bacterias de la familia Anaplasmataceae y transmitidas por garrapatas. Ambas afectan, entre otras especies, al hombre, ocasionando sintomatología que puede ser asociada a un resfriado común o con signos clínicos compatibles con el dengue hemorrágico, patología que se presenta frecuentemente en Costa Rica. Tanto la ehrlichiosis como la anaplasmosis son consideradas también enfermedades de importancia en Medicina Veterinaria. A continuación se brinda una revisión sobre los hallazgos obtenidos en investigaciones realizadas en el país para determinar la presencia y distribución de Ehrlichia y Anaplasma en Costa Rica. Ehrlichia canis se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en el país y es la especie predominante en perros y garrapatas (Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Adicionalmente, se ha detectado, aunque en menor porcentaje, la presencia de Anaplasma platys y Anaplsma phagocytophilum en perros y sus garrapatas. También se ha determinado la presencia de A. phagocytophilum en un venado cola blanca, y de E. canis en humanos donadores de bancos de sangre mediante técnica serológica y molecular.

  1. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  2. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  3. Pathology of Mucinous Appendiceal Tumors and Pseudomyxoma Peritonei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Veena

    2016-06-01

    Neoplasms of the appendix are rare, but because of their unusual presentation and unpredictable biologic behavior, it is important to diagnose them correctly. Mucinous tumors account for 58 % of malignant tumors of appendix in SEER database and the remaining are carcinoids. The mucinous appendiceal tumors have a potential to spread to the peritoneum and viscera in the form of gelatinous material with or without neoplastic cells resulting in Pseudomyxoma peritonei. (PMP) PMP is a clinical entity that has a unique biological behavior and can arise from seemingly benign tumors to frankly malignant ones. Several classifications exist for PMP of which Ronnet's classification has been the most popular. In 2010, the WHO proposed a 2 tier classification that classified PMP as either low grade or high grade based on the presence of mucin, cytological and architectural features. According to this classification when the underlying cause for PMP is an appendiceal tumor it is always a mucinous adenocarcinoma rather than a mucocoele or adenoma and these terms should no longer be used. This system of classification helps in predicting the behavior of the tumor and proper treatment strategies. The understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease has also improved with identification of newer biomarkers and molecular genetic alterations. IHC markers CK 20, CDX2 and MUC2 are found to be positive in these tumors in addition to KRAS mutation and loss of heterozygosity in some gene loci. Proper histopathologic classification and predicting the tumor behavior requires a close interaction between the pathologist and the surgeon. The use of the combined modality treatment of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has led to a 5-year survival ranging from 62.5 % to 100 % for low grade, and 0 %-65 % for high grade disease. This article focuses on the etiopathogenesis, clinical behavior, diagnosis and classification of mucinous tumors of the

  4. What is the optimal treatment for appendiceal mass formed after acute perforated appendicitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enver Zerem; Goran Imamovi(c); Farid Ljuca; Jasmina Alid(z)anovi(c)

    2012-01-01

    We read with great interest the editorial article by Meshikhes AWN published in issue 25 of World J Gastroenterol 2011.The article described the advantages of emergency laparoscopic appendectomy compared with interval appendectomy as a new safe treatment modality for the appendiceal mass.The author concluded that the emergency laparoscopic appendectomy was a safe treatment modality for the appendiceal mass,and might prove to be more cost-effective than conservative treatment,with no need for interval appendectomy.However,we would like to highlight certain issues regarding the possibility of percutaneous catheter drainage to successfully treat the appendiceal mass,with no need for appendectomy,too.

  5. Erosión en las costas de Costa Rica, un problema de todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizano Rodríguez, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Presenta un análisis de las causas que provocan cambios en el mar y por ende producen erosión a nivel general y en las costas costarricenses, como lo es el cambio climático, el fenómeno de El Niño, mal manejo de cuencas hidrográficas, entre otros. Describe las principales evidencias que han encontrado en las playas del Pacifico y del Mar Caribe del país. Expone una serie de conclusiones It presents an analysis of the causes that provoke changes in the sea and cause general erosion and in the Costa Rican coasts, such as the climate change, El Niño phenomenon, and bad administration of the watersheds, among others. It describes the main evidences found at the Pacific beaches and the Caribbean ocean of the country. It presents a series of conclusions

  6. Historia de la dermatología en Costa Rica History of dermatology in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo Antillón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la historia de la medicina, la dermatología tiene grandes contribuciones, sin embargo, para nuestro país existen pocos datos que documenten los apartes de estos excelentes dermatólogos en la salud pública costarricense. Se realizó este estudio, con el objetivo de presentar una revisión histórica del desarrollo de la dermatología en Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos: Se realizaron entrevistas personales y a familiares de los que se mencionan en el documento. Se revisaron memorias de congresos y publicaciones de revistas nacionales e internacionales. Resultados: La dermatología clínica en Costa Rica,se inició en el Hospital San Juan de Dios. El Dr. Emilio Echeverría y Aguilar fue el primer dermatólogo en Costa Rica. El que más influencia tuvo en el desarrollo de la dermatología tropical fue el Dr. Antonio Peña Chavarría. El Dr. Julio César Ovares Arias se destacó como primer Presidente del Colegio de Médicos y Cirujano y primer Director Médico de la Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social. El Dr. Elfrén Solano Aguilar fue el primer profesor de dermatología, en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El Dr. Orlando Jaramillo Antillón creó el primer programa de posgrado en dermatología. Conclusiones: La dermatología ha cambiado mucho, se inició luchando contra las enfermedades tropicales y nutricionales, actualmente luchamos con el alarmante aumento del cáncer de la piel, enfermedades autoinmunes, síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y enfermedades iatrogénicas medicamentosas. Hemos aprendido de aquellos que nos precedieron en esta especialidad y debemos aprender para poder practicar la ciencia y el arte de la dermatología modernaIntroduction: Throughout medical history, dermatology has made great contributions, although for our country there is little data concerning the contributions made by the excellent dermatologists in Costa Rican public health care. Materials and methods: In order to obtain this

  7. Environmental radiological studies downstream from the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Generating Station - 1985. Appendices. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight appendices address the following concentrations of radionuclides: in fish; in frog legs; in crayfish; in sediments; in soil samples; in surface and ground water samples; in water hyacinths; and in beef samples

  8. Socioeconomic effects of the DOE Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant. Volume 2: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains 18 appendices: schools; fire protection; law enforcement; water and sewer systems; solid waste; health care; transportation; recreation; labor force; economic effects; finance; school finance; bibliography; contacts; project methodology; service impacts; reference tables; and response to comments

  9. Final safety analysis report for the Galileo Mission: Volume 2, Book 2: Accident model document: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-15

    This section of the Accident Model Document (AMD) presents the appendices which describe the various analyses that have been conducted for use in the Galileo Final Safety Analysis Report II, Volume II. Included in these appendices are the approaches, techniques, conditions and assumptions used in the development of the analytical models plus the detailed results of the analyses. Also included in these appendices are summaries of the accidents and their associated probabilities and environment models taken from the Shuttle Data Book (NSTS-08116), plus summaries of the several segments of the recent GPHS safety test program. The information presented in these appendices is used in Section 3.0 of the AMD to develop the Failure/Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) and to determine the fuel releases (source terms) resulting from the potential Space Shuttle/IUS accidents throughout the missions.

  10. Chronic appendicitis and complete appendiceal invagination: UC, CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appendiceal intussusception is a rare entity. Usually there is a predisposing factor such as a tumor, mucocele, etc. We report the case of a 61 years old female patient, with recurrent abdominal pain, localized in the right lower quadrant. We performed different diagnostic imaging exams including: double-contrast barium enema, enteroclysis, ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. After endoscopy a surgical procedure removed the appendix. The pathological anatomy confirmed the diagnosis of an appendiceal intussusception, complicated with a chronic inflammatory process. Appendiceal intussusception and chronic appendicitis are infrequent; it is even more uncommon the association of both entities. In addition, it was not found a predisposing cause to intussusception. For the reasons described above, we conclude that this case is an unusual presentation of appendiceal intussusception, not previously reported. (author)

  11. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  12. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipality in Estonia, chapter nine, gives data related to general economic assumptions for financial and economic calculations, fuel consumption, financing, prices, fuel consumption. (ARW)

  13. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

  14. Component Fragility Research Program: Phase 1, Demonstration tests: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appendices are presented which contain information concerning: details of controller and relay installation; resonance search transmissibility plots; time-history data from runs 17, 31, 46, and 56; and response spectra from runs 17, 31, 46, and 56

  15. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 contains the following appendices: Severe accident data; truck accident data; railroad accident data; highway survey data and bridge column properties; structural analysis; thermal analysis; probability estimation techniques; and benchmarking for computer codes used in impact analysis. (LN)

  16. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  17. The 2008 Trade Fairs of China in Costa Rica Opens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 Trade Fairs of the People's Republic of China in Costa Rica, host-ed by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, opened grandly on September 11 local time in San Jose International Confer-ence Center.

  18. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  19. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  20. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  1. Femicidio en Costa Rica: balance mortal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carcedo Cabañas

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Para muchas mujeres y niñas la familia es el grupo social más violento y el hogar el lugar más peligroso. Si se compara los soldados americanos muertos en la guerra de Vietnam 57685, contra mas de 70000 mujeres asesinadas en los hogares de Vietnam en el mismo periodo se comprende la magnitud de lo que estamos hablando. En Costa Rica, país de paz, de las mujeres que han acudido a pedir ayuda a CEFEMINA, 15% han sido atacadas con armas de fuego, 31 % con arma blanca, 24% con otros objetos. El riesgo de muerte es parte de la vivencia cotidiana de muchas mujeres, 58% han sentido peligro de morir en manos de su agresor, 47% han pensado suicidarse, 48% ha tenido que dejar su hogar por miedo de morir. En el presente estudio se detectan 44 homicidios de mujeres (Femicidio, que no aparecen en los anuarios del Organismo de Investigación Judicial, haciendo del subregistro de agresiones otra forma de hacer violencia contra las mujeres.For many women and young girls, the family circle is the most violent and harmful enviroment to be in. Contrasting more than 70000 women died in their own homes to the 57685 american soldiers who died in Vietnan during the war, we realize this is a big issue. In Costa Rica, land of peace, from all the women to go to CEFEMINA for help, 15% were harmed with gums, 31 % with knifes, 24% with others objects. The risk of dying is part of the daily life of many women, 58% have felt the danger of dying in the hands of their aggressor, 47% consider suicide, 48% have lo leave their homes from fear of dying. In this study we detect 44 cases of homicide of women (Femicide which were not inciuded in the yearbook of the Organismo de lnvestigacion Judicial, thus, making this subregistry, another way to make violence against women.

  2. Chronic abdominal pain, appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and concurrent intestinal endometriosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kurogochi Takanori; Fujita Tetsuji; Iida Naoko; Etoh Ken; Ogawa Masaichi; Yanaga Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Although both appendiceal tumor and intestinal endometriosis have been reported as rare causes of abdominal pain, the coexistence of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and ileal endometriosis has not previously been reported. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese woman presented with a positive fecal occult blood test and a 3-year history of menstruation-related lower abdominal pain. A colonoscopy demonstrated extrinsic compression of the cecum, suggesting a mass arising f...

  3. Economic evaluation of the annual cycle energy system (ACES). Final report. Volume III, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume consists of seven appendices related to ACES, the first three of which are concerned with computer programs. The appendices are entitled: (A) ACESIM: Residential Program Listing; (B) Typical Inputs and Outputs of ACESIM; (C) CACESS: Commercial Building Program Listing; (D) Typical Weather-Year Selection Requirements; (E) Building Characteristics; (F) List of Major Variables Used in the Computer Programs; and (G) Bibliography. 79 references.

  4. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

  5. Program of payments for forest environmental services in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Malavasi, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) implemented in Costa Rica is an alternative approach to halt environmental degradation derived from deforestation in low income nations. In this system, land owners are contracted for the ecological services they produce when they adopt land uses and forest management activities that do not affect negatively the environment and maintain people's life quality. The Costa Rican program of environmental services aims to protect primary forest...

  6. Heating plan for Denmark. Appendices; Varmeplan Danmark. Bilagsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-10-15

    Today, district heating supplies 46% of the Danish net heating demand. The present report analyses whether it will be feasible for Denmark to extend the share of district heating or whether other alternatives are better. The analysis relates to the government's and parliament's plans to reduce Denmark's CO{sub 2} emission in the short term as well as to transfer the energy supply to be based fully on renewable energy sources in the long term. The appendix volume contains 15 appendices: 1) Heating map; 2) The potential of a future district heating extension; 3) The characteristics of the district heat distribution system; 4) Model for the Danish district heat distribution net; 5) Heating savings through extra insulation; 6) Supply to new built-up areas with district heating; 7) Supply to new built-up areas from central heating plants; 8) The potential of using waste heat; 9) The potential of using biogas; 10) The potential of using large scale solar heat; 11) Use of local straw resources; 12) Cogeneration optimization; 13) Scenario analyses; 14) The potential of cost effective heating savings; 15) Model of heating plan for Denmark (ln)

  7. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  8. Florecimientos de dinoflagelados nocivos en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribelle Vargas Montero

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1979 se han reportado florecimientos de especies de microalgas nocivas (FAN en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, reconociéndose hasta el 2005 al menos 13 taxa de dinoflagelados. En años recientes estos fenómenos se han intensificado tanto espacial como temporalmente, produciéndose discoloraciones casi ininterrumpidas que se extienden por toda la costa produciendo mortalidad de peces y fetidez en el agua. Tales FAN masivos se iniciaron con Pyrodinium bahamense en el 2000, quien perduró por más de un año y en el cual se observaron morfotipos correspondientes a las dos variedades de la especie, coexistiendo junto a Gymnodinium catenatum y ocasionando serios casos de Intoxicación Paralizante por Consumo de Mariscos (IPM. Posteriormente, de septiembre del 2003 hasta junio del 2004, Cochlodinium cf. polykrikoides produjo discoloraciones en toda la costa Pacífica, seguidas por manchas extensas de Akasiwo sanguinea y Gymnodinium instriatum. El evento más reciente se observó en junio del 2005 cuando Alexandrium monilatum produjo extensas discoloraciones con cadenas formadas por más de 100 células. Los FAN de dinoflagelados ahora son comunes en las costas de Costa Rica, posiblemente como resultado de las condiciones ambientales actuales que favorecen la proliferación masiva de especies invasivas (agresivas, las cuales incluso pueden afectar otros sitios del Pacífico americano como es el caso de P. bahamense var. compressum que puede desplazarse hasta México, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico centroamericano a través de la Corriente Costera de Costa Rica y la Corriente Occidental Mexicana.Since 1979 has been reported harmful microalgae blooms (HAB on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, it was identified until 2005 at least 13 taxa of dinoflagellates. In recent years these phenomena have intensified both spatially and temporarily, discolorations occur almost uninterrupted; they are distributed for months and which extend along the

  9. El primer equipo interdisciplinario de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Navarro Villalobos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El abuso sexual es un conjunto de actitudes de un sujeto que realiza en detrimento de otro, generalmente menor, para su autosatisfacción. Las estadísticas de los diferentes países apuntan a que se está convirtiendo en una epidemia que nos está asfixiando. La prevención de la revictimización, una política establecida en el Poder Judicial de Costa Rica desde hace más de diez años, dio como fruto la conformación de los equipos interdisciplinarios. Al inicio, estos abarcaron una serie de disciplinas tan disímiles entre sí, que comprendían tanto el derecho, como la medicina, la psicología, el trabajo social y la psiquiatría. Con el paso de los años los equipos se fueron reduciendo hasta quedar conformados por el psicólogo, el trabajador social y el médico forense, que asiste a una reunión semanal con ellos y en donde se discuten las diferentes conclusiones de las tres disciplinas. Hoy en día son equipos establecidos prácticamente en todas las cabeceras de provincia de nuestro país con funciones periciales muy específicas en el tratamiento legal de las causas de los delitos sexuales.Sexual Abuse is series of actitudes of a subject, Which he realize in detriment of other, usually younger, for his self satisfaction. The statistics of differents countries shows that this issue is torning into epidemics amounts ant its suffocating us. Prevention in revictimation is a policy established in Costa Rica for over a decade and for this we has had form interdisciplinary teams. In early times those temas had a lot of uncompatible disciplines soch as team is formed by only three members: the forensic doctor, the psychologist and the social worker, ehom attent to a weekly metting to analize the different conclusions of each especiallist. Actually there are teams established in almost all head of province in our country with percial function well established in the legal treatment of the causes of these crimes.

  10. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Gómez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste trabajo utiliza datos de las Encuestas Comparativas de Fecundidad de América Latina, así como de la Encuesta Mundial de Fecundidad para estudiar las tendencias y diferenciales en el espaciamiento de los nacimientos entre las mujeres alguna vez casadas en Costa Rica durante el período 1945-1974. Una buena parte de la atención se pone en el ritmo de la fecundidad en las etapas umbral, temprana y tardía de la disminución de la fecundidad que este país experimentó durante los años sesenta y principios de los setenta. Los resultados muestran bastante similitud en el tempo de la reproducción en los diferentes niveles paridez y áreas geográficas. Sin embargo, un análisis de las variables del entorno que afectan espaciamiento de los nacimientos muestra diferencias entre las zonas urbanas y rurales. Por último, se postula que el reciente estancamiento en las tasas de período puede ser una consecuencia de los cambios en el tempo de construcción de la familia, con mujeres de baja paridez que postergan los nacimientos, lo que contrarresta las tendencias de descenso que generan las mujeres de mayor paridez quienes aún pueden estar restringiendo su reproducción.ABSTRACTThis paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birthspacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas.However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of

  11. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each Appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  14. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 2 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume II, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  15. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  16. MOVING MULTI TARGET DETECTION USING COSTAS SIGNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANMADHARAO.G,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, radar is used in a wide variety of applications including defense, air traffic control, meteorology, and even mapping. Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR involves the nterpretation of a signal to determine characteristics of targets. With the unavoidable presence of various types of interference, signalprocessing is naturally an important part of any radar system. In this paper, we used a series of 8 bit costas sequence [2], each pulse having a length of 5 microseconds. The interpulse period was 200 microseconds and the radar return receive window started 20 icroseconds after pulse transmission and ended 170 microseconds later. The radar system sampling rate and carrier frequency were 10MHz (2x over sampling and 5GHz respectively. The noise was Gaussian and had a standard deviation of 2 relative to the signal amplitude. With these parameters detectable targets lay in between 3.7 km to 29.0 km away, and moved with a speed under 53 m/s.

  17. Cultivo protegido de hortalizas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramírez Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La horticultura en Costa Rica se ha desarrollado principalmente a campo abierto y se ha concentrado en el Valle Central donde predominan las actividades de expansión urbanística y comercial. Muchos de los problemas asociados a la producción hortícola se centran en la alta presencia de plagas y enfermedades que obligan al productor a utilizar plaguicidas químicos con consecuencias nocivas para el ambiente: la horticultura a campo abierto se vuelve muy contaminante e insostenible. Una alternativa productiva pueden ser los sistemas de cultivos protegidos, en los que se usan estructuras, materiales y equipo; posibilitan la producción de hortalizas en climas adversos y facilitan el control de plagas y enfermedades. Estos sistemas se han usado ampliamente a nivel mundial con gran éxito, pero a nivel del trópico es necesaria la investigación en este campo con el objetivo de implementar o modificar el sistema para que favorezca la producción sostenible de hortalizas.

  18. los parques nacionales de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poas es el más visitado de Costa Rica, dado su fácil acceso, cercanía relativa a los grandes centros de población del país y buenas carreteras. Entre Marzo y Abril del 2006 producto de unas erupciones intra-cratéricas el parque tuvo que ser cerrado por tres semanas. El estudio reportado estima el impacto económico del cierre del parque en los negocios que sirven a los turistas en las comunidades vecinas, durante las tres semanas que el parque permaneció cerrado. Los resultados presentados son producto de un censo económico efectuado a los 28 negocios directamente afectados. Esta clase de información y metodología permite a las comunidades que pasará en términos de impacto económico en pequeñas comunidades y así evitar frustraciones en las mismas en materia de beneficios económicos esperados y no materializados.

  19. Normal patterns of 18F-FDG appendiceal uptake in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavey, Hamilton E. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine Molecular Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alazraki, Adina L.; Simoneaux, Stephen F. [Emory University, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Division of Pediatric Imaging, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Prior to interpreting PET/CT, it is crucial to understand the normal biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). It is also important to realize that the normal biodistribution can vary between adults and children. Although many studies have defined normal patterns of pediatric FDG uptake in structures like the thymus, brown fat and bone marrow, patterns of normal pediatric bowel activity, specifically uptake within the appendix, have not been well described. Active lymphoid tissue has increased FDG uptake when compared with inactive tissue. Since children have more active lymphoid tissue than adults, and because the appendix contains aggregated lymphoid tissue, we postulated that appendiceal uptake may be increased in pediatric patients. To define the normal level of appendiceal FDG activity in children by evaluating a series of consecutive FDG PET/CT scans performed for other indications. After obtaining IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed 128 consecutive whole-body pediatric FDG PET/CT examinations obtained for a variety of clinical indications. CT scans on which the appendix could not be visualized were excluded from analysis. CT scans on which the appendix could be visualized were evaluated for underlying appendiceal pathology. Studies with appendiceal or periappendiceal pathology by CT criteria were excluded. A region of interest (ROI) was placed over a portion of each appendix and appendiceal maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated. If an adjacent loop of bowel activity interfered with accurate measurements of the appendix SUVmax, the scan was excluded from the analysis. A chart review was performed on patients with elevated appendiceal SUVmax values to ensure that the patients did not have clinical symptomatology suggestive of acute appendicitis. When the appendix or a portion of the appendix could be visualized and accurately measured, the SUVmax was determined. SUVmax of the appendix was compared to the SUVmax of normal liver and

  20. ALGEBRAICALLY CONSTRUCTED COSTAS ARRAYS WITH SMALL NUMBER OF CROSS-COINCIDENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yixian

    2000-01-01

    Eight families of Costas arrays with ideal cross-coincidence are algebraically constructed under the assumption that the vertical shifts are appropriately bounded. These Costas arrays are useful for designing multiple Costas waveforms with small crossambiguities, if the potential Doppler shifts are restricted to a small portion of the waveform bandwidth.

  1. Personality Traits Change in Adulthood: Reply to Costa and McCrae (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Walton, Kate E.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In a response to comments by P. T. Costa, Jr., and R. R. McCrae on the current authors' original article, the authors show that Costa and McCrae's writings on personality suggest a belief in immutability of personality traits. The authors agree with Costa and McCrae that new personality trait models that provide an accurate lower order structure…

  2. Newton da Costa and the school of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artibano Micali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to report on the beginning of the publications of Newton da Costa outside Brazil. Two mathematicians played an important role in this beginning: Marcel Guillaume from the University of Clermont-Ferrand and Paul Dedecker from the Universities of Lille and Liège. At the same time we recall the role played by Newton da Costa and Jayme Machado Cardoso in the development of what we call here the School of Curitiba [Escola de Curitiba]. Paraconsistent logic was initiated in this school under the influence of Newton da Costa. As another contribution of this school we mention the development of the theory of quasigroups; Jayme Machado Cardoso's name has been given, by Sade, to some particular objects which are now called Cardoso quasigroups.

  3. Muertes relacionadas con cocaina en Costa Rica durante 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cocaína en Costa Rica es un problema creciente y muchas de lasmuertes pueden ser causadas por situaciones en las cuales la droga está involucrada. En este estudio todas las autopsias médico legales hechas en 1996 en este país fueron analizadas con el objeto de determinar la mortalidad y por lo tanto el impacto que ella genera en la sociedad costarricense.The cocaine consumption in Costa Rica is a growing problem and a lot of deaths can be caused by the situations in wich the drug is involved. In this study all the medicolegal autopsies done in 1996 in this country were analized to figure out the mortality and therefore, the impact it generates in Costa Rican society.

  4. The safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors. A scientific and technical review. Vol. 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These appendices contain seven detailed elaborations of matters covered more superficially in the Technical Report. They have been written by well-known authorities, or by the professional staff of the Review. They are essential supplements to the condensed material of the Technical Report. Several of the appendices contain detailed recommendations. Some of these have been incorporated into the Review's overall conclusions and recommendations. Others stand alone, as the opinions of the appendices' authors. I am in broad agreement with most of them, but have preferred to leave them within the authors' material. I hope that they will be given detailed study by appropriate bodies, especially Ontario Hydro and the Atomic Energy Control Board

  5. 2004 Power marketing program final EIS - final environmental impact statement. Volume 2 - appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains appendices to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Power Marketing Program proposal of the Western Area Power Administration. The FEIS identified peaking power scheduling as the environmentally preferred alternative, and presented the analysis of alternatives and environmental impacts. Sixteen appendices to the FEIS are included in this document. The appendices are: Statutory and Legal Framework; Sierra Nevada Region Customer Groups and Economic Regions; Renewable Technology Cost Information Matrix; Hydrological Assumptions; Recreation Resources; Archaeological and Historical Resources; Incremental Power Resources; Air Quality Regulatory Structure; Energy Generation; Stage Contents Relationships for Regulating Reservoirs; Power Costs; Socioeconomic Impacts; Projected Air Resource Impacts; Land use, Water Quality, and Solid Waste Impact Factors; Draft Environmental Impact Statement Comments and Responses, and Contractor Disclosure Statements. 21 figs., 24 tabs

  6. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  7. Maps of ultraviolet radiation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has contributed relatively little energy to the solar spectrum; but is important, because it is biologically active. The software Surfer 8 has created maps designed of the territory of Costa Rica to assess the maximum levels of solar UV radiation on a horizontal plane. The data were used in creating the maps, were predicted at local noon in eighty-three locations scattered across the country, with a spectral atmospheric model which is physically established. The model has used as input data: the date and time, the location identified by latitude, longitude and height of land above sea level, the value of the vertical column ozone, surface albedo and atmospheric turbidity parameters. The estimate differs by 3% of the measurements made in situ, which agrees with the experimental data. The model has used the data estimation of UV radiation, clear sky conditions, which is the condition where you get the maximum energy possible in each locality. This is of fundamental importance when assessing the adverse effects on human health, leads the maximum intensity in this important solar spectrum band. A larger increase of 23% has presented in the UV radiation with altitude obtaining the hills and mountains the highest rates and places located at sea level and the lowest cost, the indices. The annual variation analysis has revealed an increase greater than 27% from the month of lowest UV radiation (December) and the month of greatest UV radiation (April). The issue is of particular interest because of the increasing number of people moving at different times of the year, altitudes over 2000 m altitude, in activities relating to tourism and employment. These individuals are significant increases in levels of UV solar radiation under conditions of clear skies. (author)

  8. Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae hydroids from Costa Rica (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Vargas, Rita

    2002-06-01

    This paper is the first taxonomic account of the hydroid orders Anthoathecatae and Leptothecatae from the Caribbean and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens are currently stored at the reference collection of the Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Sixteen hydroid species are recorded: Eudendrium carneum, Pennaria disticha, Acryptolaria longitheca, Plumularia floridana, Halopteris polymorpha, Aglaophenia dubia, Aglaophenia latecarinata, Lytocarpia tridentata, Macrorhynchia phillipina, Macrorhynchia sp., Clytia gracilis, Cnidoscyphus marginatus, Thyroscyphus ramosus, Dynamena disticha, Sertularella diaphana, and Tridentata distans. An extensive synonymy has been given for each species. A simplified taxonomic key is included, and illustrations and descriptions are provided for each species.

  9. Engineering of the Stellarator of Costa Rica: SCR-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J.; Vargas, V. I.; Otarola, C.; Piedra, C.; Jimenez, W.; Esquivel, L.; Esquivel, R.; Sanchez, K.; Gonzalez, J.; Asenjo, J.; Fonseca, L.

    2015-03-01

    This Paper aims at briefly describing the challenge of the design and construction of the Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1) [1]. The SCR-1 is a small modular Stellarator for magnetic confinement of plasma (Ro=0.238 m, =0.059 m, Ro/a>4.0, expected plasma volume ≈ 0.016 m3, 10 mm thickness 6061-T6 aluminum vacuum vessel) developed by the Plasma Laboratory for Fusion Energy and Applications of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR).

  10. Incidental finding of appendiceal adenocarcinoma in F 18 FDG PET/CT for health screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) that simultaneously offers anatomic and metabolic information is widely used and has become an effective modality in many clinical fields, especially oncology, and also may detect an unexpected primary cancer. Appendiceal carcinoma is relatively uncommon and not associated with characteristic symptoms. We report the case of a 53 year old man with appendiceal adenocarcinoma, who had only mild fever. The tumor was detected early on F 18 FDG PET/CT for health screening

  11. Linkage between Graduate Medical Education Training Practice Profiles in Psychiatry, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Family Practice. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SysteMetrics, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA.

    Provided are appendices for a study which examined the relationship between graduate medical education (GME) and practice profiles in three specialties: family practice, psychiatry, and obstetrics/gynecology. Appendix A includes materials related to methodology of the study. Appendices B-D include supplementary materials for family practice,…

  12. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  13. Synchronous occurrence of appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma, with colon adenocarcinoma and tubulovillous rectal adenoma: Management and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemis, Nikolaos S.; Nakos, Georgios; Katikaridis, Ilias; Zografidis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele (AM) is a rare clinical entity comprising 8% of all appendiceal tumors, and it is seen in 0.2-0.3% of all appendectomy specimens. Apart from sporadic cases, there are no enough published data about the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors in patients with colorectal cancer. We describe a very rare case of synchronous occurrence of AM, colon adenocarcinoma, and tubulovillous adenoma of the rectum and review the relevant literature. We conclude that thorough preoperative and perioperative evaluations are mandatory in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer to exclude a synchronous colon or an appendiceal primary tumor. Larger prospective studies are necessary to accurately determine the incidence of synchronous appendiceal tumors and colorectal cancer. PMID:27433069

  14. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  15. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO activists,…

  16. CREADS, a Teacher Training Course on ESD in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Elizondo, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    After the Costa Rican government signed a commitment to implement the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), the challenge was how to put the commitment into action. Fortunately, an opportunity presented itself with an initiative called Peace with Nature (Iniciativa Paz con la Naturaleza-IPN), under which a teacher training…

  17. Rewriting Citizenship? Civic Education in Costa Rica and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, David F.

    2008-01-01

    To what degree are nations "rewriting" citizenship by expanding discussions of human rights, diversity and cultural pluralism in modern civic education, and what explains variation between countries? This study addresses these issues by analysing the intended content of civic education in Costa Rica and Argentina. Over time, civic education in…

  18. Environmental Education for Democracy and Social Justice in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on how democratic values and citizenship education are promoted through environmental education in Costa Rica. Data were collected through the examination of textbook and curriculum guides and interviews with classroom teachers. The qualitative study utilized Bowers' (2001) and Gruenewald's (2003) theories of eco-justice and…

  19. Acrokerato - elastoidosis of costa: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Renu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa are reported. All the patients were females with marginal keratodermas composed of cornified papules, some of which were umbilicated, distributed along the borders of the hands and feet. A positive family history was present in all the cases.

  20. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces. PMID:9246370

  1. Situation of Drug Information Centers and Services in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall V

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHO establishes guidelines that must be met by drug information centers (DIC and the drug information services (DIS. Objective: To describe the operations, activities, and resources of the DICs and the DISs affiliated with public institutions of Costa Rica, and their adjustment to the provisions set forth by the PAHO. Methods: Descriptive study conducted in May 2003. The officers in charge of each of the seven public DICs or DISs in Costa Rica were interviewed, and inquiries were made regarding aspects of the structure and process of their centers. Results: In Costa Rica there are seven public drug information units, that is, four DICs and three DISs. One of the DICs is located in this university, and the remaining six centers and services are in located in hospitals. Five of the centers do not have the primary sources required by the PAHO. Fifteen out of the 36 tertiary sources recommended are not available in any of the centers. 100% of the information units carry out four main activities: answering inquiries from the hospital community, answering inquiries from users outside the hospital, implementing education programs for patients and risk groups, and rotation programs for student training. Conclusions: The activities developed by the DISs and the DICs in Costa Rica are similar to each other; they respond not only to the PAHO’s guidelines, but they also have similarities with the activities and operations of other DICs worldwide. Primary, secondary, and tertiary bibliographical support must be strengthened.

  2. Tetrodotoxin: Occurrence in atelopid frogs of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y H; Brown, G B; Mosher, F A

    1975-07-11

    The potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, which has previously been found in puffer fish of the order Tetraordontiformes, a goby (Gobius criniger), and the California newt (Taricha torosa), has now been identified in the skins of frogs of the genus Atelopus from Costa Rica. PMID:1138374

  3. 50 CFR 23.4 - What are Appendices I, II, and III?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FLORA (CITES) Introduction § 23.4 What are Appendices I, II, and III? Species are listed by the Parties... permits and certificates (CITES documents). Such documents enable Parties to monitor the effects of the... appearance to other related CITES species. (c) Appendix III includes species listed unilaterally by a...

  4. Chronic abdominal pain, appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and concurrent intestinal endometriosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurogochi Takanori

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although both appendiceal tumor and intestinal endometriosis have been reported as rare causes of abdominal pain, the coexistence of appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and ileal endometriosis has not previously been reported. Case presentation A 41-year-old Japanese woman presented with a positive fecal occult blood test and a 3-year history of menstruation-related lower abdominal pain. A colonoscopy demonstrated extrinsic compression of the cecum, suggesting a mass arising from the appendix or adjacent structures. Abdominal imaging showed a 6-cm cystic mass with intraluminal thick fluids originating from the appendix. At ileocecal resection for an appendiceal tumor, a 2-cm mass in the terminal ileum was incidentally found, which was included in the surgical specimen. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of a mucinous neoplasm of the appendix with endometriosis of the terminal ileum. Conclusions To avoid urgent surgery for subsequent serious events associated with disease progression, appendiceal tumor and intestinal endometriosis should be ruled out in patients with chronic abdominal pain.

  5. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  6. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Volume III. Appendices. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    A design study for a 100 MW gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle solar/fossil-fuel hybrid power plant is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (a) preconceptual design data; (b) market potential analysis methodology; (c) parametric analysis methodology; (d) EPGS systems description; (e) commercial-scale solar hybrid power system assessment; and (f) conceptual design data lists. (WHK)

  7. Basic Skills Learning Centers Evaluation. Appendices for the Final Report: 11 October 1976 - 30 September 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for the Study of Evaluation.

    Tabular data, computer printouts, survey forms, and field notes are included in these appendices to an independent evaluation of the Basic Skills Learning Centers (BSLC) Projects implemented by Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) and Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL). The wide range of supporting data focus on project…

  8. Report of the Bulletins and Orders Task Force. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appendices include: Office of Inspection and Enforcement bulletins; NRR status report on feedwater transients in BWR plants; orders on Babcock and Wilcox Company plants; letters lifting orders; letters issuing auxiliary feedwater system requirements; letter to licensees of all operating reactors, dated October 30, 1979 concerning short-term lessons learned requirements; and letters approving guidelines for preparation of small-break LOCA operating procedures

  9. Design tradeoff studies and sensitivity analysis. Appendices B1-B4. [HYBRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-25

    These four appendices to the report on the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) report contain information on: HYBRID computer program documentation; material substitution study for advanced hybrid vehicles; NTHV market potential; battery compartment weight distribution; and vehicle handling dynamics. (LCL)

  10. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  11. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report, 1992. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Latham, A.R.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    These appendices contain 1992 NTS onsite and offsite environmental monitoring results. The onsite data presented are accompanied by summaries of statistical evaluations of the data. Other offsite data collected by the EPA are available from the US Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada.

  12. Analysis of petroleum company investments in nonpetroleum energy sources. Book II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P. Jr.; Ryan, T.C.

    1979-12-12

    Financial data from the analysis of investment strategies of US oil companies and the depth of their present and future investments in nonpetroleum energy sources are tabulated in these appendices. The nonpetroleum energy sources included in the study are: coal, oil shale, geothermal, and solar.

  13. The foundation of the Melbourne Code Appendices: Announcing a new paradigm for tracking nomenclatural decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new expanded digital resource exists for tracking decisions on all nomenclature proposals potentially contributing to Appendices II-VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature. This system owes its origins to the Smithsonian Institution's Proposals and Disposals website created by Dan Nicolson ...

  14. The backfilling and sealing of radioactive waste repositories. V. 2. Figure - Tables - Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two volumes of this report present a review study about backfilling and sealing of radioactive waste repositories in granites, argillaceous and salt formations. Volume 2 contains all the figures, table and appendices A detailed account of candidate backfill materials is given in a standardized format

  15. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.I.; Konzek, G.J.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Detailed appendices are presented under the following headings: reference PWR facility description, reference PWR site description, estimates of residual radioactivity, alternative methods for financing decommissioning, radiation dose methodology, generic decommissioning activities, intermediate dismantlement activities, safe storage and deferred dismantlement activities, compilation of unit cost factors, and safety assessment details.

  16. No-migration variance petition. Appendices C--J: Volume 5, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Volume V contains the appendices for: closure and post-closure plans; RCRA ground water monitoring waver; Waste Isolation Division Quality Program Manual; water quality sampling plan; WIPP Environmental Procedures Manual; sample handling and laboratory procedures; data analysis; and Annual Site Environmental Monitoring Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

  17. Master plan study - District heating Sillamaee municipality. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to the final report on the master plan study on the cogenerating district heating system in the municipality of Sillamae (Estonia) gives technical and costs data on existing conditions and on possible new facilities. The data relates to energy output, the energy budget, heat load duration curves, and to suggestions for improvement. (ARW)

  18. The environmental survey manual: Appendices E, F, G, H, I, J, and K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appendices E, F, G, H, I, J and K of the Environmental Survey Manual address the following topics: Field Sampling Protocols and Guidance; Guidelines for Preparation of Quality Assurance Plans; Decontamination Guidance; Data Management and Analysis; Sample and Document Management; Health and Safety Guidance for Sampling and Analysis Teams; Documents for Sampling and Analysis Program

  19. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 is comprised of appendices: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Existing Facilities; Ecology; Civic Involvement; Social Analysis; Population Projections; Toxicity of Air Pollutants to Biota at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and Assessment of Noise Effects of an Add-On to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  20. [Appendiceal abscess in the third gestational trimester of pregnancy, complications pre and postoperatively].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrkowicz, A; Cibor, Z; Słowińska-Zabówka, M; Kisiel, W; Oleksy, P; Orczyk, K; Bajorek, M; Kwiek, G

    1996-01-01

    Delayed surgical intervention connected with misdiagnosis of preterm labour and urinary tract infection caused in gravida 3 in 34th gestational week appendiceal abscess, septic shock, stillbirth by cesarean section, necessity of hysterectomy, recidivism of multi peritoneal and pleural abscesses. Although the patient was rescued the retrospective pro memoria considerations of our procedure are regarded.

  1. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) baseline large module time estimates, (2) baseline intermediate module time estimates, (3) baseline small module time estimates, (4) alternate concept estimates, (5) maintenance equipment concepts, (6) additional reactor design definition, and (7) TOCOMO supplements. (MOW)

  2. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  3. Immunohistochemistry - Microarray Analysis of Patients with Peritoneal Metastases of Appendiceal or Colorectal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Green

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe value of immunohistochemistry (IHC-microarray analysis of pathological specimens in the management of patients is controversial although preliminary data suggests potential benefit. We describe the characteristics of patients undergoing a commercially available IHC-microarray method in patients with peritoneal metastases (PM and the feasibility of this technique in this population.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed PM from appendiceal or colorectal primary who underwent Caris Molecular IntelligenceTM testing. IHC, microarray, FISH and mutational analysis were included and stratified by PCI score, histology and treatment characteristics. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric tests.ResultsOur study included 5 patients with appendiceal and 11 with colorectal PM. The median age of patients was 51 (IQR 39-65 years, with 11(68% female. The median PCI score of the patients was 17(IQR 10-25. Hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC was performed in 4 (80% patients with appendiceal primary tumors and 4 (36% with colorectal primary. KRAS mutations were encountered in 40% of appendiceal vs. 30% colorectal tumors, while BRAF mutations were seen in 40% of colorectal PM and none of the patients with appendiceal PM (p=0.06. IHC biomarker expression was not significantly different between the two primaries. Sufficient tumor for microarray analysis was found in 44% (n=7 patients, which was not associated with previous use of chemotherapy (p>0.20 for 5-FU/LV, Irinotecan and Oxaliplatin.ConclusionsIn a small sample of patients with peritoneal metastases, the feasibility and results of IHC-microarray staining based on a commercially available test is reported. The apparent high incidence of the BRAF mutation in patients with PM may potentially offer opportunities for novel therapeutics and suggest that IHC-microarray is a method that can be used in this population.

  4. Extra-appendiceal findings in pediatric abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been written regarding the incidence, types, importance and management of abdominal CT incidental findings in adults, but there is a paucity of literature on incidental findings in children. We sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of extra-appendiceal and incidental findings in pediatric abdominal CT performed for suspected appendicitis. A retrospective review was performed of abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis in a pediatric emergency department from July 2010 to June 2012. Extra-appendiceal findings were recorded. Any subsequent imaging was noted. Extra-appendiceal findings were divided into incidental findings of doubtful clinical significance, alternative diagnostic findings potentially providing a diagnosis other than appendicitis explaining the symptoms, and incidental findings that were abnormalities requiring clinical correlation and sometimes requiring further evaluation but not likely related to the patient symptoms. One hundred sixty-five children had abdominal CT for suspected appendicitis. Seventy-seven extra-appendiceal findings were found in 57 (34.5%) patients. Most findings (64 of 77) were discovered in children who did not have appendicitis. Forty-one of these findings (53%) could potentially help explain the patient's symptoms, while 30 of the findings (39%) were abnormalities that were unlikely to be related to the symptoms but required clinical correlation and sometimes further work-up. Six of the findings (8%) had doubtful or no clinical significance. Extra-appendiceal findings are common in children who undergo abdominal CT in the setting of suspected appendicitis. A significant percentage of these patients have findings that help explain their symptoms. Knowledge of the types and prevalence of these findings may help radiologists in the planning and interpretation of CT examinations in this patient population. (orig.)

  5. "El sector de la economía laboral en Costa Rica (S.E.L." (The labour economy sector in Costa Rica (S.E.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Morales Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : The author analyses the evolution of cooperatives in Costa Rica during the last 60 years. Their evolution, impact on the country’s economy, how their democratic way of operating is mirrored in Costa Rican society, etc. are subjects examined in this article.

  6. Intoxicación por estricnina en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettchen Flores Sandí

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available La estricnina es un alcaloide de origen vegetal, de efecto convulsivante el cual ha sido usado en Costa Rica como plaguicida y rodenticida y también como adulterante de drogas de abuso. Su utilización terapéutica ha sido rechazada. La intoxicación por este tóxico es rara debido al uso actualmente restringido en Costa Rica para la eliminación de perros callejeros por personal de salud. La sintomatología, primordialmente neurológica y cardiorrespiratoria, es de diagnostico clínico y de laboratorio, según esta revisión e la literatura reciente. Los principales hallazgos postmortem son rigidez cadavérica precoz e intensa y síndrome asfíctico. Los registros de la Sección de Patología Forense del Organismo de Investigación Judicial de Costa Rica presentan desde 1990, únicamente dos casos de muerte por intoxicación con estricnina. Se trata de mujeres, que presentaron la rigidez anotada, corroborándose por la escena de muerte y en el laboratorio. La baja frecuencia se debe a la dificultad para conseguir la estricnina.Strychinine is an alcaloid of plant origin and convulsive effect which has beenused in Costa Rica as a pesticide androdenticide, as well as adulterant in abused drugs. Its therapeutic use has been rejected. Poisoning with this substance is not common because n Costa Rica its use is currently restricted to the elimination of street dogs practiced by sanitary personnel. The symptons, basically neuroogic and cardiorespiratory, require clinical and laboratory analysis, according to the present review of recent literature. The main post-mortem findings are early rigor mortis and an asfictic syndrome. The records of the Forensic Pathology section of the Costa Rican Criminal Bureau only include, since 1990, two deaths caused by strychnine. The victims were women that presentd the mentioned rigor mortis, and the cause was corroborated by the scene of death and the laboratory. The diffculty of obtaining the substance explains the

  7. Availability, distribution, quality and perspectives of water in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Valverde

    2013-01-01

    Costa Rica is a privileged country due to its rich water availability; nonetheless, the water accessibility in terms of potable quality has become more and more scarce. Such situation implies a great challenge to guarantee its current and future supply to meet water´s increasing demands for its many purposes, considering the existing disparities among the country´s geographical regions and its different users. The current paper seeks to explore this dynamics and its future perspectives under ...

  8. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  9. New data about the Costa Rican aphid fauna (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Mejías, D.; Pérez Hidalgo, N.; W. Villalobos; Hanson, P

    2012-01-01

    Aphids were collected from 39 locations throughout Costa Rica, representing a wide altitudinal range, and from both crops and native plants. In total, 48 species of aphids were identified, associated with 62 families and 111 species of plants, many of these representing new host plant records. Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach, 1843 is reported here for the first time in Central America and Trichosiphonaphis (Xenomyzus) polygoni (van der Goot, 1917) for the ...

  10. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes; María Begoña Orgaz-Baz; Mariana De Lima-Silva; Manuel Arturo Fallas-Vargas; José Antonio García-Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; diffe...

  11. FARMER PARTICIPATION IN REFORESTATION INCENTIVE PROGRAMS IN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Schelhas, John W.; Lee, David R.; Thacher, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Reforestation programs are a common policy response among developing country governments in the tropics attempting to deal with environmental and economic problems caused by widespread deforestation. The objective of this paper is to examine participation by small-and medium-sized farms in two reforestation programs undertaken in recent years by one country, Costa Rica, which has been at the forefront of developing country environmental protection efforts. Analysis of a survey of 243 program ...

  12. Epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    A case-control study of cervical cancer was conducted in Costa Rica, Co- lombia, Mexico and Panama from 1986 to 1987, to determine risk factors operating in these traditionally high-incidence areas. The study included 759 cases and 1,430 hospital and community controls, and accomplished more than 95% participation rates for both types of participants. The ma- jor risk factors identified were: detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 or 18, increasing number of livebi...

  13. Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation, topical report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-19

    The appendices for the water resources evaluation report are included for the Imperial Valley KGRA's, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Wendell Amedee, Glass Mountain, Lassen, Puna, and for power plant case studies. (MHR)

  14. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases.

  15. Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Initiative FY 2013 Annual Report and FY 2014 Work Plan Regional Appendices

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These regional appendices describes implementation of the National Wildlife Refuge System's I results from all eight regions and the I&M Branch of the Natural...

  16. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of county maps showing locations of well data across the state; a computerized tabulation of the wells depicted; an explanation of the computer coding procedures; and a selected bibliography on heat flow and geothermics. (MHR)

  17. Assessment of LWR spent fuel disposal options. Volume 3. Study bases and system design considerations (Appendices). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 3 (Appendices) provides a tabulation of the bases and assumptions used in the study as well as preconceptual design description and cost estimates of the facilities and transportation systems necessary to implement the various study cases

  18. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores. PMID:26967127

  19. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  20. A rare congenital anomaly, bridge-like appendiceal fistula to the terminal ileum, demonstrated by MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kayo; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Toyohiko; Sawai, Katsuji; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2013-08-01

    Although appendiceal anatomical anomalies are very rare, understanding of the anatomical details of these anomalies is important for surgery. In this case report, we present images from multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and histological findings of a rare anatomical appendiceal anomaly originating from the cecum and opening into the terminal ileum like a bridge. These anatomical details were clearly depicted on MDCT with multi-planar reconstruction. MDCT demonstrated a communication between the appendix and terminal ileum. Histological analysis revealed that a normal mucosal layer was maintained from the appendix to the connected ileum, without any evidence of inflammatory or neoplastic changes, and only thickening of the muscular layer of the appendix was identified. Based on these histological findings, the appendix was considered to represent an anatomical anomaly rather than secondary fistula caused by inflammation or neoplasm, which has not yet been reported. PMID:23247734

  1. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note

  2. Recommendations for a Department of Energy Nuclear Energy R and D Agenda Volume 2 Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The current US nuclear energy policy is primarily formulated as part of the nation`s overall energy policy. In addition, nuclear energy policy is impacted by other US policies, such as those for defense and environment, and by international obligations through their effects on nuclear weapons dismantlement and stewardship, continued reliance on space and naval nuclear power sources, defense waste cleanup, and on nuclear nonproliferation. This volume is composed of the following appendices: Appendix 1--Objectives of the Federal Government Nuclear Energy Related Policies and Research and Development Programs; Appendix 2--Nuclear Energy and Related R and D in the US; Appendix 3--Summary of Issues That Drive Nuclear Energy Research and Development; Appendix 4: Options for Policy and Research and Development; Appendix 5--Pros and Cons of Objectives and Options; and Appendices 6--Recommendations.

  3. Assessment of the Fishery Improvement Opportunities on the Pend Oreille River, Appendices, 1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashe, Becky L.; Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Vella, John J.

    1991-03-01

    This report is a compilation of the seven appendices to DOE/BP/39339--4 the annual report for FY 1990. These appendices contain the supporting numerical data for the study. The purpose of this study was to assess the fishery improvement opportunities on the Box Canyon portion of the Pend Oreilla River. This three year study was initiated as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This report contains the findings of the third and final year of the study. The objectives of the third year of the study were to determine the relative abundance of each species in the river and sloughs; the population levels in five selected tributaries and, if possible, for fish in the river and sloughs; each species growth rate, feeding habits, abundance of preferred prey, and migration patterns; and the seasonal movement patterns and habitat utilization of largemouth bass.

  4. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  5. Recommendations for a Department of Energy Nuclear Energy R and D Agenda Volume 2 Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current US nuclear energy policy is primarily formulated as part of the nation's overall energy policy. In addition, nuclear energy policy is impacted by other US policies, such as those for defense and environment, and by international obligations through their effects on nuclear weapons dismantlement and stewardship, continued reliance on space and naval nuclear power sources, defense waste cleanup, and on nuclear nonproliferation. This volume is composed of the following appendices: Appendix 1--Objectives of the Federal Government Nuclear Energy Related Policies and Research and Development Programs; Appendix 2--Nuclear Energy and Related R and D in the US; Appendix 3--Summary of Issues That Drive Nuclear Energy Research and Development; Appendix 4: Options for Policy and Research and Development; Appendix 5--Pros and Cons of Objectives and Options; and Appendices 6--Recommendations

  6. Primary appendiceal lymphoma presenting as suspected perforated acute appendicitis: clinical, sonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jingjing; Wu, Gang; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site for extranodal involvement by non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, primary appendiceal lymphomas presenting as perforated acute appendicitis are very rare: they occur in only 0.015% of all gastrointestinal lymphoma cases. The management of this condition is still controversial, and a multimodality approach (e.g., surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) is the optimal treatment. In these cases, appendiceal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas typically m...

  7. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices A--L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of appendices A-L of the final environmental impact statement for the Bonneville Power Administration. The appendices provide information on the following: Ninth circuit Court opinion in Forelaws on Board v. Johnson; guide to Northwest Power act contracts; guide to hydro operations; glossary; affected environment supporting documentation; environmental impacts of generic resource types; information on models used; technical information on analysis; public involvement activities; bibliography; Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act; and biological assessment. (CBS)

  8. Hansen en Costa Rica: pasado, presente y futuro Leprosy in Costa Rica, Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo-Antillón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el manejo clínico y epidemiológico de la lepra, desde su aparición hasta el 2008 en Costa Rica y recomendar estrategias de control a las autoridades de salud. Materiales y métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. La revisión bibliográfica permitió describir la enfermedad desde 1798 hasta 1995. El Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos proporcionó la población y el Ministerio de Salud (MS los casos para calcular tasas de prevalencia y porcentajes. Los hospitales: México y Calderón Guardia facilitaron los expedientes para clasificar los casos según tipo de lepra y compararlos con los notificados del MS. Resultados: El primer caso se documentó en 1798. En 1979, se cerró el Sanatorio Nacional de las Mercedes. Las estrategias de control implementadas por el MS lograron disminuir los casos a menos de 1x10.000 habitantes en 1995. Del 2002 al 2008, en el país, se notificaron al MS 67 casos, pero 45 no especificaron el tipo de lepra. En los 22 casos clasificados, solo el 3% fue paucibacilar. El 97% de los casos notificados al MS eran lepra multibacilar. En los hospitales Calderón Guardia y México se atendieron 35 pacientes en el mismo periodo y de ellos 28 (80% fueron del tipo lepra multibacilar. Conclusión: Dado el alto porcentaje de pacientes multibacilares, es urgente que la Seguridad Social implemente la detección temprana de los casos, la rehabilitación integral de los pacientes y participe en forma activa y coordinada, en el control clínico y epidemiológico de esta enfermedad.Background and Aim: The aims of this review are to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of leprosy from the first case documented and up to the year 2008 in Costa Rica and to advise health authorities on controlling disease strategies. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study concerning leprosy. The reference review allowed us to describe the disease from 1798 up to 1995

  9. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  10. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  11. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan

  12. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced heat engines. Phase 1: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This volume presents the following appendices: ceramic test specimen drawings and schematics, mixed-mode and biaxial stress fracture of structural ceramics for advanced vehicular heat engines (U. Utah), mode I/mode II fracture toughness and tension/torsion fracture strength of NT154 Si nitride (Brown U.), summary of strength test results and fractography, fractography photographs, derivations of statistical models, Weibull strength plots for fast fracture test specimens, and size functions.

  13. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Appendices are presented concerning the evaluations of decommissioning financing alternatives; reference site description; reference BWR facility description; radiation dose rate and concrete surface contamination data; radionuclide inventories; public radiation dose models and calculated maximum annual doses; decommissioning methods; generic decommissioning information; immediate dismantlement details; passive safe storage, continuing care, and deferred dismantlement details; entombment details; demolition and site restoration details; cost estimating bases; public radiological safety assessment details; and details of alternate study bases.

  14. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  15. “Shifting in” migration control. Universalism and immigration in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Voorend (Koen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhen the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS), the flagship institution of Costa Rica’s ‘exceptional’ -solidary and universal- social policy regime, entered in financial crisis in 2011, the already difficult social integration of Nicaraguan immigrants in Costa Rica became even more

  16. Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Weerd, van J.H.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In Costa Rica as many other tropical countries, the disposal problem of agricultural wastes is widely recognized but efforts to find solutions are not equal for different sectors. This study describes the situation of major agricultural residues in Costa Rica, identifying the activities with higher

  17. Cross-Correlation Properties of Costas Arrays and Their Images under Horizontal and Vertical Flips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Drakakis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cross-correlation of a Costas array with its image under a horizontal and/or a vertical flip. We propose and prove several bounds on the maximal cross-correlation and on its value at the origin, for both general Costas arrays and for algebraically constructed ones.

  18. Solar production of industrial process steam ranging in temperature from 300/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F (Phase I). Volume 3. Appendices (cont). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    The following appendices are included: (1) instruments, (2) electrical specifications, (3) protective coverings, (4) welding requirements, (5) engineering specifications, and (6) administrative. (MOW)

  19. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  20. Geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, C. L.; Lavín, M. F.; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.

    2008-05-01

    The geostrophic circulation between the Costa Rica Dome and Central America is described from CTD observations collected in two surveys: (a) The Wet Cruise in September-October 1993, and the Jet Cruise in February-March 1994. Poleward coastal flow was present on both occasions, but the transition from flow around the dome to the poleward Costa Rica Coastal Current flow was quite tortuous because of the presence of mesoscale eddies. In particular, a warm anticyclonic eddy was found off the Gulf of Fonseca during both cruises, at an almost identical position and with similar dimensions (150 m deep, 250 km in diameter) and surface speed (0.5 m s -1). In the Gulf of Panama, poleward flow was also observed, weaker in February-March 1994 than in September-October 1993, when it penetrated to 600 m depth and transported 8.5 Sv. In September-October 1993, the current between the dome and the coast was mostly ˜100 m deep and weak (˜0.15 m s -1), although in its southern side it was deeper (˜450 m) and faster at 0.3 m s -1. The poleward transport between the dome and the coast was ˜7 Sv. In February-March 1994 the Costa Rica Dome was a closed ring adjacent to the continental shelf, ˜500 km in diameter, at least 400 m deep, had geostrophic surface speeds ˜0.25 m s -1, and subsurface maximum speed (0.15-0.20 m s -1) at ˜180 m depth; the associated uplift of the isotherms was ˜150 m. The flow in the south part of the dome splits into two branches, the weakest one going around the dome and the strongest one continuing east and turning south before reaching the Gulf of Panama.

  1. Hispines (Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Staines

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Survey work from 1992–2001 identified 139 species of hispines at the lowland part of La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. The tribe Cephaloleiini was the most speciose with 58 species (41.7% followed by the Chalepini with 55 (39.5%. The fauna is most closely related to that in South America but with some genera which are more speciose in the Nearctic Region. Plant associations are known for 88 (63.3% of the species but many of these are merely collecting records, not host plant associations. The first plant associations are reported for Alurnus ornatus, A. salvini, and Acentroptera nevermanni.

  2. An Improved Scalar Costa Scheme Based on Watson Perceptual Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Kai-yue; CHEN Jian-bo; ZHOU Yi

    2008-01-01

    An improved scalar Costa scheme (SCS) was proposed by using improved Watson perceptual model to adaptively decide quantization step size and scaling factor. The improved scheme equals to embed hiding data based on an actual image. In order to withstand amplitude scaling attack, the Watson perceptual model was redefined, and the improved scheme using the new definition can insure quantization step size in decoder that is proportional to amplitude scaling attack factor. The performance of the improved scheme outperforms that of SCS with fixed quantization step size. The improved scheme combines information theory and visual model.

  3. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

    OpenAIRE

    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-01-01

    La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG) con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuici...

  4. Availability, distribution, quality and perspectives of water in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Valverde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica is a privileged country due to its rich water availability; nonetheless, the water accessibility in terms of potable quality has become more and more scarce. Such situation implies a great challenge to guarantee its current and future supply to meet water´s increasing demands for its many purposes, considering the existing disparities among the country´s geographical regions and its different users. The current paper seeks to explore this dynamics and its future perspectives under the predicted climate change scenarios.

  5. Comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, costa del Pacífico de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las comunidades y arrecifes coralinos del Parque Nacional Marino Ballena (PNMB, en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica, mediante tres transectos por sitio, de 10 m de largo cada uno y paralelos a la costa, utilizando una cuadrícula de 1 m2. Se encontró un total de 15 especies de corales (11 hermatípicas y 4 ahermatípicas, las que sumadas a informes previos para el parque hacen un total de 18 especies. El coral Porites lobata presentó la mayor cobertura coralina (36.5 ± 3.7% y fue el único presente en todos los sitios. Las otras especies de coral presentaron bajas coberturas (<10% y sólo fueron observadas en pocos sitios. El porcentaje de coral muerto fue de 1.8 ± 0.6% y el porcentaje de blanqueamiento (0.7 ± 0.2% está dado por P. lobata en un solo sitio. El PNMB y la Isla del Caño poseen el mayor número de especies de coral (18 especies de la región sur de Costa Rica; sin embargo, difieren en su composición. La baja diversidad y la baja cobertura coralina de varios sitios del parque se atribuyen al impacto del fenómeno de El Niño en los últimos años, a la sedimentación y a la dilución de las aguas en época de lluvias. Se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un monitoreo a largo plazo sobre estos ecosistemas y determinar futuras estrategias de manejo y conservación.

  6. Estado actual de la leishmaniosis en Costa Rica Current status of Leishmaniosis in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Jaramillo-Antillón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó esta investigación, para conocer el comportamiento epidemiológico de esta enfermedad, los vectores relacionados y las especies de leishmanias causantes. Métodos: fuentes de información fueron los boletines epidemiológicos del Ministerio de Salud del 2001 al 2007 y el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos. Se calcularon tasas de incidencia por sexo, grupos de edad, provincia y cantón. Las tasas del último trienio se compararon con una investigación que describe la situación epidemiológica de 1973 a 1975, para identificar cambios epidemiológicos de la enfermedad. La revisión bibliográfica permitió describir las formas clínicas y la distribución geográfica de los vectores que la ocasionan. Resultados y conclusión: la incidencia aumentó de 10,5 del 2001 a 40,7 x100.000 habitantes en el 2007. Los menores de 19 años fueron los más afectados. Talamanca presentó la mayor incidencia cantonal. El agente etiológico más frecuente de la leishmaniosis cutánea es la Leishmania (Viannia panamensis, aunque también existe la L. (V. braziliensis. Los mosquitos trasmisores fueron Lutzomyia ylephiletor y L. trapidoi. Los reservorios del parásito son los perezosos: Bradypus griseus y Choloepus hoffmanni y un roedor Heteromys desmarestianus. Existe también la leishmaniosis cutánea atípica, producida por Leishmania infantum (= Leishmania chagasi, productora responsable de un caso de leishmaniosis visceral. L.longipalpis, esta asociada a la transmisión de estas dos últimas formas de leishmaniosis. Debe entrenarse al personal de salud, en la detección de esta enfermedad, y educar a la población.Justification and aim: We conducted an investigation to study the epidemiological behavior of the disease, its related vectors and the species that cause leishmania. Methods: As sources of information we used epidemiological bulletins from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health covering the years 2001 to 2007 and also those from the

  7. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan figs., ills., refs. Prepared for Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  8. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  9. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data

  10. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  11. Research reactor core conversion guidebook. V.2: Analysis (Appendices A-F)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 consists of detailed Appendices, covering safety analyses for generic 10 MW reactor, safety analysis - probabilistic methods, methods for preventing LOCA, radiological consequence analyses, examples of safety report amendments and safety specifications. Included in Volume 2 are example analyses for cores with with highly enriched uranium and low enriched uranium fuels showing differences that can be expected in the safety parameters and radiological consequences of postulated accidents. There are seven examples of licensing documents related to core conversion and two examples of methods for determining power limits for safety specifications in the document. Refs, figs, bibliographies and tabs

  12. The safety culture of the nuclear plants of Sydkraft. Appendices 5-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This separate volume of appendices contains three contributions: ''Safety in Nuclear Electric'' by Bryan Edmondson, which reviews the legislation for nuclear safety in Britain, reproduces the Health and Policy Statement by Nuclear Electric, and describes the management of health and safety in the company. ''Safety in Norwegian off-shore industry'' by Joergen A. Firing, describing the safety practices of the Statoil Group and reproducing the relevant Norwegian law. ''The safety management in SAS Airline. The safety and quality in airline industries'' by O.S. Nordland and E. Ottne describing safety organization, internal control systems, and education and training in SAS

  13. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  14. Energy conservation in existing office buildings. Appendices to report, Phase I, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A blank form of Questionnaire No. 1 is first presented, followed by data compiled from that questionnaire. Then data are presented on the analyses of the 436 buildings, statistical validation for selection of the 44 building sample, and some examples of the matching buildings for the 44 building sample. Questionnaire No. 2 is then given, followed by additional data collected from the study concerning energy consumption and building characteristics. To complete the appendices, a simulation of a typical building and a hypothetical building is included. (MCW)

  15. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.H. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    These Appendices describe various technologies that may be applicable to the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (MWTP) Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). These technologies were identified by the CPTS Technical Support Group (TSG) as potentially applicable to a variety of separation, volume reduction, and decontamination requirements. The purpose was to identify all available and developing technologies, and their characteristics, for subsequent evaluation for specific requirements identified for the CPTS. However, the technologies described herein are not necessarily all inclusive, nor are they necessarily all applicable.

  16. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  17. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. [Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  18. La maestra Alda Costa: un mártir antifascista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cagnolati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Un sector interesante al que aplicar nuevas categorías de la investigación histórica y social es, sin duda, el de la educación de las mujeres. Maestras, educadoras, pedagogas fueron revolucionarias en diversas épocas de la historia dedicando su existencia a la difusión de conocimientos que pudiesen ser aprovechados por otras mujeres. Para ello fundaron escuelas, escribieron libros y publicaron periódicos. En este sentido las maestras socialistas italianas fueron pioneras al difundir palabras claves como derechos, democracia e igualdad de sueldo. Una figura muy importante fue la maestra antifascista Alda Costa (1876-1944, que luchó contra el militarismo italiano antes de la Primera Guerra Mundial y asumió encargos de gran relevancia en el Partido Socialista. Además fue amiga de Giacomo Matteotti, asesinado por los fascistas en Roma en junio de 1925. Alda Costa fue encarcelada, por su oposición al régimen, y los sufrimientos padecidos precipitaron su muerte.

  19. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  20. Organochlorine pesticides in the soils and atmosphere of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Jantunen, Liisa M M; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    A survey of the contamination of the physical environment of Costa Rica with banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) relied on sampling air and soil at 23 stations acrossthe country in 2004. Average annual air concentrations, determined with XAD-based passive samplers, and surface soil concentrations were generally low when compared to values reported for North and Central America, which is consistent with relatively low historical domestic use and little atmospheric inflow from neighboring countries. Statistical analysis and concentration maps reveal three types of spatial distribution: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and p,p'-DDD had a relatively uniform distribution across the country; other DDT-related species were greatly elevated over the national average at Manuel Antonio, a National Park on the Pacific coast; and dieldrin, lindane, and chlordane-related species had higher concentrations in Costa Rica's populated Central Valley. An altitudinal transect of stations in the Central Valley shows declining air-soil concentration ratios with elevation for lindane, likely driven by atmospheric inversions and soil organic carbon content. Enantiomeric composition of chiral OCPs in air and soil was close to racemic, with slight depletion of (-)-alpha-HCH, (-)-cis-chlordane, and (+)-trans-chlordane. Estimated air-soil fugacity fractions are highly uncertain but indicate equilibrium conditions for most OCPs, net volatilization of lindane at some sites, and net deposition for p,p'-DDE. The study demonstrates an approach for quickly evaluating the spatial distribution of OCPs in an understudied area, identifying regionally important contaminants and areas of elevated concentrations. PMID:17593709

  1. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone. PMID:12322449

  2. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition

  3. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  4. Costa Rica publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded: a bibliometric analysis for 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-12-01

    Despite of its small size, the Central American country of Costa Rica is internationally recognized as one of the world leaders in conservation and as the Central American leader in science. There have been no recent studies on the country's scientific production. The objective of this study was to analyze the Costa Rican scientific output as represented in the Science Citation Index Expanded. All documents with "Costa Rica" in the address field from 1981 to 2010 were included (total 6 801 publications). Articles (79%) were more frequent than other types of publication and were mostly in English (83%). Revista de Biología Tropical published the most articles (17%), followed by Toxicon and Turrialba (2.5%). The New England Journal of Medicine had the highest impact factor (53.484) with nine articles. Of 5 343 articles with known institutional address, 63%were internationally collaborative articles (most with the USA) with h index 91 and citation per publication 18. A total of 81% of all articles were inter-institutionally collaborative articles, led by the Universidad de Costa Rica. This reflects research and education agreements among these countries. Universidad de Costa Rica ranked top one in inter-institutionally collaborative articles, the rank of the total inter-institutionally collaborative articles, and the rank of first author articles and corresponding author articles. Studied subjects and journals in our sample are in agreement with dominant science fields and journals in Costa Rica. Articles with the highest citation were published in New England Journal of Medicine. The largest citation of medical articles reflects the general interest and wider readership of this subject. All corresponding and first authors of the high impact articles were not from Costa Rica. In conclusion, the scientific output of Costa Rican authors is strong in the areas related to conservation but the impact is higher for biomedical articles, and Costa Rican authors need to

  5. ON THE IDENTITY OF SCUTIGERA VESUVIANA [O. G. COSTA], 1839 (Chilopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zapparoli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The new synonymy “Scutigera Vesuviana” [O. G. Costa], 1839 = Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758 syn. nov. is proposed. “Lithobius vesuvianus”, a name erroneously attributed to Achille instead of Oronzio Gabriele Costa and by the authors of a species named but never described different from “Scutigera Vesuviana” [O. G. Costa], 1839, is equated to this latter. The few records of “Scutigera Vesuviana” quoted by the authors after the original description, critically revised, must be referred to Scutigera coleoptrata (Linnaeus, 1758.

  6. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  7. Advanced Neutron Source enrichment study. Volume 2: Appendices -- Final report, Revision 12/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been performed of the impact on performance of using low enriched uranium (20% 235U) or medium enriched uranium (35% 235U) as an alternative fuel for the Advanced Neutron Source, which is currently designed to use uranium enriched to 93% 235U. Higher fuel densities and larger volume cores were evaluated at the lower enrichments in terms of impact on neutron flux, safety, safeguards, technical feasibility, and cost. The feasibility of fabricating uranium silicide fuel at increasing material density was specifically addressed by a panel of international experts on research reactor fuels. The most viable alternative designs for the reactor at lower enrichments were identified and discussed. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to gain an understanding of the performance of the reactor at parametric values of power, fuel density, core volume, and enrichment that were interpolations between the boundary values imposed on the study or extrapolations from known technology. Volume 2 of this report contains 26 appendices containing results, meeting minutes, and fuel panel presentations. There are 26 appendices in this volume

  8. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  9. Recommendations in the management of epithelial appendiceal neoplasms and peritoneal dissemination from mucinous tumours (pseudomyxoma peritonei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, P; Losa, F; Gonzalez-Moreno, S; Rojo, A; Gómez-Portilla, A; Bretcha-Boix, P; Ramos, I; Torres-Melero, J; Salazar, R; Benavides, M; Massuti, T; Aranda, E

    2016-05-01

    The epithelial appendiceal neoplasms are uncommon and are usually detected as an unexpected surgical finding. The general surgeon should be aware of the diversity of its clinical manifestations and biological behaviors along with the significance of the surgical treatment on the progression of the illness and the prognosis of the patients. The operative findings and, especially, tumor histology, determine the type of surgery. Intestinal histologic subtype behaves and should be treated similarly to the right colon neoplasms; while mucinous tumors, often discordant between histology and its aggressiveness, can be treated with a simple appendectomy or require complex oncological surgeries. Mucinous tumors are often associated with the presence of mucin or tumor implants in the abdominal cavity, being the clinical syndrome known as pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). PMP tends to present an indolent but deadly evolution and requires a multimodal approach as a single treatment with curative potential: complete cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic Intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (CCRS + HIPEC) now considered the standard of care in this pathology. The general surgeon should be aware of the governing principles of the treatment of appendiceal neoplasms with or without peritoneal dissemination, know the therapeutic frontiers in every situation (avoiding unnecessary or counterproductive surgeries) and sending early these patients to specialised centres in the radical management of malignant diseases of the peritoneum in the conditions and with the necessary information to facilitate a possible radical treatment. PMID:26489426

  10. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices

  11. "Who Stays and Who Leaves?" Findings from a Three-Part Study of Teacher Turnover in NYC Middle Schools. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinell, William H.; Coca, Vanessa M.; Arum, Richard; Goldstein, Jennifer; Kemple, James; Pallas, Aaron; Bristol, Travis; Buckley, Clare; Scallon, Amy; Tanner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The technical appendices presented in this document correspond to the synthesis report, "'Who Stays and Who Leaves?' Findings from a Three-Part Study of Teacher Turnover in NYC Middle Schools." The appendices include: (1) Description of Data Source and Samples; (2) Methods; and (3) Who Are the Middle School Teachers in NYC? [The…

  12. Trata: Esclavitud invisibilizada en Costa Rica. Estudio de cinco casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Méndez-Marenco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial es una problemática solapada en Costa Rica. Resulta necesario conocer este fenómeno, puesto que cada día más ciudadanos son atrapados y sometidos a una forma de esclavitud, que denigra su integridad física, psicológica, social y espiritual. A partir de las experiencias vividas como profesional en una organización sin fines de lucro (ONG con un programa para esta población, hizo evidente el desconocimiento y los excesivos prejuicios sobre las víctimas en la sociedad. Se explora el hecho de que la información sobre este fenómeno en Costa Rica es escasa y el abordaje psicológico lo es aún más. La investigación tiene sus bases en la metodología cualitativa descriptiva; se propone un diseño fenomenológico que parte de la teoría humanista del Análisis Transaccional de Berne (1976 para efectuar estudio múltiple de casos. La muestra estuvo constituida por un grupo de cinco mujeres, que se encontraron en proceso de restauración en la ONG bajo las categorías de análisis “Trata de personas con fines de explotación sexual comercial nacional” (dentro de Costa Rica, “Avasallamientos” y “Desarrollo personal”. Los resultados identificaron avasallamientos, a los que fueron sometidas las mujeres de esta muestra, antes, durante y después de ser captadas en la trata. Asimismo, se analiza cómo el desarrollo de las mujeres víctimas de trata en este estudio se ve obstaculizado por dichos avasallamientos y cómo algunas lograron obtener el crecimiento personal a pesar de lo sucedido.

  13. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  14. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homedes

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.This study questions the premises that justify the neoliberal privatization of financing, managing and delivering health services. It also analyses the meaning of privatization and its strategies. We compare privatization in Chile and Costa Rica and suggest that the more limited, selective and locally designed privatization process in Costa Rica has resulted in a more equitable, and efficient health system than the imported privatization model introduced in Chile. The Costa Rican system also produces greater patient satisfaction and at the same time preserves the solidarity principle.

  15. Olfactory communication among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S

    1992-01-01

    Behaviors with a possible role in olfactory communication among troop members were investigated as part of a field study on the reproductive and foraging ecology of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. All age classes engaged in the olfaction-related behaviors. Apart from olfactory investigation of female genitals by males during the mating season, no other potential olfaction-related behavior (urine wash, branch investigation, rump, chest, back rub and sneeze) exceeded 1% of mean behavioral samples. Assessment of reproduction condition appears to be the primary function of such olfactory investigation of the female genital region. The primary function of urine washing is suggested to be the general communication of reproductive status, possibly facilitating reproductive synchrony. Sneezing, rump, back and chest rubbing do not appear to deposit substances active in olfactory communication. PMID:1306175

  16. Emission inventory of criteria pollutants Costa Rica in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criteria pollutant emissions were determined in Costa Rica in 2011, from the application of emission factors, measurement sources, the application of mechanistic models and material balance. A total of 1,898,591 tons of criteria pollutants which were recorded, mobile sources are the main contributions with nearly 61%, followed by the area and stationary sources, with 21 and 18 % respectively. The most abundant pollutant in weight, anthropogenically generated during 2011 was the carbon monoxide ( CO , issuing into the atmosphere about 856 264 tonnes per year, mainly for mobile sources; next in order of importance emissions of total organic gases (GOT with more than 434 777 tonnes per year, with mobile sources which generate 40 %.

  17. SEX DETERMINATION IN DACTYLOPIUS COCCUS COSTA (HEMIPTERA: DACTYLOPIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The coccids have different sex-determining mechanisms, including the heterochromatinization haplodiploidy of chromosomes of paternal origin, characteristic of the family Dactylopiidae. The heterochromatinization in coccids seems to be a mechanism by which part of a chromosome, the entire chromosome, or several chromosomes will become genetically inactive during development of the individual. In the first division immediately after fertilization, the chromosomes of embryos appear euchromatic (E; shortly after the blastocyst stage, almost half of the chromosomes become heterochromatic (H in embryos that are destined to be male, while in the female all the chromosomic set remain euchromatic. The objective of this study is to determine the heterochromatinization process in the sex determination of Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1935 embryos. The method used to identify chromosomes has been the conventional 2% lacto-acetic orcein protocol. In D. coccus it was observed that during embryogenesis, heterochromatinization occurs in the set of chromosomes from paternal origin, while those of maternal origin remain euchromatic.

  18. Inflation persistence on Services and Regulated Goods in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León Murillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present document studies the degree of inflation persistence and price stickiness across different categories in the Costa Rican Consumer Price index (CPI, using disaggregate and aggregate data, with a particular focus in the regulated and services prices. We adopt two approaches: The parametric approach is based in an autoregressive process with constant mean, and the structural approach is based on the estimation of the New Keynesian Hybrid Phillips Curve. We use different econometric techniques, as univariate and multivariate time series, and panel data methods. The evidence suggests that changes in prices and services regulated items have higher degrees of persistence in addition to presenting rigidities in the adjustment pattern. Also it was found that using disaggregate data the degree of inflation persistence is lower than the inflation persistence estimation of univariate models with aggregate data, and this tend to reduce excluding the regulated and services products prices.

  19. Authigenic Carbonates off Costa Rica Margin: Archives for Dewatering History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X.; Suess, E.; Sahling, H.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Scholten, J.; Bock, B.

    2003-04-01

    Authigenic carbonates in a variety of types and shapes characterize mud diapirs and slump scarps, the major sites of fluid venting off Costa Rica margin. A regional distribution pattern of mineral and isotope compositions exists based on 76 samples analyzed so far: The Jaco Scarp, which represents a deep plow mark left by a subducted seamount, is characterized by nodules, fluid conduit concretions and chemoherms. The dominant mineral is (proto-)dolomite, except for chemoherms which are composed of aragonite. The dolomites have δ13C and δ18O compositions in the range of -40.5 to -28.3 ppm PDB and 8.1 to 6.5 ppm PDB, respectively, while those of chemoherm are lighter (δ13C = -46.0 to -51.0 ppm PDB and δ18O = 4.8 to 5.0 ppm PDB). On the mud diapirs off northern Costa Rica, the carbonates are mainly massive micrites which are dominated by calcite (MgCO_3 = 2--10 mol-%), their δ13C and δ18O are in the range of -27.4 to -53.0 ppm PDB and 5.4 to 6.3 ppm PDB, respectively. On the mud diapirs off southern Costa Rica, aragonite dominates the chemoherms (δ13C = -40.6 to -49.2 ppm PDB, δ18O = 4.4 to 6.4 ppm PDB) and high Mg-calcite dominates the seepage-associated crusts (δ13C = -51.9 to -52.7 ppm PDB; δ18O = 4.9 to 4.8 ppm PDB), while chimneys and fluid conduit concretions are composed of calcite with relatively low Mg content (δ13C = -32.4 to -41.5 ppm PDB; δ18O = 6.4 to 5.7 ppm PDB). The calcite precipitated inside chimneys is more depleted in 13C and has higher Mg-contents than the outer chimney walls, while the concretions are enriched in 13C and depleted in Mg-contents inside compared to outside layers. These trends indicate their sequences of growth. The gas hydrate-associated carbonates are unusually heavy isotopically (δ13C = -18.6 to -29.8 ppm PDB, δ18O = 6.0 to 6.8 ppm PDB) indicating a thermal origin of the methane-C as well as 18O enriched precipitating solutions. This agrees well with the C-isotope ratio of methane recovered from gas hydrates and Cl

  20. Recuperar, reviver e reanimar a poesia de Emiliano da Costa

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Sara Raquel Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Dar a conhecer a ignota poesia de Emiliano da Costa, contribuir para a sua revalorização e impedir o seu esquecimento são os derradeiros propósitos deste estudo. Numa primeira fase realça-se o cunho regional e universal de Emiliano e, uma vez justificada a importância da sua revalorização no panorama literário português, imagina-se um projeto fundamentado numa exposição museológica. Emiliano distingue-se como um dos mais admiráveis poetas algarvios e, por essa razão, é imper...

  1. Design of a leading indicator for Costa Rican economic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chaverri Morales

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of estimating three leading indicators for the turning points of the economic activity in Costa Rica. This was done following the methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Monthly Economic Activity Index (IMAE in Spanish was selected as the reference variable.  A total of 270 data series were analyzed including monetary, real and job market variables, as well as price indices, external sector indicators and fiscal sector variables. The real sector information was disaggregated into three levels, which included the classification of data at an industrial level using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC with two digits, information from the agricultural sector based on the Central Product Classification (CPC and information from the manufacturing sector.  A leading indicator was developed for each level of aggregation, resulting in average leads of 7 to 12 months compared to the reference variable.

  2. Swimming ability in three Costa Rican dry forest rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W M; Timm, R M; Hyman, D E

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the swimming abilities of three Costa Rican dry forest rodents (Coues' rice rat. Oryzomys couesi, hispid cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, and spiny pocket mouse, Liomys salvini) associated with a large marsh, Laguna Palo Verde, using 90 s swim trials in a plastic container. Swimming ability was evaluated by observing the use of limbs and tail in the water, inclination to the surface, and diving and floating behavior. Rice rats could float, swim and dive, suggesting that they can exploit surface and underwater resources. Cotton rats swam at the water's surface, but were less skilled swimmers than rice rats. Spiny pocket mice tired quickly and had difficulty staying at the water's surface. Results suggest that differential swimming ability is related to the distribution of the three sympatric species within the marsh and adjacent forest habitats. PMID:12189799

  3. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  4. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented. PMID:12319363

  5. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  6. Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from southern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Karen R.; Green, D.E.; Papendick, R.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, the amphibian fauna of Las Tablas, Costa Rica, began to decline, and by 1998 approximately 50% of the species formerly present could no longer be found. Three years later, at the Reserva Forestal Fortuna, in western Panama, a site approximately 75 km east southeast of Las Tablas, KRL encountered a mass die-off of amphibians and a subsequent decline in abundance and species richness. The epidemiological features of the anuran population declines and die-offs at both sites were similar, suggesting a similar cause. Herein we document the presence of the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in dead and dying wild frogs collected at Las Tablas just prior to population declines of several anuran species.

  7. Recent surface marine sediments of Cocos Island in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeffrey A. SIBAJA-CORDERO; Jess S. TRONCOSO; Eddy GMEZ-RAMREZ

    2014-01-01

    Subtidal sediments of Isla del Coco (Cocos Island), Costa Rica were described in their grain size, sorting, organic matter, and carbonates from 27 dredge samples (3-75 m), collected in April 2010. The organic matter range between 1.37-3.31% and carbonates presented a mean of 74±17%. The sorting was moderately or poorly. The grain size ranged between 0.1-1.1mm. The pattern is that sediment change from inner to mouth of bays. Carbonates and gravel fractions increased offshore and organic matter have high values inner the bays. Input of vegetal debris and mud was from the rivers of this island covered with rain and cloud forest.

  8. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  9. Melioidosis en Costa Rica: Reporte del primer caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Messino Julio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis es una enfennedad infecciosa causada por la Burkholderia pseudomallef. Esta enfermedad es endémica en áreas tropicales de Asia y Australia y ha habido reportes aislados en Centro y Sur América. Aquí nosotros informamos del primer caso probado de melioidosis en Costa Rica, correspondiendo a un paciente sin historia de viajes a lugares endémicos. El paciente consultó por una bronconeumonía de adquisición comunitaria y sepsis. El hecho que el aislamiento bacteriano sea tan inusual en nuestro país implicó un retraso subsecuente en el inicio del tratamiento antibiótico específico en este caso, lo cual pudo influir en la evolución tan tórpida del paciente. Esto nos plantea el interrogante de si esta enfermedad debe ser incluida en el diagnóstico diferencial de sepsis de adquisición comunitaria en nuestro país.Melioidosis in an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. This disease is endemie in areas of tropical Asia and Australia; there have been isolated reports of the disease in Central and South America. Here we report the first documented case of Melioidosis in Costa Rica in a patient without a history of traveling lo endemic areas. The patient was seen at the hospital because of sepsis and a community acquired bronchopneumonia. Due lo the rareness of this bacterial isolation in our country the corroboration of the diagnosis was delayed and subsequently the specific antibiotics were started 5 days later after the admission, this could have influenced the torpid evolution the patient had. This case should alert us and points lo the need of including this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of community acquired sepsis in our country.

  10. [Nutritional anemia in nursing women in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A; Rodríguez, S; Cunningham, L

    2003-03-01

    It is reported the prevalence, magnitude and determinant factors of nutritional anaemia in a sample of nursing women (NW), collected during the National Nutrition Survey, of Costa Rica done in 1996. Nutritional anaemia was determinate through measurements of haemoglobin, and plasma ferritin, folates, cianocobalamin and retinol. Methodologies used were cianometahaemoglobin, solid phase immunoradiometric assay, solid phase radioimmunoassay and high-pressure liquid chromatography. WHO cut-off points were used. Anaemia was present in 22.1% of the women. Iron and folate deficiency were found in 48.7 and 84.2% NW, respectively. The magnitude of anaemia was mild and iron and folate deficiencies were severe. Vitamin B12 and A deficiencies were 5.3 and 4.9%, respectively and did not represent a public health problem in this group. Prevalent deficiency was mixed (iron and folates, 46.6%) followed by exclusive folates deficiency (32%). Anaemia was caused by a combined deficiency of iron and folates (61.1%) and most iron deficiencies were accompanied by folates (92%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low socio-economic level of NW and their families was the principal factor determining the appearance of nutritional anaemia, and educative interventions to the mother are possibly recommended. In conclusion anaemia in NW is a moderate health problem of nutritional type, that is more important when severe folates and iron deficiencies are present in Costa Rica. These problems have remained constant throughout the last three decades; although recently, possibly an improvement has occurred because the prevalence of neural tube defects in the infant population has reduced, maybe due to food iron and folates fortification public health policies implementation.

  11. Biting behavior of Anopheles mosquitoes in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry A. Klein

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito collections were made in and near Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil, to determine anopheline anthropophilic/zoophilic behavior. Collections from a non-illuminated, bovine-baited trap and indoor and outdoor human-bait collections were compared. Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles deaneorum were more anthropophilic than the other anophelines collected. The remainder of the Anopheles species were collected much morefrequently in bovine-baited traps than in human-bait collections. Anopheles darlingi and An. deaneorum were more frequently collected inside houses than the other anopheline species. But, when collections were made in a house with numerous openings in the walls, there were few differences in the percentages of each species biting man indoors versus outdoors. Anopheles darlingi was the predominant mosquito collected, both inside and outside houses, and had the strongest anthropophilic feeding behavior of the anophelines present.Para determinar o comportamento antropofilico e zoofilico dos anofelinos, foram capturados mosquitos na periferia e na zona urbana de Costa Marques, Rondônia, Brasil. Foram comparadas as capturas feitas à noite, com iscas bovinas e humanas, dentro efora de casa. O Anopheles darlingi e o Anopheles deaneorumforam mais antropojilicos do que os outros anofelinos capturados. O restante das espécies anofelinas foi capturado mais freqüentemente nas iscas bovinas do que nas humanas. Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles deaneorumforam capturados dentro de casa com mais freqüência do que as outras espécies anofelinas. Porém, quando a captura foi feita em casas com muitas aberturas nas paredes houve pouca diferença nas porcentagens de cada espécie sugadora de humanos dentro efora de casa. Anopheles darlingi foi o mosquito capturado com mais freqüência, dentro e fora de casa, e apresentava maior antropofilia em relação aos outros anofelinos presentes.

  12. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  13. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.

  14. Monitoring coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves in Costa Rica (CARICOMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Fonseca, Ana C; Nivia-Ruiz, Jaime; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Salas, Eva; Martínez, Solciré; Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla

    2010-10-01

    The coral reefs, seagrasses and mangroves from the Costa Rican Caribbean coast have been monitored since 1999 using the CARICOMP protocol. Live coral cover at Meager Shoal reef bank (7 to 10 m depth) at the Parque Nacional Cahuita (National Park), increased from 13.3% in 1999, to 28.2% in 2003, but decreased during the next 5 years to around 17.5%. Algal cover increased significantly since 2003 from 36.6% to 61.3% in 2008. The density of Diadema antillarum oscillated between 2 and 7ind/m2, while Echinometra viridis decreased significantly from 20 to 0.6ind/m2. Compared to other CARICOMP sites, live coral cover, fish diversity and density, and sea urchin density were low, and algal cover was intermediate. The seagrass site, also in the Parque Nacional Cahuita, is dominated by Thalassia testudinum and showed an intermediate productivity (2.7 +/- 1.15 g/m2/d) and biomass (822.8 +/- 391.84 g/m2) compared to other CARICOMP sites. Coral reefs and seagrasses at the Parque Nacional Cahuita continue to be impacted by high sediment loads from terrestrial origin. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, within the Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo (National Wildlife Refuge), surrounds a lagoon and it is dominated by the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. Productivity and flower production peak was in July. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9.0 +/- 0.58 trees/100 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/d) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. This mangrove is expanding and has low human impact thus far. Management actions should be taken to protect and preserve these important coastal ecosystems. PMID:21302409

  15. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author)

  16. Zymodeme and Serodeme Characterization of Leishmania Isolates Obtained from Costa Rican Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peraza Johnny

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-four Leishmania isolates obtained from Costa Rican patients, from different geographical areas, were characterized by isoenzyme electrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescense with monoclonal antibodies. Thirty-two were characterized as L. panamensis strains and two were L. braziliensis variants. We confirm the evident predominance of L. panamensis as the main etiological agent of leishmaniasis in Costa Rica and the existence of L. braziliensis in the country.

  17. AN EXCEPTIONAL PUBLIC COMPANY WITHIN A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN CRISIS: THE COSTA RICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Chavez; Alberto Cortés Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the economic policy of energy in Costa Rica and of the exceptional role which the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE) – the company responsible for the provision of energy and telecommunications – has historically held in shaping the national identity. The basic assumption is that the institutional profile of the ICE, as well as its evolution and impact on development have been shaped by very specific political, social and economic conditions which a...

  18. Role of bacterial and genetic factors in gastric cancer in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio A Con; Hiroaki Takeuchi; Gil R Con-Chin; Vicky G Con-Chin; Nobufumi Yasuda; Reinaldo Con-Wong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate several risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) in Costa Rican regions with contrasting GC incidence rate (GCIR). METHODS: According to GCIR, 191 Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori)-positive patients were classified into groups A (high GCIR, n = 101) and B (low GCIR, n = 90). Human DNA obtained from biopsy specimens was used in the determination of polymorphisms of the genes coding for interleukin (IL)-1o play a major role in GCIR variability in Costa Rica.

  19. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  20. Seasonal wetlands in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua: environmental characterisation and conservation state.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa, Mahmood; Armengol Díaz, Javier; Bonilla, Fabián; Mesquita Joanes, Francesc; Piculo, Rubén; Rojo García-Morato, Carmen; Rueda, Ricardo; Monrós González, Juan S.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal wetlands in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua: environmental characterisation and conservation status On the Pacific coast of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, rainfall patterns and clay-rich soils allow the development of extensive wetlands. These environments constitute unique habitats for the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity and provide significant ecological services to the surrounding seasonal dry forest. Despite these benefits, wetlands have been severely reduced in the ...

  1. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Sills; Evan Mercer; Frederick Cubbage; Jessica Haynes

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individu...

  2. Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Volume I. Introduction, technical summaries, list of publications, etc., Appendices A-K. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An abstract was prepared for the progress summary on transport theory for open and closed magnetic configurations. Seven abstracts were prepared for included appendices of more detailed work on individual devices. Also included is a list of publications, technical presentations, and DOE program contributions

  3. Yucca Mountain transportation routes: Preliminary characterization and risk analysis; Volume 2, Figures [and] Volume 3, Technical Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souleyrette, R.R. II; Sathisan, S.K.; di Bartolo, R. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Transportation Research Center

    1991-05-31

    This report presents appendices related to the preliminary assessment and risk analysis for high-level radioactive waste transportation routes to the proposed Yucca Mountain Project repository. Information includes data on population density, traffic volume, ecologically sensitive areas, and accident history.

  4. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices E through H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of maps showing lineaments perceived across the state; an index and critique of the Landsat images used in perceiving the lineaments; a selected bibliography on lineaments; and a discussion of area-specific assessments of geothermal resources near military bases in Bexar, Travis, and Val Verde Counties. (MHR)

  5. Siting, design and cost of shallow land burial facilities in Northern New England. Volume 2. Appendices A-G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 comprises the following Appendices: Existing Environmental Data Base in Maine; Wetland Definition and Classification; Marine Clay; Screening Study; Basal Till Screening Study; Engineering Design Specifications and Costing; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; and Maine Yankee's Cost of Low-Level Waste Disposal - 1973-1983

  6. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindle, C.H.; Kreiter, M.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base.

  7. Comprehensive data base of high-level nuclear waste glasses: September 1987 status report: Volume 2, Additional appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is assembling a comprehensive data base (CDB) of experimental data collected for high-level nuclear waste package components. The status of the CDB is summarized in Volume I of this report. Volume II contains appendices that present data from the data base and an evaluation of glass durability models applied to the data base

  8. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter 8 of the final report on the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi (Estonia) presents technical data with the emphasis on district heating pipes, heat losses, prices, retrofitting, economics, costs and heat load duration. (ARW)

  9. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This document provides the appendices to the technical report "New York City School Survey…

  10. Master plan study - District heating Kohtla-Jaerve and Johvi municipalities. Estonia. Final report. Appendices for chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The appendices to chapter nine of the final report of the master plan study on district heating in the municipalities of Kohtla-Jarve and Johvi municipalities (Estonia) present extensive data relating to economic, financial and environmental calculations, fuel consumption, energy balance and prices. (ARW)

  11. Indian Economic Development: An Evaluation of EDA's Selected Indian Reservation Program. Volume II: Individual Reservation Reports, Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boise Cascade Center for Community Development, ID.

    As the appendices to an evaluation of the Economic Development Administration's (EDA) Selected Indian Reservation Program, this portion of the evaluation report presents individualized evaluations of each of the 16 reservations originally selected for the program in 1967. Each reservation evaluation is presented in terms of the following format:…

  12. Undeserving mothers? Shifting rationalities in the maternal healthcare of undocumented Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sara Leon Spesny

    2015-01-01

    The case of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica is emblematic of the issues that immigration generates in host countries. Undocumented Nicaraguan women seeking maternal care constitute a key challenge to the universal coverage of Costa Rica's health system. Can the long-standing commitment to universality, solidarity and equality expressed in the legislation be translated into practice? Discourses of health professionals in Costa Rica reveal a contradiction between merit and prejudice in prenatal and delivery care. Here, I present qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews with physicians and nurses at a Costa Rican National Hospital. The data show that migrant women, rejected from primary care, do find help in emergency services, but not without difficulties, as they must engage in individual negotiations centred on their bodies. The discourses of health providers reflect an ambivalence between the perceived undeservingness of undocumented migrant women and the medical realisation that two lives are at risk. While the foetus often evokes compassion, the mother commonly provokes repression, as specific and shifting rationalities reflect new moral regimes that are applied to this population. Women are perceived as being 'illegal', 'immoral' and 'irrational', and the baby, although legally Costa Rican due to jus solis policy, embodies 'the other'. Ultimately, otherness frames perceptions of deservingness of maternal care for undocumented migrant women in Costa Rica. PMID:25639299

  13. La infertilidad en Costa Rica debe abordarse como un problema de salud pública Infertility in Costa Rica must be tackled as a public health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ferrero Aymerich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la infertilidad afecta a una de cada cuatro parejas en los países en desarrollo, en Costa Rica su incidencia se estima alrededor del 10% entre las parejas en edad fértil. En momentos en que la tasa de fecundidad en Costa Rica ha caído por debajo de su tasa de reemplazo, la infertilidad debe abordarse como un problema de salud pública prioritario. Por lo tanto, la Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica, en vez del inútil debate que ha sostenido por la aprobación de una técnica en particular como es la fecundación in vitro, debe enfocarse en aprobar una legislación sanitaria comprensiva que tome en cuenta el enfoque poblacional y establezca la creación de un Sistema Integrado de Atención de la Infertilidad. Este Sistema debe impulsar el abordaje interdisciplinario y la atención expedita y debe ofrecer terapias costo-efectivas que garanticen su sostenibilidad.Infertility affects one out of four couples in developing countries according to the World Health Organization, while its incidence in Costa Rica is estimated to be 10% in couples in reproductive - age. While the fertility rate in Costa Rica has fallen under the replacement rate, infertility must be approached as a public health priority. Therefore, instead of having the pointless discussion about approving a particular technique such as In vitro fertilization, the Costa Rican Legislative Assembly should focus on approving comprehensive health legislation. This legislation should be based on a population health approach and establish the creation of an Integrated System to Assist Fertility Problems. This System must thrust an interdisciplinary approach and prompt attention. It should also offer cost - effective therapies that guarantee its sustainability.

  14. Estudio de la estacionalidad del dengue en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica (1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Wong- McClure

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus del dengue constituye la causa más común de enfermedades por arbovirus en el mundo. El estudio analiza el comportamiento estacional del dengue en la región Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, durante el período comprendido entre 1999 y 2004. Materiales y métodos: La información fue tomada del Ministerio de Salud de Costa Rica y del Instituto Meteorológico Nacional. Para el análisis de la estacionalidad de dengue se utilizaron el número de casos de esta enfermedad para la estimación de promedios móviles y las características de los brotes epidémicos. Se definió como brote epidémico un total de 20 ó más casos de dengue por semana epidemiológica. Resultados: Durante el período analizado se observó un incremento en el número de casos de dengue por año. Al observar la distribución de los casos incidentes del dengue cada año se resaltó un patrón anual estacional. Los brotes del dengue se presentaron al menos una vez al año, entre las semanas epidemiológicas 18-29 (abril-julio, que coincidían con la estación lluviosa. Discusión: Se evidencia que en la región Pacífico Central, el dengue es una enfermedad predecible en cuanto a su comportamiento estacional, por lo que se recomienda intensificar las medidas de prevención para combatirla, así como preparar los servicios para la atención de pacientes, en las semanas epidemiológica previas a las de mayor promedio en el número de casos, según el patrón estacional.Aim: This study analyzed the Dengue’s seasonal behaviour in the Central Pacific Region of Costa Rica, during the period from 1999 to 2004. It is known that the dengue virus is the most common cause of arbovirus diseases in the world. Material and methods: We got the data from the Costa Rican Ministry of Health and the National Meteorological Institute. From this data, moving averages were calculated to evaluate its seasonal behaviour and the features of the outbreaks. In this study an outbreak of dengue

  15. FIRST RECORD OF THE GENUS Ocyochterus FROM COLOMBIA AND NEW RECORDS OF OCHTERIDAE FROM COSTA RICA (HEMIPTERA: HETEROPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Herrera Madrigal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first Colombian record of Ocyochterus, expanding the previously known distributional range of the genus. Additionally, records of two species of Ochterus from Costa Rica are provided. The material examined is deposited at the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.RESUMENSe registra por primera vez Ocyochterus para Colombia, con lo cual se expande el rango de distribución conocido hasta el momento. Además, se proveen registros para dos especies de Ochterus en Costa Rica. El material examinado se encuentra depositado en el Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (MZUCR, San José, Costa Rica.

  16. Prácticas y comportamientos sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica (Practices and sexual behaviors of students at the University of Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis León-Alán; Cristina Garita-Garita; Marilyn Quesada-Cambronero; Lizeth Taylor-Castillo; Pilar Salas-Chaves

    2011-01-01

    El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar las prácticas sexuales de los estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica para adquirir la infección por VIH con el fin de promover una vida sexual sana y el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida. Se realizó una encuesta auto-administrada y anónima en la población estudiantil, durante el ciclo lectivo del año 2008 en las diferentes sedes que tiene la Universidad de Costa Rica en todo el país.Al final del trabajo de campo se logró recolectar un total de 4...

  17. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica Health services privatization: the experiences of Chile and Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    N. Homedes; A. Ugalde

    2002-01-01

    El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el model...

  18. Diferentes morfometricas por sexo de tres especies del género opisthonema (Pisces Clupeidae de la costa del pacífico, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Víquez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon algunas variables morfométricas en los dos sexos de tres especies de Opisthonema  (O. libertate, O.medirastre y O. bulleri provenientes de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. Las hembras como los machos revelaron diferencias significativas  en su crecimiento relativo, lo cual se evidenció por el análisis de varianza, el análisis de alométria e isométria, y en la variación de crecimiento relativo.

  19. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Freer; Maribel Vargas-Montero

    2003-01-01

    Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN) se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas...

  20. Três espécies novas de Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae da Costa Rica, Panamá e Guiana Francesa Three new species of Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae from Costa Rica, Panama and French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies novas de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta são descritas: L. danuncia sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e Panamá, L. mourei sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e L. glaberrima sp. nov. (da Guiana Francesa. Todas essas espécies foram identificadas anteriormente como Lestrimelitta limao Smith.Three new species of bees of the genus Lestrimelitta are described: L. danuncia sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and Panama, L. mourei sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and L. glaberrima sp. nov. (from French Guiana. All of these new species were previously identified as Lestrimelitta limao Smith.

  1. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.

    1993-04-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  2. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report: 1993. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Glines, W.M.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1994-09-01

    This report is comprised of appendices which support monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during 1993. Appendix A contains onsite Pu-238, gross beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides in air. Appendix B contains onsite tritium in air. Appendix C contains onsite Pu-238, Sr-90, gross alpha and beta, gamma-emitting radionuclides, Ra-226, Ra-228 and tritium in water. A summary of 1993 results of offsite radiological monitoring is included in Appendix D. Appendix E contains radioactive noble gases in air onsite. Appendix F contains onsite thermoluminescent dosimeter data. Historical trends in onsite thermoluminescent dosimeter data are contained in Appendix G. Appendix H summarizes 1993 compliance at the DOE/NV NTS and non-NTS facilities. Appendix I summarizes the 1993 results of non radiological monitoring.

  3. In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol Peer Review Assessment. Part 2; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy K.; Polk, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts involves the risk of decompression sickness. This risk has been mitigated by the use of oxygen "prebreathe" to effectively wash out tissue nitrogen prior to each EVA. Now that the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) is being retired, high-pressure oxygen will become a limited resource. The In-Suit Light Exercise (ISLE) Prebreathe Protocol offers several potential benefits including its potential to save 6 pounds of oxygen per EVA. At the request of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, the peer review convened on October 14, 2010. The major recommendation of the Review Committee was that the ISLE protocol was acceptable for operational use as a prebreathe option prior to EVA. The appendices to Volume I of the report are contained in this document.

  4. Pre-operative Identification and Surgical Management of the Appendiceal Mucocele: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kevin; Cho, Sung; Andres, Robert; Knight, Jennifer; Con, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    An appendiceal mucocele (AM) is an uncommon differential in the patient being evaluated for acute appendicitis. Although often asymptomatic, AMs can clinically mimic acute appendicitis, and preoperative distinction between these processes facilitates optimal management. We report the case of a 60-year-old male with an AM presenting with nausea and periumbilical pain radiating to the right lower quadrant. Literature relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of AMs is reviewed, with emphasis on diagnosis through radiographic imaging and surgical management. Abdominal CT scan or ultrasound are useful in identifying AMs preoperatively. A decision to perform a right hemicolectomy should be influenced by the criteria reported by Gonzalez-Moreno. The safety of the laparoscopic resection relative to an open appendectomy is debated. PMID:27491099

  5. Severe accident risks: An assessment for five US nuclear power plants: Appendices A, B, and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes an assessment of the risks from severe accidents in five commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. These risks are measured in a number of ways, including: the estimated frequencies of core damage accidents from internally initiated accidents and externally initiated accidents for two or the plants; the performance of containment structures under severe accident loadings; the potential magnitude of radionuclide release and offsite consequences of such accidents; and the overall risk (the product of accident frequencies and consequences). Supporting this summary report are a large number of reports written under contract to NRC that provide the detailed discussion of the methods used and results obtained in these risk studies. Volume 2 of this report contains three appendices, providing greater detail on the methods used, an example risk calculation, and more detailed discussion of particular technical issues found important in the risk studies

  6. Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) annual progress report, 1992--1993. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-15

    This report contains the following appendices: Appendix A - Requirements for Undergraduate Level; Appendix B - Requirements for Graduate Level; Appendix C - Graduate Degree In Environmental Engineeringat New Mexico State University; Appendix D - Non-degree Certificate program; Appendix E - Curriculum for Associate Degree Program in Radioactive & Hazardous Waste Materials; Appendix F - Curriculum for NCC Program in Earth & Environmental Sciences; Appendix G - Brochure of 1992 Teleconference Series; Appendix H - Sites for Hazardous/Radioactive Waste Management Series; Appendix I - WERC Interactive Television Courses; Appendix J - WERC Research Seminar Series Brochures; Appendix K - Summary of Technology Development of the Third Year; Appendix L - List of Major Publications Resulting From WERC; Appendix M - Types of Equipment at WERC Laboratories; and Appendix N - WERC Newsletter Examples.

  7. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  8. Rabies in Costa Rica: Documentation of the Surveillance Program and the Endemic Situation from 1985 to 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hutter, Sabine E.; Brugger, Katharina; Sancho Vargas, Victor Hugo; González, Rocío; Aguilar, Olga; León, Bernal; Tichy, Alexander; Firth, Clair L.; Rubel, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first comprehensive epidemiological analysis of rabies in Costa Rica. We characterized the occurrence of the disease and demonstrated its endemic nature in this country. In Costa Rica, as in other countries in Latin America, hematophagous vampire bats are the primary wildlife vectors transmitting the rabies virus to cattle herds. Between 1985 and 2014, a total of 78 outbreaks of bovine rabies was reported in Costa Rica, with documented cases of 723 dead cattle. Of cattle ...

  9. Primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma alongside with situs inversus totalis: a unique clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelou Konstantinos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucinous adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract and one of the three major histological subtypes of the primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. The most common type of presentation is that of acute appendicitis and the diagnosis is usually occurred after appendectomy. The accurate preoperative diagnosis and management of the above condition represents a real challenge when uncommon anatomic anomalies such intestinal malrotation and situs inversus take place. Situs inversus totalis with an incidence of 0.01% is an uncommon condition caused by a single autosomal recessive gene of incomplete penetration in which the major visceral organs are mirrored from their normal positions. Case presentation We present an unusual case of a 59 years old, previously healthy man presented with a left lower quadrant abdominal pain, accompanied with low fever, leukocytosis, anorexia and constipation. A chest radiograph demonstrated dextrocardia with a right side positioned stomach bubble. Both preoperative US and CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis declared situs inversus, with a characteristic thickening in its wall, appendix situated in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. These findings reached to the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with situs inversus and a standard appendicectomy was performed. Pathologic evaluation established primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and three months afterwards the patient underwent a subsequent extended left hemicolectomy. Conclusion In conclusion, the occurrence of primary appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma along with situs inversus, definitely accounts as a unique clinical case. Even synchronous manifestation of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the appendix and situs inversus totalis represents an unusual anatomo-pathological entity, all physicians should be familiar having the knowledge to make an appropriate and accurate diagnosis that will lead to prompt and correct

  10. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  11. 35 years of electron microscopy in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscopy has celebrated in 2009 the XXXV anniversary in Costa Rica. The history of the electron microscopy was initiated with the donation of a microscope by Japan and the establishment of the Unidad de Microscopia Electronica (UME), which later, has been consolidated as the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). This center has realized its own research and has gave support to different units of the UCR, state universities and the private sector. Currently, the CIEMic has had two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and two scanning electron microscopes (SEM), besides of optical microscopy equipment, including a laser confocal microscope. The two fundamental types of electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) have generated different images. While the first has had a resolution that has allowed to analyze virus, usually their images have been flat; however, with some special techniques can obtain three-dimensional images. The image in the TEM is generated by electrons that have passed through the sample, and to interact with its atoms have changed its energy and trajectory. This, at the end, has impacted on a photosensitive screen that has become in flashes, whose intensity has depended on its energy and form the image. Meanwhile, in the MER, the image has been normal type, although with less resolution. The electrons in the MER are focused on a small area of the sample in which have interacted with the atoms of this, and has generated a a series of signals, including the most used were the secondary electrons and characteristic X-rays. In both cases, an electron from beam has generated in the filament a collision against an electron of the sample and has given part of its energy to the degree of release of its atom and issued out of the sample; this has been called secondary electrons. X-rays have been generated when an electron of the same atom that has lost the secondary electron, but in an

  12. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, Héctor Hugo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a Morro 1 y Morro 1-6 y que continúa hacia Punta de Teatinos y El Cerrito. La presente experiencia tiene como objetivo establecer las relaciones biológicas de Caleta Huelén 42 con otros grupos arcaicos costeros. La colección está constituida por 33 individuos y los fechados conocidos la ubican entre el 4780 y el 3780 AP. Las afinidades biológicas con grupos semejantes (Morro 1, Morro 1/6, Morro Uhle, El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos se analizan mediante el empleo de 29 caracteres métricos del cráneo y la aplicación de diferentes técnicas de análisis multivariado. Se demostró la existencia de dos conglomerados biológicos uno constituido por las muestras del Norte Árido (Morro Uhle, Morro 1, Morro1/6 y Caleta Huelén 42 y el otro por las series del Norte Semiárido (El Cerrito y Punta de Teatinos. Los fundadores de Caleta Huelén 42 son el resultado de la migración hacia el sur de una pequeña banda de cazadores recolectores arcaicos, que conservaron parte de genoma original y características culturales que los conecta con la tradición Chinchorro. Además, es posible que hayan recibido el aporte genético de grupos arcaicos proveniente del interior del continente a través del río Loa.

  13. Mammals of the Braulio Carrillo- La Selva Complex, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Robert M.; Wilson, Don E.; Clauson, Barbara L.; LaVal, Richard K.; Vaughan, Christopher S.

    1989-01-01

    Costa Rica's La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex encompasses a 60-km protected corridor of Caribbean rain and cloud forest extending from 30 m at the La Selva Biological Station to 2,906 m at the top of Volcán Barva. The 52,000-ha complex covers four life zones and two transitional zones, including tropical wet forest, tropical wet forest cool-transition, tropical premontane wet-transition rain forest, tropical premontane rain forest, lower montane rain forest, and montane rain forest. Located in the northeastern part of the country, the area is representative of Central American Caribbean slope forests that extend from Mexico to Panama. The extensive elevational gradient of the complex provides protected habitat for a variety of altitudinal migrants. With support from the National Geographic Society and Rice Foundation, the Organization for Tropical Studies organized a biological survey of the complex in early 1986. The mammal team worked at six sites along the elevational transect established by the expedition: 300 m, 700 m, 1,000 m, 1,500 m, 2,050 m, and 2,600 m. We supplemented our collecting records with unpublished records made available by colleagues, records in the published literature, and specimens in museum collections. In addition, observations recorded by a variety of observers at the La Selva Biological Station are summarized. The mammal fauna of the complex comprises 142 species including 79 bats, 23 rodents, 15 carnivores, 7 marsupials, 6 edentates, 4 artiodactyls, 3 primates, 2 rabbits, 2 shrews, and 1 perissodactyl. At least 10 additional species are likely to occur there. The only species of mammal likely to have been extirpated from the area is the giant anteater. Recognizing the importance of the area to wildlife and to mankind in general, the government of Costa Rica added 13,500 ha to the complex on 13 April 1986. This area, previously known as the “Zona Protectora,” provided the mid-elevational link between the lowlands of the La Selva

  14. CADENA DEL CAFÉ DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Carranza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La operación de las actividades económicas y su competitividad, analizadas desde una perspectiva de cadenas globales de mercancías, dependen del funcionamiento de los mercados de crédito, tanto nacionales como internacionales. La operación normal de los negocios requiere crédito para fortalecer sus recursos propios y hacer las compras de materia prima, insumos, pago de salarios e inversión. En todos los casos, el crédito puede ser utilizado para mejorar el diseño de productos, impulsar el acceso a nuevos mercados y aumentar la competitividad. A los productores de la región de Los Santos en Costa Rica se les reconoce por innovadores, y al café de la zona por ser un café de altura y de gran calidad. El artículo explora las necesidades de financiamiento de productores, beneficiadores y exportadores de café de Los Santos, sus fuentes de financiamiento y el uso dado a los recursos obtenidos. Entre las necesidades orientadas al mejoramiento de la competitividad se encontraron la renovación de cafetales entre los productores, el mantenimiento de proyectos y tecnología entre los beneficios y la generación de microbeneficios y búsqueda de nichos de mercado entre los exportadores. Abstract From a global commodity chains perspective, economic activities and their competitiveness depend upon the functioning of credit markets, both international and domestic. Current businesses operations require credit to enhance their own resources in order to buy raw material and inputs, pay wages and make investment. Credit may also be used to improve product design, enter new markets and boost competitiveness as a result. High altitude grown coffee from Los Santos, Costa Rica is widely known for its quality, and their growers as innovative. This paper addresses credit needs of coffee growers, processors and exporters in Los Santos, the credit sources they have access to, and the kind of uses the credit is given. Improving competitiveness uses

  15. Antioxidant activity of Costa Rican propolis: a multivariate analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propolis is produced by Apis mellifera bees from resins of plants that are found around the apiary. The chemical composition is highly variable and Costa Rica has reported without studies of characterization to define the types of propolis in the country. 119 samples were collected from beekeeping areas of the country. The spectrum of 1H-NMR and its antioxidant activity against DPPH radical were measured. The spectra have been divided into 243 blocks of 0,04 ppm and processed with the Minitab software for multivariate analysis. 99 of the samples collected were used for construction of models for the valuation of the predictive ability of the model have been used coefficients of determination (R2) of prediction by the software and the remaining 20 samples. The existence of three types of propolis with chemically different metabolomes were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). A prediction model was constructed by analysis of partial least squares (PLS). The prediction model has allowed to classify a propolis according to the level of antioxidant activity (AAO), high (type I and II) or low (type III) from the spectrum of 1H-NMR. The R2 has been 0.88 and R2 prediction of 0, 718 for new samples. The nconiferyl benzoate of group I and nemorosone of the group II as two discriminated antioxidants among the groups I and II were isolated and high concentration levels of these compounds have been differentiated with respect to type III. This has allowed the construction of a linear discriminant model with a success rate of 100% for the samples used for formulation and 92,9 for the prediction of different samples. The classification systems could be applied to the standardization of the quality of propolis from Costa Rica for future medicinal or cosmetic applications that take advantage of its antioxidant properties. Also, the methylated derivative has isolated and identified of the nconiferyl benzoate thereof propolis than was obtained his counterpart

  16. The declining effect of sibling size on children's education in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Costa Rica experienced a dramatic fertility decline in the 1960s and 1970s. The same period saw substantial improvement in children's educational attainment in Costa Rica. This correlation is consistent with household-level quantity-quality tradeoffs, but prior research on quantity-quality tradeoff magnitudes is mixed, and little research has estimated quantity-quality tradeoff behaviors in Latin America. Objective: This study explores one dimension of the potential demographic dividend from the fertility decline: the extent to which it was accompanied by quantity-quality tradeoffs leading to higher educational attainment. Specifically, we provide the first estimate of quantity-quality tradeoffs in Costa Rica, analyzing the increase in secondary school attendance among Costa Rican children as the number of siblings decreases. Furthermore, we advance the literature by exploring how that tradeoff has changed over time. Methods: We use 1984 and 2000 Costa Rican census data as well as survey data from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study (CRELES. To address endogenous family size, the analysis uses an instrumental variable strategy based on the gender of the first two children to identify the causal relationship between number of siblings and children's education. Results: We find that, among our earlier cohorts, having fewer siblings is associated with a significantly higher probability of having attended at least one year of secondary school, particularly among girls. The effect is stronger after we account for the endogeneity of number of children born by the mother. For birth cohorts after 1980 this relationship largely disappears. Conclusions: This study provides strong evidence for a declining quantity-quality (Q-Q tradeoff in Costa Rica. This result suggests one potential explanation for the heterogeneous findings in prior studies elsewhere, but more work will be required to understand why such tradeoffs might vary

  17. Que Sucede? Manual Informativo Sobre Rehabilitacion y Educacion Especial en Costa Rica (What's Happening? Informative Manual on Rehabilitation and Special Education in Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mezerville, Gaston; And Others

    The manual, in Spanish, provides descriptions of rehabilitation, medical, and special education services; centers and institutions which offer physical and mental rehabilitation services; and lists of professionals and advocacy organizations in Costa Rica. Part 1 includes an overview of rehabilitation and special education, a short history of…

  18. ACTIVIDADES RECREATIVAS Y SUS BENEFICIOS PARA PERSONAS NICARAGÜENSES RESIDENTES EN COSTA RICA (RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AND THEIR BENEFITS FOR NICARAGUANS WHO LIVE IN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Salas Carmen Grace

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Costa Rica se ha convertido en un país multicultural. Muchas personas han migrado a él en busca de mejores condiciones de vida. La mayoría de estas personas son nicaragüenses, quienes conforman alrededor de tres cuartas partes del grupo total inmigrante en el país. En el año 2007, se realizó un proyecto de investigación en la Escuela de Educación Física y Deportes de la Universidad de Costa Rica que tuvo la finalidad de estudiar cómo se recreaba esta población antes y, especialmente, después de la inmigración a Costa Rica. La investigación fue cualitativa, fenomenológica, e incluyó 13 personas nicaragüenses residentes en el Área Metropolitana. La información que se presenta en este artículo fue recolectada mediante entrevistas y observaciones de la participación en una actividad recreativa. Los datos fueron analizados en forma individual y se triangularon. Los resultados generales indican que: (1 la población investigada realizaba once tipos de actividades recreativas en Nicaragua, entre semana y fines de semana, antes de venir a Costa Rica; (2 esa misma población participaba en diez categorías de actividades recreativas en Costa Rica, entre semana y fines de semana, y (3 ese grupo percibió siete beneficios que le ofrecía la recreación.Abstract:Costa Rica has become a multicultural country. Many people immigrated to it looking for a better lifestyle. Most of these people are Nicaraguans, who are three quarters of the total amount of immigrants in Costa Rica. In 2007, the School of Physical Education and Sports at the University of Costa Rica conducted a research to study how this Nicaraguans recreated before and after they immigrated to Costa Rica. The research conducted was qualitative, phenomenological, and included 13 Nicaraguans, who lived in the Metropolitan Area. This article is the first of several papers that will report the result of the research. The information of this article was collected with

  19. Actividad Sísmica en Costa Rica Durante el 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepolt Linkimer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante el 2013 la Red Sismológica Nacional (RSN: UCR-ICE localizó 2547 sismos de los cuales 261 fueron sentidos por la población. Se percibieron en Costa Rica siete sismos con magnitud Mw ≥ 5,0. La mayoría (85% de los sismos percibidos fueron superficiales (< 30 km y el 56% tuvo una magnitud baja (Mw 3,0-3,9. El fallamiento local y regional provocó el 52% de los sismos, seguido por el proceso de subducción de la placa del Coco bajo la placa Caribe y la microplaca de Panamá que originó el 45%. La intensidad máxima observada en el 2013 fue de VI (Mercalli Modificada, MM para la zona de Sixaola (Limón debido al sismo del 27 de mayo (Mw 5,6 con epicentro en el occidente de Panamá.

  20. Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyses movement patterns, habitat preferences, activity schedules, and dispersion of troop members in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in relation to seasonal changes in food abundance in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest. Secondary forest was the preferred habitat and use of primary forest and late successional forest was limited primarily to seasons when food availability was low. Range area differed between seasons, varying from 79 to 110 ha, and totaling 176 ha over 11 months. The number of hectares used, hourly rate of group movement, and proportion of time spent foraging each season were all negatively related to relative food abundance. There was a tendency to spend less time in foraging activities in the middle of the day and to spend more time exclusively in travel at dawn and dusk. In all seasons dispersion was least when the troop was travelling and it was generally greatest during seasons of low food abundance. Measures of the allocation of time by the troop to food-related activities and the extent of troop dispersion each season were consistent with estimates based on behavior sampling of individuals. PMID:3504420

  1. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival. PMID:27547321

  2. Perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2003 se predijo que existiría un pequeño incremento en la cantidad de lluvia que caería en Costa Rica. El presente estudio analiza el comportamiento meteorológico durante el primer semestre del año, sobre las causas del aumento en patrón lluvioso y el pronóstico para el resto de los meses. Se muestra un mapa centroamericano sobre la probabilidad de que ocurran lluvias por debajo de lo normal, normales o arriba de lo normal, generado en el Foro Climático Centroamericano, así como una tabla comparativa entre la cantidad de tormentas tropicales, huracanes y ciclones del año 2002, el primer semestre 2003 y un promedio histórico (1950-2000. Como último punto se analiza la probabilidad del desarrollo del fenómeno de La Niña y la evolución del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, según las proyecciones de doce modelos climáticos de distintos centros climáticos especializados

  3. Modelo de sostenibilidad para Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chen Mok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un modelo de trabajo que permitirá dar sostenibilidad a los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes (CECI, con el fin de continuar con los procesos de apropiación de la tecnología por parte de las comunidades en donde se ubican, y por lo tanto disminuir la brecha digital. Antes de presentar el modelo, se ofrecen los antecedentes conceptuales que fundamentan el proyecto de CECI. Para la creación del modelo, en el 2014 se realizó un diagnóstico del funcionamiento y administración de algunos CECI existentes en el Cantón Central de Puntarenas, que se encuentran en un radio máximo de 12 km de la Sede de Pacífico de la Universidad de Costa Rica, y se indagó sobre los actores locales que podrían intervenir. Se considera que el modelo es replicable para todos los Centros Comunitarios Inteligentes existentes en todo el país, con la diferencia de las necesidades propias de cada comunidad en donde estos se encuentran.

  4. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  5. de La Ciénega, costa sur de Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. W. Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy día la producción agroindustrial de alimentos es una actividad que está causando gran impacto tanto en los recursos naturales como en las culturas y los tejidos sociales; mientras que el modo campesino, opuesto al agroindustrial, propone una agricultura justa con base en las prácticas y experiencias campesinas generando así alternativas sustentables de producción.En este artículo se analizan cuatro estudios de caso de agricultores en el ejido de La Ciénega en la costa sur de Jalisco, los cuales se ubican en estos dos sistemas de producción. Los resultados exponen las técnicas de producción y estrategias campesinas que se desarrollan, así como la relación de los sistemas de producción ante las políticas agropecuarias. Terminamos resaltando la importancia de las prácticas y experiencias endógenas para el fortalecimiento de un desarrollo rural sustentable

  6. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONOMICO EN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ramirez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional (2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.

  7. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.

  8. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P; Acuña, M

    2011-09-01

    Participation of the University of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H(p)(10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs. PMID:21856694

  9. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry Chinchilla [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  10. Enfermedad de Lyme (Borreliosis de Lyme en Costa Rica Lyme disease in Costa Rica, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Boza-Cordero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Lyme o borreliosis de Lyme es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas del género Ixodes y producida por la espiroqueta Borrelia burgdorferi. Ha sido descrita principalmente en Norteamérica, Europa y Asia, y se caracteriza clínicamente por una presentación en tres etapas: inicial con eritema migrans que comienza alrededor de la picadura de la garrapata; infección diseminada con fiebre, ataque al estado general, artritis migratoria, linfadenopatías, alteraciones neurológicas y hepatitis; y la forma crónica, caracterizada por artritis, periostitis, encefalomielitis crónica y polirradiculopatía, entre otras manifestaciones. En Costa Rica se desconocen notificaciones de pacientes con esta patología, por lo que se presenta el caso de una mujer adulta que tras un viaje al Estado de La Florida en los Estados Unidos, presentó cuadro clínico y serológico compatible con la forma leve de la enfermedad de Lyme. Se discuten los hallazgos y se alerta sobre la posibilidad de diagnosticar esta zoonosis, dado el auge del turismo ecológico en estos días.Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis is a zoonosis transmitted by the Ixodes ticks and caused by a spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. It has been reported mostly in North America, Europe and Asia and is clinically characterized by a presentation on 3 stages, starting with erythema migrans that begins around the tick bite. Disseminated infection with fever, migratory arthritis, lymphadenopathy, neurological alterations and hepatitis and the chronic phase characterized by arthritis, periostitis, chronic encephalomielitis, polyradiculopathy amongst other manifestations. In Costa Rica, we know of no reports of patients with this disease, so we herein present the case of an woman who, after a trip to the state of Florida, presented clinical and serological alterations compatible with the mild form of Lyme disease. The findings are discussed and also we alert to the possibility of diagnosing

  11. Las fiebres manchadas y su importancia en Costa Rica Spotted fever and their importance in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Hun-Opfer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Manchada de la Montañas Rocosas es una zoonosis transmitida por garrapatas y causada por una bacteria intracelular obligatoria, la Rickettsia rickettsii. Es una enfermedad sistémica, de moderada a severa, producida por la infección del endotelio vascular de pequeños vasos de la mayoría de órganos y tejidos. Es la más letal de las infecciones transmitidas por garrapatas y desde su descubrimiento, hace cerca de 100 años, todavía se presenta, aunque esporádicamente, de forma persistente, y a pesar de que se cuenta con antibióticos efectivos, la mortalidad sigue siendo de mas del 10% y los pacientes requieren terapia intensiva durante la infección si esta no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo. En tiempo recientemente se han descrito otras especies de garrapatas que pueden transmitir rickettsias a humanos así como nuevas especies de rickettsias que pueden producir cuadros de fiebres manchadas y aunque se ha dilucidado parte de sus mecanismos patogénicos, persisten muchas dudas respecto a su virulencia. Desde 1975 se han reportado brotes de esta enfermedad en Costa Rica y el agente etiológico causal, la Rickettsia rickettsii, fue aislada e identificada en la mayoría de los casos en el Laboratorio de Virología de la Facultad de Microbiología de la Universidad de Costa Rica.Rocky Mountain Spotted fever is a tick vector disease caused by an obligated intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii. It is a severe systemic illness caused by the infection of endothelial cells of small vessels of most organs and tissues of the human body. It is the most lethal tick-born disease and since its discovery more than 100 years ago it still appears sporadically, but persistently. Although there is treatment with effective antibiotics, mortality rates are near 10% and infected patients require intensive care when the illness is misdiagnosed and there is a delay in treatment. Other species of ticks and new species of rickettsia have been

  12. Solar production of industrial process steam ranging in temperature from 300/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F (Phase I). Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) equipment requisitions, (2) instrument list, (3) mechanical subcontract requisition, (4) electrical subcontract requisition, (5) site preparation and subcontract requisition, (6) building subcontract requisition, and (7) job specifications. (MOW)

  13. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Bartley, D.A.; Hatcher, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center] [and others

    1996-10-15

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition.

  14. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities. Volume 2, Appendices. Semiannual technical progress report, September 28, 1994--March 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This semiannual progress report contains the following appendices: description of the 1,000 lb steam/h watertube research boiler; the Pennsylvania CGE model; Phase II, subtask 3.9 coal market analysis; the CGE model; and sector definition

  15. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 2, Appendices: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for: process data log sheets from Nile boiler 2; auditing; sampling protocol; field sampling data sheets; quality assurance/quality control; analytical protocol; and uncertainty analysis.

  16. Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Morera

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultura, recursos naturales, medio ambiente y desarrollo sostenible en Costa Rica. La agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica debe reconocer la necesidad de intensificar la productividad como medio de soportar la acelerada demanda creada por el incremento poblacional, pero al mismo tiempo debe prever el mejor uso y conservación de los recursos naturales. Sin recursos naturales no hay agricultura y sin ésta no hay seguridad alimentaria. Es de esperar que Costa Rica pueda satisfacer la demanda creciente de alimentos y otros productos agrícolas; evitando el acelerado proceso de degradación que sufren nuestros suelos y bosques. El proceso de agricultura sostenible en Costa Rica y otros países de la región, presenta un incremento en la demanda de tierras y recursos naturales; lo cual suscita competencias y agudos conflictos sociales, económicos y ecológicos. Costa Rica debe plantearse una estrategia de desarrollo sostenible que contemple los efectos asociados del crecimiento demográfico, la seguridad alimentaria, la protección de la biodiversidad, la regeneración de los ecosistemas, el desarrollo de tecnologías amigables con el ambiente, la regulación sobre el acceso a los recursos naturales y la formación de capital humano

  17. PRIMER REPORTE DE Panicum repens L. COMO POTENCIAL MALEZA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Retana-S\\u00E1nchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue brindar información de Panicum repens como potencial maleza en Costa Rica y la taxonomía asociada a esta especie para su correcta identificación. En abril del año 2012 se recibieron en el Laboratorio de Arvenses de la Universidad de Costa Rica y en la Universidad EARTH muestras de una poácea no identificada, procedentes de una orilla de camino frente a una finca ganadera del cantón de San Carlos, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Al analizar las características taxonómicas de las espiguillas y del sistema radical, no concordaban con las especies registradas en el país. Se identificó la especie como Panicum repens L., la cual no se encuentra registrada en Costa Rica, como lo hace constar la ausencia de especímenes en el Herbario Nacional y en el Herbario de la Escuela de Biología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, así como en la literatura especializada en el tema. Se detallan las características taxonómicas de Panicum repens para su identificación.

  18. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  19. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  20. Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. Code of Practice and Technical Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is in two parts. The first is a Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the second part is a compilation of technical appendices. Its object is to give information and illustrative examples that would be helpful in implementing the Code of Practice. This second part, although published under the same cover, is not part of the Code. Safe operation of a nuclear power plant postulates suitable siting and proper design, construction and management of the plant. Under the present Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, those intending to operate the plant are recommended to prepare documentation which would deal with its operation and include safety analyses. The documentation in question would be reviewed by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization; operation would be authorized on the understanding that it would comply with limits and conditions designed to ensure safety. The Code may be subject to revision in the light of experience. The Appendices provide additional information together with some examples relating to certain topics dealt with in the Code; it must be emphasized that they are included as examples for information only and are not part of any recommendation. Purpose and scope: The recommendations in the Code are designed to protect the general public and the operating personnel from radiation hazards, and the Code forms part of the Agency's Safety Standards. The Code, which should be used in conjunction with the Agency's other Safety Standards, provides guidance and information to persons and authorities responsible for the operation of stationary nuclear power plants whose main function is the generation of thermal, mechanical or electrical power; it is not intended to apply to reactors used solely for experimental or research purposes. It sets forth minimum requirements which, it is believed, in the light of experience, must be met in order to achieve safe operation of a

  1. GPU v. B and W lawsuit review and its effect on TMI-1 (Docket 50-289). Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the GPU v. B and W lawsuit review contains four appendices supporting the review of the GPU v. B and W lawsuit discussed in Volume I of this report. As outlined in the Background section of Volume I under (3) Review Method Utilized by the Staff, the GPU v. B and W lawsuit review was partitioned into 10 categories. The 154 certification items and the 19 long-term actions (hearing items or restart issues) resulting from Commission Orders and the hearing process were each placed in one or more of the 10 categories. These appendices contain the hearing items by category; lawsuit record by category; category location matrix for lawsuit record; and uncategorized lawsuit record

  2. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  3. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles, Costa Rica.

  4. Algunos aspectos relacionados con la imposición de costas en el proceso civil en el derecho comparado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valiño Arcos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Introducción: sus precedentes en derecho romano. Presupuestos para su imposición en el derecho italiano. Exámen de la condena en costas en el derecho alemán y austríaco. Referencia a la condena en costas en derecho español

  5. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that th

  6. Report to Congress on the feasibility of establishing a heating oil component to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Nine appendices to the main report are included in this volume. They are: Northeastern US distillate supply systems; New England fuel oil storage capacities and inventories; Characteristics of the northeast natural gas market; Documentation of statistical models and calculation of benefits; Regional product reserve study; Other countries` experience with refined product storage; Global refining supply demand appraisal; Summary of federal authorities relevant to the establishment of petroleum product reserves; Product stability and turnover requirements.

  7. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendices B through K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US. Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices B--K of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  8. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendices A, B, D, E, G-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendices A, B, D, E, G--N

  9. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Appendices L through P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains Appendices L-P of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment

  10. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the following appendices: LWR fuel cycle, handling and storage of spent fuel, termination case considerations (use of coal-fired power plants to replace nuclear plants), increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data, characteristics of nuclear fuel, away-from-reactor storage concept, spent fuel storage requirements for higher projected nuclear generating capacity, and physical protection requirements and hypothetical sabotage events in a spent fuel storage facility

  11. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 5. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume V of the five-volume report consists of appendices, which provide supplementary information, with emphasis on characteristics of geologic formations that might be used for final storage or disposal. Appendix titles are: selected glossary; conversion factors; geologic isolation, including, (a) site selection factors for repositories of wastes in geologic media, (b) rock types--geologic occurrence, (c) glossary of geohydrologic terms, and (d) 217 references; the ocean floor; and, government regulations pertaining to the management of radioactive materials. (JGB)

  12. Comment Hobbes tente de rendre son matérialisme acceptable dans les appendices du Léviathan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Staquet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le Léviathan de Hobbes [1651] a subi de nombreuses attaques, au point qu’il est jugé responsable de la grande peste de 1665 et de l’incendie de Londres l’année suivante et que le parlement ouvre une procédure contre l’ouvrage. Aussi, lorsqu’en 1666, Thomas Hobbes veut publier la traduction latine de ce livre, il y adjoint trois appendices. La version latine de l’œuvre est généralement jugée plus acceptable que le texte originaire anglais. En étudiant la manière dont Hobbes traite de son matérialisme dans ces appendices, je tente de montrer que les addenda latins ne constituent en aucune manière un retour en arrière du texte, mais que le philosophe enrobe simplement davantage des propos que, par ailleurs, il rend plus radicaux.Hobbes’s Leviathan [1651] has been critiqued so much that it was held responsible for the Great Plague of 1665 and the Fire of London during the following year, resulting in the Parliament instituting proceedings against the book. Therefore, when in 1666 Thomas Hobbes wanted to publish a Latin translation of this book, he added three appendices. Generally, the Latin version of the work is considered more acceptable than the English original text. By studying how Hobbes deals with his materialism in these appendices, I try to show that the Latin additions are in no way a reversal of the text, but that the philosopher simply veiled more propositions, while at the same time making them more radical.

  13. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  14. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape. PMID:21082485

  15. Nuevas especies de Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995 (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. de Armas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen tres especies nuevas de esquizómidos de Costa Rica que pertenecen al género Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995: una de la Estación Biológica La Selva, provincia Heredia; las otras dos, de la Estación Biológica Las Cruces, Coto Brus, provincia Puntarenas. Con estos nuevos aportes, se elevan a 16 los miembros del género y a nueve las especies de esquizómidos formalmente descritas de este país centroamericano.Three new species of Costa Rican schizomids belonging to the genus Surazomus Reddell & Cokendolpher, 1995, are described from Biological Station La Selva, Heredia province, and Biological Station Las Cruces, Coto Brus, Puntarenas province. Those additions raise to 16 the known nominal species of this genus and to nine the schizomid species recognized from Costa Rica.

  16. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete loss of spines, lethargy, dehydration, and weight loss. During physical exam, deposits of dry seborrhea were taken and processed for diagnosis. Microscopic examination revealed psoroptid mites identified as Caparinia tripilis. This is the first report of the presence of Caparinia tripilis in Costa Rica and, to the authors' knowledge, the rest of Central America. PMID:24252963

  17. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  18. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  19. Zimmer slipstream magnesium hydroxide recovery demonstration. Volume II of II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Dravo Lime has for many years supplied magnesium containing lime in the ranges of 3-6% MgO. Several years ago Dravo Lime realized the potential operating savings its FGD customers could benefit from if magnesium could be recovered from FGD waste streams. As a result, several different proprietary processes have been developed for the recovery of magnesium hydroxide. These recovery processes include steps for magnesium hydroxide separation, purification, and crystal growth. The process implemented at The Cincinnati Gas Electric Company`s Wm. H. Zimmer Station was piloted by Dravo Lime Company at Allegheny Power System`s Mitchell Station near Monongahela, PA during the fourth quarter in 1989 and first quarter in 1990. This pilot work was the foundation for further development of the ThioClear process at Dravo`s pilot plant at CG&E Miami Fort Station. The ThioClear process is a closed loop version of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process with the same unit operations and products but also including an absorber tower for scrubbing flue gas. Testing at Miami Fort of the ThioClear process led to improvements in separation of magnesium hydroxide from gypsum that are part of the magnesium hydroxide recovery process installed at Zimmer Station. This document contains the Appendices for this report.

  20. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs.

  1. Power system development: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Preliminary design report: appendices, Part 2 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the electrical system, instrumentation and control, ammonia pump evaluation study, ammonia and nitrogen support subsystems, piping and support design calculations, and plant availability. (WHK)

  2. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) project conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA Program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. This volume contains the Appendices, which include listings of the FORTRAN code and Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide. 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Analysis of core damage frequency, Surry, Unit 1 internal events appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events for the Surry Nuclear Station, Unit 1. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 documents the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. The work performed is an extensive reanalysis of that published in November 1986 as NUREG/CR-4450, Volume 3. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved. The context and detail of this report are directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was performed and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency at Surry was calculated to be 4.0E-5 per year, with a 95% upper bound of 1.3E-4 and 5% lower bound of 6.8E-6 per year. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all AC power) were the largest contributors to the core damage frequency, accounting for approximately 68% of the total. The next type of dominant contributors were Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs). These sequences account for 15% of core damage frequency. No other type of sequence accounts for more than 10% of core damage frequency

  4. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  5. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-04

    The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the developed computer models, water system dynamic studies, miscellaneous performance analysis, materials and processes, detailed equipment lists, turbine design studies, tube cleaner design, ammonia leak detection, and heat exchanger design supporting data. (WHK)

  6. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  7. OTEC modular experiment cold water pipe concept evaluation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The Cold Water Pipe System Design Study was undertaken to evaluate the diverse CWP concepts, recommend the most viable alternatives for a 1984 deployment of the 10 to 40 MWe MEP, and carry out preliminary designs of three concepts. The concept evaluation phase reported involved a systems analysis of design alternatives in the broad categories of rigid walled (with hinges), compliant walled, stockade and bottom mounted buoyant. Quantitative evaluations were made of concept performance, availability, deployment schedule, technical feasibility and cost. CWP concepts were analyzed to determine if they met or could be made to meet established system requirements and could be deployed by 1984. Fabrication, construction and installation plans were developed for successful concepts, and costs were determined in a WBS format. Evaluations were performed on the basis of technical and cost risk. This volume includes the following appendices: (A) materials and associated design criteria; (B) summary of results of dynamic flow and transportation analysis; (C) CWP sizing analysis; (D) CWP thermal performance; and (E) investigation of the APL/ABAM CWP design. (WHK)

  8. Use of transportable storage casks in the nuclear waste management system: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to determine the viability of the use of transportable storage casks (TSCs), and other metal casks that are designed primarily for storage but which might be used to ship their stored contents to DOE on a one-time use basis (referred to in this study as storage only casks, or SOCs), in the combined utility/DOE spent fuel management system. The viability of the use of TSCs and SOCs was assessed in terms of the costs and savings involved in their use, the sensitivity of these costs and savings to changes in the capacity and cost of fabrication of the casks, the impacts of variation in cask design features on cost and radiation exposure of personnel, and their prospective use in connection with the transport of defense high level wastes. Estimates were developed of the costs of acquiring and handling of TSCs and SOCs at reactor sites. For comparison purposes, similar costs were developed for the use of concrete storage casks at reactor sites. Estimates of the savings involved to the DOE system as a result of receiving spent fuel in TSCs or SOCs were separately developed. These costs are developed and presented in Volume 2, Appendices A through J

  9. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives. (DMC)

  10. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  11. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  12. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  13. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Appendices to final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-20

    NOAA/DOE has selected three concepts for a baseline design of the cold water pipe (CWP) for OTEC plants: (1) a FRP CWP of sandwich wall construction suspended from the Applied Physical Laboratory/John Hopkins University (APL/JHU) barge at a site 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil using a horizontal deployment scheme; (2) an elastomer CWP suspended from the APL/JHU barge off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico using either a horizontal or vertical deployment scheme; and (3) a polyethylene CWP (single or multiple pipe) suspended from the Gibbs and Cox spar at the Puerto Rico site using a horizontal deployment scheme. TRW has developed a baseline design for each of these configurations. This volume of the report includes the following appendices: (A) fiberglass reinforced plastic cold water pipe (specification and drawingss); (B) specification for polyethylene CWP; (C) elastomer pipe drawings; (D) drawings for OTEC 10/40 hull/CWP transitions; (E) structural design of OTEC 10/40 CWP support and CWP transitions; (F) universal transition joint for CWP; (G) dynamic spherical seal of CWP; (H) at-sea deployment loads - surface towing loads; (I) OTEC 10/40 CWP deployment up-ending loads; (J) cost estimates for OTEC 10/40 hull/CWP transitions; and (K) OTEC 10/40 CWP deployment scenario and cost estimate. (WHK)

  14. Appendiceal Abscess in Children%小儿阑尾脓肿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毓秀; 方中南; 王文敬

    1986-01-01

    @@ 小儿阑尾脓肿的治疗,目前仍有分歧,即行非手术治疗或手术治疗.现将我院1971~1985年14年来收治年龄在15岁以下的小儿阑尾脓肿50例分析报道如下. 临床资料%50 patients,aged between 3 and 15,with appendiceal abscess were treated at our hospital from 1971 to 1985.25 Were given conservative treatment and 25 received operations.without death reported.The surgical procedures employed include appendectomy with drainage (20 cases),simple drainage (3 cases) and appendectomy without drainage (2 cases).Early diagnosis and treatment are important to lessen the complications.Operation is indicated in cases with severe clinical manifes tations,poorly localized periappendiceal infec tion,complicating intestinal obstruction,failure to respond to conservative treatment and those under the age of three.The authors emphasized that interval appendectomy should be held in treated cases until appendicitis recurs.

  15. Feasibility evaluation solar heated textile process water. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    The general objectives of this study are to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the use of solar energy for heating waters in the textile industry and to develop a plan for efforts beyond this feasibility study phase. Specific objectives include (1) determine the industry requirements for heated process water, (2) assess particular schemes and their economic impact, (3) study the total cost environment for solar water heating in this industry, and (4) recommend future experiments. This volume contains the appendices: (A) fiber distribution and end use data; (B) computer model description for textile plant energy balances; (C) computer model description to generate local solar potential; (D) computer model description for system synthesis and analysis; (E) computer model to determine pressure drop, flow distribution and plumbing components; (F) area requirement plots for various use rates, temperature levels, seasons, orientations and collector types for textile operations; (G) computer model description of economic variables for COSMO1 and COSMO2; (H) rate of return plots for various textile applications and energy cost scenerios; and (I) data base for efficiency curves for six collector types. (WHK)

  16. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist

  17. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs

  18. Assessment of Poa annua resistance to clethodim in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to check for the presence of resistance to clethodim in Poa annua populations observed in onion fields in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. Two experiments were conducted; the first one was carried out, in 2007, in a greenhouse at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station (EEAFBM, in Spanish, with seeds of plants from a farm where clethodim exercised good control (S population, and from another farm where clethodim showed a deficient control (R population. Both S and R populations were treated with different doses of clethodim (0.5X, 1.0X, 1.5X and 2.0X, being X the recommended commercial dose. In this experiment, control of the R population was 44% and 17% at doses of 1.5X and 2.0X, respectively, whereas control of the S population was 100% at either of those doses. The second experiment was carried out in 2009, seeds of two other P. annua populations were collected in a similar way: one population from an area where weed control was satisfactory (S, and the other population from an area of the farm where control was deficient (R. Seeds were sown, depending on the type, in plastic pots and sprayed with clethodim at doses of: 0. 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X. There were significant differences in the reactions to clethodim of both P. annua populations The S population showed a higher percentage of control and less surviving plants than the R population. Several plants of the R population resisted up to 16X commercial doses of clethodim. Results of both experiments suggest the presence of P. annua populations resistant to clethodim.

  19. Genetic admixture and population substructure in Guanacaste Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Wang

    Full Text Available The population of Costa Rica (CR represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU, East Asians (JPT+CHB, West African Yoruba (YRI, as well as Native Americans (NA from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.

  20. COSTA RICA: DESEMPEÑO MACROECONÓMICO EN 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ramírez Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante 1996, la economía de Costa Rica mostró un estancamiento en su actividad productiva que finalmente devino en una contracción del 1% en el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB, después de un año previo de desaceleración en ese agregado nacional(2,5% de variación en 1995 y muy lejos del desempeño alcanzado en 1992 (7,7% y 1993 (6,5%.Esa contracción económica apenas si puede asociarse al cumplimiento de presuntas severas metas de estabilización macroeconómica contabilizadas en el último convenio respectivo con el Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI.En efecto, el déficit fiscal excedió las expectativas del Gobierno y se situó en el 5,1% respecto del PIB, superando al indicador del año previo que fue del 4,4%; y el déficit en la cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos incrementó su participación respecto del PIB (1,6%.El nivel de divisas en poder del Banco Central se contrajo ligeramente a contrapelo de la meta del programa de estabilización. Los precios, sin embargo, mostraron una desaceleración en su ritmo de crecimiento; así, la inflación disminuyó hasta ubicarse en un 13,9%, medida por la variación anual del índice de precios al consumidor (IPC a diciembre.

  1. Genetic diversity in cattle of eight regions in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Cordero-Solórzano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the extent of inter-regional genetic diversity present in the cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected (year 2013 from eight different regions within the country. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters were determined for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance was also carried out and genetic distances were calculated between cattle from different regions. At the national level, a high allelic diversity was found, with an average of 14.6±1.01 observed alleles and 5.6+0.37 effective alleles per marker. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosities were 0.76±0.01 and 0.81±01, respectively. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC and Coefficient of Inbreeding (FIS were 0.79±0.06 and 0.06±0.004, respectively. At the regional level, Ho ranged between 0.73±0.02 in the South Central region to 0.78±0.01 in the North Huetar region. The dendrogram showed three clearly distinct groups, Metropolitan Central and West Central regions in one group, Caribbean Huetar, South Central, Central Pacific and Chorotega regions in a second group; and North Huetar and Brunca regions in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation (RST were significant between regions from different groups and non-significant for regions within the same group. Genetic differences between regions are related to differential proliferation of breed groups based on their adaptability to the agro-ecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region.

  2. Using Social Networks to Educate Seismology to Non-Science Audiences in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke, O. H.; Linkimer, L.

    2013-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high rate of seismicity with 63 damaging earthquakes in its history as a nation and 12 felt earthquakes per month on average. In Costa Rica, earthquakes are part of everyday life; hence the inhabitants are highly aware of seismic activity and geological processes. However, formal educational programs and mainstream media have not yet addressed the appropriate way of educating the public on these topics, thus myths and misconceptions are common. With the increasing influence of social networks on information diffusion, they have become a new channel to address this issue in Costa Rica. The National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN) is a joint effort between the University of Costa Rica and the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity. Since 1973, the RSN studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. Starting on January 2011 the RSN has an active Facebook Page, in which felt earthquakes are reported and information on Seismology, geological processes, scientific talks, and RSN activities are routinely posted. Additionally, RSN gets almost instantaneous feedback from RSN followers including people from all rural and urban areas of Costa Rica. In this study, we analyze the demographics, geographic distribution, reach of specific Facebook posts per topic, and the episodic growth of RSN followers related to specific seismic events. We observe that 70 % of the RSN users are between ages from 18 to 34. We consistently observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We notice that educational posts are as well 'liked' as most earthquake reports. For exceptional seismic events, we observe sudden increments in the number of RSN followers in the order of tens of thousands. For example, the May 2013 Sixaola earthquake (Mw

  3. Auto-reporte de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Chinnock; Miriam León Solís

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la prevalencia de problemas de salud relacionados con nutrición auto reportados en diferentes comunidades de Costa Rica entre 1994 y 2012. Métodos: se analiza datos recolectados entre 1994 y 2012 por estudiantes de la Escuela de Nutrición, Universidad de Costa Rica. Las familias encuestadas fueron seleccionadas por muestra probabilística de tipo aleatorio simple y por medio de entrevistas a las madres u otro adulto de la familia, se recolectó datos sobre 12 problemas de sal...

  4. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF COSTA RICAN FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 2008 PRESEASON

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Salas-Cabrera; Braulio Sánchez-Ureña

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory profile (VO2max) of Costa Rican first division football players during preseason and compare VO2max by players’ positions. Methodology: A total of 9 Costa Rican first division football teams were evaluated in this study for a total sample of 219 professional players ages 20-36 with an average age of 24.64 ± 4.35 years, average body weight of 73.34 kg ± 7.34, and a fat percentage of 9.78 % ± 3.64. In order to evaluate the VO2max ...

  5. Remesas Sur-Sur: Importancia del Corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio, procura brindar un poco de luz en el campo del impacto de los flujos de remesas en América Latina, al estudiar la importancia relativa del corredor Costa Rica-Nicaragua (sur-sur) mediante el análisis de los resultados de una encuesta estadísticamente representativa a una muestra de hogares nicaragüenses receptores de remesas desde Costa Rica, comisionada por los autores durante el primer semestre del año 2009, así como contrastar estos resultados con aquellos de la litera...

  6. Los primeros pasos hacia las enseñanza especial en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Vargas, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio con base en fuentes documentales del Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica, que permitió conocer distintos factores que intervinieron en el surgimiento de la Enseñanza Especial en Costa Rica en el lapso 1880-1940, así como los diferentes actores que participaron en ese proceso. Además, a partir de expedientes disponibles de los estudiantes de la Escuela de Enseñanza Especial, se caracterizó a un segmento de esa población mediante algunas variables: ed...

  7. Los primeros pasos hacia la enseñanza especial en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    de Campos, M.

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un estudio con base en fuentes documentales del Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica, que permitió conocer distintos factores que intervinieron en el surgimiento de la Enseñanza Especial en Costa Rica en el lapso 1880-1940, así como los diferentes actores que participaron en ese proceso. Además, a partir de expedientes disponibles de los estudiantes de la Escuela de Enseñanza Especial, se caracterizó a un segmento de esa población mediante algunas variables: edad, fecha y mot...

  8. Costa Rica, superstar? some reflections on the global drivers and bottlenecks of the happy planet index

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2011-01-01

    For some years now, the Happy Planet Organization presents the so-called ‘Happy Planet Index’ (HPI), which is an index of measuring the trade-off between ecological footprint data and life quality (Happy Life Years, HLYE). Costa Rica emerges from these comparisons as the world’s ‘best practice nation’, using a minimum amount of natural resources to achieve a maximum of human happiness. So is Costa Rica the pathway for humanity? There are shortcomings in the formula, with which the index is ca...

  9. COSTA RICAN MEAT VALUE CHAIN DESCRIPTION: PRICE TRANSMISSION AS A TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rodríguez Lizano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Price transmission analysis is an increasing research topic, especially for price taking countries such as Costa Rica. We describe the beef supply chain and provide a numerical implementation of Vector Error Correction Model (VECM of price transmission for the meat market in order to observe the relationship between import prices of meat and their effects on national retail prices. To restore equilibrium, retail prices correct 8% of the error term monthly. Since the meat imports market of Costa Rica is complex, the analysis of others business partners as Nicaragua should be included in order to compare the influence of these in local retail prices

  10. [Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana C; Cortés, Jorge; Zamora, Priscilla

    2007-03-01

    The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m2) and density (9 trees/10 m2) in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m2/day) was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. PMID:18457111

  11. Prevalencia de lepra en Costa Rica, de 1998-2003 Prevalence of leprosy in Costa Rica between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azálea Espinoza Aguirre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de prevalencia de lepra durante el período 1998 al año 2003, con el objetivo de caracterizar la distribución de esta enfermedad en el país. Los casos fueron pacientes con un diagnostico de lepra o enfermedad de Hansen confirmado por un médico, que estuviera consultando en los establecimientos de salud de la Caja Costarricense Seguro Social (CCSS durante el período de estudio y pacientes que abandonaron el tratamiento sin curarse. Se excluyeron los casos curados, fallecidos y extranjeros no residentes en el país. Mediante búsqueda activa en la CCSS se identificaron los expedientes de los pacientes de 1998 al 2003 y los reportes de laboratorio de biopsia de piel y linfa cutánea confirmados por lepra. Del Ministerio de Salud (MS se obtuvieron los casos notificados y del Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos los datos de población. Se elaboró un formulario que incluyó variables clínicas, epidemiológicas, de laboratorio y socioeconómicas. El análisis se realizó según provincia, cantón, grupos de edad y sexo. Se calculó la tasa de prevalencia, de detección de casos y porcentajes. Se identificaron, 114 expedientes en los servicios de salud pero sólo 89 casos, que representaron una prevalencia de 0,3 casos por diez mil habitantes. La enfermedad afectó a los mayores de 15 años, y a los hombres un 65% (58. Puntarenas presentó la prevalencia por provincia más alta: 0,6x10.000 habitantes (23. Todos recibieron medicamentos para el tipo lepromatoso y en el Hospital San Juan de Dios se atendieron el 60% de ellos. El 28% reingresó a los servicios. Desde 1998, el MS no había realizado investigaciones epidemiológicas de los casos, ni seguimiento a sus contactos. El personal de los servicios de salud no cuenta con protocolos, ni normas de tratamiento clínico. Costa Rica eliminó la lepra como problema de salud pública (menos de 1 caso por diez mil habitantes desde 1995. Se recomendó iniciar

  12. Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito quadrangles, Costa Rica. Atlas Geoquimico de los cuadrangulos de San Jose y Golfito, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-07-01

    The Geochemical Atlas of the San Jose and Golfito 1:200,000-scale quadrangles, Costa Rica, was produced to help stimulate the growth of the Costa Rican mining industry and, thus, to benefit the economy of the country. As a result of the geochemical data presented in the Atlas, future exploration for metallic minerals in Costa Rica can be focused on specific areas that have the highest potential for mineralization. Stream-sediment samples were collected from drainage basins within the two quadrangles. These samples were analyzed for 50 elements and the results were displayed as computer-generated color maps. Each map shows the variation in abundance of a single element within the quadrangle. Basic statistics, geological and cultural data are included as insets in each map to assist in interpretation. In the Golfito quadrangle, the geochemical data do not clearly indicate undiscovered gold mineralization. The areas known to contain placer (alluvial) gold are heavily affected by mining activity. Statistical treatment of the geochemical data is necessary before it will be possible to determine the gold potential of this quadrangle. In San Jose quadrangle, gold and the pathfinder elements, arsenic and antimony, are indicators of the gold mineralization characteristic of the Costa Rican gold district located in the Tilaran-Montes del Aguacate Range. This work shows that high concentrations of these elements occur in samples collected downstream from active gold mines. More importantly, the high concentrations of gold, arsenic, and antimony in sediment samples from an area southeast of the known gold district suggest a previously unknown extension of the district. This postulated extension underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks which host the gold deposits within the gold district. The geochemical data, displayed herein, also indicate that drainage basins north of Ciudad Quesada on the flanks of Volcan Platanar have high gold potential.

  13. Passagens para o Estado-nação: a tese de Costa Pinto Passages to the nation-state: the Costa Pinto's thesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute uma pesquisa clássica da tradição sociológica brasileira: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, de Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. O objetivo principal é evidenciar e analisar sua significação teórica mais ampla para o entendimento da formação do Estado-nação no Brasil. Mostra como Lutas de famílias no Brasil contribui para desestabilizar a oposição dualista com que a relação entre público e privado vinha sendo interpretada no pensamento social brasileiro.The article discusses a classical research of Brazilian sociological tradition: Lutas de famílias no Brasil (1949, by Luiz de Aguiar Costa Pinto. The main objective is to demonstrate and analyze their theoretical meaning for understanding the formation of the Nation-state in Brazil. It shows how Costa Pinto's research contributes to destabilize the dualistic opposition between public and private on the Brazilian social thought.

  14. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G

  15. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  16. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  17. In situ radionuclide migration studies in a shallow sand aquifer. Part. 1. Part. 2: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a study of the geology of the British Nuclear Fuels premises at Drigg, Cumbria, the British Geological Survey identified a shallow glacial sand deposit approximately 1.5m thick, interbedded between two clay horizons. An array of boreholes has been constructed in this sand in order to study the migration of radionuclides introduced into the formation under controlled conditions of groundwater flow. Conservative tracers used in the field test include chloride (as NaCl) and iodine-131 (as NaI). Strontium-85 (as the chloride) has been used as a chemically reactive tracer in conjunction with 131I. The principal research objectives of the programme are as follows: (1) To undertake laboratory batch sorption experiments using core material from the field site in order to choose those nuclides of radiological interest that would migrate sufficiently quickly for their behaviour to be studied in a field experiment within a reasonable time period. (2) To identify and quantify the mechanisms for nuclide/sediment interaction by determination of the geochemical distribution of 85Sr in contaminated cores using a sequential leaching procedure. (3) To obtain appropriate data on the hydraulic characteristics of the sand formation in order to construct a mathematical model to describe groundwater flow and reactive mass transport. Part 2 of this report contains the following appendices: (1) Calculation of sorption parameters. (2) A low-cost manifold system for use with multi-level samplers. (3) Radioactivity curves for 131I and 85Sr. (4) Results of particle size analysis for sand aquifers

  18. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 2, Appendices A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NW, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this EN there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constricting Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER, which consists of Appendices A, B, and C, assesses the potential geologic impacts of the proposed Section 8B construction, presents the results of the Section 8B soil survey, and describes the water quality studies and analyses performed for the ER. The following summary sections provide information for geology, soils, and water quality.

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project

  1. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  2. San Jerónimo de Moravia, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Combinar en forma sostenible el patrimonio histórico cultural, el desarrollo turístico y la calidad ambiental es sin duda alguna el reto que enfrentan muchas comunidades latinoamericanas que en años recientes han hecho toda clase de esfuerzos por atraer turistas. El estudio aquí reportado analizó las condiciones socio-económicas de tres comunidades vecinas al Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo (PNBC, en Costa Rica, identificó los problemas ambientales de los residentes de las mismas que se podrían agravar por causa del desarrollo turístico y determinó cómo y bajo qué condiciones los habitantes de la zona querían que se realizara el desarrollo turístico de las comunidades. Se entrevistaron 123 de un total de un total de 155 casas en las tres comunidades, y se utilizó una combinación de componentes principales y análisis factorial para analizar los datos. Los resultados indican que los vecinos entrevistados desean que el desarrollo turístico sea hecho sosteniblemente, y que además, se planifique, se establezcan requisitos claros, que la comunidad sea periódicamente informada, que sus lideres comunales participen activamente en el proceso, se establezcan programas para ayudar al desarrollo de micro-empresas eco-turísticas, y que se les brinde asistencia técnica y capacite en el desarrollo de proyectos eco-turísticos. Los problemas eventuales asociados a la calidad ambiental que habría que prestarles atención preferente son: ruido y tráfico excesivo, manejo de aguas negras y deforestación. El desarrollo turístico sostenible relacionado con el primer componente implicaría que este es un requisito básico de la calidad ambiental, la conservación y el uso sostenible del patrimonio histórico.

  3. procedentes de las costas de Galicia (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carbonell Martín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se han analizado las concentraciones de dos metales pesados (Hg y Pb en el tejido hepático de dos especies de aves marinas (cormorán moñudo, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, y alcatraz, Morus bassanus, empleando para ello animales aparecidos muertos o moribundos a lo largo de la costa de Galicia. Los ejemplares considerados fueron divididos en dos grupos en función de si habían sido afectados o no por la marea negra causada por el vertido del “Prestige” en noviembre de 2002, a fin de determinar si dicho vertido había afectado al contenido metálico de estas especies. Tras la digestión de las muestras por vía húmeda, el contenido de ambos metales fue determinado por medio de voltamperometría de redisolución anódica (Pb y de un analizador directo de mercurio (DMA (Hg. Considerando la diferencia interespecífica para el Hg total, las concentraciones en cormorán moñudo (media: 4,2-7,6 ppm fueron siempre mayores que en alcatraz (media: 1,6-1,8 ppm, con un valor máximo superior a 20 ppm (peso húmedo, correspondiente a un animal afectado por la marea negra. Con respecto al Pb, el resultado fue contrario, con niveles ligeramente superiores en los alcatraces con respecto a los cormoranes moñudos, pero en ningún caso superándose el nivel de 0,01 ppm (peso húmedo. Al considerar los dos grupos establecidos (afectados o no por el accidente del “Prestige”, se pudo evidenciar que el vertido de crudo no afectó de una manera estadísticamente significativa a los niveles de ambos contaminantes metálicos en el tejido hepático de los animales considerados.

  4. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration.

  5. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry of Costa Rica represents 7.5% of GNP, 21% of total exports earning and of that contribution the food and beverages subsector represents 28%. The purpose of this research was to indentify, potential elements and obstacles in young university culinary arts students in Costa Rica, largest culinary arts students. The study was conducted among culinary arts students at the Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, the interviews conducted were 237 the entire enrollment of the culinary arts school. The findings indicate that .Absence of tradition, culture among the young students and need of family and peers supports appear to be relevant and a source of need by the group. Lack of general business and entrepreneurship training is recognize by both groups a weakness and as a need. Coaching and support for women entrepreneurs is very relevant in both theadministrative and technical aspects of the young students of culinary arts The consideration of this information is important if we are to create with culinary arts training , the new breed of professional chefs entrepreneurs needs for the industry expansion in the years to come in Costa Rica and the region

  6. A new isidiate species of Arthonia (Ascomycota: Arthoniaceae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Umaña-Tenorio, Loengrin

    2004-01-01

    The new corticolous species Arthonia isidiata is described from the Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica. A. isidiata is characterized by minute, cylindrical to coralloid isidia produced on the thallus surface. The species currently is known only from the type locality in Corcovado National Park, where it occurs abundantly in the coastal rainforest around Sirena Biological Station.

  7. Appraisal of the Epidemiology of Neospora caninum Infection in Costa Rican Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero Zúñiga, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Costa Rica, milk production has increased gradually during the twentieth century, in which the activity developed from a non-technical to a technical activity. Together with the evolution of the dairy sector, the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases increas

  8. Is there too much or too little natural forest in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Joenje, M.; Jansen, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Deforestation rates in developing countries are often regarded as excessive, despite the lack of a satisfactory economic benchmark to evaluate this claim. This paper provides such a benchmark for a particular region in Costa Rica. The monetary value of the various functions performed by tropical rai

  9. Taavet võidab Koljati targalt tegutsedes / Costas Markides ; interv. Endrik Randoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Markides, Costas

    2007-01-01

    London Business Schooli professor Costas Markides vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema raamatus "Fast Second" esitatud väidet, mille kohaselt esimesena uuele turule tulnud ettevõttest saab harva pikas perspektiivis turuliider, kuid samas on edukad just teisena turule sisenevad ettevõtted

  10. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  11. Ecoturismo y desarrollo rural en el Parque Nacional La Cangreja, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz González, E.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Breitling, J.; Camino, de R.

    2005-01-01

    El ecoturismo se viene perfilando como un elemento conciliador entre las estrategias de conservación de la naturaleza y el desarrollo rural comunitario. Costa Rica, por su parte, emerge en la esfera latinoamericana y mundial como un líder en esta faceta de la industria turística, particularmente deb

  12. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains.

  13. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  14. A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Isidro; Nishida, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration. PMID:12298296

  15. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departme

  16. Preliminary study of river- and beach processes in the Matina region of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Boer, V.J.E.; Joosten, D.A.W.; Melman, F.C.R.; Post, S.

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this project are the severe erosion problems at the Pacuare Nature Reserve, situated on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The Reserve’s installations are situated next to a lagoon which is separated from the open sea by a barrier beach. The lagoon is connected on the landward

  17. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary Autom

  18. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Area, the central and south Delta, and service areas of San Francisco Bay Area water agencies....

  19. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  20. Free-living nematodes from nature reserves in Costa Rica. 4. Cephalobina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Esquivel, A.; Bongers, A.M.T.

    2003-01-01

    Four species of Cephalobina: Geraldius bakeri, Diastolaimus croca, Trualaimus culeatus and Tricirronema tentaculatum are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected in Costa Rica. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of G. bakeri is given for the first time. Diastolaimus croca

  1. South-South Remittances: Importance of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge-González; Oswald Céspedes-Torres; Juan Carlos Vargas-Aguilar

    2009-01-01

    Report commissioned by MIF and produced by consultant Ricardo Monge-González: First Study on Remittance senders and recipients from Costa Rica to Nicaragua. It includes size of remittances and economic assesment on the impact on the Economy and poverty reduction of Nicaragua .

  2. Afro-Mestizo Speech from Costa Chica, Guerrero: From Cuaji to Cuijla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of Africans in Mexico and the Costa Chica and compares elements of the regional speech as described in a 1958 study with data collected on-site in 1991-1992. Findings indicate that the successful introduction of public education coupled with the ubiquity of the mass media have reduced or eliminated the more distinctively…

  3. Computer Assisted English Language Learning in Costa Rican Elementary Schools: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Marinelli, Horacio; Blanco, Marta; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Stanley, Katherine; Fan, Yinan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents first-year findings of a 25-week longitudinal project derived from a two-year longitudinal randomized trial study at the elementary school level in Costa Rica on effective computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches in an English as a foreign language (EFL) setting. A pre-test-post-test experimental group design was…

  4. Evaluating bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) diversity using malaise traps in coffee landscapes of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica Linnaeus, Rubiaceae) can self-pollinate, bees are important pollinators, without which there is lower fruit quality and yield. We studied bee diversity in coffee agroecosystems in Costa Rica during two coffee flowering seasons (2005 and 2006). Malaise traps...

  5. Reproductive cycle of the salmon-bellied racer, Mastigodryas melanolomus (Serpentes, Colubridae, from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goldberg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present new information on the reproductive cycle of M. melanolomus from Costa Rica based onhistological examination of gonadal material from museum specimens. The first information on the timing of the testicular cycle is alsopresented.

  6. Pesticide exposure and respiratory health of indigenous women in Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, K.B.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.J.J.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the relation between pesticide exposure and respiratory health in a population of indigenous women in Costa Rica. Exposed women (n = 69) all worked at plantain plantations. Unexposed women (n = 58) worked at organic banana plantations or othe

  7. Diary of an Edu-Tourist in Costa Rica: An Autoethnographical Account of Learning Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotherington, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an autoethnographical account of my foray into Spanish immersion education in Costa Rica as a professor of multilingual education at a university in Canada. This language-learning journey was inspired by curiosity about the growing trend for Internet marketing of second-language learning as a form of tourism, which I label…

  8. (abstract) GPS Monitoring of Crustal Deformation and the Earthquake Cycle in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper will discuss the objectives, approach, and anticipated results of a study of earthquakes in Costa Rica. GPS measurements will be taken and field surveys will be made. Assessments of seismic strain accumulation and post-seismic deformation will be made in an effort to understand the effect these processes have on regional tectonic models.

  9. Predicción de oleaje para puertos y costas en condiciones de Mestral

    OpenAIRE

    Pagola Arrue, Jokin

    2013-01-01

    Mejora de la prediccion de oleaje en la costa catalana en condiciones de Mestral. Propuesta de mejora de los metodos actuales, separando el espectro de energia en sea y swell y calculando la componente sea del oleaje mediante formulas. Utilizacion de este nuevo metotdo en el Puerto de Tarragona.

  10. A Qualitative and Quantitative Structural Landscape Analysis Case Study in Monteverde, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Wyser, Nathalie

    2003-01-01

    Forest fragmentation translates a geographical isolation process and has been shown to influence the abundance, the movements and persistence of many species. The structure of the highly fragmented forests of Monteverde, Costa Rica, may exercise a relevant influence on the species richness and individual abundance of many forest-dwelling understory bird species.

  11. Land use zones and land use patterns in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to land use inventory at the sub-regional scale in the Guacimo-Rio Jiménez-Siquirres (GRS) area in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Therefore, the concept of "land use zones" is introduced. The land use zone (LUZ) plays a central role in the definition of an observa

  12. First report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Costa Rica and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of orange rust of sugarcane were observed in Costa Rica at Coopeagri Sugar Mill located in Pérez Zeledón, San José, during July 2007 on (a complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) cultivar, SP 71-5574, and at Providencia Sugar Mill near Muelle and at Cutris Sugar Mill near Los Chiles, in Aug...

  13. Partial reconstruction and palaeoecology of Sphenophyllum costae (Middle Pennsylvanian, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashforth, Arden Roy; Zodrow, Erwin L

    2007-01-01

    Recovery of a large, articulate portion of Sphenophyllum costae Sterzel from lower Cantabrian strata of the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, demonstrates that it is the largest sphenophyll yet known to inhabit clastic substrates of Euramerica. The specimen shows four orders of branching...

  14. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of fres

  15. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... the interim rule issued on July 29, 2009 (74 FR 37650) to a final rule without change. The interim... amending 48 CFR parts 225 and 252, which was published at 74 FR 37650 on July 29, 2009, is adopted as a... Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS Case 2008-D046) AGENCY:...

  16. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  17. The Costa Maya:  Evolution of a Touristic Landscape La Costa Maya : évolution d'un paysage touristique La Costa Maya : evolución de un paisaje turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La Costa Maya est une région côtière du sud du Quintana Roo (Mexique, proche de l'îlet Ambergris au Bélize. Contrairement à la côte caribéenne du Mexique qui a souffert du développement du tourisme de masse à Cancun et le long de la Riviera Maya, la Costa Maya s'est orientée vers un développement durable avec notamment une faible densité de construction et le développement de l'écotourisme.Le développement s'est concentré autour de Puerto Costa Maya où un terminal de croisière a été construit en 2001. La station balnéaire (balneario de Majahual est devenue dépendante des 10-12 bateaux de touristes qui débarquaient chaque semaine. En dépit d'importants plans de développement, les plages reculées de la Costa Maya accueillaient tout au plus des écotouristes aisés et du tourisme lié à la plongée sous-marine.Le cyclone Dean, de catégorie 5, a dévasté le paysage en août 2007 et le rétablissement économique n'a pu être entamé que fin 2008, après la réouverture du terminal de croisière et la reconstruction de Majahual. Fin 2009, le trafic de croisière n'a pas retrouvé son niveau d'avant Dean et la récession mondiale couplée avec la grippe porcine et les violences liées à la drogue ont fait diminuer le tourisme en provenance des Etats-Unis. On ignore à quel niveau les nouvelles infrastructures tels l'aéroport international de Tulum qui propose un itinéraire de Chetumal à la plage et le nouveau complexe hôtelier à Xahuayxel, stimuleront la Costa Maya mexicaine créant peut-être une autoroute côtière reliée à San Pedro au Bélize.The Costa Maya is a vernacular coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo (Mexico and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize.  As Mexico’s Caribbean coast suffered many growth pains associated with mass tourism development in Cancun and along the Riviera Maya, the Costa Maya by contrast was projected for more sustainable development including low-density housing and

  18. Determinantes de la utilización de servicios de salud en Costa Rica Determinants of health care utilization in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera Salas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una primera aproximación a los determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas en Costa Rica. Método: Los datos proceden de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud para Costa Rica 2006. En el análisis econométrico se utilizó un modelo binomial negativo estándar ligado al enfoque de producción de salud de Grossman y un modelo en dos partes congruente con el enfoque agente-principal. Resultados: Los factores determinantes de la utilización de consultas médicas fueron el nivel educativo, el estado de salud percibida, el número de enfermedades crónicas declaradas y la región de residencia. Conclusiones: El hecho de que las variables de necesidad de salud expliquen de forma significativa la probabilidad de contacto con las consultas médicas y que, además, no se registren diferencias significativas de utilización entre quintiles de ingreso y situación de seguro, es un resultado esperable y deseable en un sistema público solidario y casi universal como el costarricense. No se obtienen resultados concluyentes de la influencia del médico en la frecuencia de utilización de las consultas que postula el modelo de agente-principal.Objective: To analyze the determinants of health care utilization (visits to the doctor in Costa Rica using an econometric approach. Methods: Data were drawn from the National Survey of Health for Costa Rica 2006. We modeled the Grossman approach to the demand for health services by using a standard negative binomial regression, and used a hurdle model for the principal-agent specification. Results: The factors determining healthcare utilization were level of education, self-assessed health, number of declared chronic diseases and geographic region of residence. Conclusion: The number of outpatient visits to the doctor depends on the proxies for medical need, but we found no multivariate association between the use of outpatient visits and income or insurance status. This result suggests that

  19. Legislación para el uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Granados Zúñiga

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Los animales de laboratorio se usan como análogos a las enfermedades humanas, tanto en gnotobiología, investigación dental, embriología y teratología, oncología, gerontología, investigación cardiovascular, inmunolog��a, parasitología, virología, nutrición, genética y farmacología. Aunque en Costa Rica, la ciencia de animales de laboratorio es apenas incipiente, no existe información sobre los animales, la cantidad y para qué deberían de usarse. En Costa Rica rige desde el 13 de diciembre de 1994 la "Ley de Bienestar de los Animales", pero sin embargo esta Ley deja sin definir importantes aspectos técnicos y de control del uso de los animales de experimentación. Debería de existir un manual de referencia, aprobado por una Autoridad Nacional competente, sobre el manejo y uso de animales de laboratorio y, principalmente, cursos sobre ética y técnica del uso de este reactivo biológico dirigido a los investigadores. La legislación sobre el uso de animales de laboratorio en algunos países como los Estdos Unidos, Inglaterra, Canadá, Suecia, Colombia, Australia y Alemania son más estrictas. Sin embargo en Costa Rica desde 1992 se presentó un proyecto de Ley que pretendía regular los derechos de los animales proclamados en la Declaración Universal de los derechos del animal, pero en la actualidad se encuentra archivado. Sin embargo en 1993 fue publicado en la Gaceta No 242 del 20 de diciembre de 1993 el proyecto "Ley de Bienestar y Etiología de los Animales", que no tiene ningún antecedente directo en realción al uso de animales de laboratorio en Costa Rica pero desarrolla el marco jurídico de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos del Animal, proclamada por las Ligas Nacionales afiliadas a la ONU y aun no suscrita por Costa Rica.Laboratory animals are used like analogs to the human diseases, just as much in gnotobiology, dental investigation, embriology and teratology, oncology, gerontology, cardiovascular

  20. INFLACIÓN E INCERTIDUMBRE INFLACIONARIA: EVIDENCIA PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Solera Ramírez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se estima una medida de la incertidumbre inflacionaria. Un modelo de inflación señala incertidumbre cuando los errores de pronóstico son heteroscedásticos. Por medio de la especificación de una ecuación GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity, para la varianza del término de error de un modelo de inflación, es posible estimar una proxy de incertidumbre inflacionaria. La estimación simultánea del modelo de inflación y de la ecuación GARCH, produce un nuevo modelo de inflación en el cual los errores de pronóstico son homocedásticos. Existe consenso en la literatura económica en que hay una correlación positiva entre incertidumbre inflacionaria y la magnitud de la tasa de inflación, lo cual, como lo señaló Friedman (1977, representa uno de los costos asociados con la persistencia inflacionaria. Esto es porque tal incertidumbre dificulta la toma de decisiones óptimas por parte de los agentes económicos.La evidencia empírica, para el periodo 1954:01-2002:08, apoya la hipótesis de que para el caso de Costa Rica mientras mayor es la inflación mayor es la incertidumbre respecto a esta variable. En los últimos siete años (1997-2002 la incertidumbre presenta la variación media más baja de todo el periodo. Además, se identifica un efecto asimétrico de la inflación sobre la incertidumbre inflacionaria, es decir, la incertidumbre inflacionaria tiende a incrementarse más para el siguiente periodo cuando la inflación pronosticada está por debajo de la inflación actual, que cuando la inflación pronosticada está por arriba de la tasa observada de inflación. Estos resultados tienen una clara implicación para la política monetaria. Para minimizar la dificultad que la inflación causa en la toma óptima de decisiones de los agentes económicos es necesario perseguir no solamente un nivel bajo de inflación sino que también sea estable.AbstractThis paper estimates a measure of

  1. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Freer

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas y sus toxinas para tomar las medidas adecuadas de control y prevención. Métodos: Se realizaron muestreos de agua en varios sectores de la costa pacífica de nuestro país, con el objetivo de detectar las especies de microalgas potencialmente tóxicas y nocivas, y se interrogó a los pescadores locales. La identificación de las especies se realizó morfológicamente mediante microscopía de luz y electrónica de rastreo. Los hallazgos se compararon con la bibliografía y se propuso el potencial tóxico de estas microalgas, así como los métodos de análisis toxicológico, y la sintomatología de los afectados. Resultados: Observamos en Costa Rica un aumento en número de especies de microalgas productoras de FAN. Se reportaron las especies tóxicas productoras de FAN descritas por varios autores y las encontradas en este estudio. En algunas muestras de floraciones algales hemos encontrado bacterias grandes intracelulares, de forma bacilar, principalmente dentro del dinoflagelado Prorocentrum micans. Esta relación podría estar asociada a la toxigenicidad del alga. Hemos descrito la presencia de 26 dinoflagelados, 8 diatomeas y 1 cianobacteria tóxica en las FAN de las costas del Océano Pacífico costarricense. Conclusión: Se piensa que el aumento en la contaminación de las zonas costeras y el transporte de especies por medio de navíos pueden ser la causa de la aparición de estas microalgas. Estas son capaces de producir: intoxicaci

  2. Enhancing Outreach using Social Networks at the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkimer, L.; Lücke, O. H.

    2014-12-01

    Costa Rica has a very high seismicity rate and geological processes are part of everyday life. Traditionally, information about these processes has been provided by conventional mass media (television and radio). However, due to the new trends in information flow a new approach towards Science Education is necessary for transmitting knowledge from scientific research for the general public in Costa Rica. Since 1973, the National Seismological Network of Costa Rica (RSN: UCR-ICE) studies the seismicity and volcanic activity in the country. In this study, we describe the different channels to report earthquake information that the RSN is currently using: email, social networks, and a website, as well as the development of a smartphone application. Since the RSN started actively participating in Social Networks, an increase in awareness in the general public has been noticed particularly regarding felt earthquakes. Based on this trend, we have focused on enhancing public outreach through Social Media. We analyze the demographics and geographic distribution of the RSN Facebook Page, the growth of followers, and the significance of their feedback for reporting intensity data. We observe that certain regions of the country have more Facebook activity, although those regions are not the most populated nor have a high Internet connectivity index. We interpret this pattern as the result of a higher awareness to geological hazards in those specific areas. We noticed that the growth of RSN users on Facebook has a strong correlation with the seismic events as opposed to Twitter that displays a steady growth with no clear correlations with specific seismic events. We see the Social Networks as opportunities to engage non-science audiences and encourage the population to participate in reporting seismic observations, thus providing intensity data. With the increasing access to Internet from mobile phones in Costa Rica, we see this approach to science education as an opportunity

  3. Risk-informed appendices G and E for section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, B; Spanner, J. [EPRI, (United States); Server, W. [ATI Consulting (United States); Gamble, R. [Sartrex Corporation (United States); Bishop, B.; Palm, N.; Heinecke, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, contains two appendices (G and E) related to reactor pressure boundary integrity. Appendix G provides procedures for defining Service Level A and B pressure temperature limits for ferritic components in the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Recently, an alternative risk informed methodology has been developed for ASME Section XI, Appendix G. The alternative methodology provides simple procedures to define risk informed pressure temperature limits for Service Level A and B events, including leak testing and reactor start up and shut down for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Risk informed pressure temperature limits provide more operational flexibility, particularly for reactor pressure vessels (RPV) with relatively high irradiation levels and radiation sensitive materials. Appendix E of Section XI provides a methodology for assessing conditions when the Appendix G limits are exceeded. A similar risk informed methodology is being considered for Appendix E. The probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluations used to develop the risk informed relationships included appropriate material properties for the range of RPV materials in operating plants in the United States and operating history and system operational constraints in both BWRs and PWRs. The analysis results were used to define pressure temperature relationships that provide an acceptable level of risk, consistent with safety goals defined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The alternative methodologies for Appendices G and E will provide greater operational flexibility, especially for Service Level A and B events that may adversely affect efficient and safe plant operation, such as low temperature over pressurization for PWRs and BWR leak testing. Overall, application of the risk informed appendices can result in increased plant

  4. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the ''Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems'' contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included

  5. The potential for using disused coastal mineshafts to exploit wave energy : Vol. 1: Main report; Vol. 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholes, H.; Millar, D.L.; Eyre, J.M.; Dibley, R.; Davey, G.; Haywood, M.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the potential use of abandoned mine shafts in Cornwall as oscillating water column wave power generation devices, and assesses the Waveshaft concept in phase 1 prior to further examination of selected sites in phase 2. Details are given of the criteria for the mine shafts, identification of candidate shafts, remediation/enhancement requirements, and wave climate along with power conversion issues, overall estimated waveshaft resource in Cornwall, environmental impacts and legal protection, and an economic appraisal. Inspection and safety protocols, mine location maps, and wave power data are presented in appendices.

  6. CT and MR imaging findings of appendiceal and hepatic mucormycosis in a patient with acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seo Youn; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Boem Ha; Chin, Su Sie; Park, Seong Kyu; Chung, Jun Chul [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Fungal infections occur in severely immunocompromised patients having profound and prolonged neutropenia. Here, we report a case of a 41-year-old female who, at the conclusion of induction chemotherapy for acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia, developed angioinvasive mucormycosis involving the appendix and liver, which presented as abdominal pain. This case is the first to provide detailed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of angioinvasive appendiceal and hepatic mucormycosis. The implications of these findings as well as the diagnosis and management of mucormycosis, is further discussed.

  7. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  8. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  9. Especies nuevas de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae para Costa Rica y Panamá: lectotipificación de la sect. Densiflori Benth New species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae: Leguminosae from Costa Rica and Panama: lectotypification of sect. Densiflori Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sousa S.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cuatro especies de Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus y L. monteviridis, dos endémicas de Costa Rica, una de Panamá y la otra habita en ambos países. De las especies nuevas, tres pertenecen a la sect. Densiflori Benth., a la cual se le lectotipifica aquí, y se elaboró una clave de esta sección para Costa Rica y Panamá.Four new species of Lonchocarpus (Millettieae, Papilionoideae, L. haberi, L. latisiliquus, L. megacarpus and L. monteviridis, are described and illustrated; two are endemic to Costa Rica, one to Panama and one is found in both countries. Of these new species, three belong to sect. Densiflori Benth., which is herein lectotypified; a key to the section for Costa Rica and Panama is provided.

  10. Aspectos médico legales del suicidio en Costa Rica: Epidemiología del suicidio en Costa Rica, del 2000 al 2004 Medical legal aspects of suicide in Costa Rica: Epidemiology of suicide in Costa Rica. Epidemiology of suicide in Costa Rica, from 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Gerardo Castro Trejos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata del análisis de la estadística del Anuario Policial del 2004 (departamento de planificación, sección estadística, con respecto a los casos de suicidio ocurridos en Costa Rica durante los años 2000 al 2004. La prevalencia de casos muestra una media de 251,8 casos por año. El mayor porcentaje de casos que se produjo en la población, lo cometieron individuos de nacionalidad costarricense, con un 88% del total. Predominó el sexo masculino con 1242 casos (86.9%. El femenino con 186 casos (13%. El rango de edad en que se presentó el mayor número de casos se dio entre los 20-24 años con 208 casos (14.5%. La mayor incidencia de casos fue en el 2003 con un total de 329 casos (23%. La modalidad más frecuente de suicidio fue la suspensión con 516 casos (36.1%; seguido de envenenamiento con 483 casos (33.8%; la tercera en importancia fue muerte por proyectil por arma de fuego con 321 casos (22.4%.It is about a statistical analysis from the Policial Yearbook 2004, (Planification Department, statistics section, about the suicide cases that happened in Costa Rica during the years 2000 to 2004. The prevalence of cases shows an average of 251,8 cases per year. The highest percentage of cases that happened in the population was committed by Costa Rican, with an 88% of the total. Men had a higher prevalence, with 1.242 cases (86.9%, than women, with 186 cases (13%. The age with the highest percentage was between 20 and 24 years of age, with 208 cases (14,5%. The highest incidence was in 2003 with 329 cases (23%. The most frequent modality of death was hanging with 516 cases (36,1%, followed by poisoning with 483 cases (33,8%, the third in importance was death by firearm projectile with 321 cases 22,4%.

  11. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica Primeiro relato de acariasis por Caparinia tripilis em ouriços Africanos, (Atelerix albiventris), na Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Moreira; Adriana Troyo; Olger Calderón-Arguedas

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete ...

  12. LA DOLARIZACIÓN PARCIAL EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez Quesada

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina la magnitud, la evolución y explora las causas de la creciente preferencia hacia activos financieros en moneda extranjera como depósito de valor (sustitución de activos y en algún grado como medio de pago (sustitución monetaria en una economía de inflación moderada, sin antecedentes cercanos de crisis ni experiencias de confiscación de depósitos como es Costa Rica.La magnitud de la sustitución por parte del dólar estadounidense de las funciones que desempeña tradicionalmente la moneda local se aproxima a través de varios indicadores basados en razones de depósitos en moneda extranjera con respecto a sus similares en moneda local con frecuencia mensual de 1990 al 2002. Además, se identifican los factores que explican la demanda relativa de los depósitos bancarios según su grado de liquidez y se buscan evidencias de irreversibilidad del proceso (histéresis mediante variables de tipo “ratchet”.Como factores explicativos del fenómeno, se plantean la probable influencia de elementos institucionales y de los estímulos económicos derivados de la globalización de la economía y de los diferenciales de rendimientos financieros. Pero se sostiene también que las políticas monetaria y cambiaria han tenido efectos en el nivel de dolarización alcanzado por la economía costarricense; por una parte, la política deencajes llevada a cabo desde 1996 favoreció la constitución de depósitos en moneda extranjera (y la intermediación de esos fondos ha debido generar la expansión secundaria de esos recursos y, por otra, el ajuste cambiario siempre alcista bajo el régimen de minidevaluaciones ha estimulado la sustitución de activos.Se concluye en general que la dolarización de depósitos bancarios ha alcanzado niveles muy elevados (50% del total y la significancia de la variable “ratchet” da indicios de que el proceso es de difícil reversión por lo que es de esperar que se mantenga en el futuro la

  13. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) Drainages should be bridged rather than leveled with cut and fill; (4) For areas of steep slopes and potential erosion

  14. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  15. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder

  16. A History of Non-Violence: Insecurity and the Normative Power of the Imagined in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Huhn, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Crime, violence, and insecurity are among the most important social topics in contemporary Costa Rica. These three issues play a central role in the media, politics, and everyday life, and the impression has emerged that security has changed for the worse and that society is now threatened permanently. However, crime statistics do not support this perception. The paper thus asks why violence and crime generate such huge fear in society. The thesis is that the Costa Rican nation...

  17. Representations of Race, Entanglements of Power: Whiteness, Garveyism, and Redemptive Geographies in Costa Rica, 1921-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Asia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the making of race and the politics of belonging in Costa Rica between 1921 and 1950, during a period of shifting racial borders and entangled terrains of power. While the idea of "racial democracy" and official discourses of mestizaje (racial mixing) predominate in Latin America, Costa Rica has been long held as a unique country in Central America with an exceptional social geography characterized by "whiteness" and homogeneity. Employed in the United Fruit Compa...

  18. El turismo en la Atlántida norte. Estudio del Partido de la Costa. (Provincia de Buenos Aires - Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    ANNESSI, GUSTAVO JAVIER

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Summary This doctoral thesis analyses the tourism system of La Costa District, which is located in the northeast of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina); in general terms, it studies the diffe-rent components and its multiple relations with the physical and natural environment as well as the living conditions of its population. In the last decades, one of the fastest demographic growth has taken place in La Costa District; this is also associated to its popularity as a holiday...

  19. Ambient Tremor, But No Triggered Tremor at the Northern Costa Rica Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecki, Z.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been found to be triggered during the passage of surface waves from various teleseismic events in locations around the world including Cascadia, Southwest Japan, Taiwan, and California. In this study we examine the northern Costa Rica subduction zone for evidence of triggered tremor. The Nicoya Peninsula segment of the northern Costa Rica margin experiences both slow-slip and tremor and is thus a prime candidate for triggered tremor observations. Eleven teleseismic events with magnitudes (Mw) greater than 8 occurring between 2006 and 2010 were examined using data from both broadband and short period sensors deployed on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Waveforms from several large regional events were also considered. The largest teleseismic and regional events (27 February 2010 Chile, Mw 8.8 and 28 May 2009 Honduras, Mw 7.3) induced peak ground velocities (PGV) at the NIcoya stations of ~2 and 6 mm/s, respectively; larger than PGVs in other locations that have triggered tremor. Many of the earthquakes examined occurred during small episodes of background ambient tremor. In spite of this, no triggered tremor was observed during the passage of seismic waves from any event. This is significant because other studies have demonstrated that NVT is not triggered everywhere by all events above some threshold magnitude, indicating that unique conditions are required for its occurrence. The lack of triggered tremor at the Costa Rica margin can help to better quantify the requisite conditions and triggering mechanisms. An inherent difference between the Costa Rica margin and the other subduction zones where triggered tremor exists is its erosional rather than accretionary nature. Its relatively low sediment supply likely results in a drier, lower pore fluid pressure, stronger and less compliant thrust interface that is less receptive to triggering tremor from external stresses generated by teleseismic or strong local earthquakes. Another

  20. Floraciones algales nocivas en la costa pacífica de Costa Rica: toxicología y sus efectos en el ecosistema y salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Freer

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivos: Los primeros casos de intoxicación por floraciones algales nocivas (FAN se reportaron en el país en 1990. Sin embargo desde finales de 1999 se ha observado un aumento drástico en el número de personas intoxicadas, especialmente en la costa pacífica del país. En Costa Rica existe gran desconocimiento acerca del problema. Debido al impacto que producen los fenómenos FAN en la salud pública, el turismo local y el ecosistema, es necesario describir las especies tóxicas y sus toxinas para tomar las medidas adecuadas de control y prevención. Métodos: Se realizaron muestreos de agua en varios sectores de la costa pacífica de nuestro país, con el objetivo de detectar las especies de microalgas potencialmente tóxicas y nocivas, y se interrogó a los pescadores locales. La identificación de las especies se realizó morfológicamente mediante microscopía de luz y electrónica de rastreo. Los hallazgos se compararon con la bibliografía y se propuso el potencial tóxico de estas microalgas, así como los métodos de análisis toxicológico, y la sintomatología de los afectados. Resultados: Observamos en Costa Rica un aumento en número de especies de microalgas productoras de FAN. Se reportaron las especies tóxicas productoras de FAN descritas por varios autores y las encontradas en este estudio. En algunas muestras de floraciones algales hemos encontrado bacterias grandes intracelulares, de forma bacilar, principalmente dentro del dinoflagelado Prorocentrum micans. Esta relación podría estar asociada a la toxigenicidad del alga. Hemos descrito la presencia de 26 dinoflagelados, 8 diatomeas y 1 cianobacteria tóxica en las FAN de las costas del Océano Pacífico costarricense. Conclusión: Se piensa que el aumento en la contaminación de las zonas costeras y el transporte de especies por medio de navíos pueden ser la causa de la aparición de estas microalgas. Estas son capaces de producir: intoxicaci

  1. Review of two 1998 Mathematical Appendices Primary to Continuum Theory: Deflection Scattering and Redshift by a Particle-tied Aether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, Miles F.

    My development of Continuum Theory rests importantly on two mathematical treatments and calculations which I wrote in 1994 and were published in 1998 as Appendices A and B to my PIRT V paper presented in London in 1996. In view of their continuing scientific relevance, this contribution to the V9 conference proceedings is a republication of those Appendices, subject to minimal re-editing. Appendix B, presented first, tackles our 1959 finding that the daylight sky brightness distribution at high altitude shows the presence of an additional contribution whose intensity and distribution which, on careful analysis, I identified as having come from a deflection scattering mechanism due to transmission by an (atmospheric) `particle-tied aether'. Appendix A shows that redshift is one of the consequences of such transmission. The parameters involved are then used to analyse the 1968 radio ground-wave caesium clock redshift observations of Sadeh et al and to extrapolate them to the intergalactic transmission paths pertinent to the cosmic redshift as a transmission effect, not a velocity. It finds this to be a reasonable evaluation within observational uncertainties, notably those of density and degree of ionization. In that case, there being no Big Bang, the temperature is precisely known from the CMBR, identified as synchrotron-type radiation from the randomly moving aether along the path, but slightly elevated where the path has traversed a heat-generating cluster.

  2. Uncertainty in future global energy use and fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions 1975 to 2075: Appendices C--F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J.A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Washington, DC (United States); Reilly, J.M. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Washington, DC (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brenkert, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1985-12-01

    In constructing the model, creating variable names, and linking the model to the Monte Carlo program various naming conventions have been used. These appendices attempt to provide a concise, useful guide linking conceptual variable to model variable to Monte Carlo variables designations. Tables give the basic characteristics of the output distributions for each of the 95 output VALs. These appendices describe in technical detail the Monte Carlo techniques used in the uncertainty analysis. The choice of Latin Hypercube sampling and the methodology employed to attribute output variability to input uncertainty is documented. A complete listing of the software and data base used to generate the Monte Carlo analysis is included.

  3. COSTA RICA 2009: ENFRENTANDO LA CRISIS INTERNACIONAL EN PLENA CAMPAÑA ELECTORAL Costa Rica: Facing the International Crisis in an Electoral Year

    OpenAIRE

    EVELYN VILLARREAL F; STEFFAN GÓMEZ A

    2010-01-01

    La dinámica política de Costa Rica en el 2009 estuvo concentrada en tres grandes arenas: el impacto de la crisis económica internacional y por los procesos electorales con miras a los comicios nacionales de febrero del 2010 y el seguimiento y nuevas manifestaciones de casos de corrupción de altos jerarcas. Primero, las políticas públicas se concentraron en la implementación del Plan anticrisis, denominado Plan Escudo, aunque el gobierno se vio obligado a dirigir importantes esfuerzos a evento...

  4. Estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico, area metropolitana de Costa Rica Nutritional status of classical ballet dancers, metropolitan area of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Madrigal Rojas; Ana Rocío González Urrutia

    2008-01-01

    El principal objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar el estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico de las tres academias más importantes de ballet localizadas en el Área Metropolitana de Costa Rica. Se trabajó con 24 bailarinas adultas (18 a 30 años) de niveles avanzados de ballet. Se registró el consumo de alimentos durante tres días. Se tomaron medidas de talla, peso y pliegues cutáneos. Se recolectaron muestras de sangre para análisis bioquímicos. Se evaluó además la densidad...

  5. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Monge González; Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla; Juan Antonio Rodríguez Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo busca determinar la existencia e importancia de los derrames de conocimiento asociados con la movilidad laboral desde las multinacionales (MNCS) que operan bajo el régimen de zonas francas (ZF) en Costa Rica; es decir, el impacto de tales derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de las empresas locales que contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Se observó que, de un total de 41 149 empleados de MNCS que dejaron de laborar para estas empresas entre el 2001 y el 2007, un tercio se tras...

  6. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author)

  7. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  8. Wild common bean in the Central Valley of Costa Rica: ecological distribution and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa In\\u00E9s Gonz\\u00E1lez Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Frijol silvestre en el Valle Central de Costa Rica: distribución ecológica y caracterización molecular. Este trabajo presenta una actualización sobre la distribución de las formas silvestres de fríjol común en Costa Rica, su ecología y su caracterización molecular. Ala fecha 22 poblaciones fueron encontradas en cuatro cuencas alrededor del Valle Central, generalmente en vegetaciones ruderales (frecuentemente bordes de cafetales, con estatuto de conservación variable (desde protegido a amenazado. Su caracterización molecular indica su pertenencia al acervo genético mesoamericano. Varios marcadores indican una variabilidad aumentada en las formas silvestres y permiten inferir la presencia de un fenómeno de flujo genético e introgresión desde materiales cultivados.

  9. Elecciones 2010: Transformaciones inconclusas del sistema de partidos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Brenes Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo constituye un repaso de la evolución y estado actual del sistema de partidos en Costa Rica, así como de su interacción con el sistema electoral. Se divide en cuatro partes. Los dos primeros epígrafes describen las relaciones entre los sistemas electorales y de partidos, con particular mención a indicadores, así como a la evolución de un sistema bipartidista a uno pluripartidista limitado y la conformación de dos Costa Ricas en razón de esos sistemas. El tercer aparte revisa el comportamiento del subcociente como barrera electoral. Finalmente, se analizan las mayorías parlamentarias en el tiempo, desde una lógica propia de reforma electoral.

  10. Electric load management in developing countries: Costa Rica leads the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy planners in developing countries have traditionally sought to meet their nations' growing electricity demands by adding more generation and transmission capacity. But as the foreign investment situation became critical in the 1980s, private investment and system efficiency improvement programmes began to garner interest. One of the most promising system efficiency improvement options is load management, which uses a variety of techniques to utilize the electricity system's existing capacity more efficiently. However, to date, only three countries have seriously considered implementing large load management programmes: Pakistan, Peru and Costa Rica. This paper describes a 1987-89 load control demonstration programme in Costa Rica, sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID), in which participating industries were able to reduce their peak demand by 14%. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Accelerations from the September 5, 2012 (Mw=7.6) Nicoya, Costa Rica Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G. W.; Quintero, R.; Burgoa, B.; Mohammadebrahim, E.; Segura, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since 1984, the Seismic Network of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA) has been recording and registering the seismicity in Costa Rica. Before September 2012, the earthquakes registered by this seismic network in northwestern Costa Rica were moderate to small, except the Cóbano earthquake of March 25, 1990, 13:23, Mw 7.3, lat. 9.648, long. 84.913, depth 20 km; a subduction quake at the entrance of the Gulf of Nicoya and generated peak intensities in the range of MM = VIII near the epicentral area and VI-VII in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Six years before the installation of the seismic network, OVSICORI-UNA registered two subduction earthquakes in northwestern Costa Rica, specifically on August 23, 1978, at 00:38:32 and 00:50:29 with magnitudes Mw 7.0 (HRVD), Ms 7.0 (ISC) and depths of 58 and 69 km, respectively (EHB Bulletin). On September 5, 2012, at 14:42:02.8 UTC, the seismic network OVSICORI-UNA registered another large subduction earthquake in Nicoya peninsula, northwestern Costa Rica, located 29 km south of Samara, with a depth of 21 km and magnitude Mw 7.6, lat. 9.6392, long. 85.6167. This earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate in northwestern Costa Rica. This earthquake was felt throughout the country and also in much of Nicaragua. The instrumental intensity map for the Nicoya earthquake indicates that the earthquake was felt with an intensity of VII-VIII in the Puntarenas and Nicoya Peninsulas, in an area between Liberia, Cañas, Puntarenas, Cabo Blanco, Carrillo, Garza, Sardinal, and Tamarindo in Guanacaste; Nicoya city being the place where the maximum reported intensity of VIII is most notable. An intensity of VIII indicates that damage estimates are moderate to severe, and intensity VII indicates that damage estimates are moderate. According to the National Emergency Commission of Costa Rica, 371 affected communities were reported; most

  12. Privatización de los servicios de salud: las experiencias de Chile y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homedes N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo cuestiona los argumentos que justifican la privatización neoliberal de la financiación, gestión y prestación de servicios de salud, y analiza el significado y estrategias de privatización. Comparamos la privatización en Costa Rica y Chile, y en la discusión se sugiere que el modelo costarricense de privatización selectiva, limitada y concebida autóctonamente de Costa Rica lleva a un sistema de salud más solidario, equitativo, eficiente y satisfactorio para los usuarios que el modelo importado de privatización chileno.

  13. [Sighting of Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin, in Culebra Bay, Costa Rica, 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sáenz, Karina; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Javier

    2004-12-01

    Parallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000) observations were made (from an inflatable boat), on the presence of dolphins along a transect (-8 km long) on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km2), Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids), as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:17465137

  14. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  15. AN EXCEPTIONAL PUBLIC COMPANY WITHIN A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN CRISIS: THE COSTA RICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the economic policy of energy in Costa Rica and of the exceptional role which the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE – the company responsible for the provision of energy and telecommunications – has historically held in shaping the national identity. The basic assumption is that the institutional profile of the ICE, as well as its evolution and impact on development have been shaped by very specific political, social and economic conditions which are difficult to replicate in other developing countries in the South. It is specifically argued that, since its foundation in 1949, ICE has become one of the cornerstones of a peculiar kind of welfare state and of a solidarity model for development which is listed among the most advanced in the world in terms of social progress.

  16. Content-based instruction in an English oral communication course at the University of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Herrero, Annabelle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo que se ofrece consiste en una comparación etnográfica sobre propuestas educativas no formales, entre el Museo de los Niños de Costa Rica y seis museos o centros de ciencia españoles ubicados en lo que se conoce como la nueva museología. Se detallan los aspectos de la nueva museología española que pueden enriquecer la práctica del museo costarricense. The following article consists in an ethnographic comparison about non-formal educational proposals. This comparison is carried out between Museo de los Niños and other six museums or Science Centers located in Spain which are known as New Museology. Certain aspects in which the New Spanish Museology enriches the practice in Costa Rican museum are detailed.

  17. Teachers of Language and Culture: A Thoughtful Look and Review of the Costa Rican Indigenous Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Guevara-Víquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay is part of the products from the Reconstruction of Knowledge project –attached to the Division of Rural Education of the National University of Costa Rica. This work seeks to create a thoughtful look regarding the existing indigenous education model in Costa Rica in general– and particularly in Talamanca. A methodology based on collaborative action research with indigenous teachers in the region of Talamanca Bribri and Talamanca Cabécar was used as a starting point. This methodology combined focus group discussions and individual interviews with a qualitative approach that allowed generating a series of critical impressions about the education system where they work. All this will lead to a summary of insights and specific recommendations that would strengthen the educational system for the indigenous population of Talamanca and would allow moving towards a true model of Intercultural Bilingual Education.

  18. La pedagogía intercultural en los territorios indígenas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Morales Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 3 de mayo de 2007 • Aprobado 30 de mayo de 2007   Resumen. Se plantea en este artículo la necesidad de construir en forma conjunta estrategias de pedagogías interculturales, con el fin de revitalizar las lenguas y culturas indígenas de Costa Rica. Este proyecto se lleva a cabo por parte de la División de Educación Rural del Centro de Investigación y Docencia en Educación (CIDE con docentes itinerantes de lengua y cultura en la comunidad de Suretka, Talamanca.     Abstract. The article comments about the necessity of building intercultural pedagologic strategies jointly, in order to revitalize mother tongues and cultures of Costa Rican indigenous. This proposal is part of the project carry out by the Education Rural Department, which works with culture and mother tongue teachers in the community of Suretka, Talamanca.

  19. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla, M.A.; Reus, V.I.; Smith, L.B.; Freimer, N.B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP). As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, should be suitable for LD mapping; this assertion is supported by reconstruction of extended haplotypes shared by distantly related individuals in this population suffering low-frequency hearing loss (LFHL1), which has previously been mapped by linkage analysis. A sampling strategy is described for applying LD methods to map genes for BP, and clinical and demographic characteristics of an initially collected sample are discussed. This sample will provide a complement to a previously collected set of Costa Rican BP families which is under investigation using standard linkage analysis. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. PERCEPCIÓN DEL IMPACTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE MECANISMOS DE ASEGURAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EN COSTA RICA: PROYECTO ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA (PERCEIVED IMPACT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE MECHANISMS ON COSTA-RICAN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE ALFA-CINDA-UNIVERSIDAD-DE-COSTA-RICA PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Guido, Elsiana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo se presentan las acciones realizadas dentro del Proyecto Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Aseguramiento de la calidad: políticas públicas y gestión universitaria financiado con fondos de la Unión Europea y coordinado, de manera general, por el Centro Interuniversitario de Desarrollo, CINDA. Participan 16 universidades latinoamericanas y 7 universidades europeas, y el objetivo general del proyecto es mejorar la gestión de la calidad de la Educación Superior, tanto a nivel de los sistemas nacionales como de las instituciones de Educación Superior, y contribuir con la generación de conocimiento y confianzas mutuas acerca de la calidad de la Educación Superior entre los países latinoamericanos y europeos. Como parte de las actividades desarrolladas se llevaron a cabo estudios en 7 países (5 de Latinoamérica y 2 de Europa para evaluar el impacto de los procesos de aseguramiento de la calidad implementados en las universidades. En Costa Rica, el proyecto ha sido coordinado y ejecutado por la Universidad de Costa Rica desde el año 2009 hasta la fecha. El estudio se realizó en dos universidades estatales y dos privadas, durante el período comprendido entre octubre de 2010 y mayo de 2011, se realizaron 26 entrevistas presenciales y 8 sesiones de grupo a las diferentes poblaciones definidas en el estudio, además, se realizaron un total de 652 encuestas a estudiantes activos y a personas egresadas. Los principales resultados obtenidos en Costa Rica se resumen en este artículo, de acuerdo con los niveles y dimensiones de calidad que fueron definidos en el marco referencial del proyecto.Abstract: The article presents actions carried out in Costa Rica, in the frame of the project Alfa Nro. DCl-ALA 2008/42: Quality assurance: public policies and management in universities. This project is funded by the European Commission and its general coordination is in charge of the Inter-university Center for Development (CINDA, in

  1. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  2. The Doryctinae (Braconidae) of Costa Rica: genera and species of the tribe Heterospilini

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marsh; Alexander Wild; James Whitfield

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive taxonomic study is presented for the four genera and 286 species of the doryctine tribe Heterospilini occurring in Costa Rica. The tribe is represented almost entirely by the 280 species of the genus Heterospilus Haliday. Keys for identification of the genera and species are provided and the genera and species are described and illustrated. An interactive key to the species of Heterospilus also was prepared using Lucid Builder. The following new genus and species are ...

  3. International trade, and land use intensification and spatial reorganization explain Costa Rica’s forest transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, I.; Meyfroidt, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2016-03-01

    While tropical deforestation remains widespread, some countries experienced a forest transition—a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Costa Rica had one of the highest deforestation rates in the 1980s and is now considered as a model of environmental sustainability, despite being a major producer of bananas and pineapples. We tested three land use processes that are thought to facilitate forest transitions. First, forest transitions may be accompanied by land use displacement through international trade of land-based products, which may undermine the global-scale environmental benefits of national forest protection. Second, reforestation is often associated with land use intensification in agriculture and forestry, allowing for land sparing. Third, this intensification may partly result from a geographical redistribution of land use at the sub-national scale to better match land use with land suitability. These hypotheses were verified for Costa Rica’s forest transition. We also tested whether forest increased mainly in regions with a low ecological value and agriculture expanded in regions with a high ecological value. Intensification and land use redistribution accounted for 76% of land spared during the forest transition, with 32% of this spared area corresponding to net reforestation. Decreasing meat exports led to a contraction of pastures, freeing an area equivalent to 80% of the reforested area. The forest transition in Costa Rica was environmentally beneficial at the global scale, with the reforested area over 1989-2013 corresponding to 130% of the land use displaced abroad through imports of agricultural products. However, expansion of export-oriented cropland caused deforestation in the most ecologically valuable regions of Costa Rica. Moreover, wood extraction from forest plantations increased to produce the pallets needed to export fruits. This highlights the importance of a multi-scale analysis when evaluating causes and impacts of

  4. Entrepreneurship in Culinary Arts: The Costa Rica experience with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La industria del turismo de Costa Rica representa 7,5% de PNB, 21% de las exportaciones totales y de esa contribución el subsector de alimento y bebidas representa 28%. El propósito de esta investigación fue el de identifi car, elementos y obstáculos potenciales en jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias de universidades en Costa Rica. El estudio fue realizado entre estudiantes de artes culinarias en de la Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica, las entrevistas realizadas fueron 237 todos los matriculados en artes culinarias. Ausencia de tradición, la falta de cultura empresarial entre los jóvenes estudiantes y la necesidad de apoyos de la familia y amigos parecen ser pertinente y una necesidad sentida por el grupo. La falta de instrucción general en negocio y la falta de iniciativa empresarial se reconoce por ambos grupos como una debilidad y necesidad. El "coaching" y el apoyo para mujeres empresarios es muy pertinente, en especial en los aspectos administrativos y técnicos en los jóvenes estudiantes de artes culinarias. La información generada por este estudio es importante si en verdad queremos entrenar con los programas en artes artes culinarias , la nueva casta de chef/empresarios necesarios para la expansión de la industria de la gastronomía en los próximos años para Costa Rica y la región.

  5. La enseñanza de las lenguas indígenas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas Chaves

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen. En Costa Rica se reconocen seis lenguas indígenas que actualmente muestran un gran debilitamiento por la llamada: “nación unificada” bajo una sola lengua y una sola cultura.

    Ante esta situación, Costa Rica ha ratificado convenios internacionales para la conservación y difusión de las lenguas y las culturas autóctonas y la educación del niño indígena.

    El Programa de Enseñanza de las Lenguas Indígenas en nuestro país busca dar un espacio para la transmisión y recuperación de sus elementos culturales  a pesar de los obstáculos administrativos, legales, mentales y culturales que permitan asumir la diversidad cultural.

     

    Abstract. In Costa Rica there are six indigenous languages which currently are becoming weaker due to the so-called “unified nation” with one language and one culture. Due to this situation, Costa Rica has ratified international agreements to conserve and spread autochthonous languages and cultures, along with promoting the education of indigenous children.

    The Program for the Teaching of Indigenous Languages in our country is trying to develop a way to transfer and recover cultural elements in spite of administrative, legal, mental, and cultural obstacles to cultural diversity.

  6. El multilingüismo y la identidad de los afro-limonenses de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Herzfeld

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the XIX century, a mostly Afro-Jamaican linguistic minority settled down on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, a Spanish-speaking country. They went there to work for Minor C. Keith, an enterprising U.S. engineer who had been commissioned by the Costa Rica government to build a railroad that would join an eastern port to the Central Valley capital, San Jose. Later, to help finance that enterprise, he founded the United Fruit Company and the Jamaican workers remained in the Province of Limon to plant bananas. Their English-based Limonese Creole language has remained extant in spite of many government attempts to eradicate it, most likely because it acts, among other elements, as an identity marker for its people. But, will it survive globalization? And if so, for how long?.//En el siglo XIX un grupo compuesto en su mayoría por afro-jamaiquinos se estableció en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica, un país de habla hispana. Dicha comunidad debía trabajar para Minor C. Keith un ingeniero estadounidense que había sido comisionado por el gobierno costarricense para construir un ferrocarril que uniese un puerto del este con la capital del Valle Central, San José. Para financiar su empresa Keith fundó la United Fruit Company y los trabajadores jamaiquinos permanecieron en la provincia de Limón para plantar bananos. El lenguaje creole de los empleados, basado en el inglés, sobrevivió, a pesar de los esfuerzos del gobierno por erradicarlo, principalmente porque actúa, entre otros elementos, como una marca de identidad para quienes lo hablan. Pero ¿sobrevivirá a la globalización? Y si es así, ¿por cuánto tiempo?

  7. HYPERTENSION IN PERSONNEL FROM UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA IN COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Arce Espinoza; Julián Monge-Nájera

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Arterial Hypertension (AHT) has increased worldwide and preventive measures are insufficient since only one third of the population is being treated. AHT is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. In this article is presented the first study on hypertension levels of personnel of a Distance Education university based on the analysis of all medical consultations in the Costa Rican State University for Distance Education (Universidad Estatal a Distancia-UN...

  8. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: Increasing efficiency through spatial differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wünscher, T.; Engel, S.; Wunder, Sven

    2006-01-01

    Payments for Environmental Services (PES) have become a widely acknowledged and increasingly popular market based instrument to conserve forests and their environmental services. Costa Rica was the first developing country to have implemented a nationwide PES program. Besides legal and formal requirements which have to be met by any program applicant, the forest sites are selected from a pool of applications on the basis of predefined program areas. Sites inside these program areas qualify fo...

  9. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Thomas R; Wu, Ted H; Finger, Adam G; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Yu, Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G; Cobb, George P; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n=25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n=6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations. PMID:17182086

  10. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  11. La financiación de los partidos políticos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiza el régimen de financiamiento de los partidos políticos en Costa Rica, el cual y según el marco normativo se rige por un modelo mixto, por lo que los patrimonios de estos se alimentan por el financiamiento público directo, las contribuciones, donaciones o aportes de sus miembros y los bienes y recursos que autoricen sus estatutos y no prohíba la ley.

  12. Malformaciones en ejemplares de sapo corredor (Epidalea calamita de la costa vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garin, I., San Sebastián, O., Bandrés, A., Rubio, X.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En la costa se encuentran las poblaciones de sapo corredor (Epidalea calamita más amenazadas de la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco. En el seguimiento realizado en 2006 se ha localizado dos individuos con malformaciones, uno de los cuales presentaba signos típicos de focomelia y el otro de ectromelia de tibia-peroné.

  13. Anonymity, Reciprocity, and Conformity: Evidence from Voluntary Contributions to a National Park in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alpizar, Francisco; Carlson, Fredrik; Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of anonymity, reciprocity, and conformity for voluntary contributions, based on a natural field experiment conducted at a national park in Costa Rica. Contributions made in public in front of the solicitor were 25 percent higher than contributions made in private. Giving subjects a small gift before requesting a contribution increased the likelihood of a positive contribution. At the same time, however, the conditional contribution decreased. The total effect of givin...

  14. Dinamica dell’intrusione salina nella costa ravennate: aspetti idrogeochimici ed evoluzione attesa

    OpenAIRE

    Resmi, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Nell’ambito del progetto multidisciplinare “Coastal Salt Water Intrusion”, che si propone di indagare “l’Intrusione salina nella costa ravennate con i conseguenti impatti territoriali-ambientali, connessi al previsto innalzamento del livello marino per cause climatiche e di subsidenza”, si inserisce il presente studio con l’obiettivo di fornire una caratterizzazione idrogeochimica delle acque di falda e superficiali e un modello geochimico generale sui processi di salinizzazione o desalinizza...

  15. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  16. ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING OF LMF-COSTAS STEPPED FREQUENCY RADAR SIGNAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Shanxiang; Ji Xiaoli; Li Ming; Li Xingguo

    2003-01-01

    Linear Modulated Frequency (LMF) Costas Stepped Frequency Radar (SFR) signal is introduced. Its ambiguity function is derived and analyzed in detail and its feasibility is validated in theory. The scheme of the proposed signal processing is also presented. The results of theoretic analysis and simulation show that, by using the proposed signal and increasing the bandwidth of the total stepped frequency, the ambiguity sidelobe is well suppressed and the range-velocity coupling in the stepped frequency radar is also greatly weakened.

  17. Effect of sewage discharge in Spisula subtruncata (da Costa 1778) populations

    OpenAIRE

    de-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Del-Pilar-Ruso, Yoana; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Sewage discharge is a common source of pollution in coastal marine. Spisula subtruncata (da Costa, 1778) is a common filter feeding bivalve in the Castellon coast (north-western Mediterranean Sea). In the Spisula community of this area several municipal treatment plants dump treated water. We sampled in five locations affected by sewage dicharge. Van Veen grab samples were obtained for the study of the bivalve population and to characterize the sediment. The sewage dicharges studied affec...

  18. Understanding key drivers controlling daily stable isotope variations in precipitation of Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Welsh, Kristin; Birkel, Christian; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Corrales-Salazar, Jose; Boll, Jan; Brooks, Erin; Roupsard, Olivier; Katchan, Irina; Arce-Mesén, Rafael; Soulsby, Chris; Araguás-Araguás, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Costa Rica is located on the Central American Isthmus, which receives direct moisture inputs from the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The relatively narrow, but high relief Central American land bridge is characterized by unique mountainous and lowland microclimates. However, only limited knowledge exists about the impact of relief and regional atmospheric circulation patterns on precipitation origin, transport, and isotopic composition in this tropical region. Therefore, the main scope of this study is to identify the key drivers controlling variations in meteoric waters of Costa Rica using stable isotopes based on daily sample collection for the year 2013. The monitoring sites comprise three strategic locations across Costa Rica: Heredia (Central Valley), Turrialba (Caribbean slope), and Caño Seco (South Pacific slope). Sporadic dry season rain is mostly related to isolated enriched events ranging from -5.8‰ d18O up to -0.9‰ d18O. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone reaches Costa Rica resulting in a notable depletion in isotope ratios (up to -18.5‰ d18O). HYSPLIT back air mass trajectories indicate the strong influence on the origin and transport of precipitation of two main moisture transport mechanisms, the Caribbean Low Level Jet and the Colombian Low Level Jet as well as localized convection events. Multiple linear regression models constructed based on Random Forests of surface meteorological information and atmospheric sounding profiles suggest that Lifted Condensation Level and surface relative humidity are the main factors controlling isotopic variations. These findings diverge from the recognized 'amount effect' in monthly composite samples across the tropics. Understanding of stable isotope dynamics in tropical precipitation can be used to enhance catchment and groundwater modeling efforts in ungauged basins where scarcity of long-term monitoring data drastically limit current and future water resources management.

  19. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time.

  20. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Costa Rica (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon van Anrooy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, covering all production and transport costs, and sold it for $1.97/kg. The motivations of the consumers for purchasing the fish were: curiosity, low price, good taste and recommendations by the shopkeepers. Most of the participants appreciated the taste, meat texture, freshness, colour and appearance very much. Some repondents criticized the amount of intramuscular spines in the fish. Eighty nine percent of the consumers intended to purchase more of the fish and 38% preferred this fish species above all other species. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of gender, householdsize or income level on the responses of the costumers. Chinese costumers were the only group discernible in the survey. Almost all participants thought tambaqui could get a good market position in Costa Rica. This trial shows that the price can be increased a little without losing much customers, but promotion would be necessary to get the product more known among the Costa Rican Population. The production of tambaqui could meet part of the demand for low priced fish in Costa Rica.