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Sample records for apparently healthy elderly

  1. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

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    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  2. Hematological and nutritional parameters in apparently healthy elderly individuals Parâmetros hematológicos e nutricionais em idosos aparentemente saudáveis

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    Mariza D'Agord Schaan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-probabilistic study in an elderly free living community was performed. The first analysis was cross-sectional in design and the additional analysis, a case-control design. In the first analysis, 745 subjects were enrolled. Additional analyses, made in 46 apparently healthy elderly subjects (AHE and 33 young adults (YA included: clinical, hematological and biochemical analyses, 24-hours nutritional recall and diet frequency questionnaire. The AHE were selected using the Senieur test protocol. To avoid selection bias in the AHE sample, additional analysis comparing cultural, socioeconomic, and health variables were compared between AHE and non-selected elderly with same dysfunction or morbidity (DE. The prevalence of AHE was 6.17% (n=46 among whom 4.3% were anemic. There were no statistically differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocytes and vitamin B12 levels between AHE and YA groups. Mean values of MCV, RDW, eosinophils, folate and ferritin were higher in the AHE than the YA group. On the other hand, platelets were higher in the YA group. No statistically significant difference occurred between the AHE and DE groups when nutritional indicators were compared. The comparison between nutritional indicators of anemic and non-anemic apparently healthy elderly people showed statistically significant differences in vitamin B12 and protein intake, which were lower in the anemic elderly. The results suggest independent biological differences between hematological parameters of elderly and young individuals.Foi realizado um estudo não probabilístico em idosos que vivem na comunidade. A primeira análise teve um delineamento transversal e análises adicionais um delineamento caso-controle. Na primeira análise foram incluídos 745 indivíduos. Análises adicionais foram feitas em 46 idosos saudáveis (HE e em 33 adultos jovens (YA incluindo: análises clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas, recordatório nutricional de 24 horas e question

  3. Results of Screening of Apparently Healthy Senior and Geriatric Dogs.

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    Willems, A; Paepe, D; Marynissen, S; Smets, P; Van de Maele, I; Picavet, P; Duchateau, L; Daminet, S

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in health care of elderly dogs; however, scientific information about physical and laboratory examination findings in this age group is limited. To describe systolic blood pressure (SBP), and results of physical examination and laboratory tests in senior and geriatric dogs that were judged by the owner to be healthy. Hundred client-owned dogs. Dogs were prospectively recruited. Owners completed a questionnaire. SBP measurement, physical, orthopedic and neurologic examination, direct fundoscopy and Schirmer tear test were performed. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis were evaluated. Forty-one senior and 59 geriatric dogs were included. Mean SBP was 170 ± 38 mmHg, and 53 dogs had SBP > 160 mmHg. Thirty-nine animals were overweight. A heart murmur was detected in 22, severe calculus in 21 and 1 or more (sub)cutaneous masses in 56 dogs. Thirty-two dogs had increased serum creatinine, 29 hypophosphatemia, 27 increased ALP, 25 increased ALT, and 23 leukopenia. Crystalluria, mostly amorphous crystals, was commonly detected (62/96). Overt proteinuria and borderline proteinuria were detected in 13 and 18 of 97 dogs, respectively. Four dogs had a positive urine bacterial culture. Frequency of orthopedic problems, frequency of (sub)cutaneous masses, and platelet count were significantly higher in geriatric compared with senior dogs. Body temperature, hematocrit, serum albumin, and serum total thyroxine concentration were significantly lower in geriatric compared with senior dogs. Physical and laboratory abnormalities are common in apparently healthy elderly dogs. Veterinarians play a key role in implementing health screening and improving health care for elderly pets. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst apparently healthy staff of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the serum lipid profile of apparently healthy staff of University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City. Consenting staff of UBTH who were apparently healthy were recruited for the study. Data extracted included the patient's age, sex, body mass index, weight, height, waist ...

  5. Results of Screening of Apparently Healthy Senior and Geriatric Dogs

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    Willems, A.; Paepe, D.; Marynissen, S.; Smets, P.; Van de Maele, I.; Picavet, P.; Duchateau, L.; Daminet, S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in health care of elderly dogs; however, scientific information about physical and laboratory examination findings in this age group is limited.OBJECTIVES: To describe systolic blood pressure (SBP), and results of physical examination and laboratory tests in senior and geriatric dogs that were judged by the owner to be healthy.ANIMALS: Hundred client-owned dogs.METHODS: Dogs were prospectively recruited. Owners completed a questionnaire. SBP measurement...

  6. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Nigeria. MG Mustapha, AM Garba, AI Rabasa, MS Gimba. Abstract. Background. The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among children, in whom the diagnosis is challenging.

  7. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing working hours of 8:00 am till 4:00 pm and caters ... Consecutive apparently healthy children whose parents ... Children on long-term transfusion therapy b. ... Social class was determined from occupation and ed- .... gression model was used to assess the effects of the .... iron stores in 6–24-month-old New Zealanders.

  8. Plasma incorporation, apparent retroconversion and β-oxidation of 13C-docosahexaenoic acid in the elderly

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    Brenna J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher fish or higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake normally correlates positively with higher plasma DHA level, but recent evidence suggests that the positive relationship between intake and plasma levels of DHA is less clear in the elderly. Methods We compared the metabolism of 13C-DHA in six healthy elderly (mean - 77 y old and six young adults (mean - 27 y old. All participants were given a single oral dose of 50 mg of uniformly labelled 13C-DHA. Tracer incorporation into fatty acids of plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids, as well as apparent retroconversion and β-oxidation of 13C-DHA were evaluated 4 h, 24 h, 7d and 28d later. Results Plasma incorporation and β-oxidation of 13C-DHA reached a maximum within 4 h in both groups, but 13C-DHA was transiently higher in all plasma lipids of the elderly 4 h to 28d later. At 4 h post-dose, 13C-DHA β-oxidation was 1.9 times higher in the elderly, but over 7d, cumulative β-oxidation of 13C-DHA was not different in the two groups (35% in the elderly and 38% in the young. Apparent retroconversion of 13C-DHA was well below 10% of 13C-DHA recovered in plasma at all time points, and was 2.1 times higher in the elderly 24 h and 7d after tracer intake. Conclusions We conclude that 13C-DHA metabolism changes significantly during healthy aging. Since DHA is a potentially important molecule in neuro-protection, these changes may be relevant to the higher vulnerability of the elderly to cognitive decline.

  9. Clinical chemistry reference values for 75-year-old apparently healthy persons.

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    Huber, Klaus Roland; Mostafaie, Nazanin; Stangl, Gerhard; Worofka, Brigitte; Kittl, Eva; Hofmann, Jörg; Hejtman, Milos; Michael, Rainer; Weissgram, Silvia; Leitha, Thomas; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz; Bauer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Clinical chemistry reference values for elderly persons are sparse and mostly intermixed with those for younger subjects. To understand the links between metabolism and aging, it is paramount to differentiate between "normal" physiological processes in apparently healthy elderly subjects and metabolic changes due to long-lasting diseases. The Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study, which began in 2000 and is continuing, will allow us to do just that, because more than 600 male and female volunteers aged exactly 75 years (to exclude any influence of the "aging" factor in this cohort) are participating in this study. Extensive clinical, neurological, biochemical, psychological, genetic, and radiological analyses, with a special emphasis on consumption of medication and abuse of drugs, were performed on each of the probands. The multitude of data and questionnaires obtained made possible an a posteriori approach to select individuals fulfilling criteria for a reference sample group of apparently healthy 75-year-old subjects for our study. Specific analytes were quantified on automated clinical analyzers, while manual methods were used for hormonal analytes. All clinical chemistry analytes were evaluated using in-depth statistical analyses with SPSS for Windows. In all, reference intervals for 45 analytes could be established. These include routine parameters for the assessment of organ functions, as well as hormone concentrations and hematological appraisals. Because all patients were reevaluated after exactly 30 months in the course of this study, we had the opportunity to reassess their health status at the age of 77.5 years. This was very useful for validation of the first round data set. Data of the second round evaluation corroborate the reference limits of the baseline analysis and further confirm our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In summary, we have established a reliable set of reference data for hormonal, hematological, and clinical chemistry analytes for

  10. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

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    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  11. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land and in water: A comparative study. AI Bello, BOA Adegoke, OA Abass, O Addo. Abstract. Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: ...

  12. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

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    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. GH administration and discontinuation in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Rasmussen, M H

    2001-01-01

    GH administration results in increased lean body mass (LBM), decreased fat mass (FM) and increased energy expenditure (EE). GH therapy may therefore have potential benefits, especially in the elderly, who are known to have decreased function of the GH/IGF-I axis. Several studies have focused...... discontinuation on body composition, resting oxygen uptake (VO2), resting heart rate (HR) and GH related serum markers in healthy elderly men....

  14. Bacterial flora in the Urinary bladder of apparently healthy cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty apparently healthy adult cattle presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri Metropolitan Abattoir were examined to determine the bacterial flora in the urinary bladder. Isolation and identification of the isolates in the aseptic urine samples from the urinary bladder were done according to standard bacteriological techniques.

  15. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of

  16. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

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    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body

  17. Kidney Function Decline and Apparent Treatment-Resistant Hypertension in the Elderly.

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    Jean Kaboré

    associated more strongly than kidney function itself with the risk of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension in the elderly.

  18. Avian influenza virus infection in apparently healthy domestic birds in Sokoto, Nigeria

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    Innocent Okwundu Nwankwo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted among apparently healthy birds brought from different local government areas, neighbouring states and across international boundaries to the Sokoto central live bird market between October 2008 and March 2009. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from 221 apparently healthy birds comprising 182 chickens, 3 turkeys, 11 guineafowl, 17 ducks and 8 pigeons. These samples were analysed using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR to check for the presence of avian influenza virus. An overall prevalence of 1.4% (3 positive cases was detected with two cases observed in chickens and one in a pigeon. The findings indicate the circulation of avian influenza in the study area. This raises concern for human and animal health due to zoonotic and economic implications of this virus.

  19. A Marker of Endotoxemia Is Associated With Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders in Apparently Healthy Chinese

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    Sun, Liang; Yu, Zhijie; Ye, Xingwang; Zou, Shurong; Li, Huaixing; Yu, Danxia; Wu, Hongyu; Chen, Yan; Dore, Joel; Clément, Karine; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Xu

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Elevated lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of subclinical endotoxemia, may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma LBP and metabolic disorders in apparently healthy Chinese. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based study including 559 overweight/obese (BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2) and 500 normal-weight (18.0 ≤ BMI

  20. Isolation and Antibiogram of Aerobic Nasal Bacterial Flora of Apparently Healthy West African Dwarf Goats

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    B. O. Emikpe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Goats are important in the livestock economy by their adaptability to adverse environmental conditions as they are good sources of protein and income for the rural poor. Studies conducted on the bacterial flora of the respiratory tract in goats focused on the pneumonic lungs, with fewer studies on the apparently normal nasal passage and antibiogram of isolated organisms. This study was carried out on 60 apparently healthy West African Dwarf goats. The nasal swab from each goat was analyzed using standard methods. The disc diffusion technique was used for the antibiotic sensitivity test. Three hundred and twenty-eight isolates were obtained. The most frequently isolated species was Streptococcus spp., while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the second dominant bacteria. Other species were isolated at relatively lower rates. The isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy goats in this study reflects their possible role in most common respiratory diseases encountered in small ruminants. Most of the bacteria were found to be susceptible to streptomycin, quinolones (perfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and gentamicin, while they were resistant to tetracycline, augmentin and erythromycin. This study shows the relationship between misuse or unrestricted use of antibiotics and drug resistance. Therefore, there is a need for practitioners and researchers to be informed of the appropriate antibiotics to be used in respiratory infections and during control programs.

  1. The Effect of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Myostastin in Healthy Elderly Men

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    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Plasma Myostatin decreased significantly in the response to endurance exercise, in healthy elderly men. Presumably, according to the results of this study, prescription of endurance exercise may decrease Myostatin and subsequently sarcopenia in elderly people.

  2. The association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population

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    Kim Hack-Lyoung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular filling pressure in an apparently healthy Korean population. Methods A total of 115 healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors or overt heart disease who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV measurement at the same day during their routine check-ups were analyzed. Results The mean age of study subjects was 52.8 ± 8.4 years, and 78 (67.8% were men. The mean baPWV value was 1,325 ± 185 cm/s. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups according to E/E’ value: subjects with E/E’ p β = 0.371, p after controlling confounders including age, sex and body mass index. In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity for detection of E/E’ ≥ 10 were 78.6% and 59.8%, respectively with mean baPWV of 1,282 cm/s as the cut off value. The discriminatory capacity for predicting E/E’ ≥ 10 was improved from an area under the ROC curve of 0.646 with age alone to 0.734 when baPWV was added (p Conclusions There is a significant association between baPWV and E/E’ in an apparently healthy Korean population. BaPWV is useful as a simple and non-invasive method for early detection of increased LV filling pressure among these people.

  3. Lean body mass, interleukin 18, and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

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    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate how lean body mass is related to circulating Interleukin 18 (IL-18 and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS among apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1059 Chinese men and women aged 35-54 years was used to measure plasma IL-18, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers and high-molecular-weight (HMW-adiponectin. Fat mass index (FMI and lean mass index (LMI were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Circulating IL-18 was positively correlated with LMI after adjustment for FMI (correlation coefficient = 0.11, P<0.001. The association with the MetS (odds ratio 3.43, 95% confidence interval 2.01-5.85 was substantially higher in the highest than the lowest quartile of IL-18 after multiple adjustments including body mass index. In the stratified multivariable regression analyses, the positive association between IL-18 and MetS was independent of tertiles of FMI, inflammatory markers and HMW-adiponectin, but significantly interacted with tertile of LMI (P for interaction = 0.010. CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma IL-18 was associated with higher MetS prevalence in apparently healthy Chinese, independent of traditional risk factors, FMI, inflammatory markers and HMW-adiponectin. More studies are needed to clarify the role of lean mass in IL-18 secretion and its associated cardio-metabolic disorders.

  4. The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

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    Jung-Hee Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.MethodsNine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.ResultsOne hundred forty-six subjects (15.4% showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7% had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women.ConclusionIn our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.

  5. Snoring, inflammatory markers, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

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    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic low-grade inflammation and adipokines dysregulation are linked to mechanisms underscoring the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Little is known about roles of these cytokines on the association between snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS. We aimed to investigate whether a cluster of cytokines are related to snoring frequency and its association with MetS in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: Current analyses used a population-based sample including 1059 Shanghai residents aged 35-54 years. Self-reported snoring frequency was classified as never, occasionally and regularly. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin were measured. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of regular snorers than their normal-weight counterparts (34.8% vs. 11.5%, P<0.001. Regular snoring was associated with unfavorable profile of inflammatory markers and adipokines. However, those associations were abolished after adjustment for body mass index (BMI or waist circumference. The MetS risk (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 5.41, 95% confidence interval 3.72-7.88 was substantially higher in regular snorers compared with non-snorers. Controlling for BMI remarkably attenuated the association (2.03, 1.26-3.26, while adjusting for inflammatory markers and adipokines showed little effects. CONCLUSION: Frequent snoring was associated with an elevated MetS risk independent of lifestyle factors, adiposity, inflammatory markers and adipokines in apparently healthy Chinese. Whether snoring pattern is an economic and no-invasive indicator for screening high-risk persons needs to be addressed prospectively.

  6. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

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    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  7. Cognitive reserve in the healthy elderly: cognitive and psychological factors

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    Josef Zihl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR helps explain the mismatch between expected cognitive decline and observed maintenance of cognitive functioning in older age. Factors such as education, literacy, lifestyle, and social networking are usually considered to be proxies of CR and its variability between individuals. A more direct approach to examine CR is through the assessment of capacity to gain from practice in a standardized challenging cognitive task that demands activation of cognitive resources. In this study, we applied a testing-the-limits paradigm to a group of 136 healthy elderly subjects (60–75 years and additionally examined the possible contribution of complex mental activities and quality of sleep to cognitive performance gain. We found a significant but variable gain and identified verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem-solving as significant factors. This outcome is in line with our earlier study on CR in healthy mental aging. Interestingly and contrary to expectations, our analysis revealed that complex mental activities and sleep quality do not significantly influence CR. Contrasting “high” and “low” cognitive performers revealed significant differences in verbal memory and cognitive flexibility; again, complex mental activities and sleep quality did not contribute to this measure of CR. In conclusion, the results of this study support and extend previous findings on CR in older age; further, they underline the need for improvements in existing protocols for assessing CR in a dynamic manner.

  8. Healthy Eating Exploratory Program for the Elderly: Low Salt Intake in Congregate Meal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S; Kim, O Y; Ahn, J

    2016-03-01

    This study reported on an exploratory program to help the low income elderly improve healthy eating behavior, specifically by reducing salt intake. We conducted an exploratory program for 4 weeks for this study. The exploratory program involved offering menus with reduced salt and providing education on healthy eating. After the exploratory program, a survey of the elderly and in-depth interviews allowed us to evaluate the program for foodservice providers (dietitian, social workers, and volunteer workers). This study included both foodservice workers and elderly who actually used the foodservice in a congregate meal service system. This is a unique approach. A congregate meal service center in Seoul, Korea. Seventy four elderly in a congregate meal service center. Demographics were collected, and the healthy eating program and healthy eating education for elderly respondents were evaluated. The elderly showed high satisfaction with the exploratory program for healthy eating. We found no significant differences in satisfaction with the program between the elderly who attended education sessions and those who did not, but more of the elderly from the education sessions showed positive behavioral change intentions. The exploratory program influenced to reduce the salt intake of the elderly in congregate meal service. This study suggests cooperation of foodservice providers and the support of administrators is critical to the success of such programs.

  9. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajale, Neha A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP) and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i) compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii) effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years) randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A), 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B) and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C) were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB), by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX) were collected. Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg) than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg) (median [IQR]). Android fat % (central obesity) increased (P 0.1). Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  10. Obesity and exercise-induced ectopic ventricular arrhythmias in apparently healthy middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Avi; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Beinart, Roy; Glikson, Michael; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are limited data on the association between excess weight and the risk of ectopic ventricular activity. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk for ectopic ventricular activity (defined as multiple ventricular premature beats (≥3), ventricular bigeminy, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or sustained ventricular tachycardia) during exercise stress testing among 22,516 apparently healthy men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between the years 2000 and 2014. All subjects had completed maximal exercise stress testing annually according to the Bruce protocol. Subjects were divided at baseline into three groups: normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) andexercise-induced ectopic ventricular activity arrhythmias was highest among obese subjects, intermediate among overweight subjects and lowest among subjects with normal weight (3.4%, 2.7% and 2.2% respectively; p exercise compared with subjects with normal weight (p = 0.005), and that each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a significant 4% (p = 0.002) increased adjusted risk for exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Obesity is independently associated with increased likelihood of ectopic ventricular arrhythmia during exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. A 14-mo zinc-supplementation trial in apparently healthy Chilean preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, M; Castillo-Duran, C; Lara, X; Codoceo, J; Rebolledo, A; Atalah, E

    1997-12-01

    Apparently healthy preschool children (46 boys, 52 girls) aged 27-50 mo from low socioeconomic conditions who attended daycare centers in Santiago participated in a 14-mo long double-blind zinc supplementation trial. Unlike most previous studies, no additional inclusion criteria such as short stature or slow growth rate were considered. Subjects were pair matched according to sex and age and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the supplemented group, which received 10 mg Zn/d, and the placebo group. Selected anthropometric, clinical, dietary, biochemical, and functional indexes were determined at the beginning of the study and after 6 and 14 mo of intervention. Actual dietary zinc intake was 66% of the recommended dietary allowance. Height gain after 14 mo was on average 0.5 cm higher in the supplemented group (P = 0.10). The response, however, was different between sexes. Boys from the supplemented group gained 0.9 cm more than those in the placebo group (P = 0.045). No effect was seen in girls. Although no significant differences were observed in the rest of the variables studied, trends (0.05 < P < 0.10) in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group for increased midarm muscle area in boys, improved response to tuberculin, and reduced rates of parasite reinfestation were noted. We conclude that in preschool children of low socioeconomic status, zinc is a limiting factor in the expression of growth potential.

  12. Exercise testing and hemodynamic performance in healthy elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitzhusen, J.C.; Hickler, R.B.; Alpert, J.S.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effect of age on cardiovascular performance, 39 healthy elderly men and women, 70 to 83 years old, underwent treadmill thallium-201 exercise perfusion imaging and radionuclide equilibrium angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Five volunteers who had a positive exercise thallium test response were excluded from the study. Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction, regional wall abnormalities, relative cardiac output, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were measured. Seventy-four percent of the subjects maintained or increased their ejection fraction with exercise. With peak exercise, mean end-diastolic volume did not change, end-systolic volume decreased and cardiac output and stroke volume increased. Moreover, in 35% of the subjects, minor regional wall motion abnormalities developed during exercise. There was no significant difference in the response of men and women with regard to these variables. However, more women than men had difficulty performing bicycle ergometry because they had never bicycled before. Subjects who walked daily performed the exercise tests with less anxiety and with a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure

  13. Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M M; Oderinde, B S; Patrick, P Z; Jarmai, M M

    2012-02-01

    Despite significant success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Nigeria, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, wild poliovirus still occurs due to persistently high proportions of under and unimmunized children. The study aimed at determining the type of poliovirus often excreted into the environment. Four hundred nine fecal samples collected from apparently healthy school children aged 5-16 years in Borno and Adamawa States, northeastern Nigeria, were tested for poliovirus by tissue culture technique. The isolates were characterized further by intratypic differentiation testing and genetic sequencing. Three wild poliovirus type, 11 Sabin type, combination of Sabin-types 1 + 2 and 2 + 3 poliovirus, and 22 non-polio enteroviruses were obtained. The continued excretion of wild-type poliovirus among children above 5 years old vaccinated with oral polio vaccine contributes to the persistent circulation of these viruses in the environment and may limit the population immunity. However, the excreted Sabin poliovirus is capable of immunizing the unvaccinated children and promotes herd immunity. Similarly, the excretion of combination of two polio serotypes indicates the child susceptibility to the missing serotype (s) and therefore indicates an immunity gap. The common unhygienic practices in the environment could aid the spread of these viruses through oral-fecal route. Asymptomatic transmission of wild poliovirus among older oral polio vaccine-vaccinated children poses a serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria and therefore, environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p Croatia. Some of these VBPs are zoonotic and represent a potential risk to public health.

  15. The Acute Risks of Exercise in Apparently Healthy Adults and Relevance for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jack M; Burr, Jamie F; Banks, Laura; Thomas, Scott G

    2016-04-01

    Increased physical activity (PA) is associated with improved quality of life and reductions in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and all-cause mortality in the general population in a dose-response manner. However, PA acutely increases the risk of adverse CV event or sudden cardiac death (SCD) above levels expected at rest. We review the likelihood of adverse CV events related to exercise in apparently healthy adults and strategies for prevention, and contextualize our understanding of the long-term risk reduction conferred from PA. A systematic review of the literature was performed using electronic databases; additional hand-picked relevant articles from reference lists and additional sources were included after the search. The incidence of adverse CV events in adults is extremely low during and immediately after PA of varying types and intensities and is significantly lower in those with long-standing PA experience. The risk of SCD and nonfatal events during and immediately after PA remains extremely low (well below 0.01 per 10,000 participant hours); increasing age and PA intensity are associated with greater risk. In most cases of exercise-related SCD, occult CV disease is present and SCD is typically the first clinical event. Exercise acutely increases the risk of adverse CV events, with greater risk associated with vigorous intensity. The risks of an adverse CV event during and immediately after exercise are outweighed by the health benefits of vigorous exercise performed regularly. A key challenge remains the identification of occult structural heart disease and inheritable conditions that increase the chances of lethal arrhythmias during exercise. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of amylin with inflammatory markers and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular and animal studies implicate multiple roles of amylin in regulating insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolisms. However, the role of amylin in obesity related metabolic disorders has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of circulating amylin and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS and explore if this association is influenced by obesity, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1,011 Chinese men and women aged 35-54 years was employed to measure plasma amylin, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], insulin, glucose and lipid profiles. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Plasma amylin concentrations were higher in overweight/obese participants than normal-weight counterparts (P<0.001 without sex difference. Circulating amylin was positively associated with CRP, IL-6, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, amylin/insulin ratio, HOMA-IR, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (all P<0.001. After multiple adjustments, the risk of MetS was significantly higher (odds ratio 3.71; 95% confidence interval: 2.53 to 5.46 comparing the highest with the lowest amylin quartile. The association remained significant even further controlling for BMI, inflammatory markers, insulin or HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that amylin is strongly associated with inflammatory markers and MetS. The amylin-MetS association is independent of established risk factors of MetS, including obesity, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance. The causal role of hyperamylinemia in the development of MetS needs to be confirmed prospectively.

  17. Natural light exposure, healthy elderly people and sleep : a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Schoutens, A.M.C.; Stapel, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Among 14 independently living, mobile and healthy elderly people in The Netherlands was conducted to see whether exposure duration of high intensity, natural, light is related to sleep quality, and more general the amplitude of the sleep-wake cycle. The elderly wore for 5 consecutive days in summer

  18. Salmonella serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility in apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiflu, Bitsu; Alemayehu, Haile; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Negash, Yohannes; Eguale, Tadesse

    2017-05-19

    The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Of the total 360 dogs examined, 42 (11.7%; 95% Confidence limit of 8.5%-15.4%) were positive for Salmonella. Fourteen serotypes were detected and the predominant ones were S. Bronx (n = 7; 16.7%), S. Newport (n = 6; 14.3%), followed by S. Typhimurium, S. Indiana, S. Kentucky, S. Saintpaul and S. Virchow (n = 4; 9.5%) each. Salmonella infection status was significantly associated with history of symptom of diarrhea during the past 60 days (OR = 3.78; CI = 1.76-8.13; p = 0). Highest resistance rates were found for oxytetracycline (59.5%), neomycin (50%), streptomycin (38.1%), cephalothin (33.3%), doxycycline (30.9%), ampicillin (30.9%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (26.2%). Thirty eight (90.5%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials was detected in 30 (71.4%) of the isolates. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 19 (45.2%) of the isolates. This study demonstrated high carriage rate of Salmonella serotypes known for causing human salmonellosis and large proportion of them were resistant to antimicrobials used in public and veterinary medicine for management of various bacterial infections, suggesting the possible risk of infection of human population in close contact with these dogs by drug resistant pathogens. Therefore, it is vital to work on raising public awareness on zoonotic canine diseases prevention measures and good hygienic practices.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Cromolyn and Ibuprofen in Healthy Elderly Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, David; Perry, Robert; Keane, Jim; Barrett, Katie; Elmaleh, David R

    2017-11-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The combination of cromolyn and ibuprofen is being investigated as a treatment for early Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of cromolyn and ibuprofen co-administration in healthy elderly adult volunteers. In this open-labeled study, 26 subjects, aged 55-75 years, received co-administration of inhaled cromolyn (single dose 17.1 mg; double dose 34.2 mg total) and oral ibuprofen (single dose 10 mg; double dose 20 mg total). Blood sampling was performed for 6 h after co-administration in all subjects; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected in three to four subjects per cohort for 4 h following co-administration. Safety parameters, including adverse events (AEs), were monitored throughout the study. For cromolyn, the mean (±SD) maximum observed concentration (C max ) in plasma was 46.69 ± 32.97 and 96.75 ± 46.22 ng/ml after single- and double-dose inhalation, respectively [time to C max (t max ) ~22 min for each; terminal elimination half-life (t ½ ) ~1.8 h for each]. For ibuprofen, the plasma C max was 1090.98 ± 474.64 ng/ml and 2062.96 ± 655.13 ng/ml after single- and double-dose oral administration, respectively (t max ~1.6-1.8 h; t ½ ~1.9 h for each). For cromolyn, the CSF C max was 0.24 ± 0.08 ng/ml at 3.72 ± 0.70 h after single-dose administration and 0.34 ± 0.17 ng/ml at 3.45 ± 0.95 h after double-dose administration, and for ibuprofen, the CSF C max was 3.94 ± 1.29 ng/ml at 2.55 ± 0.96 h after single-dose administration and 8.93 ± 3.29 ng/ml at 3.15 ± 1.05 h after double-dose administration. Three (12%) subjects reported mild or moderate AEs which were unlikely to be related to study drug. The combination of cromolyn and ibuprofen was safe and well tolerated. The concentrations of cromolyn and ibuprofen observed in the CSF are considered sufficient to titrate the estimated daily amyloid production and the associated inflammatory response

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genotype XVII Newcastle Disease Virus, Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Domestic Duck in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Joannis, Tony M.; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Odaibo, Georgina N.; Olaleye, David O.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Solomon, Ponman; Abolnik, Celia; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene and complete genome classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, genotype XVII.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genotype XVII Newcastle Disease Virus, Isolated from an Apparently Healthy Domestic Duck in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sharma, Poonam; Joannis, Tony M.; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Odaibo, Georgina N.; Olaleye, David O.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Solomon, Ponman; Abolnik, Celia; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene and complete genome classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, genotype XVII. PMID:26847901

  2. The Relationship between Selected Anthropometric Indices and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Apparently Healthy Young Adults in a Nigerian Community

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Ofiaeli; A. V. Egwuonwu; M. J. Nwankwo; Y. E. Ihegihu; U. P. Okonkwo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a useful tool for establishment of baseline fitness status and monitoring of physical activity level. Therefore, it may by extension serve as health risk index. However, studies that have determined the correlation between anthropometric indices and CRF in apparently healthy young adults is difficult to find in other to preempt preventive actions before pathology develops. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive correlational resea...

  3. Owner assessment of pruritus and gastrointestinal signs in apparently healthy dogs with no history of cutaneous or noncutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Kacie M; Marks, Stanley L; Griffin, Craig E

    2015-08-01

    Determining the cause of pruritus relies on establishing the pattern of abnormal pruritus. The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) disease has also been helpful in determining the cause of pruritus. No study has systematically evaluated typical GI signs and pruritic behaviours in apparently healthy dogs. To evaluate owners' perceptions of pruritus and GI signs in apparently healthy dogs, and determine if age, breed, activity, diet or supplements affected these signs. Three hundred and fourteen apparently healthy dogs ≥ 12 months old with an unremarkable physical examination and no history of pruritus, otitis, skin/hair disease, metabolic or GI disease were enrolled. Thirty one veterinarians enrolled dogs after establishing their pruritus visual analog scale (PVAS) score and faecal consistency score (FCS); owners completed a comprehensive online survey regarding GI signs, possible pruritic behaviours, ear cleaning and sneezing. A PVAS score of ≤ 1.9 was recorded in 87.6% of dogs and the FCS was 2-3 in 94.9% of dogs. PVAS was positively correlated with paw licking/chewing, facial/muzzle rubbing, head shaking and sneezing. Scooting was positively correlated with sneezing. Over 96% of dogs had 1-3 bowel movements (BM) per day. Age was positively correlated with facial/muzzle rubbing, sneezing, coprophagia and borborygmi. The number of walks/day was positively correlated with paw licking/chewing, head shaking, sneezing, number of BM/day, coprophagia, belching, flatulence and borborygmi. A standard method of asking relevant questions was developed and the frequency of GI signs and many behaviours that may indicate pruritus in apparently healthy dogs was established. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, T.; Abbassi, A.; Khan, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Early detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted from January 2015 to July 2015 at Dow University Hospital, Ojha campus. Methodology: A screening method was designed for apparently healthy individuals including attendants of patients, hospital staff, faculty and students, belonging to age group 18-60 years after excluding severe obesity and already diagnosed respiratory and cardiovascular diseases by means of history. Each participant performed pulmonary function tests via spirometer after filling a questionnaire based on various risk factors and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data was entered and analysed by SPSS-20. Results: Out of the 517 participants, 122 (23.6%) were found to have COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry. Out of these, 23 (4.4%) had COPD stage I, 42 (8.1%) had COPD II, 34 (6.6%) had COPD III, and 23 (4.4%) had COPD IV. Exposure to smoking, wooden stoves, pesticides, biomass fuel, aerosol sprays, gas grill and vehicle exhaust were found to be statistically significant factors in relation to development of COPD. Conclusion: Apparently healthy individuals may have underlying COPD and active screening by means of spirometry plays vital role in early detection of COPD. Smoking and exposure to certain hazardous environmental pollutants are responsible for the development and progression of COPD. (author)

  5. MRI of the brain in neurologically healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, O.; Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Ylikoski, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document the MRI appearances of the brain in healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. T2- and proton density-weighted axial slices were obtained in 61 volunteers, 30-86 years of age. After visual inspection, signal intensities of brain structures were measured on T2-weighted images. Age-related changes became increasingly apparent after age 50. The main findings were that signal intensity of the white matter increased concomitantly with widening of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; that basal ganglia remained stable; that high-signal foci in white matter increased in number and size after the age of 50 years; that periventricular high-signal foci were constant after the age of 65 years. Our visual impression of a decrease in signal intensity of the central grey matter with age seems to be mistaken. Pathological processes should be suspected if periventricular foci are found in middle-aged or young subjects. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Plasmid profile of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 from apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred samples from healthy animals were screened for the presence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157: H7 and 17 were positive for EHEC 0157:H7 after confirmation using serology kits. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed the isolates to be highly susceptible to the various antibiotics screened with a ...

  8. Specificity of indexes of malnutrition when applied to apparently healthy people: the effect of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, T.H.J.; Bree, de A.; Schermer, T.R.J.; Bakkeren, J.; Bör, B.; Wild, de G.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is thought to be widespread in hospitalized patients. However, the specificity of indexes used to assess malnutrition is uncertain. We therefore assessed the rate of false-positive diagnoses of malnutrition when biochemical-anthropometric indexes were applied to healthy

  9. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  10. The comparison of Selective Attention Deficit in Dual Task Performance in Elderly Alzheimer Patients and Healthy Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. m. Azadian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare selective attention deficit in elderly Alzheimer patients and healthy elderly individuals using the dual task. Therefore, 23 subjects (11 females and 12 males age 62 to 81 years; 13 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 10 healthy elderly subjects (EHI with normal cognitive function participated in this study. people with Alzheimer's disease. healthy people was selected through some neurologist identified Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ. After obtaining the average number of correct counting of months of the year in both simple and difficult cognitive task the overall error (E or Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE, and variable error (VE were calculated for the tracking task. Then each person performed 10 tasks simultaneously (under Dual-task in both simple and difficult mode. Analysis of variance in cognitive tasks showed that there was a significant interaction between task difficulty and risk of AD (p0.05. In other words, at dual conditions of tracking task, accuracy and consistency of both groups was equally reduced, which was most prominent in difficult conditions. This decrease indicates increased interference at response level due to defects in the mechanisms of selective attention in dual cognitive and tracking tasks and both groups.

  11. Reduced levels of potential circulating biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in apparently healthy vegetarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio Acosta; de Gouveia, Luiza Antoniazzi; Rocha-Penha, Lilliam; Cinegaglia, Naiara; Belo, Vanessa; Castro, Michele Mazzaron de; Sandrim, Valeria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Several evidences report that a vegetarian diet is protector against cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have demonstrated the circulating profile of cardiovascular biomarkers in vegetarians. Therefore, the aims of the current study were compared the plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 between healthy vegetarian (Veg) and healthy omnivorous (Omn). Using ELISA and multiplexed bead immunoassay, we measured in plasma from 43 Veg and 41 Omn the cardiovascular biomarkers concentrations cited above. We found significant lower concentrations of MPO, MMP-9, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in Veg compared to Omn (all Pvegetarian diet is associated with a healthier profile of cardiovascular biomarkers compared to omnivorous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. There is chronic latent magnesium deficiency in apparently healthy university students

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes Sales, Cristiane; Azevedo Nascimento, Débora; Queiroz Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Costa Lima, Kênio; Campos Pedrosa, Lucia Fátima; Colli, Célia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Magnesium is an essential micronutrient for human body, and its deficiency has been associated with risk of non-communicable diseases. Objective: Assessment of magnesium status, and evaluation of the frequency of magnesium deficiency in a group of healthy adults. Methods: Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels, and magnesium intake were determined in 115 students (55 women and 60 men), from a public university in Brazil. Results: The medians of magnesium concentration in plasma...

  13. Systematic review on vitamin D level in apparently healthy Indian population and analysis of its associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhiya Selvarajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D which is involved in the maintenance of bone mineral homeostasis has been found to portray various pleiotropic effects. Although it has been widely accepted that serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D level above 30 ng/ml is considered optimal for the biological actions of Vitamin D, there is a need to explore the levels of Vitamin D reported among Indians from various regions of the country. Hence, this systematic review aims to appraise the status of Vitamin D levels reported from apparently healthy Indians across various parts of India. Methodology: A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify the range of Vitamin D levels among apparently healthy individuals from various parts of India, with the search term “Vitamin D and India” in the search portals of PubMed, Google Scholar, Indmed, and ScienceDirect. A total of 2998 articles were retrieved by the above search strategy, of which only forty studies fulfilled the criteria to be included in the systematic review. Studies done in various states were compiled under the respective zones based on the classification of Indian zones as specified in Zonal maps of India. Results: The level of Vitamin D from all the forty included studies ranged from 3.15 ± 1.4 to 52.9 ± 33.7 ng/ml. The effect size of Vitamin D level was higher in the South Zone compared to other zones. Conclusion: The present study shows that Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among apparently healthy Indians living in different regions of India, irrespective of their exposure to sunlight.

  14. Prevalence and Molecular Detection of Quinolone-Resistant E. coli in Rectal Swab of Apparently Healthy Cattle in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Montasir Mamun; Jayedul Hassan; K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir; Md. Alimul Islam; Khalada Zesmin; Md. Bahanur Rahman; Md. Tanvir Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of antibiotic resistance is a serious health problem both in human and animal all over the world. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of quinolone-resistant E. coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. A total of 137 rectal swabs was screened among which 95 was found positive for E. coli. Confirmation of isolation of E. coli was done by PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene of E. coli (prevalence 69.3%). Resistance against quinolone is primaril...

  15. Frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis c antibodies in apparently healthy blood donors in northern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Naeem, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of HBsAg and anti HCV among the potential blood donors belonging to Northern areas.A total of 8949 apparently healthy blood donors, belonging to Northern areas were screened for HBsAg and anti-HCV by rapid method.Overall sero-positivity of HBsAg was 3.66% and anti-HCV 1.35%. The result indicates that frequency of HBsAg is more than anti-HCV in Northern areas. (author)

  16. SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS C AMONG THE APPARENTLY HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS OF KARACHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeesa Wadood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a global health issue. Pakistan is among the prevalent countries for hepatitis C virus (HCV. Due to poverty, unemployment, low literacy rate, unawareness and poor health facilities, Pakistani population are susceptible to HCV transmission. As blood transfusion is a potential source of HCV; therefore, this study was designed to determine the recent seroprevalence of HCV among the healthy blood donors of Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose, 536 blood donors were screened for anti- HCV antibodies by 3rd generation ELISA. The seroprevalence of HCV observed is 2.99% among healthy blood donors. Male predominance is noticed with seropositivity of 2.62%; however, only 0.37% female blood donors were reactive for anti-HCV antibodies. This study concludes that HCV frequency has been increased in the natives of Karachi, Pakistan when compared to the past studies. Therefore, it is recommended that the healthcare authorities should play a vital role in enforcing preventive measures for HCV transmission.

  17. Exploring spirituality in Iranian healthy elderly people: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Abolfazl; Anoosheh, Monireh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Foroughan, Mahshid

    2013-03-01

    Spirituality is recognized as a personally important matter to the elderly, and there are evidences of its impact on their health. The aim of this study was to explore the concept of spirituality from the perspectives of Iranian healthy elderly individuals. A conventional qualitative content analysis of carried out with 21 healthy elderly people from both male and female genders were chosen using a purposive sampling method in Tehran in 2010-2011. Data collection was done through semi structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the participants' experiences and perceptions on spirituality, using a central question 'what characterizes the spirituality in the Iranian healthy elderly people?' THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES EMERGED FROM THE DATA ANALYSIS: (1) Spiritual health, with four sub categories including saying prayer as a calming factor; beneficence as a way to God; loss of psychological and spiritual support; faith as a way to happiness; (2) spiritual beliefs, with three sub categories including seeking help from God in difficulties; God's power over life and death; doing good deeds is the God's will; and (3) religious practice with three sub categories including saying prayer; reading Quran; and going to mosque, religious ceremonies and pilgrimage. In this study was found that spirituality was a fundamental element in elderly individuals' lives that help them to adapt with daily living conditions.

  18. Impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Escobar, Pedro; Moser, Michel; Risch, Lorenz; Risch, Martin; Nydegger, Urs Ernst; Stanga, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of unknown impaired glucose metabolism, also referred to as prediabetes (PreD), and unknown type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among subjectively healthy Swiss senior citizens. The fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) levels were used for screening. A total of 1 362 subjects were included (613 men and 749 women; age range 60-99 years). Subjects with known T2DM were excluded. The FPG was processed immediately for analysis under standardised preanalytical conditions in a cross-sectional cohort study; plasma glucose levels were measured by means of the hexokinase procedure, and HbA(1c) was measured chromatographically and classified using the current American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. The crude prevalence of individuals unaware of having prediabetic FPG or HbA(1c) levels, was 64.5% (n = 878). Analogously, unknown T2DM was found in 8.4% (n = 114) On the basis of HbA(1c) criteria alone, significantly more subjects with unknown fasting glucose impairment and laboratory T2DM could be identified than with the FPG. The prevalence of PreD as well as of T2DM increased with age. The mean HOMA indices (homeostasis model assessment) for the different age groups, between 2.12 and 2.59, are consistent with clinically hidden disease and are in agreement with the largely orderly Body Mass Indices found in the normal range. Laboratory evidence of impaired glucose metabolism and, to a lesser extent, unknown T2DM, has a high prevalence among subjectively healthy older Swiss individuals. Laboratory identification of people with unknown out-of-range glucose values and overt diabetic hyperglycaemia might improve the prognosis by delaying the emergence of overt disease.

  19. Prevalence of sarcopenia in healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanes, F; Culla, A; Navarro-Gonzalez, M; Navarro-Lopez, M; Sacanella, E; Torres, B; Lopez-Soto, A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in a cohort of healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area in Barcelona (Spain) for native benchmarks and compare them with those published in other geographical areas. We prospectively evaluated a series of 200 healthy elderly in the community with preserved functional capacity and absence of cognitive impairment. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment and determined anthropometric data, muscle mass (MM) and the muscle mass index (MMI). Assessment of muscle mass was performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The cut-off point for defining sarcopenia MMI was established as less than 2 SD of the mean of a reference group comprising 220 healthy volunteers (20-42 years) in the same area. Results were compared with studies undertaken in the USA, France and Taiwan. The cut-off points obtained were 8.31 Kg/m(2) for men and 6.68 Kg/m2 for women, being similar to those observed in France and Taiwan but different from the USA. The prevalence of sarcopenia observed was 33% for elderly women and 10% for males. On comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia in the four populations, we observed some differences, particularly in males. We have defined reference values for sarcopenia, determined by BIA, in our setting. We also observed a remarkable prevalence of sarcopenia in the healthy elderly community, especially in females, showing some differences from those in other geographical regions.

  20. Myelin Breakdown Mediates Age-Related Slowing in Cognitive Processing Speed in Healthy Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H.; Lee, Grace J.; Tishler, Todd A.; Meghpara, Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Bartzokis, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the hypothesis that in a sample of very healthy elderly men selected to minimize risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease, myelin breakdown in late-myelinating regions mediates age-related slowing in cognitive processing speed (CPS). Materials and methods: The prefrontal lobe white matter and the genu of…

  1. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000-...

  2. Healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, Lia Silveira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; Portela, Clarissa Lima de Melo; de Melo, Maria Luisa Pereira; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Soares, Nadia Tavares

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, an increase that may be associated with changes in lifestyle such as unhealthy dietary patterns. Although advanced age is a risk factor for NAFLD, no studies reporting this association in the elderly population were found. In the present study, the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the elderly was assessed. A study including 229 older adults was conducted. NAFLD diagnosis was defined as individuals whose ultrasound examination disclosed hepatic steatosis at any stage, in the absence of excess intake of alcoholic beverages. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal components analysis. Mean scores and standard errors of each dietary pattern were calculated for the groups with and without NAFLD, and mean scores of the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The prevalence ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for each tertile of the dietary pattern adherence scores using Poisson multiple regression models with robust variance. A total of 103 (45 %) elderly with NAFLD and four dietary patterns were identified: traditional, regional snacks, energy dense and healthy. Mean scores for adherence to the healthy pattern in the groups with and without NAFLD differed. NAFLD was inversely associated with greater adherence to the healthy pattern and directly associated with the regional snacks, after adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with NAFLD in elderly.

  3. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  4. Effects of an Eight-Week Stepladder Exercise Protocol on Lower Limb Muscular Strength of Apparently Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagbegi Oladapo Michael

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Backward descent of stairs is associated with improved muscle strength and reduced joint stress, but the effect of backward ascent of stairs on lower limb muscle strength has not been reported. This study compared the effects of forward and backward stair climbing on lower limb muscle strength in apparently healthy young adults. Methods. The total of 31 young volunteers were allocated to either forward or backward stair climbing group (n = 16 and 15, respectively. Dynamic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was assessed in addition to thigh girth at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 with the use of the repetitive maximum method and tape measure, respectively. Results. Between baseline and week 8, muscular strength in both groups (quadriceps: 14.4 ± 3.6 to 16.4 ± 3.4 kg; 14.0 ± 2.9 to 15.3 ± 2.7 kg; hamstring: 12.2 ± 3.2 to 13.4 ± 3.2; 11.7 ± 2.5 to 12.9 ± 2.7 kg increased significantly (p 0.05. The groups were comparable in all three measures post intervention. Conclusions. Forward and backward stair climbing protocols are effective for improving the dynamic strength of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of apparently healthy young adults. Thus, either protocol could be used for the improvement of lower limbs dynamic muscle strength.

  5. Reference Intervals of Alpha-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Apparently Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Guo, Xu-Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Guo-Ming

    2016-12-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to calculate 95% reference intervals and double-sided limits of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) according to the CLSI EP28-A3 guideline. MATERIAL AND METHODS Serum AFP and CEA values were measured in samples from 26 000 healthy subjects in the Shuyang area receiving general health checkups. The 95% reference intervals and upper limits were calculated by using MedCalc. RESULTS We provided continuous reference intervals from 20 years old to 90 years old for AFP and CEA. The reference intervals were: AFP, 1.31-7.89 ng/ml (males) and 1.01-7.10 ng/ml (females); CEA, 0.51-4.86 ng/ml (males) and 0.35-3.45ng/ml (females). AFP and CEA were significantly positively correlated with age in both males (r=0.196 and r=0.198) and females (r=0.121 and r=0.197). CONCLUSIONS Different races or populations and different detection systems may result in different reference intervals for AFP and CEA. Continuous reference intervals of age changes are more accurate than age groups.

  6. High levels of neutralizing IL-6 autoantibodies in 0.1% of apparently healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Svenson, Morten; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    deficiency. Here, we examined aAb-IL-6 in 4,230 blood donors. Stable low titers of aAb-IL-6 were found in 9% of the donors, while 1% had titers ranging from 64 to greater than 10,000. Such aAb-IL-6-positive donors appeared normal with no overt signs of pathology. Natural and recombinant forms of IL-6 bound...... avidly to their IgG, and their plasma strongly neutralized IL-6 in vitro. Slightly elevated concentrations of IL-6 exclusively in the form of IL-6-IgG complexes were present in their circulation. The complexes did not contain soluble IL-6 receptors. Titers of 0.1% of the blood donors were as positive...... as the vaccination-induced IL-6-deficient mice. Such donors might be IL-6 deficient, and if so, IL-6 seems be dispensable for several months in otherwise healthy individuals. Such highly positive donors also explain why normal human IgG for pharmaceutical use may contain high anti-IL-6 activity. Finally, transfusion...

  7. Assessment of and Improvement Strategies for the Housing of Healthy Elderly: Improving Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ming Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Global population is aging, particularly in developed countries and cities. Through the “Friendly Elderly Cities” and “Aging in Place” initiatives, various countries are making great efforts to improve the welfare and quality of life of the elderly, with the aim of catering to the physical and spiritual health as well as social welfare of the elderly. In this regard, the improvement of the housing environment of the elderly is one of the key factors in their quality of life and health. This study aims to effectively assess and improve the housing environment of the elderly in order to enhance their quality of life; it also aims to contribute the knowledge about improving elderly housing by applying an assessment framework using expert interviews and data collected from relevant literature. Using a mixed Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis model, a combination of the DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory-based ANP (Analytic Network Process (DANP and the modified VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR methods, and the investigations and assessments in the case study, this study proposes strategies and directions for improving elderly housing. The study results indicate that, as distinct from using traditional methodologies where the hypothesis criteria are mutually independent, the proposed hybrid model (examining real-life problems by considering the mutual influences of factors identifies a priority sequence wherein emphasis is placed on improving ventilation and air quality rather than adjustment of temperature. The systemic way of thinking shifts the focus from the most apparent problems to the root cause of the problems. Doing so avoids any mismatch of resource allocation in decision-making and thus maximizes the efficiency and sustainability of the improvement.

  8. Comparison of hemodynamics during hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing in apparently healthy females aged 50-60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietava, Jan; Vohnout, Branislav; Valent, Denis; Celko, Juraj

    2004-07-01

    Owing to excessive worries regarding adverse cardiac events, hyperthermal balneotherapy for patients with coronary artery disease is underprescribed. However, very few cardiac events occur in similar heat stress during Finnish sauna bathing. Exercise testing has proven to be a safe diagnostic procedure even in survivors of myocardial infarction. We compared the effects of hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing on cardiac hemodynamics in 21 apparently healthy women aged 50-60 years. The maximal symptom-limited bicycle exercise test was performed according to the modified protocol of Wasserman. Hyperthermal immersion was carried out in 40 degrees C water and was completed by increasing the core temperature by about 2 degrees C. The left ventricular function was evaluated using continuous measurement of thoracic electric bioimpedance during both tests. The blood pressure, index of contractility and heart rate were measured directly, whereas the cardiac index, left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index were calculated. The hemodynamic response, as assessed at continuous non-invasive monitoring, showed substantial differences between hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing. Overall, we found a significantly lower hemodynamic load during hyperthermal immersion in comparison with exercise testing. Entering the bath, there was a significant decrease in the left cardiac work, contractility and blood pressure. We recorded a slight increase in the heart rate towards peak hyperthermal immersion. However, other modulators such as the mean arterial pressure, index of contractility, cardiac index and left cardiac work index decreased even below resting values. Excessive hyperthermal immersion induced a lower hemodynamic load in apparently healthy women than standard maximal exercise testing.

  9. [Elder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to present scientific evidence on the biological, dietary, cultural and economic advantages of cow´s milk and dairy products intake in adults, with emphasis on the elderly. The role of milk and dairy products as part of the regular diet, as well as their contribution to a healthy diet for the aged population is described. The updated scientific references on the importance of milk and dairy products on the dietary management of the most prevalent diseases of the eldery -among these energy-protein malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, sarcopenic obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases- are presented.

  10. Serological Evidence of Hantavirus Infection in Apparently Healthy People from Rural and Slum Communities in Southern Chile

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    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease in America has been recognizable because of its rapid progression in clinical cases, occurrence in previously healthy young adults, and high case fatality rate. Hantavirus disease has been proposed now to define the diversity of clinical manifestations. Since 1995, a total of 902 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported in Chile, caused by Andes virus (ANDV, with overall fatality of 32%. This report describes the sero-epidemiology of hantavirus in apparently healthy people in rural and urban slum communities from southern Chile. Ten of 934 samples yielded a positive result resulting in a seroprevalence of 1.07% (95% confidence intervals: 0.05%–2.0%. A higher proportion of positive samples was found among individuals from rural villages (1.3% and slums (1.5% compared with farms (0.5%. Seropositivity was associated with age (p = 0.011, low education level (p = 0.006 and occupations linked to the household (homemaker, retired, or student (p = 0.016. No evidence of infection was found in 38 sigmodontinae rodents trapped in the peri-domestic environment. Our findings highlight that exposure risk was associated with less documented risk factors, such as women in slum and rural villages, and the occurrence of infection that may have presented as flu-like illness that did not require medical attention or was misdiagnosed.

  11. Neurophysiological basis of creativity in healthy elderly people: a multiscale entropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Kanji; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Koichi; Mizukami, Kimiko; Tanaka, Yuji; Wada, Yuji

    2015-03-01

    Creativity, which presumably involves various connections within and across different neural networks, reportedly underpins the mental well-being of older adults. Multiscale entropy (MSE) can characterize the complexity inherent in EEG dynamics with multiple temporal scales. It can therefore provide useful insight into neural networks. Given that background, we sought to clarify the neurophysiological bases of creativity in healthy elderly subjects by assessing EEG complexity with MSE, with emphasis on assessment of neural networks. We recorded resting state EEG of 20 healthy elderly subjects. MSE was calculated for each subject for continuous 20-s epochs. Their relevance to individual creativity was examined concurrently with intellectual function. Higher individual creativity was linked closely to increased EEG complexity across higher temporal scales, but no significant relation was found with intellectual function (IQ score). Considering the general "loss of complexity" theory of aging, our finding of increased EEG complexity in elderly people with heightened creativity supports the idea that creativity is associated with activated neural networks. Results reported here underscore the potential usefulness of MSE analysis for characterizing the neurophysiological bases of elderly people with heightened creativity. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Healthy habits: what kind of guidance the elderly population is receiving from health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Thaynã Ramos; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of guidance on healthy habits received from health professionals by elderly and its relation to socioeconomic demographic, behavioral and health indicators, and the type of services. Cross sectional population based study including individuals aged 60 years or more in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Seven guidance on healthy habits were evaluated: weight control, reduction in salt, sugar and fat intake, physical activity practice, not smoking and not drinking alcohol. Among the 1,451 elderly interviewed, 1,281 (88.3%) consulted in the last year. The orientations more refereed were to fat (61.7%) and salt (61.5%) intake reduction and physical activity (58.2%). Elderly who consulted three times or more and in services financed by the Unified Health System received more guidance. Those elderly from the socioeconomic classes A/B were more likely to receive guidance for weight control (RP = 1.27; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.70) and physical activity (RP = 1.34; 95%CI 1.06 - 1.69). The orientation from health professionals were uncommon and, in some cases, unfocused.

  13. Prevalence and type of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an apparently healthy Nigerian population: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwah, A Lawretta; Adeyemo, Titilope A; Adediran, Adewumi; Ajibola, Sarah O; Akanmu, Alani S

    2012-06-28

    The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria. A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters. Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent) of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain. Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM.

  14. Prevalence and type of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an apparently healthy Nigerian population: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, a premalignant plasma-cell disorder has not been determined in our geographic area Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried on apparently healthy Nigerians selected by multistage sampling technique from the cosmopolitan city of Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects enrolled into the study had 2-step screening for the presence, type and concentration of monoclonal band. Agarose-gel electrophoresis was performed on all serum samples, and any serum sample with a discrete band of monoclonal protein or thought to have a localized band was subjected to Immunofixation. Subjects were also evaluated for Bence jones proteinuria, haematological and biochemical parameters. Results Four hundred and ten subjects with a mean age of 45.68 ± 10.3 years, a median of 45.00 years and a range of 20 to 80 years were enrolled into the study. MGUS was identified in only one (0.24 percent of the 410 study subject. This subject was demonstrated to have a double monoclonal gammopathy; IgGλ at 16.9 g/L and IgAκ at 8.5 g/L. None of them including the sole subject with MGUS had a monoclonal urinary light chain. Conclusion Among residents of Lagos, Nigeria, MGUS was found in only 0.24% percent of apparently normal persons with a median age of 45 years. This suggests that MGUS which represents the earliest stage of monoclonal plasma/lymphoid cell proliferation is not a common finding in the relatively young population of Nigeria. Future epidemiologic studies dealing with plasma cell disorders in older people are required to carefully examine the relationship between environmental factors and prevalence of MGUS and its ultimate progression to MM.

  15. Hemoglobin A1c Is Positively Correlated with Framingham Risk Score in Older, Apparently Healthy Nondiabetic Korean Adults

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    Ji Hye Shin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral studies have suggested that elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD in nondiabetic individuals. However, it is unclear whether HbA1c levels can serve as a simple screening marker for increased CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between HbA1c levels and CVD risk using the Framingham risk score (FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 2,879 Korean adults between the ages of 40 and 79 who underwent voluntary health check-ups at the Health Promotion Center of our hospital from July 2009 to June 2011. Subjects were subdivided based on their HbA1c levels into four groups: tertiles within the HbA1c normal tolerance range and a group for subjects with an increased risk for diabetes (IRD.ResultsThe mean FRS for the upper tertile (9.6±3.8 group was significantly higher than that of the middle tertile (8.4±4.0 and lower tertile (7.6±3.8 groups. In addition, FRS was highest in the IRD group (10.5±3.7. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that HbA1c levels exhibited a significant positive correlation with FRS when adjusted for confounding variables in all subjects (β±standard error [SE], 0.018±0.002; R2, 0.131, women (β±SE, 0.023±0.003; R2, 0.170, and men (β±SE, 0.016±0.004; R2, 0.109.ConclusionHbA1c levels were positively correlated with FRS in older, apparently healthy nondiabetic Korean adults. We propose that HbA1c levels may reflect CVD risk in nondiabetic individuals.

  16. Impact of Probiotic SYNBIO(®) Administered by Vaginal Suppositories in Promoting Vaginal Health of Apparently Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Coata, Giuliana; Cresci, Alberto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether it promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. A single-arm, open-label controlled towards the baseline (pre-post) study including 35 apparently healthy women was conducted. Each woman was examined three times during the study. Women were instructed to receive daily for 7 days, the probiotic suppositories SYNBIO(®) gin (Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®)). Vaginal swabs were collected during visit 1, 2, and 3 to determine the total lactobacilli count, the presence of the two administered bacteria, the measure of the pH, and the estimation of Nugent score. Evaluation of treatment tolerability was based on analysis of the type and occurrence of adverse events. The probiotic vaginal suppository was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. Intermediate Nugent score was registered in 40 % of women at visit 1 and these intermediate scores reverted to normal at day 7 (end of treatment) in 20 % of subjects. Administration of SYNBIO(®) gin contributed to a significant increase in the lactobacilli level at visit 2. Molecular typing revealed the presence of the two strains originating from SYNBIO(®) gin in 100 % of women at visit 2 and 34 % at visit 3. No significant changes were registered for pH between visits. The SYNBIO(®) gin product is safe for daily use in healthy women and it could be useful to restore and maintain a normal vaginal microbiota.

  17. Increased association of coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Sub; Park, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Yong; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a simple screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype increases the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 32,186 participants (mean age 41.3, 80.2% men) in a health screening program, in whom the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured, were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups: 1) normal waist circumference (WC)-normal triglyceride (TG) (NWNT), 2) normal WC-high TG (NWHT), 3) enlarged WC-normal TG (EWNT), and 4) enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT). Enlarged WC was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women; high serum TG was defined as TG ≥ 150 mg/dL. The presence of CAC was defined by CACS >0, and CACS was analyzed in a logarithmized form of CACS plus 1 {ln(CACS+1)}. A total of 14.9% of the participants had CAC. The EWHT group showed the highest mean value for ln(CACS+1) among the four groups. The EWHT group showed the highest odds ratio for CAC, with NWHT group the second, and with EWNT group the third compared with the NWNT group after adjusting for confounding variables (1.579, 1.302, and 1.266 vs. NWNT). The EWHT group showed the highest association for CAC, suggesting this HTGW phenotype as a useful marker for the detection of subjects with high cardiometabolic risk in healthy Korean adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Relationship between physical activity and cognitive function in apparently healthy young to middle-aged adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Eka Peng; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Cook, Rebecca; Vetter, Melanie; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Rooney, Kieron; O'Connor, Helen

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical activity (PA) positively affects cognitive function (CF). Existing research has focussed on this association in children and the elderly, with less research available in young to middle-aged adults who constitute a substantial proportion of the population. A systematic review investigating the relationship between habitual PA (≥12 months) and CF in young to middle-aged adults (18-50 years). A search was conducted using AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, AUSPORT MED and SPORTDiscus databases. Eligible studies had to report descriptive statistics for CF and PA levels in healthy participants 18-50 years. Effect sizes (ES) (Hedges g) were calculated where possible. The initial search netted 26,988 potentially relevant manuscripts, with four more identified through hand searching. Fourteen were included for review. A range of validated platforms assessed CF across three domains: executive function (12 studies), memory (four studies) and processing speed (seven studies). Habitual PA was assessed via questionnaire/self-report methods (n=13, 8 validated) or accelerometers (n=1). In studies of executive function, five found a significant ES in favour of higher PA, ranging from small to large. Although three of four studies in the memory domain reported a significant benefit of higher PA, there was only one significant ES, which favoured low PA. Only one study examining processing speed had a significant ES, favouring higher PA. A limited body of evidence supports a positive effect of PA on CF in young to middle-aged adults. Further research into this relationship at this age stage is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Klotho-related Molecules Upregulated by Smoking Habit in Apparently Healthy Men: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kaori; Nishida, Makoto; Harada, Masaya; Ohama, Tohru; Kawada, Noritaka; Murakami, Masaaki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko

    2015-09-18

    While aging is unavoidable, the aging mechanism is still unclear because of its complexity. Smoking causes premature death and is considered as an environmental aging accelerator. In the present study, we focused on the influence of smoking to the serum concentration of anti-aging protein α-klotho (αKl) and the β-klotho-associated protein fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 in men. Subjects consisted of apparently healthy men over 40 years of age who underwent health examination. Physical and biochemical parameters, including the levels of several cytokines and growth factors, were obtained from the subjects. Among middle-aged men (46.1 ± 5.1 years), serum levels of FGF-21, soluble αKl (sαKl), and inflammation-related cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Serum levels of FGF-21 increased and correlated with alanine transaminase, γ guanosine-5'-triphosphate, and total cholesterol only in smokers, suggesting FGF-21 as a metabolic disorder-related factor in smokers. In aged men (60.3 ± 1.7 years), although the serum levels of sαKl in never-smokers were low, smokers showed highly increased serum levels of sαKl. Serum levels of sαKl was correlated with IL-6 in middle-aged never-smokers, suggesting sαKl regulates IL-6. However, this correlation was disrupted in smokers and aged men.

  20. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

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    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  1. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  2. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly

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    João Carlos Centurion Cabral

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  3. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Peter; Strandberg, Emelie; Kadi, Fawzi

    2017-07-01

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants ( n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength

  4. Memory and metamemory performance in Alzheimer's disease and healthy elderly: the Contextual Memory Test (CMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, N; Josman, N

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT) to differentiate between elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to healthy elderly people. Specifically, the objectives were to compare for differences between and within the groups on components of memory, including immediate and delayed recall as well as recognition. In addition, parameters of metamemory skills, such as general awareness, self-prediction of memory capacity, self-estimation, strategy use and use of contextual information, as well as the correlation between self-awareness and actual performance in both groups, were investigated. The sample consisted of 60 elderly participants, including 30 people diagnosed with AD who were assigned to the research group and 30 people matched for age, gender and educational level who were assigned to the control group. The results provide support for the hypothesis positing differences in memory performance between healthy elderly participants and those suffering from AD, particularly in immediate and delayed recall as well as in recognition. Moreover, findings indicate an improvement in memory performance under the cued condition (contextual), whereas improvement in the AD group proved to be significant only for immediate recall. The findings point to a distinct overestimation of memory ability predicted by both the AD and control groups. Following the memory task, however, the participants accurately estimated the number of items they remembered. In addition, significant correlations between the use of contextual and association strategies and the number of items remembered by both groups were obtained, in immediate as well as in delayed recall. Therefore, these findings support the CMT as a valuable memory and metamemory assessment tool for use with the AD population.

  5. Elderly Healthy Eating Diet-2005 Index Living in Urban Areas of Iran`s Markazi Province

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    Ali Aghanuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to assess elderlyhealthy eating diet” -2005 (HED-2005 quality and its relationship to their socio-demographic variables in healthy subjects aged 60 years and over who live in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Methods & Materials: This study was a descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province. Data were obtained via a general questionnaire and three 24-hours recalls. Results: The mean of overall HEI-2005 was 54.08. Ninty-three point three percent (93.3% of subjects consumed grains, 70.9% fruits, 84.2% whole fruit, 47.9% vegetables, 12.7% dark-orange vegetables and legumes, 37% dairy products, 40% meats, 18.8% oils, 40% saturated fats, 1.8% sodium and 1.2% discretionary calories (from solid fat and added sugar in optimal levels. Besides, none of the elderly people had a sufficient intake of whole grains. The HEI-2005 total score enhanced along with the increases in education level (P<0.05, income (P<0.01 and TV watching time (P<0.05. But, age and the HEI-2005 total score had an inverse relationship (P<0.001. Conclusion: Because the diet quality of elderly people in the urban areas of Iran`s Markazi province is low, they will benefit from the improvement of their diet quality. Also, they need to increase intakes of whole grains, dark-orange vegetables and legumes and plant oils, and reduce intakes of sodium and their energy levels from saturated fat and simple sugar. It should be pointed out that the government can help with the achievement of these objectives through some plans such as promoting their literacy level, income and nutritional knowledge.

  6. Molecular detection of Salmonella spp. isolated from apparently healthy pigeon in Mymensingh, Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance pattern

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    Md. Khaled Saifullah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Here we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in cloacal swabs and pharyngeal swabs of apparently healthy pigeons sold in the live bird markets and villages in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 50 samples, comprised of cloacal swabs (n=24 and pharyngeal swabs (n=26 were collected. The samples were processed, and Salmonella was isolated through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques and biochemical tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The prevalence rate of Salmonella was found to be 37.5% (n=9/24 in cloacal swabs and 30.77% (n=8/26 in pharyngeal swabs with an overall prevalence rate of 34% (n=17/50. The prevalence rate of Salmonella pigeon varied slightly among locations; 34.62% (n=9/26 in live bird markets, and 33.33% (n=8/24 in villages. Molecular detection of 17 Salmonella isolates obtained from biochemical test was performed by genus specific PCR, where all of them amplified a region of 496-bp segment of the histidine transport operon gene. Antibiogram study revealed multi-drug resistant traits in most of the isolates tested. The highest resistance was found against Ampicillin (88.23% followed by Cephalexin (82.35%. The rate of sensitivity of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin was 100% followed by Azithromycin (82.35%, Gentamicin (76.47% and Nalidixic acid (76.47%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pigeons carry multi-drug resistant Salmonella that may transfer to the humans and animals. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 51-55

  7. Dietary intake and physical performance in healthy elderly women: a 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Silvia; Ruggiero, Elena; Coin, Alessandra; Toffanello, Elena Debora; Perissinotto, Egle; Miotto, Fabrizia; Pintore, Giulia; Inelmen, Emine Meral; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-01

    Aging is generally accompanied by changes in body composition, muscle mass and strength, leading to a decline in motor and functional performance. Physical activity and eating habits could be involved in modulating this paraphysiological deterioration. Aim of our study was to investigate changes in body composition, diet and physical performance in healthy, elderly females over a 3-year follow-up. 92 healthy elderly females (70.9±4.0 years) attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were eligible for the study. They were assessed at baseline and again after 3 years in terms of clinical history, diet, body composition by DEXA, resting energy expenditure, handgrip strength, knee extensor isometric/isotonic strength, and functional performance measured using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After 3 years, women had a significant decline in muscle strength (∆ isotonic: -1.4±4.3 kg, ∆ isokinetic: -2.0±6.3 kg, ∆ handgrip: -3.2±5.0 kg; pmeter walking time (r: 0.34; p<0.01). With advancing age, physical performance declines even in healthy, fit females despite a spare of weight and body composition. This decline in physical activity could lead to a lower calorie intake, which would explain why there is no variation in body weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Wii Balance Board: Reliability and Clinical Use in Assessment of Balance in Healthy Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; Ferreira, Arthur Sá; Puell, Vivian Neiva; Lattari, Eduardo; Machado, Sérgio; Otero Vaghetti, César Augusto; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Force plate is considered gold standard tool to assess body balance. However the Wii Balance Board (WBB) platform is a trustworthy equipment to assess stabilometric components in young people. Thus, we aim to examine the reliability of measures of center of pressure with WBB in healthy elderly women. Twenty one healthy and physically active women were enrolled in the study (age: 64 ± 7 years; body mass index: 29 ± 5 kg/m2. The WBB was used to assess the center of pressure measures in the individuals. Pressure was linearly applied to different points to test the platform precision. Three assessments were performed, with two of them being held on the same day at a 5- to 10-minute interval, and the third one was performed 48 h later. A linear regression analysis was used to find out linearity, while the intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. The platform precision was adequate (R2 = 0.997, P = 0.01). Center of pressure measures showed an excellent reliability (all intraclass correlation coefficient values were > 0.90; p < 0.01). The WBB is a precise and reliable tool of body stability quantitative measure in healthy active elderly women and its use should be encouraged in clinical settings.

  9. Comparison of the Mini Mental State Examination and depressive symptoms between high cardiovascular risk and healthy community elderly groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Amanda Lucas; Varela, Juliana Santos; Mazetti, Osmar; Restelatto, Luciane; Costa, Andry Fitterman; Godinho, Claudia; Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Picon, Paulo D.; Chaves, Márcia L.

    2008-01-01

    The aging of the population is a universal phenomenon with direct consequences upon the public health system. One of the main repercussions of the growth in this sector of the population is the increased prevalence of disorders such as dementia and depression which are very frequent among the elderly. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors, dementia and depression have been addressed in many recent investigations. Objectives To evaluate the relationship of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms with cardiovascular risk in the elderly. Methods 94 high cardiovascular risk elderly patients and 160 healthy community elderly were evaluated cross-sectionally. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) were used as the main measures. The cutoff for presence of depression was 6 on the GDS. Results The high cardiovascular risk elderly group showed significantly lower scores on the MMSE (p<0.001) and was significantly associated to depression (p<0.001), independently of education. The logistic regression analysis for depression as the dependent variable, age and group (healthy community or high cardiovascular risk elderly) were kept in the final equation. Higher age (Odds Ratio=0.92; 95% CI 0.86–0.98) and high cardiovascular risk elderly (OR=2.99; 95% CI 1.36–6.59) were associated to depression. Conclusions The present findings corroborate the different cognitive performance of elderly with high cardiovascular risk factors and the association of depressive symptoms with this group. PMID:29213588

  10. Adiponectin and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women (from the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Côté, Mélanie; Cartier, Amélie; Reuwer, Anne Q.; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between adiponectin levels and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). We performed a prospective case-control analysis nested in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Participants were apparently healthy men and women 45 to 79 years of age

  11. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey

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    Grahnquist Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc binding protein, abundant in neutrophils and is extremely stable in faeces. Faecal calprotectin is used as a non-specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a good diagnostic precision to distinguish between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies have established normal concentrations in healthy children; all these studies have been performed in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda. Method We tested 302 apparently healthy children aged, age 0-12 years (162 female, 140 male in urban Kampala, Uganda. The children were recruited consecutively by door-to-door visits. Faecal calprotectin was analyzed using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Faeces were also tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori antigen, for growth of enteropathogens and microscopy was performed to assess protozoa and helminths. A short standardized interview with socio-demographic information and medical history was obtained to assess health status of the children. Results In the different age groups the median faecal calprotectin concentrations were 249 mg/kg in 0 H. pylori or having other pathogens in the stool. Conclusion Concentrations of faecal calprotectin among healthy children, living in urban Ugandan, a low-income country, are comparable to those in healthy children living in high-income countries. In children older than 4 years, the faecal calprotectin concentration is low. In healthy infants faecal calprotectin is high. The suggested cut-off concentrations in the literature can be used in apparently healthy Ugandan children. This finding also shows that healthy children living under poor circumstances do not have a constant inflammation in the gut. We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for

  12. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M; Trappenburg, Marijke C; Leter, Morena J; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Sipilä, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina; Narici, Marco V; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Butler-Browne, Gillian; McPhee, Jamie S; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2015-01-01

    A consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, a common syndrome in the elderly, has not been reached yet. Prevalence rates vary between studies due to the use of different criteria encompassing different measures, correction factors and cutoff points. This study compared prevalence rates of sarcopenia using nine sets of diagnostic criteria applied in two different elderly populations. The study population encompassed 308 healthy elderly participants (152 males, 156 females; mean age 74 years) and 123 geriatric outpatients (54 males, 69 females; mean age 81 years). Diagnostic criteria included relative muscle mass, absolute muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Prevalence rates of sarcopenia varied between 0 and 15% in healthy elderly participants and between 2 and 34% in geriatric outpatients. This study clearly demonstrates the dependency of sarcopenia prevalence rates on the applied diagnostic criteria. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guan, Lei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Ouchi, Eriko; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-02-01

    Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between the traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese people. We designed a 3-year longitudinal study of 980 subjects living in Japan to evaluate how the Japanese dietary pattern is related to longitudinal changes in well-recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease among apparently healthy Japanese adults. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns-"Japanese," "sweets-fruits-cooked wheaten food," and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub)" from 39 food groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean (95% confidence interval) for the change per year in diastolic blood pressure for men, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure for women related to the "Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 0.89 (0.10, 1.68), 2.25 (0.19, 4.31), and 0.75 (-1.00, 2.50) for the lowest tertile, 0.77 (-0.02, 1.56), 1.01 (-1.13, 3.15), and 0.44 (-1.38, 2.26) for the middle tertile and - 0.04 (-0.81, 0.72), -0.48 (-2.52, 1.56), and -0.77 (-2.51, 0.96) for the highest tertile (trend P value = 0.03, pattern factor score tertiles and the longitudinal change in serum triglyceride concentration only in men (trend P value = 0.02). Greater adherence to a traditional Japanese diet was independently related to a decreased change every year in diastolic blood pressure in men and women and in systolic blood pressure in women over a 3-year follow-up period. The findings suggest that the "Japanese" dietary pattern appeared to be related to a fall in blood pressure, which might have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. A randomized trial is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.

  14. Subjective memory complaints and cognitive performance in a sample of healthy elderly

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    Paulo Caramelli

    Full Text Available Abstract Memory loss is a major complaint among the elderly population. However, the clinical significance of this symptom is variable and also controversial in the scientific literature. Objective: To compare the cognitive performance of two groups of healthy elderly, one group with and the other without, subjective memory complaints (SMC. Methods: Sixty cognitively intact elderly individuals (39 females and 21 males, aged 69.9±6.3 years and with educational level of 8.5±5.5 years, were included in the study. Participants were submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and to the Cornell depression scale in order to rule out global cognitive impairment and depression, respectively. Moreover, they answered the MAC-Q, a questionnaire devised to evaluate subjective impression of memory function. Subsequently, they were submitted to the digit span forward and backward, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery, and to the Frontal Assessment Battery. Results: Twenty-seven individuals had MAC-Q scores <25 and thus were classified as not having SMC, while 33 had MAC-Q scores ³25 and were considered to have SMC. No differences for age, gender, education and MMSE scores were found between the two groups. The comparison between the performance of the groups of complainers and non-complainers on the different cognitive tests yielded no significant difference, although there was a trend toward non-complainers performing better on incidental memory. Conclusions: The presence of SMC was not associated to objective memory impairment or to other cognitive deficits in this group of elderly individuals.

  15. Gastrointestinal tract and the elderly: functional foods, gut microflora and healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, K; Doré, J

    2002-09-01

    Advances in science and medicine as well as improved living standards have led to a steady increase in life expectancy. Yet ageing is associated with increased susceptibility to degenerative or infectious diseases, which may be exacerbated by a poor nutritional status. The intestinal microflora will mediate crucial events towards the protection or degradation of health. It is hence essential and timely that strategies of preventive nutrition aimed at maintaining or improving the quality of life of the ageing population be developed. "CROWNALIFE" is a newly funded EuropeanUnion project, so called because of its emphasis on the preservation of the period of independence of the elderly, recognised as the "crown of life". The project aims at assessing age-related alterations and exploring strategies to restore and maintain a balanced healthy intestinal environment. Current knowledge on the composition and function of the human intestinal microflora is still improving with the use of better methodologies and yet their evolution with ageing has not been investigated in detail. There have been a few reports that putatively protective lactic acid bacteria, in general, and bifidobacteria, in particular, seem less represented in the elderly faecal flora. We have also observed an increase in species diversity of the dominant faecal microflora with ageing. This certainly warrants confirmation and is being addressed by the investigation of age-related changes in the structure and function of the intestinal flora of the elderly in countries across Europe. Ensuing results will constitute a baseline for functional-food based strategies aimed at providing health benefits for the elderly.

  16. Effect of Graded Unilateral Sanding Exercise on Metabolic and Cardiopulmonary Function in the Healthy and the Hemiparetic Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Muraki, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how 18 elderly subjects with cerebral vascular accident (CVA) (14 men and 4 women) and 19 healthy elderly subjects (6 men and 13 women) would respond to a five-step graded unilateral sanding activity. Three indicators of pulmonary function such as expiratory tidal volume, respiratory rate, and expiratory volume and four indicators of cardiometabolic function such as metabolic equivalents (METS), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pressure rat...

  17. Neural correlates of saccadic inhibition in healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alichniewicz, K. K.; Brunner, F.; Klünemann, H. H.; Greenlee, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on tasks that require saccadic inhibition declines with age and altered inhibitory functioning has also been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Although mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is assumed to be a high-risk factor for conversion to AD, little is known about changes in saccadic inhibition and its neural correlates in this condition. Our study determined whether the neural activation associated with saccadic inhibition is altered in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed decreased activation in parietal lobe in healthy elderly persons compared to young persons and decreased activation in frontal eye fields in aMCI patients compared to healthy elderly persons during the execution of anti-saccades. These results illustrate that the decline in inhibitory functions is associated with impaired frontal activation in aMCI. This alteration in function might reflect early manifestations of AD and provide new insights in the neural activation changes that occur in pathological ageing. PMID:23898312

  18. Asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in the white matter in the healthy elderly: a tract-based study

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    Fukusumi Masami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes have been reported for the human brain. Meanwhile it was still unclear the presence of the asymmetry or sex differences in the human brain occurred whether as a normal development or as consequences of any pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes by using a tract-based analysis in the nerve bundles. Methods 40 healthy elderly subjects underwent magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, and we calculated fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values along the major white matter bundles. Results We identified hemispherical asymmetry in the ADC values for the cingulate fasciculus in the total subject set and in males, and a sex difference in the FA values for the right uncinate fasciculus. For age-related changes, we demonstrated a significant increase in ADC values with advancing age in the right cingulum, left temporal white matter, and a significant decrease in FA values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus. Conclusion In this study, we found hemispherical asymmetry, sex differences and age-related changes in particular regions of the white matter in the healthy elderly. Our results suggest considering these differences can be important in imaging studies.

  19. Higher Physical Activity is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly

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    Geon Ha Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention.

  20. Variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Klaus F; Hove, Jens D; Freiberg, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess regional and global variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake in healthy elderly subjects and to evaluate potentially responsible factors. Twenty men with a mean age of 64 years, no history of cardiovascular disease, and normal blood pressure...... rest and hyperaemic blood flow during dipyridamole infusion were measured with nitrogen-13 ammonia and positron emission tomography in 16 left ventricular myocardial segments. Intra-individual and inter-individual variability of insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake [relative dispersion...... = (standard deviation/mean)] was 13% and 29% respectively. Although inter-individual variability of glucose uptake and blood flow at rest was of the same magnitude, no correlation was found between these measures. Regional and global insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake correlated linearly with whole...

  1. Microheterogeneity of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in healthy elderly subjects: patterns obtained by crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawerk, N; Succari-Aderschlag, M; Foglietti, M J

    1991-10-14

    Total serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration and concanavalin A-dependent microheterogeneity were studied in 31 healthy elderly subjects (18 men, 13 women, 71 to 76 yr old). Crossed affino-immunoelectrophoresis (CAIE) revealed three microheterogeneity variants of AGP: non-reactive, weakly reactive and strongly reactive with ConA. Two patterns were found in both elderly men and women, i.e. a normal pattern and one with an increase in the non-reactive form. Mean serum AGP levels in the elderly subjects with slightly higher than in a reference group of younger subjects. The Con A non-reactive form of AGP was increased in 42% of the elderly population. An increase in the non-reactive form of AGP in CAIE should be considered as general expression of chronic inflammation which is of no clinical relevance.

  2. Strength Training and Kinematics Parameters of Gait in Healthy Female Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Sadeghi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was under taken to consider the effect of strength training on some kinematics parameters of gait (step length, cadence and speed walking. Methods & Materials: Twenty-four healthy elderly women (with average and standard deviation age of 61.53±2.84 years, height of 157.1±5.5 cm, weight of 69.13±7.6 kg and BMI 28.1±3.6 kg/m participated in this study. The strength of lower limb assessed using leg press test. The subjects were randomly divided in to control and experimental group. Video camera, 3DMax, Premier and Photoshop soft ware’s were used to measure speed walking, cadence and step length before and after training program. The control group continued their daily activity, while experimental group were in eight weeks for strength training for lower limb and body stabilizer muscles. Within group differences using T-test for independent groups and between group differences were analyzed using by T-test for dependent group before and after training at significant level of 0.05. Results: The changes of speed walking and lower limb strength weren't significant in control group. While significant differences observed in step length and speed walking and lower limb strength in experimental group. In comparison between groups, except of cadence, step length, speed walking and lower limb strength showed significant increase in experimental group. Conclusion: The results confirmed the effectiveness of strength training and increasing lower limb and stabilizer muscles strength on step length and speed walking in healthy elder women.

  3. Bienestar espiritual de enfermos terminales y de personas aparentemente sanas The spiritual wellbeing of terminally ill people and the spiritual well being of apparently healthy people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez Herrera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el objetivo principal del estudio fue describir y comparar el bienestar espiritual de personas con enfermedad terminal con el de personas aparentemente sanas. Metodología: se desarrolló con un método cuantitativo, descriptivo, comparativo. Incluyó 44 pacientes hospitalizados en la Clínica Luís Carlos Galán y 44 personas con características similares y aparentemente sanas. Para la medición del bienestar espiritual se empleó la Escala de Bienestar Espiritual de Ellison®. Resultados: el nivel general de bienestar espiritual de las personas con enfermedad terminal es alto, los niveles del componente religioso y el componente existencial del nivel de bienestar son medios. En las personas aparentemente sanas el nivel de bienestar general y por componentes es alto. Conclusión: al comparar el bienestar espiritual entre las personas con enfermedad terminal y las personas aparentemente sanas del estudio, se encontró un mayor bienestar espiritual general y del componente existencial en el grupo de las personas aparentemente sanas. No se encontró diferencia en el nivel de bienestar de la dimensión religiosa entre los grupos.Objective: The main objective of the study was to describe and compare the spiritual wellbeing of people with terminal illness with the spiritual well being of apparently healthy people. Methodology: the study was developed with a quantitative, descriptive and comparative approach. It included 44 patients hospitalized at the Luis Carlos Galan Clinic and 44 people with similar characteristics but apparently healthy. The spiritual well being was measured with the Ellison Spiritual Wellbeing Scale®. Results: the general level of spiritual well being of the people with terminal illness was high as well as its religious component. The level of the existential component of the spiritual well being in the same group was medium. In the apparently healthy people the general level of spiritual wellbeing and the level of

  4. Strength of Structural and Functional Frontostriatal Connectivity Predicts Self-Control in the Healthy Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Lohrey, Corinna; Drobetz, Reinhard; Baetschmann, Hansruedi; Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation refers to the successful use of executive functions and initiation of top-down processes to control one's thoughts, behavior, and emotions, and it is crucial to perform self-control. Self-control is needed to overcome impulses and can be assessed by delay of gratification (DoG) and delay discounting (DD) paradigms. In children/adolescents, good DoG/DD ability depends on the maturity of frontostriatal connectivity, and its decline in strength with advancing age might adversely affect self-control because prefrontal brain regions are more prone to normal age-related atrophy than other regions. Here, we aimed at highlighting the relationship between frontostriatal connectivity strength and DoG performance in advanced age. We recruited 40 healthy elderly individuals (mean age 74.0 ± 7.7 years) and assessed the DoG ability using the German version of the DoG test for adults in addition to the delay discounting (DD) paradigm. Based on diffusion-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, respectively, the structural and functional whole-brain connectome were reconstructed based on 90 different brain regions of interest in addition to a 12-node frontostriatal DoG-specific network and the resulting connectivity matrices were subjected to network-based statistics. The 90-nodes whole-brain connectome analyses revealed subnetworks significantly associated with DoG and DD with a preponderance of frontostriatal nodes involved suggesting a high specificity of the findings. Structural and functional connectivity strengths between the putamen, caudate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens on the one hand and orbitofrontal, dorsal, and ventral lateral prefrontal cortices on the other hand showed strong positive correlations with DoG and negative correlations with DD corrected for age, sex, intracranial volume, and head motion parameters. These associations cannot be explained by differences in impulsivity and executive functioning. This pattern

  5. Hyperpolarized 3He apparent diffusion coefficient MRI of the lung: reproducibility and volume dependency in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, S.; Casselbrant, I.; Piitulainen, E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He gas using diffusion weighted MRI in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema and examine the reproducibility and volume dependency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of eight healthy volunteers and 16...... patients with emphysema were examined after inhalation of HP (3)He gas mixed with nitrogen (N(2)) during breathhold starting from functional residual capacity (FRC) in supine position. Coronal diffusion-sensitized MR images were acquired. Each subject was imaged on three separate days over a seven...... in mean ADC with increased inhaled gas volume was observed in both groups. CONCLUSION: Mean ADC and SD of HP (3)He MRI is reproducible and discriminates well between healthy controls and patients with emphysema at the higher gas volume. This method is robust and may be useful to gain new insights...

  6. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is related to decline in verbal memory in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, R; Behnke, S; Liepelt-Scarfone, I; Roeben, B; Pausch, C; Runkel, A; Heinzel, S; Niebler, R; Suenkel, U; Eschweiler, G W; Maetzler, W; Berg, D

    2016-05-01

    Deficits in cognition have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) already in the early and even in the pre-motor stages. Whilst substantia nigra hyperechogenicity measured by transcranial B-mode sonography (TCS) represents a strong PD marker and is associated with an increased risk for PD in still healthy individuals, its association with cognitive performance in prodromal PD stages is not well established. Two different cohorts of healthy elderly individuals were assessed by TCS and two different neuropsychological test batteries covering executive functions, verbal memory, language, visuo-constructional function and attention. Cognitive performance was compared between individuals with hyperechogenicity (SN+) and without hyperechogenicity (SN-). In both cohorts, SN+ individuals performed significantly worse than the SN- group in tests assessing verbal memory (word list delayed recall P = 0.05, logical memory II P Color-Word Reading, P = 0.004) could only be shown in one of the two cohorts. No between-group effects were found in other cognitive tests and domains. These results indicate that individuals with the PD risk marker SN+ perform worse in verbal memory compared to SN- independent of the assessment battery. Memory performance should be assessed in detail in individuals at risk for PD. © 2016 EAN.

  7. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes N. Pedersen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1, B (n=18, or C (n=4. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than

  8. Vitamin E supplementation protects erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress in healthy Chinese middle-aged and elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongye; Ma, Aiguo; Li, Yong; Han, Xiuxia; Wang, Qiuzhen; Liang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    Elderly people are subject to higher levels of oxidative stress than are young people. Vitamin E, as a powerful antioxidant residing mainly in biomembranes, may provide effective protection against oxidative membrane damage and resultant age-related deterioration, especially in the elderly. We hypothesized that appropriate levels of vitamin E supplementation would protect erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress and thus improve membrane fluidity in healthy middle-aged and elderly people. To test this, we conducted a 4-month double-blind, randomized trial in which 180 healthy subjects (55-70 years old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: group C (control), and 3 treatment groups in which daily doses of 100 mg (VE1), 200 mg (VE2), and 300 mg (VE3) dl-α-tocopheryl acetate were administered. We measured plasma α-tocopherol concentration, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase levels, erythrocyte hemolysis, and erythrocyte membrane fluidity at the beginning and end of the trial. After 4 months supplementation, plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in the 3 treatment groups had increased by 71%, 78%, and 95%, respectively (all P stress in healthy middle-aged to elderly people, at least in part by improving erythrocyte membrane fluidity and reducing erythrocyte hemolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of C-peptide in Altered Lipid Profile among Apparently Healthy Adults of Vijayapura City, Karnataka

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    Chandrahas M.Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-peptide is produced in equimolar concentration during insulin production as inactive molecule by beta islet cells of Langerhans. C-peptide is most useful biomarker of endogenous insulin production. Aim and Objectives: To predict metabolic syndrome in advance by estimation of C-peptide and lipid profile in healthy adults. Material and Methods: Serum C-peptide, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile of 128 healthy individuals were estimated. Adults in the age group of 18 to 60 years of both sexes were included in study. Results: C-peptide levels were increased in 27%, Serum cholesterol in 30%, LDL Cholesterol in 55% and triglyceride levels in 21% of healthy individuals. Significant correlation was observed between C peptide, age, serum cholesterol, LDL and cholesterol LDL ratio in male subjects only. In our study group most of the subjects (both males and females fell in overweight group. Conclusion: Cpeptide level and lipid profile may be considered as useful biomarkers to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in advance, possibly due to insulin resistance.

  10. Comparison of the serumic levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc between apparently healthy and those affected by febrile pneumonia in Ghezel sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mashayekhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between subclinical deficiency of Vit A, Vit C and zinc and ovine pneumonia. This study was conducted on 400 sheep affected by pneumonia and 100 apparently healthy sheep. All animals were from the Ghezel breed with the age of 0.5-2 years and body weight of 35-60 kg. Sampling was done during the summer and autumn in Miandoab province. Patients showing signs of rapid and shallow breathing, dyspnea, coughing, nasal discharge and abnormal lung sound were selected as having pneumonia. Animals without any sign of particular disease were selected as apparently healthy after general examination. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The results indicated that serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 46.94±0.26 (μg/dl, 1.83±0.05 (mg/dl and 183.25±1.86 (μg/dl in healthy sheep respectively and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 42.45±0.19 (μg/dl, 1.47±0.02 (mg/dl and 134.59±1.77 (μg/dl in pneumonic sheep (p=0.000 respectively. It can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between subclinical deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc serum and ovine pneumonia

  11. Prevalence of optimal cardiovascular screening activities and associated factors among apparently healthy school teachers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A. Noraza, MMED

    2018-04-01

    ليومية. Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of optimal cardiovascular disease (CVD screening activities and the associated factors among apparently healthy school teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical observational study was conducted among 380 secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire addressing sociodemographic data and factors influencing CVD screening activities was administered. Descriptive analysis, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: A total of 348 teachers responded to the questionnaire, with a response rate of 91.6%. The prevalence of optimal CVD screening activities was 29.3% (95% CI: 24.52, 34.08. Age, knowledge of CVD screening, family history of CVD and availability of health facilities were significantly linked to CVD screening. Conclusion: The prevalence of optimal screening activities was low. A great majority of the factors contributing to optimal screening were modifiable. Health care providers should widely implement global health-oriented rather than disease-orientated assessment in their daily practice. الكلمات المفتاحية: فحص أمراض القلب والأوعية الدموية, خطر أمراض القلب والأوعية الدموية, الفحص الصحي, تاريخ العائلة, معلمي المدارس, Keywords: Cardiovascular disease screening, Cardiovascular risk, Family history, Health screening, School teachers

  12. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Mirmoezzi; Mojtaba Amini; Asghar Khaledan; Davood Khorshidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Old age refers to years near or passed the middle age and therefore, near to the end of life cycle. Old-aged people have limited reviving capability and are more at risk of catching diseases, syndromes, and ailments. Falling is one of the most common problems in the elderly that occur due to their inability to maintain balance. This study aimed to examine the effect of aerobic exercises on static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly inactive men. Methods &...

  13. Reliability of System Identification Techniques to Assess Standing Balance in Healthy Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available System identification techniques have the potential to assess the contribution of the underlying systems involved in standing balance by applying well-known disturbances. We investigated the reliability of standing balance parameters obtained with multivariate closed loop system identification techniques.In twelve healthy elderly balance tests were performed twice a day during three days. Body sway was measured during two minutes of standing with eyes closed and the Balance test Room (BalRoom was used to apply four disturbances simultaneously: two sensory disturbances, to the proprioceptive and the visual system, and two mechanical disturbances applied at the leg and trunk segment. Using system identification techniques, sensitivity functions of the sensory disturbances and the neuromuscular controller were estimated. Based on the generalizability theory (G theory, systematic errors and sources of variability were assessed using linear mixed models and reliability was assessed by computing indexes of dependability (ID, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC.A systematic error was found between the first and second trial in the sensitivity functions. No systematic error was found in the neuromuscular controller and body sway. The reliability of 15 of 25 parameters and body sway were moderate to excellent when the results of two trials on three days were averaged. To reach an excellent reliability on one day in 7 out of 25 parameters, it was predicted that at least seven trials must be averaged.This study shows that system identification techniques are a promising method to assess the underlying systems involved in standing balance in elderly. However, most of the parameters do not appear to be reliable unless a large number of trials are collected across multiple days. To reach an excellent reliability in one third of the parameters, a training session for participants is needed and at least seven trials of two

  14. Attention and Working Memory-Related EEG Markers of Subtle Cognitive Deterioration in Healthy Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, Marie-Pierre; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Hasler, Roland; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Toma, Simona; Ackermann, Marine; Herrmann, François; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-01-01

    Future treatments of Alzheimer's disease need the identification of cases at high risk at the preclinical stage of the disease before the development of irreversible structural damage. We investigated here whether subtle cognitive deterioration in a population of healthy elderly individuals could be predicted by EEG signals at baseline under cognitive activation. Continuous EEG was recorded in 97 elderly control subjects and 45 age-matched mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases during a simple attentional and a 2-back working memory task. Upon 18-month neuropsychological follow-up, the final sample included 55 stable (sCON) and 42 deteriorated (dCON) controls. We examined the P1, N1, P3, and PNwm event-related components as well as the oscillatory activities in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency ranges (ERD/ERS: event-related desynchronization/synchronization, and ITC: inter-trial coherence). Behavioral performance, P1, and N1 components were comparable in all groups. The P3, PNwm, and all oscillatory activity indices were altered in MCI cases compared to controls. Only three EEG indices distinguished the two control groups: alpha and beta ERD (dCON >  sCON) and beta ITC (dCON memory processes but mostly affects attention, resulting in an enhanced recruitment of attentional resources. In addition, cognitive decline alters neural firing synchronization at high frequencies (14-25 Hz) at early stages, and possibly affects lower frequencies (4-13 Hz) only at more severe stages.

  15. Validity and reliability of wii fit balance board for the assessment of balance of healthy young adults and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chang, Wan-Yi; Lee, Chia-Lun; Feng, Chi-Yen

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] Balance is an integral part of human ability. The smart balance master system (SBM) is a balance test instrument with good reliability and validity, but it is expensive. Therefore, we modified a Wii Fit balance board, which is a convenient balance assessment tool, and analyzed its reliability and validity. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 20 healthy young adults and 20 elderly people, and administered 3 balance tests. The correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation of both instruments were analyzed. [Results] There were no statistically significant differences in the 3 tests between the Wii Fit balance board and the SBM. The Wii Fit balance board had a good intraclass correlation (0.86-0.99) for the elderly people and positive correlations (r = 0.58-0.86) with the SBM. [Conclusions] The Wii Fit balance board is a balance assessment tool with good reliability and high validity for elderly people, and we recommend it as an alternative tool for assessing balance ability.

  16. Developing an assessment based on physical fitness age to evaluate motor function in frail and healthy elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaichi, Masaki; Anan, Yuya; Hikiji, Yuto; Uratani, Sou

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify a method for assessing physical fitness age that is easy to use with both frail and healthy elderly women and to examine its validity. Principal component analysis was used to develop a formula of physical fitness age from four motor function variables. The subjects comprised 688 (75.7±6.0 years) elderly women, in order to develop a physical fitness scale. The formula for calculating physical fitness age was expressed as physical fitness age =-0.419× grip strength -0.096× balancing on one leg with eyes open -0.737×30 s chair stand +0.503× figure-of-8 walking test +0.47× chronological age +52.68. Measures obtained from subjects in the frail elderly (n=11, 73.0±2.3 years) and exercise (n=10, 70.8±3.1 years) groups were used to examine the validity of the assessment. The mean physical fitness age of the frail elderly group (79.0±3.7 years) was significantly higher than its mean chronological age (73.0±2.3 years, p fitness age of the exercise group (65.6±3.1 years) was significantly lower than the chronological age (70.8±3.1 years, p fitness age scores are applicable to frail and healthy elderly women. Physical fitness age is a valid measure of motor function in elderly women.

  17. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p < 0.01). However, the regions showing differences between EH and YH did not overlap between static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral blood flow response to flavanol-rich cocoa in healthy elderly humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh A Sorond

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Farzaneh A Sorond1,2, Lewis A Lipsitz2,4, Norman K Hollenberg3,5, Naomi DL Fisher31Department of Neurology, Stroke Division; 2Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA; 3Department of Medicine, Endocrine-Hypertension Division; 4Department of Medicine, Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 5Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MABackground and Purpose: Cerebral ischemia is a common, morbid condition accompanied by cognitive decline. Recent reports on the vascular health benefits of flavanol-containing foods signify a promising approach to the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Our study was designed to investigate the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa (FRC consumption on cerebral blood flow in older healthy volunteers.Methods: We used transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasound to measure mean blood flow velocity (MFV in the middle cerebral artery (MCA in thirty-four healthy elderly volunteers (72 ± 6 years in response to the regular intake of FRC or flavanol-poor cocoa (FPC.Results: In response to two weeks of FRC intake, MFV increased by 8% ± 4% at one week (p = 0.01 and 10% ± 4% (p = 0.04 at two weeks. In response to one week of cocoa, significantly more subjects in the FRC as compared with the FPC group had an increase in their MFV (p < 0.05.Conclusions: In summary, we show that dietary intake of FRC is associated with a significant increase in cerebral blood flow velocity in the MCA as measured by TCD. Our data suggest a promising role for regular cocoa flavanol’s consumption in the treatment of cerebrovascular ischemic syndromes, including dementias and stroke.Keywords: cerebral blood flow, flavanol, cocoa, transcranial Doppler ultrasound

  19. Elderly people's perceptions of how they want to be cared for: an interview study with healthy elderly couples in Northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrefors, Christina; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Axelsson, Karin

    2009-06-01

    Many countries encounter a demographic change where the number of elderly people will increase. As a result, the number of very old people needing care, services and medical assistance will increase. Care in the private home is often described as providing the best alternative for many elderly people. The aim of this study was to describe elderly people's perceptions of how they wanted to be cared for, from a perspective of becoming in need of assistance with personal care, in the future. Twelve couples of healthy elderly people living in a couple hood participated in an interview study. They were all 70 years and older and received no kind of professional care or social support. Open individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with the support of written vignettes. The vignettes were formed as scenarios that described three levels of caring needs where the elderly people would become ill. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. The findings were interpreted in one main theme: maintaining the self and being cared for with dignity to the end. The theme was built from three categories: at home as long as possible, professional care at nursing home when advanced care is needed and fear of being abandoned. The categories reflect the perception that when minimum help was needed, care and support by the partner and nursing staff were preferred. As the scenarios changed to being totally dependent on care, they preferred care in a nursing home. There was a pervading concern of the risk of not being seen as an individual person and becoming a nobody with no meaningful relations. Thus, there must be a singular goal to support old people, in all stages of their lives, through the recognition and affirmation of self, and providing care with dignity to the end.

  20. Actively station: Effects on global cognition of mature adults and healthy elderly program using eletronic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nascimento Ordonez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games. Participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG n=102 and control group (CG n=22. Protocol: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, the scale of frequency of forgetfulness, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI, the Global Satisfaction with Life Scale, and two scales on learning in the training. Results: The cognitive performance of the TG improved significantly after the program, particularly in the domains of language and memory, and there was a decrease on the anxiety index and frequency of memory complaints, when compared to the CG. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of new stimuli, such as electronic games, can promote improvements in cognition and mood and reduce the frequency of memory complaints.

  1. Detection of rabies antigen in the saliva and brains of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption and its public health implications in abia state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelbwala, P P; Ogunkoya, A B; Maikai, B V

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out in eight dogs slaughtering outlets within four Local Government Areas of the State for the determination of rabies antigen in the saliva and brain of apparently healthy dogs slaughtered for human consumption. A total of one hundred (100) samples each of saliva and brain were collected before and after slaughter, respectively, between April to June, 2013, in the selected areas. The saliva was subjected to rapid immune-chromatographic test (RICT) while direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) was carried out on the brain samples. Structured questionnaire was administered to nineteen (19) dog meat processors comprising 18 males and 1 female in the selected areas. Sixty four percent of the samples tested were from female dogs while 36% were from males, 5% tested positive for rabies antigen with the use of both tests; there was no statistical association between sex and rabies status of the dogs sampled (P > 0.05). Butchers bitten during the course of slaughtering were 94.7% out of which 72.8% utilized traditional method of treatment and only 27.8% reported to the hospital for proper medical attention. This study has established the presence of rabies antigen in apparently healthy dogs in the study area.

  2. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  3. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... to lower ASM and BCM in elderly men both in a univariate regression analysis and a multivariate regression analysis. In conclusion, high plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in elderly healthy people and in patients with type 2 diabetes are associated with increased truncal fat mass, suggesting...

  4. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134, with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have

  5. Pharmacokinetics and effect on the corrected QT interval of single-dose escitalopram in healthy elderly compared with younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Kim, Anhye; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Park, Sang-In; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Chung, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Escitalopram is the (S)-enantiomer of citalopram that has a potential QT prolonging effect. In this study, 12 healthy elderly individuals received a single oral dose of escitalopram (20 mg), and their pharmacokinetics and QT effect data were compared with data from 33 younger adults obtained in a previous study. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and ECG was performed up to 48 h postdose. The elderly and younger adults showed similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) of the elderly compared with the younger adults were 1.02 (0.89-1.17) and 1.01 (0.86-1.17) for the maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-time curve, respectively. The mean baseline-adjusted QT (dQT) time profiles were similar and the mean values of maximum dQT were not significantly different between the elderly and the younger adults. The linear mixed-effect model indicated a weak but positive relationship between the escitalopram concentration and dQT, with an estimated coefficient of concentration of 0.43-0.54. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics and QT effect of a single dose of escitalopram observed in the elderly without comorbidities and younger adults were generally similar.

  6. Body mass index, life-style, and healthy status in free living elderly people in Menorca Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferra, A; Bibiloni, M Del Mar; Zapata, M E; Pich, J; Pons, A; Tur, J A

    2012-04-01

    To assess the BMI, life-style, and healthy status, and explore relationships between these parameters, among Menorca's free living elderly people. A cross-sectional survey carried out in Menorca Island in 2009. A random sample (n=450) of the elderly population (≥65 years) was interviewed. Anthropometric measurements and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to socio-demographic and life-style factors and health status were used. Approximately five per cent of elders were underweight and 60% overweight or obese. Underweight were positively and overweight and obesity negatively affected by age. The prevalence of central obesity, according to the WC cut-off points, was 66.8% in men and 85.1% in women. Low education, socioeconomic status and physical activity were risk factors for malnutrition and overweight/obesity. A possible cognitive impairment was found among elderly persons with BMIrelation between BMI and diabetes mellitus, arthritis, and chronic bronchitis, and an inverted J-shape between BMI and gastric ulcer, osteoporosis and bone fractures, cancer, and prostatitis (in men) were found. Both low and high BMI are associated with a wide range of prevalent conditions and diseases in Menorca elderly men and women.

  7. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Barbara Lohse; Tricia Psota; Ramon Estruch; Itziar Zazpe; Jose V. Sorli; Merce Serra; Jodi Stotts Krall; Fabiola Ma´rquez; Emilio Ros; PREDIMED Study Investigators

    2010-01-01

    Eating competence of elderly Spanish adults is associated with a healthy diet and a favorable cardiovascular disease risk profile. Eating competence (EC), a bio-psychosocial model for intrapersonal approaches to eating and food-related behaviors, is associated with less weight dissatisfaction, lower BMI, and increased HDL-cholesterol in small U.S. studies, but its relationship to nutrient quality and overall cardiovascular risk have not been examined. Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PRE...

  9. The Use of Facebook Advertising to Recruit Healthy Elderly People for a Clinical Trial: Baseline Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background This report provides data on the use of social media advertising as a clinical trial recruitment strategy targeting healthy volunteers aged 60 years and older. The social media advertising campaign focused on enrollment for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Traditional means of recruiting—billboards, newspaper advertising, word of mouth, personal referrals, and direct mail—were not producing enough qualified participants. Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of using targeted advertising on the social networking site Facebook to recruit people aged 60 years and older for volunteer clinical trial participation. Methods The trial sponsor used a proactive approach to recruit participants using advertising on social media. The sponsor placed and monitored an Institutional Review Board-approved advertising campaign on Facebook to recruit potential candidates for a Phase 1 clinical trial. The clinical trial required a 10-day residential (overnight) stay at a clinic in Michigan, with one follow-up visit. The sponsor of the clinical trial placed the advertising, which directed interested respondents to a trial-specific landing page controlled by the Contract Research Organization (CRO). The CRO provided all follow-up consenting, prescreening, screening, and enrollment procedures. The campaign was waged over an 8-week period to supplement recruiting by the CRO. Results A total of 621 people responded to a Facebook advertising campaign by completing an online form or telephoning the CRO, and the clinical trial was fully enrolled at 45 subjects following an 8-week Facebook advertising campaign. Conclusions An 8-week Facebook advertising campaign contributed to 868 inquiries made regarding a Phase 1 clinical trial seeking to enroll healthy elderly subjects. Over the initial 11 weeks of recruitment, 178 inquiries were received using traditional methods of outreach. Respondents to the Facebook advertising campaign described in this report engaged with the sponsored

  10. The Use of Facebook Advertising to Recruit Healthy Elderly People for a Clinical Trial: Baseline Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Julie M; Gurney, Mark E

    2018-01-24

    This report provides data on the use of social media advertising as a clinical trial recruitment strategy targeting healthy volunteers aged 60 years and older. The social media advertising campaign focused on enrollment for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Traditional means of recruiting-billboards, newspaper advertising, word of mouth, personal referrals, and direct mail-were not producing enough qualified participants. To demonstrate the effectiveness of using targeted advertising on the social networking site Facebook to recruit people aged 60 years and older for volunteer clinical trial participation. The trial sponsor used a proactive approach to recruit participants using advertising on social media. The sponsor placed and monitored an Institutional Review Board-approved advertising campaign on Facebook to recruit potential candidates for a Phase 1 clinical trial. The clinical trial required a 10-day residential (overnight) stay at a clinic in Michigan, with one follow-up visit. The sponsor of the clinical trial placed the advertising, which directed interested respondents to a trial-specific landing page controlled by the Contract Research Organization (CRO). The CRO provided all follow-up consenting, prescreening, screening, and enrollment procedures. The campaign was waged over an 8-week period to supplement recruiting by the CRO. A total of 621 people responded to a Facebook advertising campaign by completing an online form or telephoning the CRO, and the clinical trial was fully enrolled at 45 subjects following an 8-week Facebook advertising campaign. An 8-week Facebook advertising campaign contributed to 868 inquiries made regarding a Phase 1 clinical trial seeking to enroll healthy elderly subjects. Over the initial 11 weeks of recruitment, 178 inquiries were received using traditional methods of outreach. Respondents to the Facebook advertising campaign described in this report engaged with the sponsored advertising at a higher rate than is typical for

  11. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  12. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  13. Examination of validity of fall risk assessment items for screening high fall risk elderly among the healthy community-dwelling Japanese population

    OpenAIRE

    DEMURA, Shinichi; SATO, Susumu; YAMAJI, Shunsuke; KASUGA, Kosho; NAGASAWA, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to examine the validity of fall risk assessment items for the healthy community-dwelling elderly Japanese population. Participants were 1122 healthy elderly individuals aged 60 years and over (380 males and 742 females). The percentage who had experienced a fall was 15.8%. This study used fall experience and 50 fall risk assessment items representing the five risk factors (symptoms of falling, physical function, disease and physical symptom, environment, and behavior and character), ...

  14. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, Sandra; Mendes, Tiago; Maroco, João; Ribeiro, Filipa; Schmand, Ben A.; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. OBJECTIVE: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective

  15. Memory complaints are frequent but qualitatively different in young and elderly healthy people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginó, S.; Mendes, T.; Maroco, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Schmand, B.A.; de Mendonca, A.; Guerreiro, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. Objective: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective

  16. Cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release in the fasted and fed state in elderly healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Korstanje, C.; Krauwinkel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The effect of food on the cardiovascular safety of tamsulosin modified release (MR) capsules 0.4 mg in elderly subjects was assessed both after single and multiple dosing. Methods: Thirty-six elderly (age greater than or equal to 60 years) male volunteers were recruited and after a

  17. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p men: -3.7 ± 5.4 vs. 0.4 ± 5.4 kg, women: -3.6 ± 5.5 vs. 0.3 ± 5.2 kg, both p men: -3.6 ± 3.3 vs. -0.4 ± 2.7 kg, women: -1.8 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 2.5 kg, both p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictive and Reactive Locomotor Adaptability in Healthy Elderly: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Mademli, Lida; Mersmann, Falk; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2015-12-01

    Locomotor adaptability is based on the implementation of error-feedback information from previous perturbations to predictively adapt to expected perturbations (feedforward) and to facilitate reactive responses in recurring unexpected perturbations ('savings'). The effect of aging on predictive and reactive adaptability is yet unclear. However, such understanding is fundamental for the design and application of effective interventions targeting fall prevention. We systematically searched the Web of Science, MEDLINE, Embase and Science Direct databases as well as the reference lists of the eligible articles. A study was included if it addressed an investigation of the locomotor adaptability in response to repeated mechanical movement perturbations of healthy older adults (≥60 years). The weighted average effect size (WAES) of the general adaptability (adaptive motor responses to repeated perturbations) as well as predictive (after-effects) and reactive adaptation (feedback responses to a recurring unexpected perturbation) was calculated and tested for an overall effect. A subgroup analysis was performed regarding the factor age group [i.e., young (≤35 years) vs. older adults]. Furthermore, the methodological study quality was assessed. The review process yielded 18 studies [1009 participants, 613 older adults (70 ± 4 years)], which used various kinds of locomotor tasks and perturbations. The WAES for the general locomotor adaptability was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.74, n = 11] for the older and 1.39 (95% CI 0.90-1.89, n = 10) for the young adults with a significant (p locomotor adaptability in general and predictive and reactive adaptation in particular remain highly effective in the elderly, showing only minor, not statistically significant age-related deficits. Consequently, interventions which use adaptation and learning paradigms including the application of the mechanisms responsible for an effective predictive and reactive dynamic stability

  19. Implication of Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity on Lung Function in Healthy Elderly: Using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Hyun; Kong, Mi Hee; Kim, Hyeon Ju

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a positive association between obesity and decreased lung function. However, the effect of muscle and fat has not been fully assessed, especially in a healthy elderly population. In this study, we evaluated the impact of low muscle mass (LMM) and LMM with obesity on pulmonary impairment in healthy elderly subjects. Our study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Men and women aged 65 yr or older were included. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. LMM was defined as two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for young healthy adults. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The prevalence of LMM in individuals aged over 65 was 11.9%. LMM and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) were independently associated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and frequency of exercise. LMM with obesity was also related to a decrease in pulmonary function. This study revealed that LMM is an independent risk factor of decreased pulmonary function in healthy Korean men and women over 65 yr of age.

  20. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6-relation to truncal fat mass and muscle mass in healthy elderly individuals and in patients with type-2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Weis, Nina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that an altered fat distribution in elderly healthy subjects and in patients with type-2 diabetes contributes to high circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-alpha, which secondly is related to lower muscle...... mass. Twenty young controls, (20-35 yr), 20 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 yr) and 16 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (65-80 yr) were included in a cross sectional study. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured after an overnight fast. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and total body...... potassium counting measured truncal fat, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body cell mass (BCM), respectively. TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the relative truncal fat mass were higher in elderly compared with young controls. ASM was lower in diabetic men than in young controls and BCM was lower in elderly...

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of S a l m o n e l l a isolates in apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 154 lymph nodes (cattle-54, camel-22, sheep-12, goats-66 were collected from slaughtered animals and analysed using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Results: An overall prevalence of 39.0% [95% confidence interval (CI: 31.3–46.7] was obtained. The prevalence rate across studied species ranged from 24.2% (95% CI: 13.9–34.5 in goats to 61.1% (95% CI: 48.1–74.1 in cattle. There was statistically significant association between Salmonella infection and species of food animals (P 0.05. Younger animals had slightly higher prevalence (44.0%; 95% CI: 24.5–63.5 compared with adults (38.0%; 95% CI: 29.6–46.4 (P > 0.05. All isolates showed marked susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol. Whereas, high resistance patterns to ampicillin, kanamycin and streptomycin, and moderate resistance patterns to kanamycin and tetracycline were observed from camels. Conclusions: Salmonella is high in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals in Maiduguri. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies should be carried out to identify the serotypes and phage typing of the isolates, and hazard analysis and critical control point should be applied in handling of meat and meat products to avoid the risk of foodborne salmonellosis as well as appropriate use of antibiotics like ciprofloxacin in food animals.

  2. Effect of repeated gaboxadol administration on night sleep and next-day performance in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Stefan; Zihl, Josef; Steiger, Axel; Lancel, Marike

    2005-04-01

    Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in sleep continuity and sleep intensity. Since gaboxadol, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, has been demonstrated to improve sleep consolidation and promote deep sleep, it may be an effective hypnotic, particularly for elderly patients with insomnia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subchronic gaboxadol administration on nocturnal sleep and its residual effects during the next days in elderly subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in 10 healthy elderly subjects without sleep complaints. The subjects were administered either placebo or 15 mg gaboxadol hydrochloride at bedtime on three consecutive nights. Sleep was recorded during each night from 2300 to 0700 h and tests assessing attention (target detection, stroop test) and memory function (visual form recognition, immediate word recall, digit span) were applied at 0900, 1400, and 1700 h during the following days. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol significantly shortened subjective sleep onset latency and increased self-rated sleep intensity and quality. Polysomnographic recordings showed that it significantly decreased the number of awakenings, the amount of intermittent wakefulness, and stage 1, and increased slow wave sleep and stage 2. These effects were stable over the three nights. None of the subjects reported side effects. Next-day cognitive performance was not affected by gaboxadol. Gaboxadol persistently improved subjective and objective sleep quality and was devoid of residual effects. Thus, at the employed dose, it seems an effective hypnotic in elderly subjects.

  3. Validity of the Italian telephone version of the mini-mental state examination in the elderly healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacore, Nicola; De Carolis, Antonella; Sepe-Monti, Micaela; Bomboi, Giuseppe; Stazi, Antonia; Bianchetti, Angelo; Giubilei, Franco

    2006-09-01

    The biggest challenge regarding cognitive prospective evaluations in the elderly is the identification of subjects that go on to develop cognitive impairment. In this study, we compared the Italian telephone version of the MMSE (Itel-MMSE) with both the MMSE and a battery of neuropsychological tests in a group of 107 healthy elderly subjects. The aim of the study was to identify a subset of subjects who, despite having an overall score within the normal range, performed poorly in the cognitive neuropsychological evaluation. The Itel-MMSE score showed a good internal consistency as well as a significant correlation with the MMSE score, age and education. A score of < or = 21 on the Itel-MMSE was the score which reflected the highest degree of sensitivity in the neuropsychological tests. There was a statistically significant difference between subjects with an Itel-MMSE score of < or = 21 and those with a score of 22 in age, education, Attentional Matrices and Copying Drawings. Despite some potential limitations, our results strongly suggest that the Itel-MMSE may be used as a screening test to identify healthy elderly subjects whose cognitive performance is poor.

  4. Being healthy: a grounded theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. "Being healthy" (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders' concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non-help seeking and "self" rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.

  5. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  6. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0±3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8±3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females

  7. Changes in metabolic correlates of personality traits in healthy elderly women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Personality traits are generally known to be stable, although the brain changes with aging. Especially women experience striking alterations in the neuroendocrinergic system at menopause, which may cause considerable changes in personality traits and alter their underlying neural substrates. To investigate changes in the neural substrates underlying personality traits, we investigated metabolic correlates of personality traits in women before and after menopause. We obtained FDG PET images from 13 young (24.0{+-}3.1 y) and 11 elderly females (66.8{+-}3.3 y). Three factors of personality traits (novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD)) were assessed using Cloninger's 240-item Temperament and Characteristic Inventory. Three ANCOVA maps were created in SPM2 (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k = 100), each constructed to assess the metabolic correlates of each temperament factor. In young females NS scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right insula and right cingulate; in elderly females, the right cuneus. In young females HA scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right lingual gyrus; in elderly females, the left anterior cingulate and bilateral hippocampus. Only in elderly females, HA scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right orbital gyrus and bilateral frontal gyri. In young females, RD scores were positively correlated with glucose metabolism in the bilateral frontal gyri and bilateral cingulate; in elderly females, the right middle frontal gyrus. In young females, RD scores were negatively correlated with glucose metabolism in the right precuneus; in elderly females, the left insula. We found that neural substrates underlying personality traits in females were dissociable across young and elderly women. These results may provide better understanding of differential prevalence and susceptibility to psychiatric illnesses in young and elderly females.

  8. Longitudinal assessment of cerebral 5-HT2A receptors in healthy elderly volunteers: an [18F]-altanserin PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Knudsen, Gitte M; Haugbøl, Steven

    2009-01-01

    patients with neuropsychiatric diseases on a longitudinal basis. METHODS: [(18)F]-Altanserin PET was used to quantify 5-HT(2A) receptors in 12 healthy elderly individuals at baseline and at 2 years in six volumes of interest. A bolus/infusion protocol was used to achieve the binding potential, BP(P...... of our measurements over 2 years with the stability of data from an earlier study with 2-week test-retest measurements. RESULTS: BP(P) was unaltered at follow-up without the use of PV correction and when applying two-tissue PV correction, test-retest reproducibility was 12-15% and reliability 0...

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI: Effects of age, gender, and laterality in healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, S.-T.; Cao, M.-Q.; Ding, Y.-Z.; Yao, Q.-Y.; Wu, G.-Y.; Xu, J.-R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of age and gender on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI, and compare the ADC values of left and right kidneys. Materials and methods: In all, 137 healthy participants (mean age 42.8 ± 14.7 years; age range 16–75 years) comprising 68 male and 69 female participants were enrolled. Three Tesla echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of bilateral kidneys was performed and ADC values were measured in the cortex, medulla, and whole parenchyma. Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression were performed to determine the associations between the ADC values in each region and age. Effects of age and gender on ADC values were analysed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The paired-samples t-test was established to compare the ADC values between left and right kidneys. Results: ADC values were significantly higher in the young group (≤50 years) than in the old group (>50 years), and correlated inversely with the age in all regions. Male participants had higher ADC values than female participants in all regions except left medulla. Two-factor ANOVA of age × gender showed no significant interactions between the variables age and gender were found. No significant differences in ADC values between left and right kidneys were observed. Conclusion: Renal ADC values are age- and gender-dependent, and show no significant difference between left and right kidneys. Age- and gender-related effects should be taken into consideration in future renal DWI studies when using normal ADC values from health controls. - Highlights: • Renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values decrease with ageing. • Men tend to have higher renal ADC values than women. • Bilateral kidneys seem to have no significantly different ADC values

  10. DFT:B3LYP/3-21G theoretical insights on the confocal Raman experimental observations in skin dermis of healthy young, healthy elderly, and diabetic elderly women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez Soto, Claudio Alberto; Pereira, Liliane; dos Santos, Laurita; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Fávero, Priscila; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2016-12-01

    In the confocal Raman spectra of skin dermis, the band area in the spectral region of proline and hydroxyproline varies according to the age and health condition of the volunteers, classified as healthy young women, healthy elderly women, and diabetic elderly women. Another observation refers to the intensity variation and negative Raman shift of the amide I band. To understand these effects, we adopted a model system using the DFT/B3LYP:3-21G procedure, considering the amino acid chain formed by glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine, which interacts with two and six water molecules. Through these systems, polarizability variations were analyzed to correlate its values with the observed Raman intensities of the three groups of volunteers and to assign the vibrational spectra of the skin dermis. As a way to correlate other experimental trends, we propose a model of chemical reaction of water interchange between the bonding amino acids, in which water molecules are attached with glucose by hydrogen bonds. The theoretical results are in accordance with the observed experimental trends.

  11. HEALTH EDUCATION TO PROMOTE HEALTHY AGING WITH ELDERLY PATIENTS AT A REFERRAL CENTER FOR SOCIAL ASSISTANCE (CRAS IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Iori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nursing care for the elderly should aim to promote elderly health and reduction of foreseeable risk factors, as well as value and institute measures to the greatest possible degree of autonomy and independence in the elderly in relation to his life and especially about his Cheers. With this view, we carried out a study with 16 members aged from Linkages Strengthening Group of a Social Assistance Reference Center (CRAS, the municipality of Sinop - MT, to enhance understanding of the elderly as the promotion of health through education about risk and protective factors of the most common diseases and health problems among the elderly. We used the action research as a methodological reasons, because this means turning the subject both at the level of thought and in action. The results of this research showed a female predominance in the participation of older age groups, increased participation of older widows with education of 01 years to 04 years. The perception of the elderly as the educational activity performed was satisfactory, reporting that the dynamics of the talks were good, important and promoted new information. It was also found through most of the elderly respondents reported the need for health education activities for this audience. It is concluded that the elderly incorporated into their daily health promotion measures learned in the educational activity, with improvements in quality of life. As well, the need to implement more health education programs for the elderly aimed at promoting healthy aging.

  12. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Emelie; Edholm, Peter; Ponsot, Elodie; Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta; Hellmén, Erik; Nilsson, Andreas; Engfeldt, Peter; Cederholm, Tommy; Risérus, Ulf; Kadi, Fawzi

    2015-10-15

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 ± 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Gut-targeted immunonutrition boosting natural killer cell activity using Saccharomyces boulardii lysates in immuno-compromised healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yasuhiro; Marotta, Francesco; Kantah, Makoto K; Zerbinati, Nicola; Kushugulova, Almagul; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Illuzzi, Nicola; Sapienza, Chiara; Takadanohara, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Riyichi; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immunomodulatory effect of KC-1317 (a symbiotic mixture containing Saccharomyces boulardii lysate in a cranberry, colostrum-derived lactoferrin, fragaria, and lactose mixture) supplementation in immune-compromised but otherwise healthy elderly subjects. A liquid formulation of KC-1317 was administered in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) fashion to healthy volunteers (65-79 years) previously selected for low natural killer (NK) cell activity, and this parameter was checked at the completion of the study. A significant improvement in NK cell activity of KC-1317 consumers was observed as compared to placebo at the end of 2 months. Although preliminary, these beneficial immune-modulatory effects of KC-1317 in aged individuals might indicate its employment within a wider age-management strategy.

  14. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  15. Comparison of performance on three neuropsychological tests in healthy Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate neuropsychological tests for cross-cultural assessment of dementia in elderly ethnic and linguistic minorities are generally lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the Recall of Pictures Test (RPT), Clock Reading Test (CRT...

  16. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespón, Jesús; Rodella, Claudia; Rossini, Paolo M; Miniussi, Carlo; Pellicciari, Maria C

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task ( n -back task) during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials). A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  17. Short-term practice effects and variability in cognitive testing in a healthy elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Siersma, V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the elderly is a subject of intense focus. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding definition of significant decline in connection with repeated testing and the interpretation of cognitive tests results must take into account the practice effect...

  18. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Promotes Frontal Compensatory Mechanisms in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cespón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is potentially useful to improve working memory. In the present study, young and elderly subjects performed a working memory task (n-back task during an electroencephalogram recording before and after receiving anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. We investigated modulations of behavioral performance and electrophysiological correlates of working memory processes (frontal and parietal P300 event-related potentials. A strong tendency to modulated working memory performance was observed after the application of tDCS. In detail, young, but not elderly, subjects benefited from additional practice in the absence of real tDCS, as indicated by their more accurate responses after sham tDCS. The cathodal tDCS had no effect in any group of participants. Importantly, anodal tDCS improved accuracy in elderly. Moreover, increased accuracy after anodal tDCS was correlated with a larger frontal P300 amplitude. These findings suggest that, in elderly subjects, improved working memory after anodal tDCS applied over the left DLPFC may be related to the promotion of frontal compensatory mechanisms, which are related to attentional processes.

  19. An educational strategy that promotes healthy habits in elderly people with hypertension in a municipality of Colombia: a participatory action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mateus, María Carolina; Hernández-Rincón, Erwin Hernando; Correal-Muñoz, Camilo Alejandro; Cadena-Buitrago, Gina Paola; Galvis-Díaz, Ingrid Johanna; Romero-Prieto, Génesis Esmeralda

    2017-10-30

    To identify resources of the municipality of Sopó-Cundinamarca, Colombia, that are also opportunities to strengthen the development of an educational strategy that promotes healthy habits (healthy diet and exercise) as part of the comprehensive management of hypertension in the elderly. A qualitative study of a participatory-action research initiative in the Community Day Center of Sopó in the second semester of 2015. It was developed in three stages: first, a community diagnosis showed the need to integrate the culture, traditions and resources of the municipality as inputs that allow the adherence of healthy styles by the elderly for the control of hypertension; in the second stage, a work plan was established based on actions provided by the community; and in the third stage, we reflected on the results. An effective and sustainable intervention for the elderly can be achieved through the following activities: appropriation of the agricultural resources, the strengthening of dance as a form of exercise, use of motivational strategies, support of institutions that work with the welfare of the elderly, and the empowerment of facilitators. Interventions aimed at supporting the adherence of healthy lifestyles to the elderly should include and preserve the context of the community of which they are part, where community resources are the inputs that allow health promotion.

  20. Yoga reduces perceived stress and exhaustion levels in healthy elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Eric; Tilton, Katherine; Eickholt, Nicole; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether a 7-week yoga intervention could improve physical function, perceived stress, and mental/emotional wellness in elderly participants. 8 participants (66.5 ± 0.3 years) attended 2 60-min Hatha yoga sessions/week for 7 weeks, and performed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Balance was assessed using a 5-test battery. Flexibility was measured by sit-and-reach and shoulder flexibility tests. Functional mobility tests included 8-ft up-and-go, 5 chair stands, and 4-m walk. Participants completed SF-12, exhaustion level, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaires. SF-12 Mental Component Summary scores, exhaustion levels, and PSS scores improved post-intervention. No differences were found for physical function measures. Yoga participation can improve mental/emotional wellness, exhaustion levels, and stress levels in elderly individuals, even without measurable improvements in physical function. Clinicians and health practitioners who work with the elderly should consider yoga as a potential therapeutic modality for improving important aspects of quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ulcerative enteritis in Homarus americanus: case report and molecular characterization of intestinal aerobic bacteria of apparently healthy lobsters in live storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battison, Andrea L; Després, Béatrice M; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2008-10-01

    An intermoult male American lobster, Homarus americanus, with severe intestinal lesions was encountered while collecting samples of aerobic intestinal bacteria from lobsters held in an artificial sea-water recirculation aquarium system. Grossly, the intestine was firm, thickened, and white. Histologic examination revealed a severe, diffuse, ulcerative enteritis which spared the chitin-lined colon, somewhat similar to hemocytic enteritis of shrimp. The bacterial isolates from this lobster were compared to 11 other lobsters lacking gross intestinal lesions. Two organisms, one identified as Vibrio sp. and another most similar to an uncultured proteobacterium (98.9%), clustering with Rhanella and Serratia species using 16S rDNA PCR, were isolated from the intestines of the 11, grossly normal, lobsters and the affected lobster. An additional two intestinal isolates were cultured only from the lobster with ulcerative enteritis. One, a Flavobacterium, similar to Lutibacter litoralis (99.3%), possibly represented a previously described commensal of the distal intestine. The second, a Vibrio sp., was unique to the affected animal. While the etiology of the ulcerative enteritis remains undetermined, this report represents the first description of gross and histologic findings in H. americanus of a condition which has morphologic similarities to hemocytic enteritis of shrimp. An additional observation was a decrease in the number of intestinal isolates recovered from the 11 apparently healthy lobsters compared to that previously reported for recently harvested lobster. More comprehensive studies of the relationship between the health of lobsters, gut microbial flora and the husbandry and environment maintained within holding units are warranted.

  2. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: 25 kg/m² (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  3. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs. Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index. We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis.

  4. Eating patterns may mediate the association between marital status, body mass index, and blood cholesterol levels in apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Stafanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Marital status has been recognized as a significant health-influencing factor, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate whether eating habits mediate the relationship between marital status and levels of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA Study. During 2001-2002, we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) from the Attica area, Greece; the sampling was stratified by the age-gender distribution of the region. Participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and psychological assessment. Food consumption was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as never married, married, divorced and widowed. Discriminant analysis revealed that vegetable consumption, followed by red meat, potatoes, poultry, and soft drinks were the factors with the higher discriminating ability among the food groups studied. In particular, dietary patterns of never married participants were characterized by the consumption of potatoes and red meat, those of married participants by nuts, legumes and fish, those of divorced participants by fruits, cereals and soft drinks, whereas those of widowed participants by dairy, vegetables, sweets and poultry. In addition, never married and divorced participants reported eating fast-foods more frequently and drink less alcohol compared to married or widowed participants. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, physical activity, anxiety score and smoking habits), the reported marital status of the participants was associated only with body mass index and total serum cholesterol levels. When the analysis was repeated after taking into account the information on dietary habits by creating four "new" dietary-adjusted marital status groups, no significant association was revealed between marital status and body mass index and blood cholesterol levels. This finding

  5. High-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level associate with decreasing risk of erectile dysfunction in 1,000 apparently healthy cardiovascular risk subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettala, Otto O; Syvänen, Kari T; Korhonen, Päivi E; Kaipia, Antti J; Vahlberg, Tero J; Boström, Peter J; Aarnio, Pertti T

    2014-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is especially common in men with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the data are scarce concerning populations without manifested CVD. The aim of this study was to describe factors associated with ED, especially those associated with decreasing risk of ED, in men with cardiovascular risk factors but without CVD, diabetes, or chronic renal disease. In 2004 to 2007, a cross-sectional population-based sample of men 45 to 70 years old in two rural towns in Finland was collected. Men with previously diagnosed CVD, diabetes, or kidney disease were not invited to the study. In total 1,000 eligible men with cardiovascular risk factors, i.e., central obesity, high scores in the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, high blood pressure, antihypertensive medication, or family history of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or stroke, were included in the analysis. Questionnaires, clinical measurements, and laboratory tests were obtained. The prevalence of ED was studied comparing the means, and risk factors were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rate of ED was defined by the International Index of Erectile Function short form (IIEF-5) and by two questions (2Q) about the ability to achieve and to maintain an erection. The prevalence of ED was 57% or 68% using IIEF-5 or 2Q, respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR]: up to 9.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.00-16.79; P physical activity (OR: 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.86; P = 0.045), high education (OR: 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83; P = 0.013), and stable relationship (OR: 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21-0.88; P = 0.046) were associated with ED. In apparently healthy men with cardiovascular risk factors, decreasing risk of ED is associated with high-intensity physical activity, stable relationship, and high education level. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  7. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the histamine H3 receptor antagonist, ABT-288, in healthy young adults and elderly volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Zhang, Jun; Dutta, Sandeep

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288, a highly selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple dosing in a phase 1 setting. Single doses (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 and 40 mg ABT-288) and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 14 days) were evaluated in young adults and multiple doses (0.5, 1.5, 3 and 5 mg ABT-288 once-daily for 12 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food on ABT-288 pharmacokinetics (5 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open label, randomized, crossover design. ABT-288 safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics were comparable in young and elderly subjects. Single doses up to 40 mg and multiple doses up to 3 mg once-daily were generally safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events were hot flush, headache, abnormal dreams, insomnia, nausea and dizziness. ABT-288 exposure (AUC) was dose-proportional over the evaluated dose ranges. The mean elimination half-life ranged from 40 to 61 h across dose groups. Steady state was achieved by day 10 of once-daily dosing with 3.4- to 4.2-fold accumulation. Food did not have a clinically meaningful effect on ABT-288 exposure. Based on the above results, 1 and 3 mg once-daily doses of ABT-288 were advanced to phase 2 evaluation in Alzheimer's patients. © 2012 Abbott Laboratories. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood, sleep, and depression in healthy elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Rentero-Blanco, Manuel; Laredo-Aguilera, Jose Alberto; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of a 12-day balneotherapy programme on pain, mood state, sleep, and depression in older adults. In this study, 52 elderly adults from different areas of Spain participated in a social hydrotherapy programme created by the government's Institute for Elderly and Social Services, known as IMSERSO; participants included 23 men (age, 69.74 ± 5.19 years) and 29 women (age, 70.31 ± 6.76 years). Pain was analyzed using the visual analogue scale. Mood was assessed using the Profile of Mood Status. Sleep was assessed using the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. The balneotherapy programme was undertaken at Balneario San Andrés (Jaén, Spain). The water at Balneario San Andrés, according to the Handbook of Spanish Mineral Water, is a hypothermic (≥20°C) hard water of medium mineralization, with bicarbonate, sulfate, sodium, and magnesium as the dominant ions. Balneotherapy produced significant improvements (P balneotherapy programme has a positive effect on pain, mood, sleep quality, and depression in healthy older people. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  9. Increased mental slowing associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele after trihexyphenidyl oral anticholinergic challenge in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Nunzio; Belzer, Ken; Hernando, Raymundo; De La Pena, Corazon; Sidtis, John J

    2008-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between APOE epsilon4 and subjective effects of trihexyphenidyl on measures reflecting sedation and confusion and to investigate the relationship between trihexyphenidyl-induced subjective effects and objective memory performance. This study comprised 24 cognitively intact, health elderly adults (12 APOE epsilon4 carriers) at an outpatient geriatric psychiatry research clinic. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, crossover experimental design. All participants received 1.0 mg or 2.0 mg trihexyphenidyl or placebo administered in counterbalanced sequences over a period of three consecutive weeks. Bond and Lader's visual analog scales and alternate versions of the Buschke Selective Reminding Test were administered in a repeated measures design at baseline, 1, 2.5, and 5 hours postdrug administration. A 2.0-mg oral dose of trihexyphenidyl resulted in increased subjective ratings of mental slowness in carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele only. Drug effects as determined by difference scores between 2.0 mg trihexyphenidyl and placebo on ratings of mental slowness significantly correlated with total and delayed recall on the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in carriers of the APOE epsilon4 allele only. However, no significant effects were found with other visual analog scales reflecting subjective sedation and clear-headedness. The epsilon4 allele in healthy elderly was associated with increased subjective mental slowing after trihexyphenidyl anticholinergic challenge.

  10. Behavioural assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome (BADS in healthy elders and Alzheimer´s disease patients: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Canali

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the main initial deficit is considered to be in the memory domain, an early impairment of executive functions is also found in AD where these deficits are correlated to functional impairment. Ecological tests are more indicated to evaluate executive impairment, and are better able to assist in treating AD patients than more commonly used tests. Objectives: The aim of this preliminary study is to verify the performance in executive functions using the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS in elder controls and mild AD patients, and to analyze its applicability in our environment. Methods: The BADS was performed by 17 healthy elders and 17 early AD patients matched for age, schooling and gender. Results: There were significant differences among controls and AD patients on MMSE scores, and in measures of executive functions, memory, and motor speed. Some sub items of BADS (rule shift cards, modified six elements, total score, standard, standard by age and overall classification by age were also different between groups. Differences were also significant on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX of BADS self-ratings and other-ratings. Conclusion: BADS was efficacious in detecting executive deficits in this sample, as confirmed by other executive functions tests applied.

  11. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L -1 ) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  12. Termination of dobutamine infusion causes transient rebound left heart diastolic dysfunction in healthy elderly women but not in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2013-01-01

    Men and women are known to react differently to stress. Thus, stress cardiomyopathy almost solely strikes women. Stress cardiomyopathy is suggested to relate to sex differences in catecholamine reaction. Left heart function during dobutamine stress is well described, but sex-specific inotropic...... and lusitropic response to abrupt termination of dobutamine stress is not. We aimed to investigate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) function during and after dobutamine stress. We enrolled 20 healthy elderly subjects (60-70 yr, 10 females) and measured their LV and LA volumes throughout......, and conduit volumes. Sex differences were not observed at rest or during dobutamine stress. Compared with prestress values, at T15 a rebound decrease in LV peak filling rate was observed in women (-22 ± 3%, P...

  13. Iron status in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women: relation to food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    of age from a 1914 cohort study. Blood samples included serum ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb). A dietary survey was performed in 232 subjects (120 men, 112 women) using a dietary history method. Median serum ferritin was 100 mug/l in men and 78 mug/l in women (p300 mug/l (i.e., iron overload) were found......In Denmark, the intake of dietary iron has decreased since 1987, when the mandatory iron fortification of flour (30 mg carbonyl iron/kg) was stopped. Since there have been no studies of iron status in elderly Danes after the abolishment of iron fortification, there is a need to assess actual iron...... status in the elderly population. The objective was to evaluate iron status and the relationship with food composition and dietary and supplemental iron intake in an elderly population in Copenhagen County. Participants in this health examination survey were 358 subjects (171 men, 187 women) 80 years...

  14. Investigation the Response of Some Proteins That Involved in Cachexia Syndrome to Acute Resistance Exercise in Healthy Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of plasma Myostatin and insulin growth factor like-1 (IGF-1, as two most important proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome, to acute resistance exercise in healthy elderly people. Methods & Materials: Twelve healthy older men (Age=67±1.3 years, BMI=25±1.4 kg/m2 volunteered for participation in this study. 72 hours after the determination of muscular maximal strength (by 1-RM test, subjects participated in acute resistance exercises via 75% 1-RM. In this research, two blood samples were collected at before and immediately after the exercise from Antecubital vein. Plasma Myostatin and serum levels of IGF-1 were measured by ELISA methods. Paired T-Test used for statical analyses of research data. Significant level was set at P≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that plasma Myostatin significantly decreased in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. Also the serum levels of IGF-1 increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. In turn, the results reveled that the IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resistance exercise through increases of IGF-1 and decreases of Myostatin causes increment of IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio. According to the results of this study it seems prescription of resistance exercise could positive changes in proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome in elderly people. Presumably, through this way we can prevent from Cachexia and its many physiological and physical related dysfunctions in theses people. Although more study is needed to clear its mechanisms.

  15. Age-specific incidence of hip fracture in the elderly: a healthy decline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Green, C

    2012-02-01

    Hip fractures in the elderly are an important source of morbidity and mortality. The predicted increase in the number of hip fractures due to the increasing elderly population has not been universally observed. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of hip fractures over a twenty year period to determine if this rise is occurring in our region. All hip fractures from the unit over 20 years were identified. Population data for those over 65 in the catchment area of our hospital was acquired. The rate of fractures occurring each year relative to the population was determined. The results were split into age groups. There was a strong correlation between the population rise and number of fractures (p = 0.77). But there was no significant difference in the rate of fracture over time (p = 0.41). However, the average age at which fracture occurred increased by two years. In addition we show the overall trend in the rate of fractures decreases in the younger age groups and increases in the older age groups. Therefore, the predicted rapid increase in rate is not occurring. This probably reflects the strengthening of the economy in Ireland from the 1930\\'s onwards, leading to a healthier population.

  16. Difference in adherence to and influencing factors of a healthy lifestyle between middle-aged and elderly people in Korea: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ki Young; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Juhyun; Kim, Chang Yup

    2015-06-01

    Comprehensive research for factors related to healthy lifestyles of the elderly is limited. The present study aimed to elucidate the factors associated with adherence to a healthy lifestyle by age groups. The present study was based on data from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated crude proportions and adjusted proportions of cigarette smokers, problem alcohol drinkers, and physically inactive people in two age groups (40-59 years and ≥60 years). We carried out multilevel analysis to elucidate factors associated with healthy lifestyles. Of 3194 respondents included in the analysis, 1154 (36.13%) were aged 60 years or older. Older participants smoked less (23.0% vs 17.4%) and exercised less frequently (52.4% vs 66.9%; all P elderly (OR 1.037, 95% CI 1.005-1.070). Different factors were associated with healthy lifestyles of elderly people when compared with middle-aged people. In addition, local tax per capita, an area level variable, was more likely to be associated with smoking in the elderly than the middle-aged group. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Resting, night-time, and 24 h heart rate as markers of cardiovascular risk in middle-aged and elderly men and women with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christine D; Olsen, Rasmus H; Pedersen, Lene R

    2013-01-01

    AimsIncreased heart rate (HR) is a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. We tested which measure of HR had the strongest prognostic value in a population with no apparent heart disease.Methods and resultsSix hundred and fifty-three men and women between the age of 55 and 75...... adjusted model, only night-time HR remained in the model, hazard ratio = 1.17 (1.05-1.30), P = 0.005.ConclusionIn middle-aged subjects with no apparent heart disease, all measures of increased HR were associated with increased mortality and CV risk. However, night-time HR was the only parameter...

  18. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( dogs fed 24 and 48% SP compared with the control. Conversely, branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower ( dogs fed 8 to 48% SP compared with the control. These data suggest that SP is a suitable replacement for PBPM in dog diets up to a 24% inclusion level.

  19. Hemoglobin concentrations in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women. Should the reference interval be adjusted for age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Background and aims: In elderly Danes, reference intervals for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are derived from younger population groups. The aim was to examine reference intervals for Hb and cut-off limits for anemia by application of criteria for normality to a representative population of 80...

  20. Behavioural and magnetoencephalographic evidence for the interaction between semantic and episodic memory in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Corte, Valentina; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Garnero, Line; George, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between episodic and semantic memory systems has long been debated. Some authors argue that episodic memory is contingent on semantic memory (Tulving 1984), while others postulate that both systems are independent since they can be selectively damaged (Squire 1987). The interaction between these memory systems is particularly important in the elderly, since the dissociation of episodic and semantic memory defects characterize different aging-related pathologies. Here, we investigated the interaction between semantic knowledge and episodic memory processes associated with faces in elderly subjects using an experimental paradigm where the semantic encoding of famous and unknown faces was compared to their episodic recognition. Results showed that the level of semantic awareness of items affected the recognition of those items in the episodic memory task. Event-related magnetic fields confirmed this interaction between episodic and semantic memory: ERFs related to the old/new effect during the episodic task were markedly different for famous and unknown faces. The old/new effect for famous faces involved sustained activities maximal over right temporal sensors, showing a spatio-temporal pattern partly similar to that found for famous versus unknown faces during the semantic task. By contrast, an old/new effect for unknown faces was observed on left parieto-occipital sensors. These findings suggest that the episodic memory for famous faces activated the retrieval of stored semantic information, whereas it was based on items' perceptual features for unknown faces. Overall, our results show that semantic information interfered markedly with episodic memory processes and suggested that the neural substrates of these two memory systems overlap.

  1. Community Resilience throughout the Lifespan--The Potential Contribution of Healthy Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Odeya; Geva, Diklah; Lahad, Mooli; Bolotin, Arkady; Leykin, Dima; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the exposure and predisposition of civilian populations to disasters has been recorded in the last decades. In major disasters, as demonstrated recently in Nepal (2015) and previously in Haiti (2010), external aid is vital, yet in the first hours after a disaster, communities must usually cope alone with the challenge of providing emergent lifesaving care. Communities therefore need to be prepared to handle emergency situations. Mapping the needs of the populations within their purview is a trying task for decision makers and community leaders. In this context, the elderly are traditionally treated as a susceptible population with special needs. The current study aimed to explore variations in the level of community resilience along the lifespan. The study was conducted in nine small to mid-size towns in Israel between August and November 2011 (N = 885). The Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM), a validated instrument for community resilience assessment, was used to examine the association between age and community resilience score. Statistical analysis included spline and logistic regression models that explored community resiliency over the lifespan in a way that allowed flexible modeling of the curve without prior constraints. This innovative statistical approach facilitated identification of the ages at which trend changes occurred. The study found a significant rise in community resiliency scores in the age groups of 61-75 years as compared with younger age bands, suggesting that older people in good health may contribute positively to building community resiliency for crisis. Rather than focusing on the growing medical needs and years of dependency associated with increased life expectancy and the resulting climb in the proportion of elders in the population, this paper proposes that active "young at heart" older people can be a valuable resource for their community.

  2. Community Resilience throughout the Lifespan--The Potential Contribution of Healthy Elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeya Cohen

    Full Text Available An increase in the exposure and predisposition of civilian populations to disasters has been recorded in the last decades. In major disasters, as demonstrated recently in Nepal (2015 and previously in Haiti (2010, external aid is vital, yet in the first hours after a disaster, communities must usually cope alone with the challenge of providing emergent lifesaving care. Communities therefore need to be prepared to handle emergency situations. Mapping the needs of the populations within their purview is a trying task for decision makers and community leaders. In this context, the elderly are traditionally treated as a susceptible population with special needs. The current study aimed to explore variations in the level of community resilience along the lifespan. The study was conducted in nine small to mid-size towns in Israel between August and November 2011 (N = 885. The Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM, a validated instrument for community resilience assessment, was used to examine the association between age and community resilience score. Statistical analysis included spline and logistic regression models that explored community resiliency over the lifespan in a way that allowed flexible modeling of the curve without prior constraints. This innovative statistical approach facilitated identification of the ages at which trend changes occurred. The study found a significant rise in community resiliency scores in the age groups of 61-75 years as compared with younger age bands, suggesting that older people in good health may contribute positively to building community resiliency for crisis. Rather than focusing on the growing medical needs and years of dependency associated with increased life expectancy and the resulting climb in the proportion of elders in the population, this paper proposes that active "young at heart" older people can be a valuable resource for their community.

  3. Low-dose B vitamins supplementation ameliorates cardiovascular risk: a double-blind randomized controlled trial in healthy Chinese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Li, Hongtian; Zhou, Yuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Jianmeng

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether daily supplementation with low-dose B vitamins in the healthy elderly population improves the Framingham risk score (FRS), a predictor of cardiovascular disease risk. Between 2007 and 2012, a double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in a rural area of North China. In all, 390 healthy participants aged 60-74 were randomly allocated to receive daily vitamin C (50 mg; control group) or vitamin C plus B vitamins (400 µg folic acid, 2 mg B6, and 10 µg B12; treatment group) for 12 months. FRSs were calculated for all 390 subjects. Folate and vitamin B12 plasma concentrations in the treatment group increased by 253 and 80%, respectively, after 6 months, stopped increasing with continued supplementation after 12 months and returned to baseline levels 6 months after supplementation cessation. Compared with the control group, there was no significant effect of B vitamin supplementation on FRSs after 6 months (mean difference -0.38; 95% CI -1.06, 0.31; p = 0.279), whereas a significant effect of supplementation was evident after 12 months (reduced magnitude 7.6%; -0.77; 95% CI -1.47, -0.06; p = 0.033). However, this reduction disappeared 6 months after supplementation stopped (-0.07; 95% CI -0.80, 0.66; p = 0.855). The reduction in FRS 12 months after supplementation was more pronounced in individuals with a folate deficiency (10.4%; -1.30; 95% CI -2.54, -0.07; p = 0.039) than in those without (4.1%; -0.38; 95% CI -1.12, 0.36; p = 0.313). B vitamins increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 3.4% after 6 months (0.04; 95% CI -0.02, 0.10; p = 0.155) and by 9.2% after 12 months (0.11; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.18; p = 0.003). Compared with the control group, this change in magnitude decreased to 3.3% (0.04; 95 % CI -0.02, 0.10; p = 0.194) 6 months after supplementation cessation. Daily supplementation with a low-dose of B vitamins for 12 months reduced FRS, particularly in healthy elderly subjects with a folate deficiency. These reduced

  4. Evaluation of vocal fold vibration with an assessment form for high-speed digital imaging: comparative study between healthy young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Goto, Takao; Takano, Shingo; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Tayama, Niro

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a prospective study with a subjective assessment form for high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) to elucidate the features of vocal fold vibrations in vocally healthy subjects and to clarify gender- and age-related differences. Healthy adult volunteers participated in this study. They were divided into young (aged 35 and younger) and elderly (aged 65 and older) groups, and the scores of an assessment form for HSDI characteristics elaborated at our institution were statistically analyzed. Twenty-six young subjects (males: 9, females: 17; mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (males: 8, females: 12; mean age: 72 years) were assigned to our study. Posterior gap and posterior-to-anterior longitudinal phase difference were characteristic to young females, whereas in young males, mucosal wave, anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference, and supraglottic hyperactivity were frequent. In elderly males, axis shift, asymmetry, supraglottic hyperactivity, increased mucosal wave, lateral phase difference, and anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference were frequent; and in elderly females, high incidence of lateral phase difference, atrophic change, anterior gap, and asymmetry were observed. The results show that the behaviors of vocal fold vibrations were diverse even in healthy subjects with no vocal complaints or history of laryngeal diseases, and hence, the diversity of vocal fold vibrations in normal subjects must be taken into account in evaluating vocal fold vibrations. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Use of Facebook Advertising to Recruit Healthy Elderly People for a Clinical Trial: Baseline Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Julie M; Gurney, Mark E

    2018-01-01

    Background This report provides data on the use of social media advertising as a clinical trial recruitment strategy targeting healthy volunteers aged 60 years and older. The social media advertising campaign focused on enrollment for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Traditional means of recruiting—billboards, newspaper advertising, word of mouth, personal referrals, and direct mail—were not producing enough qualified participants. Objective To demonstrate the effectiveness of using targeted adverti...

  6. Relationship between protein and mitochondrial DNA oxidative injury and telomere length and muscle loss in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunout, Daniel; Backhouse, Claudia; Leiva, Laura; Barrera, Gladys; Sierralta, Walter; de la Maza, María Pía; Hirsch, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A blood sample and muscle biopsies were obtained from 54 elderly subjects. Twenty-seven subjects aged 77+/-3 years, had experienced a change in fat free mass (FFM) of +194+/-282g/year (lean body mass maintainers) and 27 subjects aged 78+/-3 years, had a change in FFM of -487+/-209g/year (lean body mass losers). Muscle biopsies were also obtained from 10 healthy subjects aged 34+/-4 years. In muscle, the ratio of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to nuclear DNA (nDNA) and telomere length were assessed and deposition of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts (4HNE) was visualized by electron microscopy. In FFM maintainers, losers and young controls, the ratio of mtDNA to nDNA was 2.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.1-31.7), 1.5 (95% CI, 0.2-15.7) and 18.6 (95% CI, 2.8-46.2), respectively. 4HNE deposition was 5.9 (95% CI, 1.5-28), 4.9 (95% CI, 0.9-13) and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.1-4.6) gold particles/microm(2), respectively. Telomere length, expressed as T/S ratio, was 0.06 (95% CI, 0.01-0.16), 0.06 (95% CI, 0.03-0.27) and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.1-1.34), respectively (p<0.02 or less for all comparisons between elderly and young subjects).

  7. Renal hemodynamic changes with aging: a preliminary study using CT perfusion in the healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Gong, Jingshan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zuoquan; Qin, Peixin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate renal blood flow perfusion parameter changes associated with aging using multislice spiral computed tomography (CT). This prospective study was approved by the institute's ethics committee for clinical study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Forty-two consecutive patients who underwent abdominal CT without obvious renal abnormality at plain scanning were enrolled in this study. The renal perfusion scan was carried out using 16-slice spiral CT. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between perfusion parameter changes with aging. In both the cortex and medulla, blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) were negatively correlated with age, while time-to-peak (TTP) value and mean transit time (MTT) showed a positive correlation with age. Changes in BF, TTP, and MTT were found to have a statistically significant correlation with age in both the cortex and medulla, while the correlation between BV and age showed no statistical significance. It is feasible to assess renal hemodynamics changes with aging in the elderly using the current clinically available CT perfusion imaging technology in vivo. It may be helpful in the management of aged patients to familiarize with the renal hemodynamics changes in clinical work-up. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  9. [Dietary factors associated with daytime somnolence in healthy elderly of Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Sánchez Reyes, Hugo; Díaz Narváez, Víctor; Araya Pérez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of mild and excessive somnolence and the associated factors with the presence of daytime sleepiness in the elderly. A total of 1780 independent individuals 60 years and older of both sexes (70.9±7.9 years old; females 62%), were included, of which 1704 of them completed all the information. All of them were assessed using an Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE), an Pittsburgh sleep quality index, plus information of cigarettes smoking, dinner time, and an anthropometric evaluation. An ESE score>10 was considered drowsiness and scores>15 excessive or severe drowsiness. Among the population under 80 years, 5.3% showed ESE score>15 and 26.2% an ESE score>10. For over 80 years, the prevalence of sleepiness was 6.3% for an ESE score>15 and 32.5% for an ESE score>10. In the adjusted model, the factors associated with increased risk of sleepiness (ESE>10) were age older than 80 years (OR=1.58; 95% CI=1.14 to 2.19) and dinner after 21 hours (OR=1.3; 95% CI=1.01 to 1.68). By contrast, only age older than 80 years was independently associated with severe sleepiness (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.01 to 3.29). Meals after 21 hours and age above 80 years are associated with increased likelihood of daytime sleepiness. Instead, only older than 80 years is associated with severe daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Deficits in Healthy Elderly Population With "Normal" Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated whether healthy older adults with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores above 23 exhibit cognitive impairment on neuropsychological tests. Participants completed the MMSE and a neuropsychological battery including tests of 10 domains. Results were compared to published normative data. On neuropsychological testing, participants performed well on measures of naming and recall but showed mild to moderate impairment in working memory and processing speed and marked impairment in inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functioning. Almost everyone (91%) scored at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean in at least 1 domain. The median number of domains in which individuals scored below 1 SD was 3.0 of 10.0, whereas over 21% scored below 1 SD in 5 domains or more. With the strictest of definitions for impairment, 20% of this population scored below 2.0 SDs below the norm in at least 2 domains, a necessary condition for a diagnosis of dementia. The finding that cognitive impairment, particularly in attention and executive functioning, is found in healthy older persons who perform well on the MMSE has clinical and research implications in terms of emphasizing normal variability in performance and early identification of possible impairment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. MR spectroscopy detection of lactate and lipid signals in the brains of healthy elderly people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijens, P.E.; Heijboer, R.J.J.; Oudkerk, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Groningen (Netherlands); Heijer, T. den; Leeuw, F.E. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.; Breteler, M.M.B. [Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus University Medical School, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Achten, E. [Dept. of Magnetic Resonance, Gent University Hospital (Belgium)

    2001-08-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess the presence of brain lactate and lipid signals, frequently associated with the presence of pathology, in healthy persons of 60-90 years old (n=540). Lactate and lipid signals were observed in, respectively, 25 and 6% of women, and 18 and 2% of men. Upon adjustment for age, and for MRI-detected cerebral atrophy and white matter lesions, the gender differences in lactate and lipid remained the same (p=0.05 and p=0.03, respectively). Brain lactate and lipid signals appear to be intrinsic to aging. However, the presence of these metabolites in very focal areas only, rather than in any distributed fashion within the brain (the latter generally the case with cerebral atrophy and white matter lesions), strongly suggests the existence of asymptomatic focal pathology not shown on MRI. (orig.)

  12. The relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisa, E; Tohara, H; Nakane, A; Wakasugi, Y; Hara, K; Yamaguchi, K; Yoshimi, K; Minakuchi, S

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a clinical cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles and whole skeletal muscle mass. Subjects were healthy 39 males and 51 females without dysphagia and sarcopenia, aged 65 years and older. Jaw-opening force was measured three times using a jaw-opening sthenometer; the maximum of these three was taken as the measurement value. The cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscles were evaluated using ultrasonography. The skeletal muscle mass index, gait speed and grip strength were evaluated according to the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. For each sex, a multiple regression analysis determined the factors that affect jaw-opening force. Jaw-opening force was associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle in males (regression coefficient [β] = 0.441, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.28-56.09) and females (β = 0.28, 95% CI = 3.10-54.57). Furthermore, in females only, jaw-opening force was associated with the skeletal muscle mass index (β = 0.40, 95% CI = 3.67-17.81). In contrast, jaw-opening force was not associated with the cross-sectional area of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle in either sex. In healthy elderly males and females, jaw-opening force was positively associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle. However, the jaw-opening force was positively associated with the skeletal muscle mass index only in females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Reliability and statistical power analysis of cortical and subcortical FreeSurfer metrics in a large sample of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Outcomes of the Nutritional Status in Patients Qualified for Aortic Valve Replacement in Comparison to Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Wernio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe aortic stenosis (AS is associated with the reduction of muscle mass and may be associated with deterioration of nutritional status. Furthermore, malnourished cardiac patients are characterized by a higher risk of postoperative complications and mortality. The aim of this study was the evaluation and comparison of nutritional status, appetite and body composition in older people with severe aortic stenosis before aortic valve replacement and healthy elderly volunteers. One hundred and one patients, aged >65 years old with severe AS were included in the study. Nutritional status was assessed. Body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Concentrations of albumin, prealbumin, triglycerides, total cholesterol and C-reactive protein were measured, and a complete blood count was done. About 40% of AS patients were at risk of malnutrition. They had decreased hand grip strength and they lost more body mass than the control group. Malnourished AS patients were older, had lower body mass indexes (BMIs and lower aortic valve areas in comparison to well-nourished patients. Older AS patients, like their peers, show excessive body mass and, at the same time, the features of malnutrition. They have additional factors such as unintentional weight lost and decreased muscle strength which may be associated with worse outcomes.

  15. Aerobic Activity in the Healthy Elderly Is Associated with Larger Plasticity in Memory Related Brain Structures and Lower Systemic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Jan-Willem; Kärgel, Christian; Müller, Bernhard W.; Rasche, Ina; Genius, Just; Bus, Boudewijn; Maderwald, Stefan; Norris, David G.; Wiltfang, Jens; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities decline over the time course of our life, a process, which may be mediated by brain atrophy and enhanced inflammatory processes. Lifestyle factors, such as regular physical activities have been shown to counteract those noxious processes and are assumed to delay or possibly even prevent pathological states, such as dementing disorders. Whereas the impact of lifestyle and immunological factors and their interactions on cognitive aging have been frequently studied, their effects on neural parameters as brain activation and functional connectivity are less well studied. Therefore, we investigated 32 healthy elderly individuals (60.4 ± 5.0 SD; range 52–71 years) with low or high level of self-reported aerobic physical activity at the time of testing. A higher compared to a lower level in aerobic physical activity was associated with an increased encoding related functional connectivity in an episodic memory network comprising mPFC, thalamus, hippocampus precuneus, and insula. Moreover, encoding related functional connectivity of this network was associated with decreased systemic inflammation, as measured by systemic levels of interleukin 6. PMID:28082894

  16. Nintendo Wii Balance Board is sensitive to effects of visual tasks on standing sway in healthy elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslucher, Frank; Wade, Michael G; Nelson, Brent; Lim, Kelvin; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Research has shown that the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) can reliably detect the quantitative kinematics of the center of pressure in stance. Previous studies used relatively coarse manipulations (1- vs. 2-leg stance, and eyes open vs. closed). We sought to determine whether the WBB could reliably detect postural changes associated with subtle variations in visual tasks. Healthy elderly adults stood on a WBB while performing one of two visual tasks. In the Inspection task, they maintained their gaze within the boundaries of a featureless target. In the Search task, they counted the occurrence of designated target letters within a block of text. Consistent with previous studies using traditional force plates, the positional variability of the center of pressure was reduced during performance of the Search task, relative to movement during performance of the Inspection task. Using detrended fluctuation analysis, a measure of movement dynamics, we found that COP trajectories were more predictable during performance of the Search task than during performance of the Inspection task. The results indicate that the WBB is sensitive to subtle variations in both the magnitude and dynamics of body sway that are related to variations in visual tasks engaged in during stance. The WBB is an inexpensive, reliable technology that can be used to evaluate subtle characteristics of body sway in large or widely dispersed samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A lower-limb training program to improve balance in healthy elderly women using the T-bow device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Colado, Juan C; Pablos, Carlos; Naclerio, Fernando; García-Massó, Xavier

    2009-06-01

    Ageing impairs balance, which increases the risk of falls. Fall-related injuries are a serious health problem associated with dependency and disability in the elderly and results in high costs to public health systems. This study aims to determine the effects of a training program to develop balance using a new device called the T-Bow. A total of 28 women > 65 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) (n = 18; 69.50 [0.99] years), or a control group (CG) (n = 10; 70.70 [2.18] years). A program for lower limbs was applied for 8 weeks using 5 exercises on the T-Bow: squat, lateral and frontal swings, lunges, and plantarflexions. The intensity of the exercises was controlled by time of exposure, support base, and ratings of perceived exertion. Clinical tests were used to evaluate variables of balance. Static balance was measured by a 1-leg balance test (unipedal stance test), dynamic balance was measured by the 8-foot-up-and-go test, and overall balance was measured using the Tinetti test. Results for the EG showed an increase of 35.2% in static balance (P 0.05). Results for the CG showed a decline of 5.79% in static balance (P > 0.05) but no change in the other balance variables. Thus the data suggest that implementing a training program using the T-Bow could improve balance in healthy older women.

  18. Effect of education on listening comprehension of sentences on healthy elderly: analysis of number of correct responses and task execution time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Rabelo, Camila Maia; Schochat, Eliane; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2017-11-13

    To analyze the effect of education on sentence listening comprehension on cognitively healthy elderly. A total of 111 healthy elderly, aged 60-80 years of both genders were divided into two groups according to educational level: low education (0-8 years of formal education) and high education (≥9 years of formal education). The participants were assessed using the Revised Token Test, an instrument that supports the evaluation of auditory comprehension of orders with different working memory and syntactic complexity demands. The indicators used for performance analysis were the number of correct responses (accuracy analysis) and task execution time (temporal analysis) in the different blocks. The low educated group had a lower number of correct responses than the high educated group on all blocks of the test. In the temporal analysis, participants with low education had longer execution time for commands on the first four blocks related to working memory. However, the two groups had similar execution time for blocks more related to syntactic comprehension. Education influenced sentence listening comprehension on elderly. Temporal analysis allowed to infer over the relationship between comprehension and other cognitive abilities, and to observe that the low educated elderly did not use effective compensation strategies to improve their performances on the task. Therefore, low educational level, associated with aging, may potentialize the risks for language decline.

  19. Human leukocyte antigen class I, class II, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in a healthy elder Mexican Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorente Luis

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence that an individual's genetic background is an important predisposing factor to longevity. In the present study we analysed the frequency of HLA class I, class II, as well as the TNF-α -308 polymorphism that may be related to an increased life span in Mexican Mestizo healthy elders. Results HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR SSO reverse dot blot. The TNF-α -308 polymorphism was assessed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found in elderly women whereas this allele was not present in elderly males. The TNF2 allele was also increased in the elder group when compared to young controls. The frequencies of the remaining alleles tested were not statistically different among groups. Conclusion These data suggest an ethnicity independent tendency of HLA-DRB1*11 in elder females to increase life span and a possible role of the TNF2 allele with the successful remodelling of senescent immune system.

  20. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Adriana de Oliveira; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Dantas, Marciano Moacir; Oliveira Marques, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Barbosa, Bruno Teixeira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Andrade, Maria do Amparo; Jaguaribe-Lima, Anna Myrna; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver). Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac sympathetic activity compared to physically active older adult subjects at baseline (63.13±3.31 vs 50.45±3.55 nu, P=0.02). The variance (heart rate variability index) was increased in active older adults (1,438.64±448.90 vs 1,402.92±385.14 ms, P=0.02), and cardiac sympathetic activity (symbolic analysis) was increased in sedentary older adults (5,660.91±1,626.72 vs 4,381.35±1,852.87, P=0.03) during isometric handgrip exercise. Sedentary older adults showed higher cardiac sympathetic activity (spectral analysis) (71.29±4.40 vs 58.30±3.50 nu, P=0.03) and lower parasympathetic modulation (28.79±4.37 vs 41.77±3.47 nu, P=0.03) compared to physically active older adult subjects during isometric handgrip exercise. Regarding muscle vasodilation response, there was an increase in the skeletal muscle blood flow in the second (4.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.4 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.01) and third minute (4.4±0.4 vs 3.9±0.3 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.03) of handgrip exercise in active older adults. The results indicate that

  1. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...

  2. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac

  3. Relationship between cardiac function and resting cerebral blood flow: MRI measurements in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja; Larsson, Henrik B W; Rostrup, Egill

    2014-11-01

    Although both impaired cardiac function and reduced cerebral blood flow are associated with ageing, current knowledge of the influence of cardiac function on resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of cardiac function on CBF. CBF and cardiac output were measured in 31 healthy subjects 50-75 years old using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Mean values of CBF, cardiac output and cardiac index were 43.6 ml per 100 g min(-1), 5.5 l min(-1) and 2.7 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in males, and 53.4 ml per 100 g min(-1), 4.3 l min(-1) and 2.4 l min(-1) m(-2), respectively, in females. No effects of cardiac output or cardiac index on CBF or structural signs of brain ageing were observed. However, fractional brain flow defined as the ratio of total brain flow to cardiac output was inversely correlated with cardiac index (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.008) and furthermore lower in males than in females (8.6% versus 12.5%, P = 0.003). Fractional brain flow was also inversely correlated with cerebral white matter lesion grade, although this effect was not significant when adjusted for age. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability showed a gender-related inverse association of increased low-to-high-frequency power ratio with CBF and fractional brain flow. The findings do not support a direct effect of cardiac function on CBF, but demonstrates gender-related differences in cardiac output distribution. We propose fractional brain flow as a novel index that may be a useful marker of adequate brain perfusion in the context of ageing as well as cardiovascular disease. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A Smart Insole to Promote Healthy Aging for Frail Elderly Individuals: Specifications, Design, and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piau, Antoine; Charlon, Yoann; Campo, Eric; Vellas, Bruno; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2015-05-25

    Older individuals frequently experience reversible "frailty syndrome,", increasing incidence of disability. Although physical exercise interventions may delay functional decline, there are difficulties in implementing them and performing seamless follow-up at home. Very few technological solutions attempt to address this challenge and improve individual participation. Our objectives are to (1) develop a technological solution designed to support active aging of frail older persons, (2) conduct a first laboratory evaluation of the device, and (3) design a multidimensional clinical trial to validate our solution. We conducted a first phase of multidisciplinary meetings to identify real end users and health professional's unmet needs, and to produce specifications for the architecture of the solution. In a second phase, we performed laboratory tests of the first proposed prototype (a smart insole) with 3 healthy volunteers. We then designed an ongoing clinical trial to finalize the multidimensional evaluation and improvement of the solution. To respond to the needs expressed by the stakeholders (frailty monitoring and adherence improvement), we developed a prototype of smart shoe insole to monitor key parameters of frailty during daily life and promote walking. It is a noninvasive wireless insole, which automatically measures gait parameters and transmits information to a remote terminal via a secure Internet connection. To ensure the solution's autonomy and transparency, we developed an original energy harvesting system, which transforms mechanical energy produced by the user's walking movement into electrical energy. The first laboratory tests of this technological solution showed good reliability measures and also a good acceptability for the users. We have planned an original iterative medical research protocol to validate our solution in real life. Our smart insole could support preventive strategies against disability in primary care by empowering the older

  5. Performance of a sample of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and healthy elderly on a lexical decision test (LDT) as a measure of pre-morbid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao, Valéria Trunkl; Brucki, Sônia Maria Dozzi; Campanholo, Kenia Repiso; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Nitrini, Ricardo; Miotto, Eliane Correa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the performance of healthy elderly patients with aging-related pathologies (MCI) and patients with AD on a lexical decision test. Methods: The study included 38 healthy elderly subjects, 61 MCI and 26 AD patients from the Neurology Department of the Hospital das Clinicas, Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Group. The neuropsychological instruments included the episodic memory test (RAVLT), subtests from the WAIS-III (Matrix Reasoning and...

  6. Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of the Serotonin 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonist, SUVN-502, in Healthy Young Adults and Elderly Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Mudigonda, Koteshwara; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Muddana, Nageswara Rao; Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Palacharla, Raghava Choudary

    2018-05-01

    SUVN-502, a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist, was found to be active in preclinical models of cognitive deterioration suggesting a potential role in the treatment of dementia related to Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of SUVN-502 in healthy young adults and elderly subjects following single and multiple oral doses. Single doses (5, 15, 50, 100 and 200 mg SUVN-502) and multiple doses (50, 100 and 130 mg SUVN-502 once daily for 7 days) were evaluated in healthy young adults and multiple doses (50 and 100 mg SUVN-502 once daily for 14 days) were evaluated in elderly subjects using randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study designs. The effect of food, gender and age on SUVN-502 pharmacokinetics (100 mg single dose) was evaluated using an open-label, two-period, randomized, fed and fasted in a crossover design. SUVN-502 and M1 (major metabolite of SUVN-502) were monitored using validated analytical methods. SUVN-502 is safe and well tolerated up to the highest tested single dose of 200 mg in healthy young adults and multiple doses up to 130 mg for 7 days and 100 mg for 14 days in healthy young adults and elderly subjects, respectively. Exposures of SUVN-502 and M1 were more than dose-proportional over the evaluated dose range. Food and gender did not have a clinically meaningful effect on SUVN-502 exposure. The mean SUVN-502 total (AUC 0-∞ , and AUC 0-last ) and peak exposures (C max ) were 2.9- and 2.2-fold higher, respectively, in elderly subjects compared to young subjects. Steady-state was achieved for SUVN-502 and M1 within 7 days after once-daily dosing of SUVN-502. SUVN-502 exhibited an acceptable safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile in healthy young adults and elderly subjects. Based on the above results, 50 and 100 mg once-daily doses of SUVN-502 were advanced to Phase 2 evaluation in patients with moderate AD.

  7. Multisite longitudinal reliability of tract-based spatial statistics in diffusion tensor imaging of healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicich, Jorge; Marizzoni, Moira; Bosch, Beatriz; Bartrés-Faz, David; Arnold, Jennifer; Benninghoff, Jens; Wiltfang, Jens; Roccatagliata, Luca; Picco, Agnese; Nobili, Flavio; Blin, Oliver; Bombois, Stephanie; Lopes, Renaud; Bordet, Régis; Chanoine, Valérie; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Didic, Mira; Gros-Dagnac, Hélène; Payoux, Pierre; Zoccatelli, Giada; Alessandrini, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Bargalló, Núria; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Aiello, Marco; Ragucci, Monica; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvadori, Nicola; Tarducci, Roberto; Floridi, Piero; Tsolaki, Magda; Constantinidis, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Marra, Camillo; Otto, Josephin; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Galluzzi, Samantha; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale longitudinal neuroimaging studies with diffusion imaging techniques are necessary to test and validate models of white matter neurophysiological processes that change in time, both in healthy and diseased brains. The predictive power of such longitudinal models will always be limited by the reproducibility of repeated measures acquired during different sessions. At present, there is limited quantitative knowledge about the across-session reproducibility of standard diffusion metrics in 3T multi-centric studies on subjects in stable conditions, in particular when using tract based spatial statistics and with elderly people. In this study we implemented a multi-site brain diffusion protocol in 10 clinical 3T MRI sites distributed across 4 countries in Europe (Italy, Germany, France and Greece) using vendor provided sequences from Siemens (Allegra, Trio Tim, Verio, Skyra, Biograph mMR), Philips (Achieva) and GE (HDxt) scanners. We acquired DTI data (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3), b = 700 s/mm(2), 5 b0 and 30 diffusion weighted volumes) of a group of healthy stable elderly subjects (5 subjects per site) in two separate sessions at least a week apart. For each subject and session four scalar diffusion metrics were considered: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial (AD) diffusivity. The diffusion metrics from multiple subjects and sessions at each site were aligned to their common white matter skeleton using tract-based spatial statistics. The reproducibility at each MRI site was examined by looking at group averages of absolute changes relative to the mean (%) on various parameters: i) reproducibility of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the b0 images in centrum semiovale, ii) full brain test-retest differences of the diffusion metric maps on the white matter skeleton, iii) reproducibility of the diffusion metrics on atlas-based white matter ROIs on the white matter skeleton. Despite the differences of MRI scanner

  8. A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tih-Shih; Goh, Siau Juinn Alexa; Quek, Shin Yi; Phillips, Rachel; Guan, Cuntai; Cheung, Yin Bun; Feng, Lei; Teng, Stephanie Sze Wei; Wang, Chuan Chu; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhang, Haihong; Ng, Tze Pin; Lee, Jimmy; Keefe, Richard; Krishnan, K Ranga Rama

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n = 15) and waitlist control arms (n = 16). Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simon's randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn = 4.0; pattention (p = 0.039), and delayed memory (pattention in healthy elderly, and appears to be safe, user-friendly and acceptable to senior users. Given the efficacy signal, a phase III trial is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01661894.

  9. Self-awareness of cognitive efficiency: Differences between healthy elderly and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkiadaki, Stella; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikolaos; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2016-12-01

    Self-estimation of performance implies the ability to understand one's own performance with relatively objective terms. Up to date, few studies have addressed this topic in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare objective measures of performance with subjective perception of specific performance on cognitive tests and investigate differences in assessment between MCI patients and healthy elderly. Thirty-five participants diagnosed with MCI (women = 16, men = 19, mean age = 65.09 years ±SD = 7.81, mean education = 12.83 years ±SD = 4.32) and 35 control subjects similar in terms of age and education (women = 20, men = 15, mean age = 62.46 years ± SD = 9.35, mean education = 14.26 ± SD = 2.84) were examined with an extended battery of neuropsychological tests. After every test they were asked to self-evaluate their performance by comparing it to what they considered as average for people of their age and educational level. This self-evaluation was reported on a scale ranging from -100 to +100. Significant differences were found in the self-assessment patterns of the two groups in memory measures of verbal and visual delayed recall, visuospatial perception, and tests of attention. MCI patients overestimated their performance on every cognitive domain while control participants underestimated their performance on measures of verbal memory. The present results indicate that accuracy of self-report is not uniform across groups and functional areas. The discrepancies in the MCI patients indicate unawareness of their memory deficits, which is contradictory to subjective memory complaints as being an important component for clinical diagnosis.

  10. Gastric emptying rate in the elderly: implications for drug therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.A.; Triggs, E.J.; Cheung, M.; Broe, G.A.; Creasey, H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the aging process on gastric emptying was studied in 11 elderly subjects (mean age, 77) and in 7 young healthy volunteers (mean age, 26). Gastric emptying rates were assessed by a modified sequential scinti-scanning technique after administration of the nonabsorbable chelated radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-DTPA. The rate of emptying, expressed as half-time (T 1/2e) in minutes, was significantly longer (p less than 0.001) in the elderly subjects (mean apparent T 1/2e . 123.23 min) compared to the young healthy volunteers (mean apparent T 1/2e . 49.69 min). Clinical implications of these findings are discussed, particularly with respect to the rate and extent of drug absorption in elderly persons

  11. Comparison of thoracic kyphosis degree, trunk muscle strength and joint position sense among healthy and osteoporotic elderly women: a cross-sectional preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Increased thoracic kyphosis is one of the most disfiguring consequences of osteoporotic spine fractures in the elderly. However, mechanisms involved in the increasing of the kyphosis degree among osteoporotic women are not completely understood. Then, the aims of this cross-sectional preliminary study were comparing thoracic kyphosis degree, trunk muscle peak torque and joint position sense among healthy and osteoporotic elderly women and investigating possible factors affecting the kyphosis degree. Twenty women were selected for 2 groups: healthy (n=10) and osteoporotic (n=10) elderly women. Bone mineral density (BMD), thoracic kyphosis degree, trunk muscles peak torque and joint position sense were measured. Differences among groups were analyzed by Student's Test T for unpaired data. Correlations between variables were performed by Pearson's coefficient correlation. The level of significance used for all comparisons was 5% (p≤0.05). We observed that the osteoporotic women demonstrated a significantly higher degree of kyphosis and lower trunk extensor muscle peak torque. Moreover, it was found that the BMD had a negative correlation with the thoracic kyphosis degree. Kyphosis degree showed a negative correlation between extensor muscle strength and joint position sense index. This study suggests that lower BMD may be associated to higher degree of kyphosis degree, lower trunk extensors muscle strength and an impaired joint position sense. It is also suggested that lower extensor muscle strength may be a factor that contributes to the increasing in kyphosis thoracic degree. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Longitudinal assessment of cerebral 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in healthy elderly volunteers: an [{sup 18}F]-altanserin PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marner, Lisbeth; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Haugboel, Steven [University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Neurobiology Research Unit, N9201, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Holm, Soeren [Rigshospitalet, PET and Cyclotron Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Baare, William [Hvidovre Hospital, Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hasselbalch, Steen G. [University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Neurobiology Research Unit, N9201, Copenhagen O (Denmark)]|[Memory Disorders Research Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT{sub 2A}) receptor is of interest in several psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the present study we investigated the longitudinal stability of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors and the stability of the quantification procedure in the elderly in order to be able to study elderly patients with neuropsychiatric diseases on a longitudinal basis. [{sup 18}F]-Altanserin PET was used to quantify 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors in 12 healthy elderly individuals at baseline and at 2 years in six volumes of interest. A bolus/infusion protocol was used to achieve the binding potential, BP{sub P}. The reproducibility as assessed in terms of variability and the reliability as assessed in terms of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to compare inter- and intraobserver stability and to evaluate the effects of increasing complexity of partial volume (PV) corrections. We also compared the stability of our measurements over 2 years with the stability of data from an earlier study with 2-week test-retest measurements. BP{sub P} was unaltered at follow-up without the use of PV correction and when applying two-tissue PV correction, test-retest reproducibility was 12-15% and reliability 0.45-0.67 in the large bilateral regions such as the parietal, temporal, occipital and frontal cortices, while orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortical regions were less stable. The use of PV correction decreased the variability but also decreased the between-subject variation, thereby worsening the reliability. In healthy elderly individuals, brain 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor binding remains stable over 2 years, and acceptable reproducibility and reliability in larger regions and high intra- and interobserver stability allow the use of [{sup 18}F]-altanserin in longitudinal studies of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  13. The identification of fall history using maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensors in healthy, recreationally active elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Williams, Katherine B; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Douglas B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-08-01

    Maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles play an important role in fall prevention and other balance-related performances; however, few studies have investigated the ability of these variables at identifying fall-history status in healthy, recreationally active elderly adults. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles to differentiate between healthy, recreationally active elderly females with (fallers) and without (non-fallers) a history a falls. Six elderly female fallers (mean ± SD: age = 73 ± 7 year; mass = 68 ± 16 kg; height = 160 ± 5 cm) and nine elderly female non-fallers (age = 71 ± 7 year; mass = 66 ± 16 kg; height = 157 ± 6 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at the early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms were greater (P = 0.039 and 0.011, respectively) in the non-fallers compared to the fallers. However, no group-related differences (P = 0.160-0.573) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms. Early rapid strength production of the hip extensor muscles may be a sensitive and effective measure for discriminating between elderly females of different fall histories. These findings may provide important insight regarding implications for the assessment of fall risk and in the development of proper training programs aimed at minimizing the occurrence of falls and other balance-related injuries in the elderly.

  14. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials.

  15. Modifications in resting state functional anticorrelation between default mode network and dorsal attention network: comparison among young adults, healthy elders and mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Roberto; Cieri, Filippo; Chiacchiaretta, Piero; Cera, Nicoletta; Lauriola, Mariella; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Tartaro, Armando; Ferretti, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Resting state brain activity incorporates different components, including the Default Mode Network and the Dorsal Attention Network, also known as task-negative network and task-positive network respectively. These two networks typically show an anticorrelated activity during both spontaneous oscillations and task execution. However modifications of this anticorrelated activity pattern with age and pathology are still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate differences in resting state Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network functional anticorrelation among young adults, healthy elders and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients. We retrospectively enrolled in this study 27 healthy young adults (age range: 25-35 y.o.; mean age: 28,5), 26 healthy elders (age range: 61-72 y.o.; mean age: 65,1) and 17 MCI patients (age range 64-87 y.o.; mean age: 73,6). Mild Cognitive Impairment patients were selected following Petersen criteria. All participants underwent neuropsychological evaluation and resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spontaneous anticorrelated activity between Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network was observed in each group. This anticorrelation was significantly decreased with age in most Default Mode Network-Dorsal Attention Network connections (p Default Mode Network and the right inferior parietal sulcus node of the Dorsal Attention Network was significantly decreased when comparing Mild Cognitive Impairment with normal elders (p Default Mode Network and Dorsal Attention Network is part of the normal aging process and that Mild Cognitive Impairment status is associated with more evident inter-networks functional connectivity changes.

  16. MR influence of different magnetic field and different scanner with same magnetic field on apparent diffusion coefficient of abdominal organs in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jiayin; Yang Zhenghan; Chen Min; Zhou Cheng; Zhang Jiacheng; Li Jinning

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reproducibility of ADC measurements at 1.5 vs 3.0 T and at 1.5 T of different scanners in liver, spleen and pancreas of healthy volunteers. Methods: Abdominal DWI were performed on 33 healthy volunteers by using GE 1.5 T, Siemens 1.5 T and Philips 3.0 T MR scanners. The mean ADC values of liver, spleen, pancreatic head, body, and tail were calculated. The ADC data were analyzed by using paired-sample t tests. Results: The mean ADC of liver at GE 1.5 T, Siemens 1.5 T and Philips 3.0 T were (1.56 ±0.10) × 10"-"3, (1.67 ±0.15) × 10"-"3 and (1.35 ±0.12) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, spleen were (0.96±0.10) × 10"-"3, (0.98 ±0.11) × 10"-"3 and (0.81 ±0.14) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, pancreatic head were (2.09 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3, (2.20 ± 0.21) × 10"-"3 and (2.05 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, pancreatic body were (2.03 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3, (2.09 ± 0.30) × 10"-"3 and (1.76 ± 0.25) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, pancreatic tail were (1.88 ± 0.28) × 10"-"3, (1.88 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3 and (1.56 ± 0.27) × 10"-"3 mm"2/s, respectively. From the aspect of different field strength MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver (t = 11.073, P 0.05 in GE 1.5 T vs Philips 3.0 T; t = 1.349, P > 0.05 in Siemens 1.5 T vs Philips 3.0 T). From the aspect of different 1.5 T MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver (t = -4.563, P 0.05), pancreatic head (t = -0.879, P > 0.05), body (t = -1.020, P > 0.05) and tail (t = 0.054, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Between 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver, spleen, pancreatic body and tail, but there were no significant differences in mean ADC of pancreatic head. At different 1.5 T MR scanners, there were significant differences in mean ADC of liver, but there were no significant differences in mean ADC of spleen, pancreatic head, body and tail. (authors)

  17. A molecular survey of bovine Theileria parasites among apparently healthy cattle and with a note on the distribution of ticks in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Munir; Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir

    2006-06-15

    A survey of Theileria parasites in cattle in eastern Turkey was carried out using specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 252 blood samples were collected from clinically healthy cattle between June and July 2004. Of 252 blood samples examined, 41 (16%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy, whereas 114 (45%) were positive for the presence of at least one species of Theileria by PCR. The percentages of positive animals for Theileria annulata and benign Theileria species (Theileria sergenti/buffeli/orientalis) were 39% (99/252) and 7% (18/252), respectively. By allele-specific PCR examination of 18 field isolates which were positive for benign Theileria parasites, 8 samples were only amplified by B-type specific primers and 10 samples were amplified by both of the B and C-type specific primers, indicating a mixed infection with B and C-type of the parasite. None of the field isolates was amplified by I-type specific primers. Three samples were co-infected with T. annulata and benign Theileria parasites. Two of them which were infected with B-type parasite were also infected with T. annulata, the other sample which was infected both of B and C-type parasites was also infected with T. annulata. A total of 724 ixodid ticks were collected from the cattle. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the dominant species with 32% (230/724) in the region. H. a. excavatum, Boophylus annulatus and Rhipicephalus bursa represented 25% (183/724), 19% (140/724) and 15% (112/724) of the total number of ticks, respectively. R. sanguineus was the minor species and represented 8% (59/724) of the tick population.

  18. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  19. Worsening diastolic function is associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose and increased left ventricular mass in a supra-additive fashion in an elderly, healthy, Swedish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether increasing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were associated with worsening left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, independently of LV mass index (LVMI) in elderly, otherwise healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested cross-sectional associations between...... echocardiographically determined averaged E/é ratio/diastolic function, LVMI, cardiovascular risk factors, and FPG categorized as normal (NFG), impaired (IFG), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), in 483 men and 208 women aged 56-79years without overt cardiovascular disease, who received no cardiovascular, anti...

  20. Effectiveness of the mHealth technology in improvement of healthy behaviors in an elderly population-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi, Maryam; Kaveh, Mohammad H

    2017-01-01

    Demographic changes in the 21st century, increased population of the elderly and high prevalence of related diseases call for new healthcare strategies that can change the behavior and lifestyle of elderly individuals. Innovative information and communication technology, such as mobile health (mHealth), can play a significant role. The present study was conducted aiming to assess the effectiveness of mHealth in improving health behaviors among an elderly population. This paper presents a systematic review involving a search of PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, Science Direct and Embase databases from [2012-2016]. Our search resulted after initial evaluations 12 articles. Inclusion criteria mostly revolved around interventional studies, other studies were excluded because of their methodology, non-elderly target groups and irrelevant to the subject. Findings showed that mHealth can improve care, self-management, self-efficacy, behavior promotion (quality of sleep, diet, physical activity mental health) and medication adherence. The mHealth technology has proven effective for disease prevention, lifestyle changes, management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and is a suitable tool for elderly people. In conclusion, it seems that mHealth can facilitate behavioral changes; although, further research is necessary in this regard.

  1. A pilot randomized controlled trial using EEG-based brain-computer interface training for a Chinese-speaking group of healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tih-Shih; Quek, Shin Yi; Goh, Siau Juinn Alexa; Phillips, Rachel; Guan, Cuntai; Cheung, Yin Bun; Feng, Lei; Wang, Chuan Chu; Chin, Zheng Yang; Zhang, Haihong; Lee, Jimmy; Ng, Tze Pin; Krishnan, K Ranga Rama

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cognitive training (CT) can improve the cognitive functioning of the elderly. CT may be influenced by cultural and linguistic factors, but research examining CT programs has mostly been conducted on Western populations. We have developed an innovative electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) CT program that has shown preliminary efficacy in improving cognition in 32 healthy English-speaking elderly adults in Singapore. In this second pilot trial, we examine the acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of our BCI CT program in healthy Chinese-speaking Singaporean elderly. Thirty-nine elderly participants were randomized into intervention (n=21) and wait-list control (n=18) arms. Intervention consisted of 24 half-hour sessions with our BCI-based CT training system to be completed in 8 weeks; the control arm received the same intervention after an initial 8-week waiting period. At the end of the training, a usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered. Efficacy was measured using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), which was translated and culturally adapted for the Chinese-speaking local population. Users were asked about any adverse events experienced after each session as a safety measure. The training was deemed easily usable and acceptable by senior users. The median difference in the change scores pre- and post-training of the modified RBANS total score was 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0-16.0, P=0.042) higher in the intervention arm than waitlist control, while the mean difference was 9.0 (95% CI: 1.7-16.2, P=0.017). Ten (30.3%) participants reported a total of 16 adverse events - all of which were graded "mild" except for one graded "moderate". Our BCI training system shows potential in improving cognition in both English- and Chinese-speaking elderly, and deserves further evaluation in a Phase III trial. Overall, participants

  2. Evaluation of serum trace element, biochemical and hematological data of a healthy elderly group residing in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, N.M.; Jaluul, O.; Jacob-Filho, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.06). (author)

  3. A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tih-Shih Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n = 15 and waitlist control arms (n = 16. Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simon's randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn = 4.0; p<0.001. Specifically, there were significant improvements in immediate memory (p = 0.038, visuospatial/constructional (p = 0.014, attention (p = 0.039, and delayed memory (p<0.001 scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise in improving memory and attention in healthy

  4. Effects of 2-Year Cognitive⁻Motor Dual-Task Training on Cognitive Function and Motor Ability in Healthy Elderly People: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Emiko; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Imai, Daiki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ota, Akemi; Kawai, Eriko; Suzuki, Yuta; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2018-05-11

    We aimed to examine the effect of 2-year cognitive⁻motor dual-task (DT) training on cognitive functions and motor ability of healthy elderly people without marked cognitive impairment. From the 25 participants of our 12-week DT trial conducted in 2014, we recruited 8 subjects who voluntarily participated in a new DT training program once a week for 2 years (exercise (EX) group). Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination and the Trail Making Test, and results were compared with those of the 11 subjects who discontinued the training and did not perform any types of exercise for 2 years (non-exercise (NO) group). Subjects in the NO group showed deterioration in the 3MS examination results, especially in the cognitive domain of attention. Meanwhile, participation in DT training maintained the scores in almost all domains of cognitive function, as well as the total 3MS scores. However, both groups had impaired quadriceps muscle strength and motor ability after the 2-year observation period. These results suggest that participating in exercise program comprising DT training for 2 years may be beneficial for maintaining the broad domains of cognitive function in healthy elderly people, although further verification is needed.

  5. Effects of 2-Year Cognitive–Motor Dual-Task Training on Cognitive Function and Motor Ability in Healthy Elderly People: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Morita

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the effect of 2-year cognitive–motor dual-task (DT training on cognitive functions and motor ability of healthy elderly people without marked cognitive impairment. From the 25 participants of our 12-week DT trial conducted in 2014, we recruited 8 subjects who voluntarily participated in a new DT training program once a week for 2 years (exercise (EX group. Their cognitive functions were evaluated by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS examination and the Trail Making Test, and results were compared with those of the 11 subjects who discontinued the training and did not perform any types of exercise for 2 years (non-exercise (NO group. Subjects in the NO group showed deterioration in the 3MS examination results, especially in the cognitive domain of attention. Meanwhile, participation in DT training maintained the scores in almost all domains of cognitive function, as well as the total 3MS scores. However, both groups had impaired quadriceps muscle strength and motor ability after the 2-year observation period. These results suggest that participating in exercise program comprising DT training for 2 years may be beneficial for maintaining the broad domains of cognitive function in healthy elderly people, although further verification is needed.

  6. Postural tasks are associated with center of pressure spatial patterns of three-dimensional statokinesigrams in young and elderly healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracat, Patrícia Junqueira Ferraz; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the association between postural tasks and center of pressure spatial patterns of three-dimensional statokinesigrams. Young (n=35; 27.0±7.7years) and elderly (n=38; 67.3±8.7years) healthy volunteers maintained an undisturbed standing position during postural tasks characterized by combined sensory (vision/no vision) and biomechanical challenges (feet apart/together). A method for the analysis of three-dimensional statokinesigrams based on nonparametric statistics and image-processing analysis was employed. Four patterns of spatial distribution were derived from ankle and hip strategies according to the quantity (single; double; multi) and location (anteroposterior; mediolateral) of high-density regions on three-dimensional statokinesigrams. Significant associations between postural task and spatial pattern were observed (young: gamma=0.548, p<.001; elderly: gamma=0.582, p<.001). Robustness analysis revealed small changes related to parameter choices for histogram processing. MANOVA revealed multivariate main effects for postural task [Wilks' Lambda=0.245, p<.001] and age [Wilks' Lambda=0.308, p<.001], with interaction [Wilks' Lambda=0.732, p<.001]. The quantity of high-density regions was positively correlated to stabilogram and statokinesigram variables (p<.05 or lower). In conclusion, postural tasks are associated with center of pressure spatial patterns and are similar in young and elderly healthy volunteers. Single-centered patterns reflected more stable postural conditions and were more frequent with complete visual input and a wide base of support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, E.M.; Trappenburg, M.C.; Leter, M.J.; Blauw, G. J.; Sipila, S.; Sillanpaa, E.; Narici, M.V.; Hogrel, J.Y.; Butler-Browne, G.; McPhee, J.S.; Gapeyeva, H.; Paasuke, M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, a common syndrome in the elderly, has not been reached yet. Prevalence rates vary between studies due to the use of different criteria encompassing different measures, correction factors and cutoff points. Objective: This study

  8. Circulating microRNAs disclose biology of normal cognitive function in healthy elderly people – a discovery twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Feddersen, Søren; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Neurobiology is regulated by miRNA. Here circulating plasma miRNAs were assayed on a 754 miRNA OpenArray platform using 90 monozygotic elderly twins (73–95 year of age) and associated with mini mental state examination (MMSE) and a five-component cognitive score (CCS) in an explorative study. Bot...

  9. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  10. Vitamin E supplementation in elderly lowers the oxidation rate of linoleic acid in LDL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.; Moser, U.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    .Oxidation of LDL–linoleic acid (LDL–LA), a major substrate for lipid peroxidation, may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 83 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 67–85 years, the direct protective effect of 100 IU vitamin

  11. Cognitive Improvement and Brain Changes after Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training in Healthy Elderly and Prodromal Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hohenfeld

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCognitive decline is characteristic for Alzheimer’s disease (AD and also for healthy ageing. As a proof-of-concept study, we examined whether this decline can be counteracted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback training. Visuospatial memory and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG were targeted.MethodsSixteen healthy elderly subjects (mean age 63.5 years, SD = 6.663 and 10 patients with prodromal AD (mean age 66.2 years, SD = 8.930 completed the experiment. Four additional healthy subjects formed a sham-feedback condition to validate the paradigm. The protocol spanned five examination days (T1–T5. T1 contained a neuropsychological pre-test, the encoding of a real-world footpath, and an anatomical MRI scan of the brain. T2–T4 included the fMRI neurofeedback training paradigm, in which subjects learned to enhance activation of the left PHG while recalling the path encoded on T1. At T5, the neuropsychological post-test and another anatomical MRI brain scan were performed. The neuropsychological battery included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA; the Visual and Verbal Memory Test (VVM; subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS; the Visual Patterns Test; and Trail Making Tests (TMT A and B.ResultsHealthy elderly and patients with prodromal AD showed improved visuospatial memory performance after neurofeedback training. Healthy subjects also performed better in a working-memory task (WMS backward digit-span and in the MoCA. Both groups were able to elicit parahippocampal activation during training, but no significant changes in brain activation were found over the course of the training. However, Granger-causality-analysis revealed changes in cerebral connectivity over the course of the training, involving the parahippocampus and identifying the precuneus as main driver of activation in both groups. Voxel-based morphometry showed increases in grey matter volumes in the precuneus and frontal cortex. Neither cognitive

  12. Polyparasitism in tuberculosis patients and apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarka Local Government Area had the highest prevalence (47%) of intestinal parasites which was significantly higher than Apa, the Local Government Area with the least prevalence of 17.7% parasitic infection, and this had no significant difference from the prevalence of multiple parasitism in the remaining six Local ...

  13. Dyslipidemias in a apparently healthy adults group

    OpenAIRE

    Querales, Marvin; Sánchez, César; Querales, Marisel

    2013-01-01

    Las dislipidemias constituyen un factor de riesgo cardiovascular esencial en el desarrollo de la aterosclerosis, teniendo una elevada incidencia en la actualidad y es uno de los focos de acción principales en el control clínico metabólico de la población susceptible, incluyendo individuos aparentemente sanos. Es por ello que el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la frecuencia de dislipidemias en un grupo de individuos aparentemente sanos con la finalidad de aportar datos que sirvan par...

  14. Anaemia in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a direct relationship between health and social position, especially between anaemia, level of education and social development. ... Among female students 69.4% had hypochromic red cells while all the male students had normochromic red cell; 75.0% of female students had mircrocytic red cells ...

  15. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Streppel, Martinette T; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Orfanos, Philippos; van den Hooven, Edith H; Pikhart, Hynek; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bobak, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kee, Frank; Franco, Oscar H; Park, Yikyung; Hallmans, Göran; Tjønneland, Anne; May, Anne M; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Růžena; Amiano, Pilar; Kampman, Ellen; Feskens, Edith J

    2014-11-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Lower-limb hot-water immersion acutely induces beneficial hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses in peripheral arterial disease and healthy, elderly controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kate N; van Rij, André M; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    Passive heat induces beneficial perfusion profiles, provides substantive cardiovascular strain, and reduces blood pressure, thereby holding potential for healthy and cardiovascular disease populations. The aim of this study was to assess acute responses to passive heat via lower-limb, hot-water immersion in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and healthy, elderly controls. Eleven patients with PAD (age 71 ± 6 yr, 7 male, 4 female) and 10 controls (age 72 ± 7 yr, 8 male, 2 female) underwent hot-water immersion (30-min waist-level immersion in 42.1 ± 0.6°C water). Before, during, and following immersion, brachial and popliteal artery diameter, blood flow, and shear stress were assessed using duplex ultrasound. Lower-limb perfusion was measured also using venous occlusion plethysmography and near-infrared spectroscopy. During immersion, shear rate increased ( P Lower-limb blood flow increased significantly in both groups, as measured from duplex ultrasound (>200%), plethysmography (>100%), and spectroscopy, while central and peripheral pulse-wave velocity decreased in both groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by 22 ± 9 mmHg (main effect P lower 3 h afterward. In PAD, popliteal shear profiles and claudication both compared favorably with those measured immediately following symptom-limited walking. A 30-min hot-water immersion is a practical means of delivering heat therapy to PAD patients and healthy, elderly individuals to induce appreciable systemic (chronotropic and blood pressure lowering) and hemodynamic (upper and lower-limb perfusion and shear rate increases) responses. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in apparently healthy and CVBD-suspect dogs in Portugal - a national serological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Luís

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted to dogs by arthropods including ticks and insects. Many CVBD-agents are of zoonotic concern, with dogs potentially serving as reservoirs and sentinels for human infections. The present study aimed at assessing the seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in dogs in Portugal. Methods Based on 120 veterinary medical centres from all the regions of mainland and insular Portugal, 557 apparently healthy and 628 CVBD-suspect dogs were sampled. Serum, plasma or whole blood was tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and antibodies to E. canis, B. burgdorferi s. l., Anaplasma spp. and L. infantum with two commercial in-clinic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Odds ratios (OR were calculated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent risk factors of exposure to the vector-borne agents. Results Total positivity levels to D. immitis, E. canis, B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., L. infantum, one or more agents and mixed agents were 3.6%, 4.1%, 0.2%, 4.5%, 4.3%, 14.0% and 2.0% in the healthy group, and 8.9%, 16.4%, 0.5%, 9.2%, 25.2%, 46.3% and 11.6% in the clinically suspect group, respectively. Non-use of ectoparasiticides was a risk factor for positivity to one or more agents both in the apparently healthy (OR = 2.1 and CVBD-suspect (OR = 1.5 dogs. Seropositivity to L. infantum (OR = 7.6, E. canis (OR = 4.1 and D. immitis (OR = 2.4 were identified as risk factors for the presence of clinical signs compatible with CVBDs. Positivity to mixed agents was not found to be a risk factor for disease. Conclusions Dogs in Portugal are at risk of becoming infected with vector-borne pathogens, some of which are of zoonotic concern. CVBDs should be considered by practitioners and prophylactic measures must be put in

  18. Study and Comparison of Different Aspects Healthy Lifestyle of the Elderly People Residing in Nursing Homes, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shahnazi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the study results, it is suggested that health policymakers make appropriate plans to promote elderly lifestyle in nursing homes. With regard to seclusion and loneliness of old people, using strategies to alleviate stress and depression and also prevention of its physical and mental effects, seems to be absolutely needed. It can be a step toward promotion of health status of this vulnerable group.

  19. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knols, Ruud H; Swanenburg, Jaap; De Bon, Dino; Gennaro, Federico; Wolf, Martin; Krüger, Bernard; Bettex, Dominique; de Bruin, Eling D

    2017-01-01

    Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON). Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model) were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in-) correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02%) assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) ( n = 5) and EEG power ( n = 10) was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1-7) of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8-10), for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1), where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly ( p games ( p games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25-0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively. Further results indicate that video gaming may be an effective measure to affect prefrontal cortical functioning in elderly. The results warrant a clinical explorative study investigating the

  20. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a phase I open label study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Hibberd

    Full Text Available Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG has been consumed by 2 to 5 million people daily since the mid 1990s, there are few clinical trials describing potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly.The primary objective of this open label clinical trial is to assess the safety and tolerability of 1×1010 colony forming units (CFU of LGG administered orally twice daily to elderly volunteers for 28 days. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effects of LGG on the gastrointestinal microbiome, host immune response and plasma cytokines.Fifteen elderly volunteers, aged 66-80 years received LGG capsules containing 1×1010 CFU, twice daily for 28 days and were followed through day 56. Volunteers completed a daily diary, a telephone call on study days 3, 7 and 14 and study visits in the Clinical Research Center at baseline, day 28 and day 56 to determine whether adverse events had occurred. Assessments included prompted and open-ended questions.There were no serious adverse events. The 15 volunteers had a total of 47 events (range 1-7 per volunteer, 39 (83% of which were rated as mild and 40% of which were considered related to consuming LGG. Thirty-one (70% of the events were expected, prompted symptoms while 16 were unexpected events. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal (bloating, gas, and nausea, 27 rated as mild and 3 rated as moderate. In the exploratory analysis, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 decreased during LGG consumption, returning towards baseline one month after discontinuing LGG (p = 0.038 while there was no difference in other pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokines.Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 is safe and well tolerated in healthy adults aged 65 years and older.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 01274598.

  1. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  2. Main biomarkers associated with age-related plasma zinc decrease and copper/zinc ratio in healthy elderly from ZincAge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacconi, R; Costarelli, L; Piacenza, F; Basso, A; Rink, L; Mariani, E; Fulop, T; Dedoussis, G; Herbein, G; Provinciali, M; Jajte, J; Lengyel, I; Mocchegiani, E; Malavolta, M

    2017-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) plays an essential role in many biological processes including immune response. Impaired Zn status promotes immune dysfunction, and it has been associated with enhanced chronic inflammation during aging. It has been suggested that the measurement of circulating Zn by itself could not reflect the real Zn status of an individual. It is therefore necessary to identify other determinants associated with plasma Zn to better understanding how physiopathological conditions during aging may affect the concentration of this metal. We have investigated the association between Zn levels and some biomarkers in 1090 healthy elderly from five European countries to increase the accuracy in the assessment of the Zn status. Stepwise multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the influence of factors such as age, dietary intake, inflammatory mediators, laboratory parameters and polymorphisms previously associated with Zn homeostasis. Plasma Zn decrement was most strongly predicted by age, while positive correlations were found with albumin, RANTES and Zn intake after adjustment for multiple confounders. HSP70 +1267 AA genotype was an independent factor associated with Zn plasma concentrations. Cu/Zn ratio was positively associated with markers of systemic inflammation and age and negatively associated with albumin serum levels. Our findings show the most important independent determinants of plasma Zn concentration and Cu/Zn ratio variability in elderly population and suggest that the decline with age of Zn circulating levels is more dependent on physiopathological changes occurring with aging rather than to its nutritional intake.

  3. Vitamin D Levels and the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Chinese Elderly People: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchar, David B; Chei, Choy-Lye; Yin, Zhao-Xue; Koh, Victoria; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Shi, Xiao-Ming; Zeng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D has a neuroprotective function, potentially important for the prevention of cognitive decline. Prospective studies from Western countries support an association between lower vitamin D level and future cognitive decline in elderly people. No prospective study has examined this association in Asia. This community-based cohort study of elderly people in China follows 1,202 cognitively intact adults aged ≥60 years for a mean duration of 2 years. Plasma vitamin D level was measured at the baseline. Cognitive state of participants was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was defined as an MMSE score vitamin D levels with cognitive decline and incidence of cognitive impairment. Participants with low vitamin D level had an increased risk of cognitive decline. Compared with the highest quartile of vitamin D levels, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval) for cognitive decline were 2.1 (1.3-3.4) for the second highest quartile, 2.2 (1.4-3.6) for the third highest quartile, and 2.0 (1.2-3.3) for the lowest quartile. The multivariable ORs of incident cognitive impairment for the second highest, third highest, and lowest versus highest quartiles of vitamin D levels were 1.9 (0.9-4.1), 2.6 (1.2-5.6), and 3.2 (1.5-6.6), respectively. This first follow-up study of elderly people, including the oldest-old, in Asia shows that low vitamin D levels were associated with increased risk of subsequent cognitive decline and impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Analysis of static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly practitioners of Tai Chi Chuan versus ballroom dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antônio Rahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master¯ force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test. RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test.

  5. Association between exercise habits and subcortical gray matter volumes in healthy elderly people: A population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mikie; Wada-Isoe, Kenji; Yamashita, Fumio; Nakashita, Satoko; Kishi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Yamawaki, Mika; Nakashima, Kenji

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between exercise and subcortical gray matter volume is not well understood in the elderly population, although reports indicate that exercise may prevent cortical gray matter atrophy. To elucidate this association in the elderly, we measured subcortical gray matter volume and correlated this with volumes to exercise habits in a community-based cohort study in Japan. Subjects without mild cognitive impairment or dementia (n = 280, 35% male, mean age 73.1 ± 5.9 years) were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), an exercise habit questionnaire, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Subcortical gray matter volume was compared between groups based on the presence/absence of exercise habits. The MMSE was re-administered 3 years after the baseline examination. Ninety-one subjects (32.5%) reported exercise habits (exercise group), and 189 subjects (67.5%) reported no exercise habits (non-exercise group). Volumetric analysis revealed that the volumes in the exercise group were greater in the left hippocampus (p = 0.042) and bilateral nucleus accumbens (left, p = 0.047; right, p = 0.007) compared to those of the non-exercise group. Among the 195 subjects who received a follow-up MMSE examination, the normalized intra-cranial volumes of the left nucleus accumbens (p = 0.004) and right amygdala (p = 0.014)showed significant association with a decline in the follow-up MMSE score. Subjects with exercise habits show larger subcortical gray matter volumes than subjects without exercise habits in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Specifically, the volume of the nucleus accumbens correlates with both exercise habits and cognitive preservation.

  6. A Lower-Limb Training Program to Improve Balance in Healthy Elderly Women Using the T-Bow (R) Device

    OpenAIRE

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Colado, Juan Carlos; Pablos Abella, Carlos; Naclerio Ayllón, Fernando José; Garcia-Massó, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Ageing impairs balance, which increases the risk of falls. Fall-related injuries are a serious health problem associated with dependency and disability in the elderly and results in high costs to public health systems. This study aims to determine the effects of a training program to develop balance using a new device called the T-Bow (R). A total of 28 women > 65 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) (n = 18; 69.50 [0.99] years), or a control group (CG) (n = 10; 70.70 [2...

  7. Dose-dependent effects of fish oil on cardio-metabolic biomarkers in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Hu, Manjiang; Li, Cheng; Yang, Bo; Ding, Qing; Wang, Chunhong; Mao, Limei

    2018-06-20

    n-3PUFA consumption has been widely accepted as a nutritional strategy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the dose-response relationship between dietary n-3PUFA and serum biomarkers associated with cardiovascular health in the general population. The present study involved a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of fish oil with different doses (0.31, 0.62 and 1.24 g d-1 of EPA and DHA) on serum fatty acids and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, inflammatory markers, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people. 240 volunteers met our inclusion criteria. A total of 39 subjects dropped out and 201 finally completed the intervention. No significant differences in baseline characteristics and daily intakes of dietary nutrients were detected among all groups. After a 12-week intervention, fish oil dose-dependently enhanced serum EPA, DHA, n-3PUFA and adiponectin (except for 0.31 g d-1), but decreased serum n-6/n-3PUFA, TG and fasting glucose. Changes in the above indicators from the baseline to week 12 in fish oil groups significantly differed from those in the control. Meanwhile, all the doses of EPA and DHA led to decreases in serum CRP; only 1.24 g d-1 led to an increase in HDL-C with a concurrent decrease in TC/HDL-C even though these changes were not significantly different among all groups. All the findings suggested that fish oil dose-dependently regulated serum PUFA and cardio-metabolic biomarkers including adiponectin, CRP, lipid profiles and fasting glucose in healthy middle-aged and elderly Chinese people who consumed insufficient dietary n-3PUFA, and the most desirable changes were observed for 1.24 g d-1.

  8. Structural brain changes after traditional and robot-assisted multi-domain cognitive training in community-dwelling healthy elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Ha Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate if multi-domain cognitive training, especially robot-assisted training, alters cortical thickness in the brains of elderly participants. A controlled trial was conducted with 85 volunteers without cognitive impairment who were 60 years old or older. Participants were first randomized into two groups. One group consisted of 48 participants who would receive cognitive training and 37 who would not receive training. The cognitive training group was randomly divided into two groups, 24 who received traditional cognitive training and 24 who received robot-assisted cognitive training. The training for both groups consisted of daily 90-min-session, five days a week for a total of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the changes in cortical thickness. When compared to the control group, both groups who underwent cognitive training demonstrated attenuation of age related cortical thinning in the frontotemporal association cortices. When the robot and the traditional interventions were directly compared, the robot group showed less cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortices. Our results suggest that cognitive training can mitigate age-associated structural brain changes in the elderly.ClnicalTrials.gov NCT01596205.

  9. A pilot randomized controlled trial using EEG-based brain–computer interface training for a Chinese-speaking group of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee TS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tih-Shih Lee,1 Shin Yi Quek,1 Siau Juinn Alexa Goh,1 Rachel Phillips,2 Cuntai Guan,3 Yin Bun Cheung,4 Lei Feng,5 Chuan Chu Wang,3 Zheng Yang Chin,3 Haihong Zhang,3 Jimmy Lee,6 Tze Pin Ng,5 K Ranga Rama Krishnan1 1Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 2Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore; 3Institute for Infocomm Research, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; 4Centre for Quantitative Medicine, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore; 5Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 6Department of General Psychiatry/Department of Research, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore Background: There is growing evidence that cognitive training (CT can improve the cognitive functioning of the elderly. CT may be influenced by cultural and linguistic factors, but research examining CT programs has mostly been conducted on Western populations. We have developed an innovative electroencephalography (EEG-based brain–computer interface (BCI CT program that has shown preliminary efficacy in improving cognition in 32 healthy English-speaking elderly adults in Singapore. In this second pilot trial, we examine the acceptability, safety, and preliminary efficacy of our BCI CT program in healthy Chinese-speaking Singaporean elderly.Methods: Thirty-nine elderly participants were randomized into intervention (n=21 and waitlist control (n=18 arms. Intervention consisted of 24 half-hour sessions with our BCI-based CT training system to be completed in 8 weeks; the control arm received the same intervention after an initial 8-week waiting period. At the end of the training, a usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered. Efficacy was measured using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, which was translated and culturally adapted for the Chinese-speaking local population. Users were asked

  10. HOW TO DESIGN NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION TRIALS TO SLOW COGNITIVE DECLINE IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY POPULATIONS AND APPLY FOR EFFICACY CLAIMS: A STATEMENT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY ON NUTRITION AND AGING TASK FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M.; Coley, N.; Andrieu, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Caubere, J.P.; Cesari, M.; Gautry, J.; Garcia Sanchez, I.; Hugonot, L.; Mansuy, L.; Pahor, M.; Pariente, J.; Ritz, P.; Salva, A.; Sijben, J.; Wieggers, R.; Ythier-Moury, P.; Zaim, M.; Zetlaoui, J.; Vellas, B.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions are crucial as they offer simple and inexpensive public health solutions that will be useful over the long term use. A Task Force on designing trials of nutritional interventions to slow cognitive decline in older adults was held in Toulouse in September 2012. The aim of the Task Force was to bring together leading experts from academia, the food industry and regulatory agencies to determine the best trial designs that would enable us to reach our goal of maintaining or improving cognitive function in apparently healthy aging people. An associated challenge for this Task Force was to determine the type of trials required by the Public Food Agencies for assessing the impact of nutritional compounds in comparison to well established requirements for drug trials. Although the required quality of the study design, rationale and statistical analysis remains the same, the studies designed to show reduction of cognitive decline require a long duration and the objectives of this task force was to determine best design for these trials. Two specific needs were identified to support trials of nutritional interventions: 1- Risk- reduction strategies are needed to tackle the growing burden of cognitive decline that may lead to dementia, 2- Innovative study designs are needed to improve the quality of these studies. PMID:23933873

  11. Effect of 8-Week of Selected Aerobic Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Healthy Elderly Inactive Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mirmoezzi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that regular aerobic exercise improves dynamic balance in elderly men. We also found that jogging and walking improved dynamic balance. The improvement in balance may be due to the increase in nervous compatibility (due to exercise; increase in fitness, strength, and motion domain; improvement in aerobic status, response time and mental status; improvement in neuromuscular control, including a decrease in changing movement units; and improvement in simultaneous movement units. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between body composition and movement with balance. Therefore, regular aerobic activities are recommended as a suitable training method for improving balance.

  12. Yogurt supplemented with probiotics can protect the healthy elderly from respiratory infections: A randomized controlled open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fangfang; Guo, Yue; Li, Ming; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Shijie; Shen, Xi; He, Miao; Huang, Chengyu; He, Fang

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain could protect middle-aged and elderly people from acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) using a randomized, blank-controlled, parallel-group design. Two hundred and five volunteers aged ≥45 years were randomly divided into two groups. The subjects in the intervention group were orally administered 300 mL/d of yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 (N1115), 3.6×10 7 CFU/mL for 12 weeks, while those in the control group retained their normal diet without any probiotic supplementation. The primary outcome was the incidence of URTI, and changes in serum protein, immunoglobulins, and the profiles of the T-lymphocyte subsets (total T-cells [CD3 + ], T-helper cells [CD4 + ], and T-cytotoxic-suppressor cells [CD8 + ]) during the intervention were the secondary outcomes. Compared to the control group, the number of persons diagnosed with an acute URTI and the number of URTI events significantly decreased in the intervention group ( P =0.038, P =0.030, respectively). The risk of URTI in the intervention group was evaluated as 55% of that in the control group (relative risk =0.55, 95% CI: 0.307-0.969). The change in the percentage of CD3 + cells in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group ( P =0.038). However, no significant differences were observed in the total protein, albumin, globulin, and prealbumin levels in both groups ( P >0.05). The study suggested that yogurt with selected probiotic strains such as N1115 may reduce the risk of acute upper tract infections in the elderly. The enhancement of the T-cell-mediated natural immune defense might be one of the important underlying mechanisms for probiotics to express their anti-infective effects.

  13. Apolipoprotein E genotype is associated with temporal and hippocampal atrophy rates in healthy elderly adults: a tensor-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Po H; Thompson, Paul M; Leow, Alex; Lee, Grace J; Lee, Agatha; Yanovsky, Igor; Parikshak, Neelroop; Khoo, Theresa; Wu, Stephanie; Geschwind, Daniel; Bartzokis, George

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 genotype is a strong risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, the presence of the ε2 allele has been shown to mitigate cognitive decline. Tensor-based morphometry (TBM), a novel computational approach for visualizing longitudinal progression of brain atrophy, was used to determine whether cognitively intact elderly participants with the ε4 allele demonstrate greater volume reduction than those with the ε2 allele. Healthy "younger elderly" volunteers, aged 55-75, were recruited from the community and hospital staff. They were evaluated with a baseline and follow-up MRI scan (mean scan interval = 4.72 years, s.d. = 0.55) and completed ApoE genotyping. Twenty-seven participants were included in the study of which 16 had the ε4 allele (all heterozygous ε3ε4 genotype) and 11 had the ε2ε3 genotype. The two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic characteristics and all subjects were cognitively "normal" at both baseline and follow-up time points. TBM was used to create 3D maps of local brain tissue atrophy rates for individual participants; these spatially detailed 3D maps were compared between the two ApoE groups. Regional analyses were performed and the ε4 group demonstrated significantly greater annual atrophy rates in the temporal lobes (p = 0.048) and hippocampus (p = 0.016); greater volume loss was observed in the right hippocampus than the left. TBM appears to be useful in tracking longitudinal progression of brain atrophy in cognitively asymptomatic adults. Possession of the ε4 allele is associated with greater temporal and hippocampal volume reduction well before the onset of cognitive deficits.

  14. Healthy Reasoning: The Role of Effective Argumentation for Enhancing Elderly Patients' Self-management Abilities in Chronic Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for doctors working in chronic care is the correct management of the argumentation phases during the encounters with their patients. During these phases doctors should provide patients with acceptable reasons for being adherent to treatment and for changing certain unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles, something which is particularly difficult for elderly patients, for whom changing life long habits can be extremely hard. However, the medical literature on the subject of communication in the chronic care encounter shows lack of theoretical models and methodological approaches that can highlight which specific linguistic structures or elements in different communication styles favor or impede patient commitment, trust in the relationship and adherence to treatment. The contribution describes ongoing research on argumentative strategies in the encounter with diabetes patients. I describe one recently concluded research project on the argumentation phases of medical encounters in diabetes care, which highlighted critical areas in need of improvement. I also describe the design and aims of a new research project, aimed at testing the effectiveness and usability of certain argumentation schemes in the medical encounter.

  15. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Investigating the Usability and Acute Effects of a Bedside Video Console to Prefrontal Cortical Activity Alterations: A Preclinical Study in Healthy Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud H. Knols

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people at risk of developing cognitive decline; e.g., following surgery, may benefit from structured, challenging, and repetitive cognitive video training. This study assessed usability and acute effects of a newly developed bedside console (COPHYCON. Fifteen healthy elderly individuals performed a one-time 80-min intervention, including cognitive video games aimed at improving awareness and selective attention. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (Technology Acceptance Model were assessed together with measures of the achieved game level, reaction times, (in- correct responses during ALERT and SELECT game play. Further, prefrontal cortical involvement of the regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation (rS02% assessed with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS (n = 5 and EEG power (n = 10 was analyzed. All participants completed the study without any adverse events. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use (TAM scores range 1–7 of the system varied between 3.9 and 6.3. The game levels reached for awareness varied between 9 and 11 (initial score 8–10, for reaction speed between 439 and 469 ms, and for correct responses between 74.1 and 78.8%. The highest level for the selective attention games was 2 (initial score 1, where reaction speed varied between 439 and 469 ms, correct responses between 96.2 and 98.5%, respectively. The decrease of rS02% in the right prefrontal cortex during gameplay was significantly (p < 0.001 lower, compared to the left prefrontal cortex. Four participants yielded significant lower rS02% measures after exergaming with the ALERT games (p < 0.000, but not with the SELECT games. EEG recordings of theta power significantly decreased in the averaged ~0.25–0.75 time interval for the left prefrontal cortex sensor across the cognitive game levels between the ALERT 1 and SELECT 1, as well as between SELECT 1 and 2 games. Participants rated the usability of the COPHYCON training positively

  17. Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (Melcalin hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values depression, anxietyand stress symptoms, daily supplementation with a hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.

  18. Cerebral Microbleeds and White Matter Hyperintensities in Cognitively Healthy Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study Evaluating the Effect of Arterial Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Märta Gustavsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arterial stiffness reflects the ageing processes in the vascular system, and studies have shown an association between reduced cognitive function and cerebral small vessel disease. Small vessel disease can be visualized as white matter hyperintensities (WMH and lacunar infarcts but also as cerebral microbleeds on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We aimed to investigate if arterial stiffness influences the presence of microbleeds, WMH and cognitive function in a population of cognitively healthy elderly. Methods: The study population is part of the Swedish BioFinder study and consisted of 208 individuals without any symptoms of cognitive impairment, who scored >27 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. The participants (mean age, 72 years; 59% women underwent MRI of the brain with visual rating of microbleeds and WMH. Arterial stiffness was measured with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV. Eight cognitive tests covering different cognitive domains were performed. Results: Microbleeds were detected in 12% and WMH in 31% of the participants. Mean (±standard deviation, SD cfPWV was 10.0 (±2.0 m/s. There was no association between the presence of microbleeds and arterial stiffness. There was a positive association between arterial stiffness and WMH independent of age or sex (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.40, p 0.05. Cognitive performance was not associated with microbleeds, but individuals with WMH performed slightly worse than those without WMH on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (mean ± SD, 35 ± 7.8 vs. 39 ± 8.1, p Conclusions: Arterial stiffness was not associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds or cognitive function in cognitively healthy elderly. However, arterial stiffness was related to the presence of WMH, but the association was attenuated when multiple adjustments were made. There was a weak negative association between WMH and performance in one specific test of attention

  19. Clinical and cognitive trajectories in cognitively healthy elderly individuals with suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (SNAP) or Alzheimer's disease pathology: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Samantha C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Doré, Vincent; Savage, Greg; Brown, Belinda; Laws, Simon; Maruff, Paul; Salvado, Olivier; Ames, David; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2016-09-01

    Brain amyloid β (Aβ) deposition and neurodegeneration have been documented in about 50-60% of cognitively healthy elderly individuals (aged 60 years or older). The long-term cognitive consequences of the presence of Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration, and whether they have an independent or synergistic effect on cognition, are unclear. We aimed to characterise the long-term clinical and cognitive trajectories of healthy elderly individuals using a two-marker (Alzheimer's disease pathology and neurodegeneration) imaging construct. Between Nov 3, 2006, and Nov 25, 2014, 573 cognitively healthy individuals in Melbourne and Perth, Australia, (mean age 73·1 years [SD 6·2]; 58% women) were enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. Alzheimer's disease pathology (A) was determined by measuring Aβ deposition by PET, and neurodegeneration (N) was established by measuring hippocampal volume using MRI. Individuals were categorised as A(-)N(-), A(+)N(-), A(+)N(+), or suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology (A(-)N(+), SNAP). Clinical progression, hippocampal volume, standard neuropsychological tests, and domain-specific and global cognitive composite scores were assessed over 6 years of follow-up. Linear mixed effect models and a Cox proportional hazards model of survival were used to evaluate, compare, and contrast the clinical, cognitive, and volumetric trajectories of patients in the four AN categories. 50 (9%) healthy individuals were classified as A(+)N(+), 87 (15%) as A(+)N(-), 310 (54%) as A(-)N(-), and 126 (22%) as SNAP. APOE ε4 was more frequent in participants in the A(+)N(+) (27; 54%) and A(+)N(-) (42; 48%) groups than in the A(-)N(-) (66; 21%) and SNAP groups (23; 18%). The A(+)N(-) and A(+)N(+) groups had significantly faster cognitive decline than the A(-)N(-) group (0·08 SD per year for AIBL-Preclinical AD Cognitive Composite [PACC]; p<0·0001; and 0·25; p<0·0001; respectively). The A (+)N

  20. Can sleep quality and wellbeing be improved by changing the indoor lighting in the homes of healthy, elderly citizens?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Birgit; Markvart, Jakob; Kessel, Line

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of bright blue-enriched versus blue-deprived indoor light on sleep and wellbeing of healthy participants over 65 years. Twenty-nine participants in 20 private houses in a uniform settlement in Copenhagen were exposed over 3 weeks to blue-enriched (280 Lux) and 3...... weeks to blue-deprived (240 Lux) indoor light from 8 to 13 pm in a randomized cross-over design. The two light epochs were separated by one week neutral indoor light. Participants were examined at baseline and at the end of each light epoch. The primary endpoint was sleep duration during the last week...... of each light epoch measured by diary. Sleep quality was assessed using Pittsburg sleep questionnaire index (PSQI). Circadian rhythm was measured by Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire (MEscore), chromatic pupillometry and melatonin sampling. Actiwatches were used to monitor light exposure and activity...

  1. Mechanics of apparent horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.

    1992-01-01

    An equation for the variation in the surface area of an apparent horizon is derived which has the same form as the thermodynamic relation TdS=dQ. For a stationary vacuum black hole, the expression corresponding to a temperature equals the temperature of the event horizon. Also, if the black hole is perturbed infinitesimally by weak matter and gravitational fields, the area variation of the apparent horizon asymptotically approaches the Hartle-Hawking result for the event horizon. These results support the idea that a local version of black-hole thermodynamics in nonstationary systems can be constructed for apparent horizons

  2. Agreement among Goldmann applanation tonometer, iCare, and Icare PRO rebound tonometers; non-contact tonometer; and Tonopen XL in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshitake; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Matsuo, Naoko; Yoshitomi, Kayo; Handa, Marina; Tabuchi, Hitoshi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the inter-device agreement among the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), iCare and Icare PRO rebound tonometers, non-contact tonometer (NCT), and Tonopen XL tonometer. Sixty healthy elderly subjects were enrolled. The intraocular pressure (IOP) in each subject's right eye was measured thrice using each of the five tonometers. Intra-device agreement was evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Inter-device agreement was evaluated by ICC and Bland-Altman analyses. ICCs for intra-device agreement for each tonometer were >0.8. IOP as measured by iCare (mean ± SD, 11.6 ± 2.5 mmHg) was significantly lower (p tonometers (all ICCs tonometers ranged from 14.94 to 16.47 mmHg. Among the other tonometers, however, the widths of 95% limits of agreement ranged from 7.91 to 9.24 mmHg. There was good inter-device agreement among GAT, rebound tonometers, and NCT. Tonopen XL shows the worst agreement with the other tonometers; therefore, we should pay attention to its' respective IOP. Japan Clinical Trials Register; number: UMIN000011544.

  3. Clinical trial: single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) in healthy young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, R W; Nix, L C; Chavira, R E; Cleveland, M Vb; Stetson, P

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG-3350) have not been fully described because of lack of a sufficiently sensitive analytical method. To describe the pharmacokinetics of PEG-3350 in humans. A highly sensitive, high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method was developed for PEG-3350 in urine, plasma and faeces with quantification limits of 30 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL and 500 microg/g respectively. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetics methods were used and the effects of gender, age, renal status and dosing frequency were examined after the oral administration of 17 g to healthy volunteers. Peak PEG-3350 plasma concentrations occurred at 2-4 h and declined to nonquantifiable levels usually within 18 h after single and multiple doses, with a half-life of about 4-6 h. Steady state was reached within 5 days of dosing. Mean urinary excretion of the administered dose ranged from 0.19% to 0.25%. Age, gender or mild kidney impairment did not alter the pharmacokinetics of PEG-3350. Mean faecal excretion of the administered dose was 93% in young subjects. For the first time, a highly sensitive assay allowed comprehensive pharmacokinetics studies of PEG-3350 in humans. These studies confirmed that orally administered PEG-3350 is minimally absorbed, rapidly excreted and primarily eliminated via faeces.

  4. Can sleep quality and wellbeing be improved by changing the indoor lighting in the homes of healthy, elderly citizens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Birgit; Markvart, Jakob; Kessel, Line; Argyraki, Aikaterini; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of bright blue-enriched versus blue-suppressed indoor light on sleep and wellbeing of healthy participants over 65 years. Twenty-nine participants in 20 private houses in a uniform settlement in Copenhagen were exposed to two light epochs of 3 weeks with blue-enriched (280 lux) and 3 weeks blue-suppressed (240 lux) indoor light or vice versa from 8 to 13 pm in a randomized cross-over design. The first light epoch was in October, the second in November and the two light epochs were separated by one week. Participants were examined at baseline and at the end of each light epoch. The experimental indoor light was well tolerated by the majority of the participants. Sleep duration was 7.44 (95% CI 7.14–7.74) hours during blue-enriched conditions and 7.31 (95% CI 7.01–7.62) hours during blue-suppressed conditions (p = 0.289). Neither rest hours, chromatic pupillometry, nor saliva melatonin profile showed significant changes between blue-enriched and blue-suppressed epochs. Baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was significantly worse in females; 7.62 (95% CI 5.13–10.0) versus 4.06 (95% CI 2.64–5.49) in males, p = 0.009. For females, PSQI improved significantly during blue-enriched light exposure (p = 0.007); no significant changes were found for males. The subjective grading of indoor light quality doubled from participants habitual indoor light to the bright experimental light, while it was stable between light epochs, although there were clear differences between blue-enriched and blue-suppressed electrical light conditions imposed. Even though the study was carried out in the late autumn at northern latitude, the only significant difference in Actiwatch-measured total blue light exposure was from 8 to 9 am, because contributions from blue-enriched, bright indoor light were superseded by contributions from daylight. PMID:26181467

  5. Development and Validation of an Interactive Internet Platform for Older People: The Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongstra, Susan; Beishuizen, Cathrien; Andrieu, Sandrine; Barbera, Mariagnese; van Dorp, Matthijs; van de Groep, Bram; Guillemont, Juliette; Mangialasche, Francesca; van Middelaar, Tessa; Moll van Charante, Eric; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia; Richard, Edo

    2017-02-01

    A myriad of Web-based applications on self-management have been developed, but few focus on older people. In the face of global aging, older people form an important target population for cardiovascular prevention. This article describes the full development of an interactive Internet platform for older people, which was designed for the Healthy Ageing Through Internet Counselling in the Elderly (HATICE) study. We provide recommendations to design senior-friendly Web-based applications for a new approach to multicomponent cardiovascular prevention. The development of the platform followed five phases: (1) conceptual framework; (2) platform concept and functional design; (3) platform building (software and content); (4) testing and pilot study; and (5) final product. We performed a meta-analysis, reviewed guidelines for cardiovascular diseases, and consulted end users, experts, and software developers to create the platform concept and content. The software was built in iterative cycles. In the pilot study, 41 people aged ≥65 years used the platform for 8 weeks. Participants used the interactive features of the platform and appreciated the coach support. During all phases adjustments were made to incorporate all improvements from the previous phases. The final platform is a personal, secured, and interactive platform supported by a coach. When carefully designed, an interactive Internet platform is acceptable and feasible for use by older people with basic computer skills. To improve acceptability by older people, we recommend involving the end users in the process of development, to personalize the platform and to combine the application with human support. The interactive HATICE platform will be tested for efficacy in a multinational randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN48151589).

  6. Sex-related and tissue-specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy: assessment in a large longitudinal cohort of healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eDuriez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy in a large cohort of healthy elderly participants (65 to 80 years. MRI was used for measuring whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and hippocampus (HIP volumes at study entry time (baseline, N=1,451, and the annualized rates of variation of these volumes using a 4-year follow-up MRI in a subpart of the cohort (N=1,111. Effects of smoking status (never, former, or current smoker at study entry and of lifetime tobacco consumption on these brain phenotypes were studied using sex-stratified AN(COVAs, including other health parameters as covariates. At baseline, male current smokers had lower GM, while female current smokers had lower WM. In addition, female former smokers exhibited reduced baseline HIP, the reduction being correlated with lifetime tobacco consumption. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that current smokers, whether men or women, had larger annualized rates of HIP atrophy, as compared to either current or former smokers, independent of their lifetime consumption of tobacco. There was no effect of smoking on the annualized rate of WM loss. In all cases, measured sizes of these tobacco-smoking effects were of the same order of magnitude than those of age, and larger than effect sizes of any other covariate. These results demonstrate gender- and tissue specific effects of tobacco smoking on brain atrophy. They indicate that tobacco smoking is a major factor of brain aging, with notable effects on the hippocampus annualized-rate of atrophy after the age of 65.

  7. Remembering apparent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment systematically investigates the role of narrative templates (Wertsch, 2002) in remembering. To stimulate the construction of a diversity of narratives I used Heider and Simmel’s (1944) celebrated “apparent behavior” film, in which geometric shapes moving around a screen...

  8. Memory training in healthy elders: outcomes and possible mechanisms of improvement / Treino de memória no idoso saudável: benefícios e mecanismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sanches Yassuda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Studies document a change in memory during the process of aging. However, studies report the possibility of improvement after training. OBJECTIVE: To replicate international findings regarding the effects of memory training with a sample of Brazilian elders and to investigate mechanisms, such as the use of strategies, that can explain its benefits. METHODS: 69 healthy Brazilian elders were randomly divided into an experimental group (EG and a control group (CG, and received four sessions of training (CG received training after pos-test. Training included information on memory and the process of aging, instruction and practice in organizing grocery lists and the underlining of main ideas in short texts. RESULTS: There was superior improvement for prose recall and greater use of strategies (organizing lists and underlining texts for the EG at post-test. Both groups reported fewer memory complaints (assessed with the MAC-Q and faster information processing (WAIS-R Digit Symbols sub-test. CONCLUSIONS: After training, elders intensify the use of strategies, however, this fact does not guarantee a better performance (there was no significant improvement in list recalls. List recall results suggest the presence of the utilization deficiency: elders used the strategy but failed to benefit from it.

  9. Oral temperature and cardiovascular responses of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral temperature and cardiovascular responses of apparently healthy subjects to passive and active warm-up. BOA Adegoke, OO Ogwumike, FA Maruf. Abstract. This study investigated and compared the effects of active and passive warm-up on oral temperature and cardiovascular parameters of forty (20 males and 20 ...

  10. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  11. Performances on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and Rey Complex Figure Test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample--reference data and validity issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    . The RCFT copy score was significantly related to age and the DART score. On RCFT recall a highly significant difference was found between persons who could make a faultless copy and persons with incomplete copy performance. Thus, this study presents separate data for RCFT recall scores according...... to the subjects' copying performance (in separate tables for age and education groups). For all measures on both RAVLT and RCFT wide distributions of scores were found and the impact of this broad score range on the tests' discriminative validity is discussed. RAVLT performances for elderly were similar...... to previous published meta-norms, but the included sample of elderly Danes performed better on RCFT (copy and recall) than elderly from the United States....

  12. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  13. No evidence of harms of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in healthy elderly-a Phase I Open Label Study to assess safety, tolerability and cytokine responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) has been consumed since the mid 1990s by between 2 and 5 million people daily, the scientific literature lacks rigorous clinical trials that describe the potential harms of LGG, particularly in the elderly. The primary objective of this open label...

  14. Left atrial and ventricular function during dobutamine and glycopyrrolate stress in healthy young and elderly as evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahtarovski, Kiril A; Iversen, Kasper K; Lønborg, Jacob T

    2012-01-01

    but not in the young. At rest, LVPFR was lower in the elderly, and during PS this difference was augmented. The aging heart has reduced LVPFR, which is reflected in reduced LA passive and compensatory increased LA active volumetric contribution to LV stroke volume. These age-related differences are evident at rest...

  15. Efectos del ejercicio físico sobre la memoria episódica en ancianas chilenas sanas (Effects of Physical Exercise on the Episodic Memory in Healthy Elderly Chileans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el efecto de un programa de actividad física regular sobre la memoria episódica verbal y visuoespacial en ancianas chilenas mentalmente sanas. Participaron 74 ancianas sin deterioro cognitivo, divididas en un grupo de intervención, integrado por 34 de ellas, que realizaron actividad física por seis meses; y un grupo control integrado por 40 sedentarias. Se utilizó el Test de Aprendizaje Auditivo Verbal de Rey (TAAVR y el Test de la Figura Compleja de Rey (TFCR para la evaluación de la memoria episódica. Asimismo, se realizaron análisis inter e intragrupales con t student y d de Cohen para medir el tamaño de efecto de las pruebas t. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el postest entre el grupo de intervención (GI y grupo control (GC, observándose mejor rendimiento en las pruebas de memoria episódica verbal y visual del GI con un tamaño de efecto alto. Se concluye que la actividad física regular aumenta la capacidad de procesamiento, retención y evocación de la información verbal y visual episódica en mujeres ancianas sanas. Abstract: Our objective was to analyze the effect of a regular physical activity program on the verbal and visuospatial episodic memory on mentally healthy elderly Chileans. Participated 74 elderly women without cognitive impairment – divided into an intervention group = 34 elderly women, who carried out physical activity for six months; and a control group = 40 sedentary women. We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT, and the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT for the evaluation of the episodic memory. Analysis were performed inter- and intra-group with t student and d of Cohen to measure the effect size of t-tests. The results showed statistically significant differences in the post-test between the Intervention Group (IG and Control Group (CG; noticing better yields in the verbal and visual episodic

  16. The role of sex and autonomy-connectedness in internalizing and externalizing personality pathology, coping and axis-I pathology: among psychiatric and healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Nathan; Croon, Marcel; Bekker, Marrie

    2017-06-01

    In the current study we investigated the relationship of sex and autonomy-connectedness with internalizing and externalizing personality disorder symptoms (PDS), coping and axis-I pathology in older age. A path model was tested which was based on neo-analytical object relation, attachment- and primary-personality theory, among 100 clinical and 106 non-clinical elderly. In line with our model, autonomy-connectedness (self-awareness and capacity of managing new situations) was strongly associated to internalizing PDS in both groups. In both groups, neither sex nor autonomy-connectedness predicted externalizing PDS. Sex, internalizing as well as externalizing PDS and reactive defensive coping were associated to axis-I psychopathology. We conclude that sex and autonomy-connectedness were, similarly as in adult populations, associated to internalizing PDS and axis-I pathology. Treatment of elderly with internalizing PDS and axis-I psychopathology should therefore focus on enhancing autonomy-connectedness.

  17. Efeitos de um treino cognitivo na qualidade de vida e no bem-estar psicológico de idosos Effects of a cognitive training on the quality of life and well-being of healthy elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A funcionalidade cognitiva de idosos está relacionada à sua saúde, à qualidade de vida e ao bem-estar psicológico, sendo considerada um indicador importante de envelhecimento ativo e longevidade. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de um treino cognitivo na qualidade de vida e no bem-estar psicológico de idosos. MÉTODOS: 76 idosos saudáveis, divididos em grupo experimental (GE e grupo controle (GC. O GE recebeu doze sessões de treino cognitivo, que envolvia a instrução e prática de exercícios. RESULTADOS: Após o treino, os idosos do GE apresentaram melhor desempenho cognitivo, melhor percepção de qualidade de vida e maiores índices de bem-estar psicológico. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que intervenções cognitivas que incluem tarefas de atenção, memória e funções executivas podem contribuir para a melhora da qualidade de vida e do bem-estar psicológico de idosos.INTRODUCTION: The cognitive functioning of the elderly is related to their health, quality of life and psychological well-being and is considered an important indication of active aging and longevity. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of a cognitive training program on the quality of life and psychological well-being of the elderly. METHODS: 76 healthy elderly individuals were divided into experimental group (EG and control group (CG. The EG received 12 sessions of cognitive training that involved exercise instruction and practice. RESULTS: After training, the elderly from EG presented better cognitive performance, better perception of quality of life and better scores of psychological well-being. CONCLUSION: We conclude that cognitive interventions that include attention, memory and executive function tasks can contribute to the improvement of quality of life and psychological well-being of the elderly.

  18. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  19. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  20. Determination of Cl, K, and Na in the blood serum of healthy elderly in the city of Sao Paulo, SP; Determinacao de Cl, K e Na em soro sanguineo de idosos saudaveis da cidade de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Nathalia Souza de; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: natsouzaraujo@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work determined the blood serum concentration of Cl, K, and Na from a healthy elderly population of the city of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil viewing the comparison with reference values used in clinical laboratories. For collecting these samples the present work were approved by the Ethic Committee of the FMUSP and IPEN-CNEN/SP. The quality of the analytical results were evaluated by the analysis of the reference material certification NIST 1577b Bovine Liver. The results presented good accuracy and precision due to the fact that they presented relative errors less than 5.2 % and standard deviation less than 8.6 %. The average concentrations (mmol L{sup -1}) of Cl in the analysed serum were 99.1; the K were 3.9 and the Na were 136.9. The obtained data allows the to conclude that the mostly of the elderly presented Cl, K and Na concentrations in the range of reference values used in the clinical laboratories

  1. Psychological Effects of Light Exercise for Elderly Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 裕章; 峰松, 修; 冷川, 昭子; 吉川, 和利; 緒方, 道彦

    1987-01-01

    Psychological effects of light exercise were evaluated in healthy elderly, middle aged women and elderly with borderline hypertension. The exercises were walking and stretching for healthy elderly, elderly with hypertension and playing beginner's tennis for healty middle aged women. The subjects took exercise three hours a day, twice a week during three months period. Psychometric test battery was used Yatabe-Guilford Personality Inventry (Y-G test). Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS), Maudsely Per...

  2. Reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculation intervention (Learning therapy improves inhibition, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eNouchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called learning therapy, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults.MethodsWe used a single-blinded intervention with two groups (learning therapy group: LT and waiting list control group: WL. Sixty-four elderly were randomly assigned to LT or WL. In LT, participants performed reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations training tasks for 6 months. WL did not participate in the intervention. We measured several cognitive functions before and after 6 months intervention periods.ResultsCompared to WL, results revealed that LT improved inhibition performance in executive functions (Stroop: LT (Mean = 3.88 vs. WL (Mean = 1.22, adjusted p =.013 and reverse Stroop LT (Mean = 3.22 vs. WL (Mean = 1.59, adjusted p =.015, verbal episodic memory (logical memory: LT (Mean = 4.59 vs. WL (Mean = 2.47, adjusted p =.015, focus attention(D-CAT: LT (Mean = 2.09 vs. WL (Mean = -0.59, adjusted p =.010 and processing speed compared to the waiting list control group (digit symbol coding: LT (Mean = 5.00 vs. WL (Mean = 1.13, adjusted p =.015 and symbol search: LT (Mean = 3.47 vs. WL (Mean = 1.81, adjusted p =.014.DiscussionThis RCT can showed the benefit of learning therapy on inhibition of executive functions, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people. Our results were discussed under overlapping hypothesis.Trial registrationThis trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000006998.

  3. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: Resting distal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    pressure and DBPtoe - DBPankle) were found in the new reference data compared to the old. No significant difference between the mean values of the gradient (DBPankle - systolic arm blood pressure) was found between the old and new reference data, although the variation was significantly wider in the new......Objective. Most patients referred to our department for distal blood pressure (DBP) determination on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd) are more than 60 years of age, whereas the only available reference data for resting pressure are based on data from healthy individuals aged....... Material and methods. Group I comprised 31 healthy persons aged between 61 and 87 years and group II 14 healthy middle-aged hospital staff members aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results. For group I, significantly greater gradients (DBPtoe - systolic arm blood...

  4. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent......Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  5. Sintomas de estresse e estratégias de coping em idosos saudáveis Síntomas de estrés y estrategias de coping en ancianos saludables Stress symptoms and coping strategies in healthy elderly subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nery de Souza Talarico

    2009-12-01

    enfocado en la emoción están asociados a niveles semejantes de estrés.Elderly subjects may present stress symptoms due to physical, psychological and social changes during aging process. The aim of this study was to identify stress symptoms in elderly subjects and the coping strategies they used, verifying the relationship between these variables. The Stress Symptoms List (SSL and the Jalowiec Coping Scale were administered to 41 healthy elderly subjects. Elderly subjects presented stress symptoms with a mean score of 42.8. Although problem-focused coping was predominantly observed, no significant difference was observed between mean SSL scores among elderly subjects who used problem-focused or emotion-focused coping. Although elderly subjects mainly elected problem-focused coping, stress intensity was independent of the coping style, showing that both problem- and emotion-focused coping are associated with similar stress levels.

  6. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity ...

  7. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity, IgA, IgG, IgM.

  8. Glucose intolerance among apparently healthy Hausa-Fulani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glucose intolerance has been recently reclassified by the World Health Organization (WHO) incorporating a new class known as impaired fasting glycaemia. Previous studies in this environment looked as diabetes mellitus only but not the other forms of glucose intolerance. Objectives: To study the prevalence ...

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in apparently healthy South Indian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Caszo, B.; Raj, T.; Vaz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been established as a major cause of chronic gastritis in adults, and it has been implicated in the genesis of gastric carcinomas and the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is now postulated that neatly 90% of the adult population in developing countries may be affected with the infection since childhood. Earlier studies on Indians using serology and endoscopic biopsy have shown a high incidence of H. pylori infection in small numbers of patients. The 13 C-urea breath test, which is simple, specific and non-invasive, is also increasingly being used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Preliminary data from India has shown a high prevalence in the urban Indian environment, and there is an urgent need to quantify the prevalence of H. pylori infections on an epidemiological basis in both urban and rural settings. It is also important to study the possible impact of this infection on growth in children, particularly in environments with low sanitation and high crowding. In this paper, we outline a proposal to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in children from the following different environments: urban middle socio-economic class, urban slum, rural middle socio-economic class and rural village. (author)

  10. pre-hypertension and hypertension in apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    hypertension among urban adolescents in Calabar, south eastern Nigeria. This was a ... disease later in life but also to significantly increase .... beam balance is not available (Paynter and ..... keeping with work done among Nigerian School.

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. Methodology: The study was ...

  12. Prevalence Of Dyslipidaemia In Apparently Healthy Professionals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Triglycerides were determined using standard cholesterol LDLprecipitating reagents/kits. Themean age of the subjectswas 41.5 9 8.22 years (range 29 to 58 years) withmale to female ratio of 1:1.2. Mean total cholesterol was 180.69 36.248 mg/dl (4.67 0.94 mmol/L), ...

  13. The Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In both Canada[7] and the United States[8] subjects aged 65 and older are the ... on this subject, especially in the older age groups are difficult to come by in developing countries .... to classify subjects into normal (above 60 ml/min) and CKD.

  14. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among ... All children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were evaluated for a history of ... Purified protein derivative-Siebert (PPD-S) stabilised.

  15. The birth weight of apparently healthy Nigerian newborns in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 253 babies were enrolled. Results: There were 131 males and 122 females giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. Gestational age by maternal dates ranged from 28 to 44 weeks. There was a consistent increase in mean values of weight as the ...

  16. Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass screening settings were significant predictors of end- stage renal disease.4 The ... has been used to diagnose urinary tract infection.5,6 Urinary tract infections are ... such as Nigeria, where many school-age children are survivors.

  17. Haemorrheologic profiles in apparently healthy pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... (Usanga et al., 1994; Stuart and Christoph, 2000; Salawu and Durosinmi, 2001) and this ... factors and cells resulting in physiological anaemia. (Stuart and Christoph ... The viscosity of human blood plasma and its changes in ...

  18. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  19. Subjective well-being amongst community-dwelling elders: what determines satisfaction with life? Findings from the Dublin Healthy Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Mhaoláin, Aine M; Gallagher, Damien; O Connell, Henry; Chin, A V; Bruce, Irene; Hamilton, Fiona; Teehee, Erin; Coen, Robert; Coakley, Davis; Cunningham, Conal; Walsh, J B; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    Life satisfaction is a subjective expression of well-being and successful aging. Subjective well-being is a major determinant of health outcomes in older people. The aim of this study was to determine which factors predicted well-being in older people living in the community as measured by their satisfaction with life. The relationship between life satisfaction, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-A) and physical, cognitive and demographic variables was examined in 466 older people living in the community using a stepwise regression model. Depression, loneliness, neuroticism, extraversion, recent participation in physical activity, age and self-reported exhaustion, were the independent predictors of life satisfaction in our elderly cohort. Subjective well-being, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Scale, is predicted by depression, loneliness, personality traits, recent participation in physical activity and self-reported exhaustion. The mental and emotional status of older individuals, as well as their engagement in physical activity, are as important as physical functionality when it comes to life satisfaction as a measure of well-being and successful aging. These areas represent key targets for intervention.

  20. Calidad de vida y hábitos saludables en la alimentación de personas mayores (Quality of life and healthy food habits of elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vicente Amador Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo realiza un estudio en el que se recogen los procesos más relevantes para conseguir una buena calidad de vida en las personas mayores. Principalmente se centra la relación entre el desarrollo de actividad física y la buena alimentación lograr  un envejecimiento lo más satisfactorio y saludable. Se concluye plantándose la necesidad de una educación centrada en el aprendizaje de hábitos saludables en la alimentación de las personas mayores a con el fin de mantener un estado nutricional adecuado para aumentar la longevidad y para mejorar la calidad de vida.Abstract: The present article realizes a study in which the most relevant processes are gathered to obtain a good quality of life in the major persons. Principally it centres on the relation between the development of physical activity and the good supply an aging achieves the most satisfactory and healthy thing. He concludes reaching the need of an education centred on the learning of healthy habits the supply of the major persons to in order to keep a nutritional condition adapted to increase the longevity and to improve the quality of life.

  1. Prevalencia de dislipidemias en una población de sujetos en apariencia sanos y su relación con la resistencia a la insulina Dyslipidemia prevalence and its relationship with insulin resistance on a population of apparently healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Munguía-Miranda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer la prevalencia de las dislipidemias en una población de sujetos en apariencia sanos y su relación con la resistencia a la insulina (RI. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Este es un estudio transversal que incluyó a 1 179 individuos, donadores voluntarios de 35 a 65 años. Se obtuvo el historial clínico y se realizaron examen físico, determinación del perfil de lípidos, glucemia y niveles de insulina en ayuno. RESULTADOS: La edad promedio fue de 44 ± 7 años; 836 (71% correspondían al género masculino. La prevalencia de hipertrigliceridemia fue de 57.3%, hipoalfalipoproteinemia de 52.4% e hipercolesterolemia de 48.7 por ciento. De los sujetos con obesidad (perímetro de cintura aumentado, 36.8% tenía hipertrigliceridemia/hipoalfalipoproteinemia, 35.2% dislipidemia mixta y 33.4% hipertrigliceridemia. La prevalencia de los patrones de dislipidemias fue mayor en sujetos con RI. CONCLUSIONES: La hipertrigliceridemia e hipoalfalipoproteinemia, vinculadas con RI, son comunes en la población mexicana; empero, una considerable proporción de casos carece de diagnóstico.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with insulin resistance in a cohort of apparently healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1 179 donors ages 35 to 65 years. The sample population was comprised of 71% men, with an average age of 44 ± 7. Clinical records, anthropometric data, lipid profile, fasting glycaemia, and insulin levels were obtained. RESULTS: Prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 57.3%, C-HDL under normal limits was 52.4%, and hypercholesterolemia was 48.7%. In addition, 36.8% of the obese individuals (as measured by waist perimeter had hypertriglyceridemia/hypoalphalipoproteinemia, 35.2% had mixed dyslipidemia, and 33.4% had hypertriglyceridemia. Patterns of dyslipidemia were higher in subjects diagnosed with insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance associated with

  2. On-the-Road Driving Performance the Morning after Bedtime Use of Suvorexant 20 and 40 mg: A Study in Non-Elderly Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Annemiek; Sun, Hong; Vuurman, Eric F P M; Jongen, Stefan; Van Leeuwen, Cees J; Van Oers, Anita C M; Palcza, John; Li, Xiadong; Laethem, Tine; Heirman, Ingeborg; Bautmans, An; Troyer, Matthew D; Wrishko, Rebecca; McCrea, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate next-morning driving performance in adults younger than 65 years, after single and repeated doses of suvorexant 20 and 40 mg. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-period crossover study. Maastricht University, The Netherlands. 28 healthy volunteers (15 females), aged 23 to 64 years. Suvorexant (20 and 40 mg) for 8 consecutive nights; zopiclone 7.5 mg nightly on day 1 and 8; placebo. Performance on day 2 and 9 (9 h after dosing) using a one-hour standardized highway driving test in normal traffic, measuring standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Drug-placebo changes in SDLP > 2.4 cm were considered to reflect meaningful driving impairment. Mean drug-placebo changes in SDLP following suvorexant 20 and 40 mg were 1.01 and 1.66 cm on day 2, and 0.48 and 1.31 cm on Day 9, respectively. The 90% CIs of these changes were all below 2.4 cm. Symmetry analysis showed that more subjects had SDLP changes > 2.4 cm than driving tests--all following suvorexant--stop prematurely due to self-reported somnolence. As assessed by mean changes in standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), there was no clinically meaningful residual effect of suvorexant in doses of 20 and 40 mg on next-morning driving (9 h after bedtime dosing) in healthy subjects < 65 years old. There may be some individuals who experience next-day effects, as suggested by individual changes in SDLP and prematurely stopped tests. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01311882. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. The influence of sex on the haematological values of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from fifty apparently healthy adult Sahel goats, twenty five each of male and female in Maiduguri to assess the influence of sex on their haematology. The red blood cell (RBC) counts, white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), platelet counts, ...

  4. No differences in performance on test of working memory and executive functioning between healthy elderly postmenopausal women using or not using hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorova, M; Sherwin, B B

    2006-06-01

    On average, ovarian function ceases at the age of 52 years so that estrogen (E) levels are chronically low following the menopause. Numerous studies have found that hormone therapy (HT) helps to protect verbal memory, a hippocampal function. Estrogen receptors are also found in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), suggesting that estrogen may modulate executive and working memory functions, both mediated by the PFC. The possible role of progesterone (P) on executive functions and working memory is unknown. To examine the relationship between neuropsychological performance, age of initiation of HT, and duration of HT use. In this cross-sectional study, the neuropsychological performance of 37 postmenopausal women (mean age, 65 years) who used either estrogen-only or sequential E + P (E-alone group)(n = 22) or E + P continuously (n = 15) was compared to that of 28 healthy postmenopausal women matched for age and education who had never used HT. It was hypothesized that the E-only users would perform better then the E + P and the never-users on neuropsychological tests of verbal memory, executive function and working memory. Results showed only minor between-group differences on working memory scores such that the E + P users were slowest to generate a response on the N-Back test of working memory. No group differences on tests of executive functions were found. There was no relationship between neuropsychological performance, age of initiation of HT, or duration of HT use.

  5. Effects of eight weeks of aerobic interval training and of isoinertial resistance training on risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases and exercise capacity in healthy elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruseghini, Paolo; Calabria, Elisa; Tam, Enrico; Milanese, Chiara; Oliboni, Eugenio; Pezzato, Andrea; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Schena, Federico; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi; Capelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIT) and isoinertial resistance training (IRT) on cardiovascular fitness, muscle mass-strength and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in 12 healthy older adults (68 yy ± 4). HIT consisted in 7 two-minute repetitions at 80%–90% of V˙O2max, 3 times/w. After 4 months of recovery, subjects were treated with IRT, which included 4 sets of 7 maximal, bilateral knee extensions/flexions 3 times/w on a leg-press flywheel ergometer. HIT elicited significant: i) modifications of selected anthropometrical features; ii) improvements of cardiovascular fitness and; iii) decrease of systolic pressure. HIT and IRT induced hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle, which, however, was paralleled by significant increases in strength only after IRT. Neither HIT nor IRT induced relevant changes in blood lipid profile, with the exception of a decrease of LDL and CHO after IRT. Physiological parameters related with aerobic fitness and selected body composition values predicting cardiovascular risk remained stable during detraining and, after IRT, they were complemented by substantial increase of muscle strength, leading to further improvements of quality of life of the subjects. PMID:26046575

  6. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.; Porrata Maury, C.; Jimenez Acosta, S.; Gonzalez Perez, T.; Diaz, M.E.; Martin, I.; Sanchez, V.; Monterrey, P.

    1999-01-01

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  7. Dietary quality, lifestile factors and healthy ageing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman-Nies, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: dietary quality, dietary patterns, lifestyle factors, smoking, physical activity, elderly, mortality, Mediterranean Diet Score, Healthy Diet Indicator, healthy ageing, self-rated health, functional status


    The contribution

  8. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  9. A parallel randomized trial on the effect of a healthful diet on inflammageing and its consequences in European elderly people: design of the NU-AGE dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes; Santoro, Aurelia; Pini, Elisa; Cevenini, Elisa; Ostan, Rita; Pietruszka, Barbara; Rolf, Katarzyna; Cano, Noël; Caille, Aurélie; Lyon-Belgy, Noëlle; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Feskens, Edith; Franceschi, Claudio; de Groot, C P G M

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of European elderly is expected to increase to 30% in 2060. Combining dietary components may modulate many processes involved in ageing. So, it is likely that a healthful diet approach might have greater favourable impact on age-related decline than individual dietary components. This paper describes the design of a healthful diet intervention on inflammageing and its consequences in the elderly. The NU-AGE study is a parallel randomized one-year trial in 1250 apparently healthy, independently living European participants aged 65-80 years. Participants are randomised into either the diet group or control group. Participants in the diet group received dietary advice aimed at meeting the nutritional requirements of the ageing population. Special attention was paid to nutrients that may be inadequate or limiting in diets of elderly, such as vitamin D, vitamin B12, and calcium. C-reactive protein is measured as primary outcome. The NU-AGE study is the first dietary intervention investigating the effect of a healthful diet providing targeted nutritional recommendations for optimal health and quality of life in apparently healthy European elderly. Results of this intervention will provide evidence on the effect of a healthful diet on the prevention of age related decline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  12. Gait analysis comparing Parkinson's disease with healthy elderly subjects Comparação da doença de Parkinson com idosos saudáveis através da análise da marcha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Melo Roiz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies comparing the kinematics data of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD patients with healthy elder (HE subjects, and when there is such research, it is not correlated to clinical measures. OBJECTIVE: To compare the spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters of Parkinsonian gait with the HE subjects group and measure the relation between these parameters and clinical instruments. METHOD: Twelve patients with IPD and fifteen HE subjects were recruited and evaluated for clinical instruments and gait analysis. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between HE group and the IPD group, in stride velocity, in stride length (SL, and in the hip joint kinematic data: on initial contact, on maximum extension during terminal contact and on maximum flexion during mid-swing. Regarding the clinical instruments there were significant correlated with in stride velocity and SL. CONCLUSION: Clinical instruments used did not present proper psychometric parameters to measure the IPD patient's gait, while the 3D system characterized it better.Poucos estudos comparam os dados cinemáticos de pacientes com doença de Parkinson idiopática (DPI com indivíduos idosos saudáveis, e quando realizam não correlacionam com medidas clínicas. OBJETIVO: Comparar os parâmetros espaço-temporais e cinemáticos da marcha na DP com os de idosos saudáveis (IS e avaliar a relação entre estes parâmetros com os instrumentos clínicos. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com DPI e quinze IS foram recrutados e avaliados por instrumentos clínicos e de análise de marcha. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças estatísticas significantes entre o grupo de IS e o de DPI na velocidade da marcha e no comprimento do passo (CP, nos dados cinemáticos das articulações do quadril: no contato inicial, na máxima extensão no apoio e na máxima flexão na oscilação. No que diz respeito aos instrumentos clínicos houve significativa correlação com a velocidade da

  13. Metabolic syndrome in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the youth and middle aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Iranian elderly METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the information from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan who aged over 19 years were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. It was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005. Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001. Based on the findings of this study, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significantly more prevalent in men and women over 60 years. T-test and Mann-Whitney were used for quantitative data and the square-chi test is performed for qualitative data.    CONCLUSION: This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people (especially in women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Elderly, Iran

  14. The golden opportunities for physiotherapists in frail elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Frailty is a complex phenomenon which is a result of a decline in reserve capacity. Although it is generally known that movement has a positive influence on a diversity of health outcomes in relatively healthy elderly, the effect on frail elderly is less known. Key elements in the clinical

  15. Los niveles de ferritina y los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular se correlacionan con mayor tiempo sedentario auto-reportado en hombres aparentemente sanos Ferritin levels and cardiovascular risk markers correlate with higher self-reported sedentary time in apparently healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton F Suárez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la correlación entre las concentraciones séricas de ferritina y los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular con el tiempo de actividad física y sedentarismo auto-reportados en hombres aparentemente sanos. Métodos: se incluyeron 69 hombres pertenecientes a tres empresas de servicio privado y público del área metropolitana de Cali, Colombia, con edades entre 25 y 64 años. Se aplicó la versión corta del International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ y se agruparon cuatro categorías de actividad física: 1. Minutos actividad física intensa (AFI/semana. 2. Minutos actividad física moderada (AFM/semana. 3. Minutos caminata/semana. 4. Minutos sentado/día. Los marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular se definieron con base en los criterios del ATP-III y la Federación Internacional de Diabetes. Resultados: se encontraron correlaciones positivas en los sujetos que auto-reportaban mayor tiempo en actividades sedentarias según la categoría del IPAQ (minutos promedio sentado/día en los indicadores antropométricos: porcentaje de grasa corporal (rho=0,249, pObjective: to evaluate the correlation between serum ferritin and cardiovascular risk markers with the time of self-reported physical activity and sedentary life style in apparently healthy men. Methods: we included 69 men from three private and public companies in the metropolitan area of Cali, Colombia, aged between 25 and 64. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was applied, and were grouped in four categories of physical activity: 1. Minutes of intense physical activity (IFA/week. 2. Minutes of moderate physical activity (MFA/week. 3. Minutes of walk/week. 4. Minutes of sitting/day. Cardiovascular risk markers were defined based on the criteria of the ATP-III and the International Diabetes Federation. Results: positive correlations were found in subjects who self-reported more time in sedentary activities according to the IPAQ

  16. Evidências da contribuição dos programas de assistência ao idoso na promoção do envelhecimento saudável no Brasil Evidence of the contribution of elderly support programs to healthy aging in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Fortunato Araújo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Buscar na literatura evidências relativas à contribuição dos programas de promoção da saúde no processo de envelhecimento saudável no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se as bases de dados Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS, Biblioteca Cochrane e MEDLINE em busca de artigos que enfocassem iniciativas voltadas para a população idosa e o envelhecimento saudável, que avaliassem multidimensionalmente a qualidade de vida do idoso e que tratassem de aspectos relativos às práticas profissionais específicas em promoção da saúde. Para definir a eficácia das iniciativas, adotaram-se os seguintes critérios: ter metas que incluíssem a melhoria da saúde e do bem-estar; ter foco na saúde holística; usar o empoderamento como mecanismo central; atender os pré-requisitos da saúde e realizar ações nas áreas prioritárias da Carta de Ottawa. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 10 artigos que se referiam a cinco programas de promoção da saúde do idoso no Brasil. Pode-se afirmar que todos os programas apresentados demonstraram elementos que vão ao encontro da promoção da saúde no envelhecimento por abranger características que permitem a inserção dos idosos na sociedade por meio da criação do ambiente de suporte para prevenção de agravos, aumento da capacidade funcional e melhoria da qualidade de vida, tendo sido atendidos os critérios de eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: É preciso produzir evidências científicas acerca da efetividade, eficiência e eficácia dos programas para a terceira idade para que se possa avaliar o valor dessas ações na promoção da saúde no envelhecimento.OBJECTIVE: To search the literature for evidence of the contribution of elderly health programs to the process of healthy aging in Brazil. METHODS: The databases Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS, IBECS, the Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE were searched to find articles focusing on initiatives developed for the elderly population and to promote

  17. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...

  18. The elderly patients' dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C.; Wagner, L.

    2007-01-01

    the principles of nursing practice, protecting, enhancing and promoting the elderly patient's health potential. It is suggested that these themes of dignity provide a frame of reference in elder care; they shape the understanding of when health issues become a concern for health-promoting care for the elderly...... patient and what goals should be defined. Key words: Dignity, elderly patient, phenomenological hermeneutical method....

  19. The gut mycobiome of elderly danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan; Castro Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Kot, Witold

    mycobiome on health and disease in elderly remain sparsely investigated. Consequently, the aim of this study was to characterise the feacal mycobiota in relation to host health parameters.Feacal samples from 99 healthy individuals ranging from 65 to 81 years old were collected, and fungal composition...... categories associated with the clinical features among individuals.The elderly gut is home to three main phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, with genera Penicillium, Candida, and Aspergillus being particularly common. Based on HbA1c-levels, the individuals could be clustered into 3 groups, High...... glucose level.Collectively, these findings suggest that the presences of specific gut mycobiome member is associated with glycemic behaviours among the healthy individuals of the elderly Danes population....

  20. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  1. Efeitos de um treino de atenção, memória e funções executivas na cognição de idosos saudáveis Effects of an attention, memory and executive functions training on the cognition of healthy elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos mostram declínio significativo em funções cognitivas, como memória, atenção e funções executivas ao longo do processo de envelhecimento normal. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos de um treino de atenção, memória e funções executivas na cognição de idosos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: 76 idosos saudáveis, divididos em grupo experimental (GE e grupo controle (GC, cada um com 38 indivíduos. O GE recebeu doze sessões de treino de atenção, memória e funções executivas. RESULTADOS: O GE no pós-teste apresentou melhor desempenho em tarefas de atenção, memória de trabalho, linguagem (inferências e escrita espontânea, praxia construcional, resolução de problemas e funções executivas. Conclusão: O treino revelou resultados significativos para uma intervenção de doze sessões, indicando que idosos saudáveis podem melhorar seu desempenho cognitivo.INTRODUCTION: Studies show there is a significant decrease in cognitive functions such as attention, memory and executive functions throughout the normal aging process. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of an attention, memory and executive functions training on the cognition of healthy elderly people. METHODS: 76 healthy elderly subjects were divided into experimental (EG and control groups (CG, both were composed by 38 participants each. The EG received 12 training sessions in attention, memory and executive functions. RESULTS: In the post-test, the EG presented better performance in tasks of attention, working memory, language (inferences and spontaneous writing, constructional praxia, problems solving, and executive functions. CONCLUSION: The training revealed significant results for a 12-session intervention, indicating that healthy elderly individuals may improve their cognitive functions.

  2. Mummified papyraceous fetuses in the abdominal cavity of an elderly female dog with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Voorwald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a rare case of fetal papyraceous mummification after asymptomatic uterine rupture in an elderly female dog with pyometra. The patient had a history of mating six months before the examination but no apparent signs of gestation or parturition. Exploratory laparotomy was used to identify a rupture of the left uterine horn and the presence of cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. Two mummified papyraceous fetuses were observed in the abdominal cavity and had adhered to the spleen, pancreas, intestine and omentum. Ovariehysterectomy and corrective surgery were performed. The patient had remained healthy after uterine rupture until a new estrous cycle and the development of pyometra. Bitches that are 10 years old or more are predisposed to implantation failure, pregnancy or parturition problems and they should not be breed to avoid complications.

  3. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya. Ramesh .... It was as if the Himalayas were hollow inside. ... block would be consistent with the ground elevation in such a ... Alternative models and possible preference: Many refinements of.

  4. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among elderly and middle-aged rural community-dwellers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olowe OA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OA Olowe,1 OB Makanjuola,1 KO Olabiyi,1 PO Akinwusi,2 CO Alebiosu,2 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,4 WO Adebimpe,4 TA Adewole5 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Community Medicine, 5Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Abstract: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly individuals has been well described in institutionalized settings, but to a lesser extent in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogens responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly and middle-aged individuals in Alajue-Ede, South-Western Nigeria, and to identify any associated factors. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from apparently healthy elderly and middle-aged volunteers who were participating in community health screening. Samples were processed and bacterial isolates were identified following standard procedures. In total, 128 volunteers (48 men, 76 women participated in the study. Twenty-eight (22.6% urinary pathogens were isolated, comprising Klebsiella species in five (17.9%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in one (3.6%, Escherichia coli in 19 (67.9%, and Proteus species in three (10.7% cases. Women were identified as being at higher risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and the prevalence also increased with increasing age in men. The elderly in this community have a high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and screening for comorbid medical conditions may be of benefit. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary pathogens, elderly, urinary tract infection

  6. Impact of 12 weeks of resistance training on physical and functional fitness in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendes Gerage

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p145 The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on physical functional fitness in elderly women. Fifty-one elderly women (66.1±4.4 years, apparently healthy, insufficiently active, and without prior experience in RT were randomly assigned into two groups: Training Group (TG = 24 and Control Group (CG = 27. The TG was submitted to a standardized RT program composed of eight exercises, performed in two sets of 10 to 15 repetitions, three times a week, and the CG was submitted to a 12 week stretching exercise program composed by two sessions per week of 30 minutes each. Their physical and functional fitness level was analyzed before and after the intervention period by motor testing to assess Right and Left Upper Limb Endurance (RULE, LULE, Lower Limb Endurance (LLE, Flexibility (FLEX, Manual Skills (MS, Ability to Put on Socks (APS, and Coordination (COORD. The TG had improved performance in LLE (+13.8%, RULE (+24.3%, LULE (+22.9%, and MS (- 0.9 s, whereas the CG improved performance in RULE (+13.9% and LULE (+14.1%, but had increased time in COORD by (+1.5 s, and these were the only tests showing significant interactions of group vs. time (p<0.05. The results suggest that 12 weeks of RT seem to be sufficient to induce positive changes on physical and functional fitness of healthy and previously untrained elderly women.

  7. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  8. Effects of attentional focus on walking stability in elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Melker Worms, Jonathan L.A.; Stins, John F.; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Verschueren, Sabine M.P.; Beek, Peter J.; Loram, Ian D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Balance performance in the elderly is related to psychological factors such as attentional focus. We investigated the effects of internal vs. external focus of attention and fall history on walking stability in healthy older adults. Method Walking stability of twenty-eight healthy older

  9. Association between memory complaints and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly people with normal baseline cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, M. I.; Jonker, C.; Bouter, L. M.; Adèr, H. J.; Schmand, B.

    1999-01-01

    Results of previous studies suggest that memory complaints may predict cognitive decline and dementia among elderly people in whom cognitive impairment is already apparent. However, cognitive decline is often a gradual process, and elderly people may notice that their memory deteriorates before

  10. Expression of calpain-calpastatin system (CCS) member proteins in human lymphocytes of young and elderly individuals; pilot baseline data for the CALPACENT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikosik, Anna; Foerster, Jerzy; Jasiulewicz, Aleksandra; Frąckowiak, Joanna; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Bulati, Matteo; Buffa, Silvio; Martorana, Adriana; Caruso, Calogero; Bryl, Ewa; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2013-07-08

    Ubiquitous system of regulatory, calcium-dependent, cytoplasmic proteases - calpains - and their endogenous inhibitor - calpastatin - is implicated in the proteolytic regulation of activation, proliferation, and apoptosis of many cell types. However, it has not been thoroughly studied in resting and activated human lymphocytes yet, especially in relation to the subjects' ageing process. The CALPACENT project is an international (Polish-Italian) project aiming at verifying the hypothesis of the role of calpains in the function of peripheral blood immune cells of Polish (Pomeranian) and Italian (Sicilian) centenarians, apparently relatively preserved in comparison to the general elderly population. In this preliminary report we aimed at establishing and comparing the baseline levels of expression of μ- and m-calpain and calpastatin in various, phenotypically defined, populations of human peripheral blood lymphocytes for healthy elderly Sicilians and Poles, as compared to these values observed in young cohort. We have found significant differences in the expression of both μ- and m-calpain as well as calpastatin between various populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+), both between the age groups compared and within them. Interestingly, significantly higher amounts of μ- and m-calpains but not of calpastatin could be demonstrated in the CD4+CD28- and CD8+CD28- lymphocytes of old subjects (but not in the cells of young individuals), as compared to their CD28+ counterparts. Finally, decreased expression of both calpains in the elderly T cells is not related to the accumulation of effector/memory (CD45RO+) cells in the latter, as the expression of both calpains does not differ significantly between the naïve and memory T cells, while is significantly lower for elderly lymphocytes if both populations are taken separately. Observed differences in the amounts of CCS member proteins between various populations of lymphocytes of young and elderly

  11. Danish Dietary Recommandations for the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann

    1993-01-01

    and 2) sick elderly people resident at home and in institutions. The majority of the elderly enjoy generally good health. The diet-related diseases are the same as those affecting the rest of the population, and they are caused by an excessively high energy content of a diet which is poorly balanced...... in terms of macro-nutrients. While Danes receive adequate supplies of most vitamins and minerals, their fat intake is too high. Danish nutritional recommendations for healthy pensioners include a daily vitamin D intake of 10 microgrammes. Sick pensioners or small-eaters should follow the dietary...

  12. Efeitos dos exercícios resistidos sobre o equilíbrio e a funcionalidade de idosos saudáveis: artigo de atualização Effects of resistance training on balance and functional ability in healthy elderly: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lorenzi Monteiro de Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A diminuição da força muscular com o envelhecimento e os baixos níveis de atividade física contribuem para défices funcionais e de equilíbrio. Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo analisar os estudos que correlacionaram o treino resistido (TR isolado, o equilíbrio e a função de idosos saudáveis. A busca nas bases do Google Acadêmico e na BVS levou à seleção de 35 estudos controlados. O TR isolado mostrou ser relevante para a função dos idosos (90% dos estudos devido sobretudo ao ganho de força e mobilidade. Exercícios de baixa e moderada intensidade tiveram melhores resultados sobre a função de idosas, frágeis e sedentários. Em relação ao equilíbrio, apesar da inconsistência dos dados, o TR parece exercer efeitos positivos, sobretudo devido a fatores neuromusculares. Estudos com parâmetros de treino e amostra uniformes são necessários para melhor comparação dos resultados, sobretudo em idosos com padrão funcional elevado.Muscle strength decrease in aging and low physical activity levels may be an indicator of balance deficits and functional limitations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of resistance training (RT alone on balance performance and functional capacity in healthy elderly. The search in Google Scholar and BVS led to selecting 35 controlled trials. The RT alone showed to have positive effects (90% of the studies on functional tasks in elderly, associated with increases in strength and mobility. Moderate and low-intensity exercise could produce functional capacity benefits in older women, frail and sedentary elderly. Despite the inconsistency of data, resistance training appears to exert positive effects on balance, especially through neuromuscular factors. Standardization of methodology and homogeneity of sampling may ensure greater comparability of results, especially among elderly with high physical functional level.

  13. Effects of Three-Month Intake of Synbiotic on Inflammation and Body Composition in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Lima Ribeiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that improvements in the gut microbiota are capable of ameliorating gut permeability and, consequently, reducing systemic inflammation and the risk of frailty. This study aims to evaluate some effects of synbiotic supplementation on inflammatory markers and the body composition of the elderly at risk of frailty. In a double-blind study that lasted three months, 17 elderly individuals fulfilling one frailty criteria (grip strength were randomly distributed into two groups: SYN (n = 9, daily intake of synbiotic (6 g Frutooligossacarides, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus paracasei, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 108 to 109 CFU Lactobacillus acidophilus and 108 to 109 CFU Bifidobacterium lactis, or placebo (maltodextrin; PLA; n = 8. Subjects were analyzed for anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance with vectorial analysis (BIVA, IL-6 and TNF-α. A comparison between groups did not show any difference for the variables investigated. In turn, individual analysis of electrical impedance (BIVA demonstrated that the majority of SYN individuals maintained or improved their tissue hydration, when compared to the PLA group after supplementation. In conclusion, three months of synbiotic supplementation did not promote any significant changes in inflammatory cytokines or body composition, but demonstrated a trend towards a preservation of hydration status in apparently healthy elderly individuals.

  14. Health status of Hispanic elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassford, T L

    1995-02-01

    Hispanic elders living in the United States compose a rapidly increasing population. They are underinsured and more likely to be living in poverty. Health care is hindered in this population by lower access to health services and less use of preventive services. Barriers to access are primarily socioeconomic. Acculturation exerts an effect, primarily through its association with language skills, employment, and education. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality for Hispanics, who have a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Although neoplasia is the second most frequent cause of death among Hispanics, as it is in whites who are not Hispanic, Hispanics have an overall lower cancer rate. Cancer rates are increasing, however. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the Hispanic population, affecting nearly a quarter of adult Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. Although higher prevalence of obesity in the Hispanic population accounts for some of this difference, some data suggest the possibility of a genetic component as well. Assessment of psychological health in Hispanic elders is impeded by the lack of instruments designed for this population. Distress is often expressed as somatic symptoms. Values traditional to Hispanic culture, such as respeto, allocentrism, and familialism, are important to US Hispanic elders, many of whom were born in rural Mexico. Our knowledge of determinants of healthy aging in this population is still preliminary, but rapidly expanding, in part, because of increased attention to ethnicity in health reporting.

  15. Management of chronic constipation in the elderly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Paul F

    2012-02-03

    Constipation is a significant healthcare problem in the elderly. However, while undoubtedly common in the elderly, data on the prevalence of constipation in general and of its subtypes vary considerably, depending on the nature of the study population and their location. Furthermore, the complexity of the pathophysiology of constipation in this age group is little appreciated. Assumptions regarding \\'age-related changes in colorectal physiology\\' are, for the most part, not supported by scientific evidence and may serve to distract the clinician from uncovering the contributions of co-morbid diseases and the impact of iatrogenic factors. The evidence base from which one can develop recommendations on the management of constipation in the elderly is, for the most part, slim. This becomes most starkly apparent when one attempts to critically assess specific approaches to management. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of many commonly used laxatives both in the general population and in the elderly. Lifestyle interventions have value for some patients but data are lacking on the benefits of these interventions for patients with chronic constipation. Data in the elderly do not exist for most new pharmacological approaches to constipation. Pending the availability of good data, management of constipation in the elderly should be tailored to each individual\\'s needs and expectations, regardless of age or place of residence. In certain situations, constipation may be complicated by the development of impaction; preventive strategies are important in this context. We urge enrolment of many more elderly individuals with chronic constipation in clinical trials designed to address their particular needs.

  16. Inhibition of apparent photosynthesis by nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A C; Bennett, J H

    1970-01-01

    The nitrogen oxides (NO/sub 2/ and NO) inhibited apparent photosynthesis of oats and alfalfa at concentrations below those required to cause visible injury. There appeared to be a threshold concentration of about 0.6 ppm for each pollutant. An additive effect in depressing apparent photosynthesis occurred when the plants were exposed to a mixture of NO and NO/sub 2/. Although NO produced a more rapid effect on the plants, lower concentrations of NO/sub 2/ were required to cause a given inhibition after 2 hour of exposure. Inhibition by nitric oxide was more closely related to its partial pressure than was inhibition by NO/sub 2/.

  17. Figure-ground segregation modulates apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Anstis, S

    1986-01-01

    We explored the relationship between figure-ground segmentation and apparent motion. Results suggest that: static elements in the surround can eliminate apparent motion of a cluster of dots in the centre, but only if the cluster and surround have similar "grain" or texture; outlines that define occluding surfaces are taken into account by the motion mechanism; the brain uses a hierarchy of precedence rules in attributing motion to different segments of the visual scene. Being designated as "figure" confers a high rank in this scheme of priorities.

  18. [Relationship between anthropometric health indexes with food consumption in physically active elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Badilla, Pablo Antonio; Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés; Ortega-Spuler, Jenny; Díaz-Aravena, Daniela; Castro-Garrido, Nibaldo; Sandoval-Muñoz, Luis; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; López-Fuenzalida, Antonio; Vargas-Vitoria, Rodrigo; Durán-Aguero, Samuel

    2017-10-24

    Programs focused on active aging do not always have actions to guide the elderly about healthy eating. Therefore, the concordance between the feeding habits and the morphological characteristics of this population group is little known. To correlate the anthropometric health indexes with the frequency of food consumption in physically active elderly (PAE). The sample consisted of 307 physically active Chilean elders of both sexes (8.4% males), with a mean age of 70.2 years. The studied variables corresponded to nutritional status, abdominal adiposity, cardiovascular risk and frequency of food consumption. A logistic regression model was applied, considering alpha active Chilean elderly who exhibit less healthy eating behavior.

  19. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  20. Exoskeleton plantarflexion assistance for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, S; Derave, W; Bossuyt, F; Calders, P; Malcolm, P; De Clercq, D

    2017-02-01

    Elderly are confronted with reduced physical capabilities and increased metabolic energy cost of walking. Exoskeletons that assist walking have the potential to restore walking capacity by reducing the metabolic cost of walking. However, it is unclear if current exoskeletons can reduce energy cost in elderly. Our goal was to study the effect of an exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion during push-off on the metabolic energy cost of walking in physically active and healthy elderly. Seven elderly (age 69.3±3.5y) walked on treadmill (1.11ms 2 ) with normal shoes and with the exoskeleton both powered (with assistance) and powered-off (without assistance). After 20min of habituation on a prior day and 5min on the test day, subjects were able to walk with the exoskeleton and assistance of the exoskeleton resulted in a reduction in metabolic cost of 12% versus walking with the exoskeleton powered-off. Walking with the exoskeleton was perceived less fatiguing for the muscles compared to normal walking. Assistance resulted in a statistically nonsignificant reduction in metabolic cost of 4% versus walking with normal shoes, likely due to the penalty of wearing the exoskeleton powered-off. Also, exoskeleton mechanical power was relatively low compared to previously identified optimal assistance magnitude in young adults. Future exoskeleton research should focus on further optimizing exoskeleton assistance for specific populations and on considerate integration of exoskeletons in rehabilitation or in daily life. As such, exoskeletons should allow people to walk longer or faster than without assistance and could result in an increase in physical activity and resulting health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  2. Apparent exchange rate imaging in anisotropic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Lundell, Henrik M; Søgaard, Lise V

    2014-01-01

    Double-wave diffusion experiments offer the possibility of probing correlation between molecular diffusion at multiple time points. It has recently been shown that this technique is capable of measuring the exchange of water across cellular membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the effect of macroscopic tissue anisotropy on the measurement of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) in multicompartment systems....

  3. Apparent directional selection by biased pleiotropic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2010-07-01

    Pleiotropic effects of deleterious mutations are considered to be among the factors responsible for genetic constraints on evolution by long-term directional selection acting on a quantitative trait. If pleiotropic phenotypic effects are biased in a particular direction, mutations generate apparent directional selection, which refers to the covariance between fitness and the trait owing to a linear association between the number of mutations possessed by individuals and the genotypic values of the trait. The present analysis has shown how the equilibrium mean value of the trait is determined by a balance between directional selection and biased pleiotropic mutations. Assuming that genes act additively both on the trait and on fitness, the total variance-standardized directional selection gradient was decomposed into apparent and true components. Experimental data on mutation bias from the bristle traits of Drosophila and life history traits of Daphnia suggest that apparent selection explains a small but significant fraction of directional selection pressure that is observed in nature; the data suggest that changes induced in a trait by biased pleiotropic mutation (i.e., by apparent directional selection) are easily compensated for by (true) directional selection.

  4. Diabetes mellitus in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60–65 years old, DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is "go slowly and individualize" to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin.

  5. Empowering the elderly ‘whole person’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clotworthy, Amy

    2017-01-01

    A positive discourse about ‘healthy aging’ and ‘active aging’ shapes many health policies targeting the elderly. Rather than portraying old age as a life stage of passivity and decline, this discourse transforms late life into a period of physical activity and fulfilling social involvement...... – especially in terms of engagement with one’s family, friends, and ‘community’. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a Danish municipality, the chapter examines how health-promotion activities targeted at the elderly function in practice, and discusses the various forms of ‘community...... that may constitute different collectives within the politically delineated geographic borders of the municipality, the chapter describes some of the social, cultural, and political practices that connect various forms of ‘community’, and how these practices may affect (and be affected by) elderly citizens...

  6. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes......, and likewise to improve muscle strength in both elderly healthy individuals and in elderly individuals with chronic disease. The increased strength is coupled to improved function and a decreased risk for fall injuries and fractures. Elderly individuals have preserved the capacity to improve muscle strength...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  7. [The benefits of doing excercise in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Funes, José Alberto; García-Mayo, Emilio José

    2004-01-01

    Advanced age is associated with changes in body composition such as muscular mass loss, which is defined as sarcopenia. The former term plays a key role in the frailty model, although its source is unknown. Myriad strategies have been used to improve and increase muscular mass and function in older persons. The muscle is a versatile system that owes its great capacity to adaption to regular exercise programs. Aerobic exercise and resistance training improve muscular function and can minimize and even reverse sarcopenia in the elderly (healthy, very elderly or frail). The main difference in prescribing exercise for healthy adults and elderly individuals is that intensity of training program is lower for the latter. This review is aimed toward the physiopathologic aspects and clinical implications regarding muscular mass loss and to programs directed toward increasing strength and/or endurance in the elderly.

  8. Healthy ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Bartels, Else Marie

    2009-01-01

    The study employed mechanical stretching in vitro of sections of abdominal aorta of elderly mice to investigate any benefits of oral treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) on arterial elasticity. Eighteen female mice (50-weeks-old) were assigned to a control (2% w/v) Na2-AKG or (2% w/v) a Ca-AK...... investigation as a candidate for therapies targeting arterial stiffening with age....

  9. Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

    2013-10-01

    Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs due to an excessive decrease in swallowing frequency is suspected to occur in patients with poor oral intake, especially elderly people. However, swallowing frequency in daily life has not previously been examined in the elderly. This study examined swallowing frequency in elderly people and compared these findings to those in a younger population and differences in the degree of activity in daily life. (i) We compared swallowing frequency in 20 elderly people (82·0 ± 8·3 year) and 15 healthy young people (26·5 ± 3·5 year). (ii) 20 elderly people were divided into two groups according to the degree of activity in daily life: a semi-bedridden group and bedridden group; the swallowing frequency was compared between these groups. (i) The swallowing frequency in the elderly people was 2-19 times per hour and the mean was 9·4 ± 4·9, and that in the healthy young people was 16-76 times per hour and the mean was 40·7 ± 19·5. Swallowing frequency in elderly people was significantly lower than that in young healthy people (P bedridden group was 2-11 times per hour and the mean was 6·8 ± 3·3, and that in semi-bedridden group was 3-19 times per hour and the mean was 11·9 ± 5·1. Swallowing frequency in bedridden group was significantly lower than that in semi-bedridden group (P elderly people tend to swallow less frequently than young people. In addition, swallowing frequency was lower in elderly subjects with a low degree of activity in daily life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  11. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Pycnogenol and Bacopa CDRI08 herbal medicines on cognitive, cardiovascular, and biochemical functioning in cognitively healthy elderly people: the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI study protocol (ANZCTR12611000487910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stough Con K

    2012-03-01

    experimental clinical trials in which supplements are administered to elderly participants. Results from ARCLI may help develop novel preventative health practices and nutritional/pharmacological targets in the elderly for cognitive and brain health. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000487910

  12. Effects of Soluble Corn Fiber Alone or in Synbiotic Combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and the Pilus-Deficient Derivative GG-PB12 on Fecal Microbiota, Metabolism, and Markers of Immune Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Elderly (Saimes Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Rasinkangas, Pia; Korpela, Katri; de Vos, Willem M; Gibson, Glenn R

    2017-01-01

    The aging process leads to a potential decline in immune function and adversely affects the gut microbiota. To date, many in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the application of synbiotics (prebiotics combined with probiotics) as a promising dietary approach to affect gut microbiota composition and improved functioning of the immune system. However, studies using synbiotic preparations often have the limitation that it remains unclear whether any effect observed is a result of the prebiotic or probiotic or a synergistic effect of the combined supplement. We investigated the effects of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and pilus-deficient L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with Promitor™ Soluble Corn Fiber (SCF, a candidate prebiotic) on fecal microbiota, metabolism, immunity, and blood lipids in healthy elderly persons. A prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized, single-centered, crossover study in 40 healthy elderly subjects (aged 60-80 years) was carried out. Volunteers were randomized to consume either probiotic and prebiotic as synbiotic, prebiotic or placebo (maltodextrin) during 3 weeks. Three-week washout periods separated all the treatments. We assessed effects upon blood lipids, glucose, cytokines, natural killer (NK) cell activity, phenotype, and intestinal microbiota composition. SCF decreased IL-6, which was not observed with the synbiotics. Consumption of L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF increased NK cell activity compared to baseline in females and the older group. In the fecal microbiota analyses, the strongest community shifts were due to L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and SCF treatments. L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with SCF significantly increased the genus Parabacteroides . L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and SCF increased concentrations of Ruminococcaceae Incertae Sedis . Oscillospira and Desulfovibrio slightly decreased in the L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF group, whereas

  13. Nutrition and protein energy homeostasis in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boirie, Yves; Morio, Béatrice; Caumon, Elodie; Cano, Noël J

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy homeostasis is a major determinant of healthy aging. Inadequate nutritional intakes and physical activity, together with endocrine disturbances are associated with of sarcopenia and frailty. Guidelines from scientific societies mainly address the quantitative aspects of protein and energy nutrition in elderly. Besides these quantitative aspects of protein load, perspective strategies to promote muscle protein synthesis and prevent sarcopenia include pulse feeding, the use of fast proteins and the addition of leucine or citrulline to dietary protein. An integrated management of sarcopenia, taking into account the determinants of muscle wasting, i.e. nutrition, physical activity, anabolic factors such as androgens, vitamin D and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids status, needs to be tested in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. The importance of physical activity, specifically resistance training, is emphasized, not only in order to facilitate muscle protein anabolism but also to increase appetite and food intake in elderly people at risk of malnutrition. According to present data, healthy nutrition in elderly should respect the guidelines for protein and energy requirement, privilege a Mediterranean way of alimentation, and be associated with a regular physical activity. Further issues relate to the identification of the genetics determinants of protein energy wasting in elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Elder self-neglect: research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong XQ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions 

  15. Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

  16. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.

  17. PHARMACOTHERAPY IN ELDERLY NEUROPATHIC PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Eko P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The incidence of pain increases with age. Neuropathic pain are common in elderly patients and pose challenges in both their diagnosis and treatment. The most common neuropathic pain in elderly are radiculopathy due to foraminal or spinal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia. Pain in the elderly is often unrecognized and undertreated. The main problem with pain in older adults relates to impaired quality of life secondary to pain which may be expressed by depression (including increased suicide risk, anxiety, sleep disruption, appetite disturbance, and weight loss, cognitive impairment, and limitations in the performance of daily activities. Pain management in elderly patients requires a different perspective from that of younger patients. Causes, comorbidities, and responses to both pain and its treatment differ between young healthy and older patients. Effective pain management in elderly patients should include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies. Pharmacological approaches are the first line of pain management in older person for neuropathic pain. Pharmacologic strategies call for administration of nonopioid analgesics, opioid analgesics, and adjuvant medication. Polypharmacy, drug-drug and drug-disease interactions, age-associated changes in drug metabolism, and the high frequency of adverse drug reactions need to be carefully considered in using medications in this population /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  18. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  19. A physical activity questionnaire for the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L. E.; Ravelli, A. C.; Dongelmans, P. C.; Deurenberg, P.; van Staveren, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    A validated physical activity questionnaire for young adults was adapted and validated for use in free living, apparently healthy people, aged 63-80 yr. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire on 29 participants was 0.89 as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Further

  20. Particle reacceleration and apparent radio source structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilek, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The radio galaxy model which uses magnetohydrodynamic turbulence generated by surface instabilities to reaccelerate the radiating electrons has striking consequences for apparent source structure. Strong wave damping in the plasma results in a narrow turbulent edge. Particles accelerated in this edge must diffuse across field lines into the radio source; this predicts strong limb brightening in some cases. The structure of this edge and diffusion into the source are described. The relevance of this model to jets, radio tails, and standard double sources is discussed

  1. "Stay Tuned": The Role of ICTs in Elderly Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fausto; Aroldi, Piermarco; Carlo, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Ageing in western society has become a key issue in political and academic debate: politicians, sociologists, doctors, demographers, psychologists, economists are trying to understand how ageing will impact our future society. In this frame, media and communication technologies seem to be more and more relevant for the elderly, thanks to those services and devices helping people to grow old actively. Technologies, the Internet and ICTs could help the elderly to improve their quality of life, to be healthy and independent and to get better assistance. Our ongoing research investigates the relationship between the elderly and use of technologies, and explores the role played by media and ICTs in building a friendly and positive environment for the elderly, and in constructing and maintaining social relations and promoting healthy ageing. Specifically, the research will investigate the use of ICTs by the elderly by taking into account two different perspectives: a) Exchanges between generations: lengthening of life corresponds to a longer period of cohabitation between at least three generations (grandparents, children, grandchildren), and also of co-use of digital media. The research wants to investigate relations between two age groups (grandparents and grandchildren; young people and older people) to understand the dynamics of intergenerational mutuality in the use of technologies and ICTs. b) Media, ICTs, Health: the Western world is increasingly populated by elderly population. Technologies and ICTs can help elderly people to improve their quality of life, to be healthy and independent and to get better assistance. ICTs should encourage active ageing and, in the case of health technologies, new models of care. The project, lasting 1 year, is based on (1) a survey on young elderly (65-74 yrs) population in Italy, and (2) a field-work which consists of family interviews and ethnographical sections in natural contexts.

  2. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  3. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  4. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  5. Lumbar lordosis angle (LLA) and leg strength predict walking ability in elderly males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyazaki, Junya; Murata, Shin; Horie, Jun; Uematsu, Azusa; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    There is an association between gait performance and spinal alignment in elderly females but it is unclear if this association is gender-dependent and postural changes would also predict gait performance in healthy elderly males. We measured thoracic kyphosis angle (TKA), LLA as indices of spinal

  6. Local administration of growth hormone stimulates tendon collagen synthesis in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Jørgensen, J.O.L.; Olesen, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tendon collagen content and circulating growth hormone (GH) are reduced in elderly. In a placebo-controlled, double-blinded study, we examined if local injections of rhGH enhance collagen synthesis in healthy elderly men (61 ± 1 yr). Two injections of rhGH or saline (control) were injected into e...

  7. Acceptability of the Components of a Loneliness Intervention among Elderly Dutch People: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honigh-de Vlaming, R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Ziylan, C.; Renes, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy Ageing is a complex intervention aimed at reducing the prevalence of loneliness among elderly Dutch people. Purpose: This study aimed to assess how mass media communication materials, information meetings, and psychosocial courses were received by elderly people at high risk of loneliness. Methods: Face-to-face interviews with…

  8. [Trauma in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, José Antonio Gomes; Iglesias, Antonio Carlos R G

    2002-01-01

    The populational growth of the elderly, associated to a healthier and more active life, make this group of people more exposed to accidents. In some countries, trauma in the elderly is responsible for a high mortality rate, disproportionately higher than in the adults. This fact consumes a great portion of health care resources and implies in a high social cost. The distinct physiologic characteristics of the elderly and the frequent presence of associated diseases make that these patients behave differently and in a more complex way than patients of other ages. These particularities make that health care to the elderly victims of trauma have to be different. The present revision is about aspects of epidemiology, prevention, physiology, health care and rehabilitation of the elderly victims of trauma.

  9. [Anemia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerevoet, M; Sattar, L; Bron, D; Gulbis, B; Pepersack, T

    2014-09-01

    Anaemia is a problem that affects almost 10% over 65 years and 20% over 85 years. There is no physiological anaemia in the elderly. Any anaemia expresses the existence of a pathological process, regardless of its severity. Anaemia in the elderly is always associated with a poor prognosis that is in terms of mortality, morbidity and risk of fragility. The diagnostic approach to anemia in the elderly is the same as in younger individual. There are many causes of anaemia; anaemia balance is a complex diagnostic process. Most anaemias are due to a deficiency, chronic inflammation or comorbidity. However, in the elderly, the etiology of anaemia is often multifactorial. In a number of cases remain unexplained anaemia. In a number of cases, anemia remain unexplained. Treatment of anaemia is the treatment of the cause, but specific therapeutic aspects to the elderly should be considered, as among other martial substitution or use of erythropoietin (EPO).

  10. Detection of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lia Lira Olivier; Muckli, Lars; de Millas, Walter; Lautenschlager, Marion; Heinz, Andreas; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-07-30

    Dysfunctional prediction in sensory processing has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism in the development of delusions in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies in healthy subjects have shown that while the perception of apparent motion can mask visual events along the illusory motion trace, such motion masking is reduced when events are spatio-temporally compatible with the illusion, and, therefore, predictable. Here we tested the hypothesis that this specific detection advantage for predictable target stimuli on the apparent motion trace is reduced in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Our data show that, although target detection along the illusory motion trace is generally impaired, both patients and healthy control participants detect predictable targets more often than unpredictable targets. Patients had a stronger motion masking effect when compared to controls. However, patients showed the same advantage in the detection of predictable targets as healthy control subjects. Our findings reveal stronger motion masking but intact prediction of visual events along the apparent motion trace in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and suggest that the sensory prediction mechanism underlying apparent motion is not impaired in paranoid schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Study on bone mineral density and bone structure of lumbar vertebrae in osteoporotic elderly women with multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengyong; Qi Ji; Wang Bin; Wen Lianqing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) parameters of lumbar vertebrae in differentiating osteoporotic fractured from nonfractured elderly women with vQCT technique, and to compare the bony structural conditions of osteoporotic elderly women with healthy elderly women. Methods: Multi-slice CT spinal scans of L1 and L2 were acquired in 26 osteoporotic vertebral fractured elderly women (group one) and 30 nonfractured osteoporotic subjects (group two). All the retro-reconstructed images of L1 and L2 were sent to the workstation and processed by volume rendering (VR) technique to measure volumetric BMD (3D-INTGL, 3D-CORT, 3D-TRAB) and trabecular and integral BMD (2D-TRAB, 2D-INTGL) by conventional QCT technique. BMD indexes in DXA were AP-SPINE and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in anteroposterior position. The seven parameters between the two group s were compared. Ten healthy elderly women were selected as normal group to reformate 3D-VR images from MSCT images to analyze the bony structure and calculate the ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) in the center of L1 vertebrae, and to compare the index between the normal group and tenpatients randomly selected from the 56 osteoporotic women. Results: DXA measurements in group one: AP-SPINE and BMAD were (0.796±0.170)g/cm 2 and (272.7±27.7) mg/cm 3 , respectively, showing no statistically significant differences comparing with (0.817±0.140) g/cm 2 and (249.5 ± 26.5) mg/cm 3 in group two. Volumetric BMD in group one included 2D-TRAB (70.4 ± 22.2) mg/cm 3 , 2D-INTGL (138.3±35.1) mg/cm 3 , 3D-INTGL (139.4±34.9 ) mg/cm 3 , 3D-CORT (133.8±26.9) mg/cm 3 , and 3D-TRAB (69.9 ±18.6) mg/cm 3 , respectively, showing statistically differences with (89.1±21.8) mg/cm 3 , (170.6±34.5) mg/cm 3 , (180.5±28.2) mg/cm 3 , (163.2±27.5) mg/cm 3 , and (83.8 ± 17.1) mg/cm 3 in group two (the decrements 18%-23%). The mean value of BV/TV of L1 vertebrae was (8.12 ± 1.96)% in

  12. True versus apparent shapes of bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Yong, Jorge A.; Henney, William J.

    2018-06-01

    Astrophysical bow shocks are a common result of the interaction between two supersonic plasma flows, such as winds or jets from stars or active galaxies, or streams due to the relative motion between a star and the interstellar medium. For cylindrically symmetric bow shocks, we develop a general theory for the effects of inclination angle on the apparent shape. We propose a new two-dimensional classification scheme for bow shapes, which is based on dimensionless geometric ratios that can be estimated from observational images. The two ratios are related to the flatness of the bow's apex, which we term planitude, and the openness of its wings, which we term alatude. We calculate the expected distribution in the planitude-alatude plane for a variety of simple geometrical and physical models: quadrics of revolution, wilkinoids, cantoids, and ancantoids. We further test our methods against numerical magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar bow shocks and find that the apparent planitude and alatude measured from infrared dust continuum maps serve as accurate diagnostics of the shape of the contact discontinuity, which can be used to discriminate between different physical models. We present an algorithm that can determine the planitude and alatude from observed bow shock emission maps with a precision of 10 to 20 per cent.

  13. Measuring safety climate in elderly homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Koon-Chuen; Chan, Charles C

    2012-02-01

    Provision of a valid and reliable safety climate dimension brings enormous benefits to the elderly home sector. The aim of the present study was to make use of the safety climate instrument developed by OSHC to measure the safety perceptions of employees in elderly homes such that the factor structure of the safety climate dimensions of elderly homes could be explored. In 2010, surveys by mustering on site method were administered in 27 elderly homes that had participated in the "Hong Kong Safe and Healthy Residential Care Home Accreditation Scheme" organized by the Occupational Safety and Health Council. Six hundred and fifty-one surveys were returned with a response rate of 54.3%. To examine the factor structure of safety climate dimensions in our study, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis method was conducted to identify the underlying factors. The results of the modified seven-factor's safety climate structure extracted from 35 items better reflected the safety climate dimensions of elderly homes. The Cronbach alpha range for this study (0.655 to 0.851) indicated good internal consistency among the seven-factor structure. Responses from managerial level, supervisory and professional level, and front-line staff were analyzed to come up with the suggestion on effective ways of improving the safety culture of elderly homes. The overall results showed that managers generally gave positive responses in the factors evaluated, such as "management commitment and concern to safety," "perception of work risks and some contributory influences," "safety communication and awareness," and "safe working attitude and participation." Supervisors / professionals, and frontline level staff on the other hand, have less positive responses. The result of the lowest score in the factors - "perception of safety rules and procedures" underlined the importance of the relevance and practicability of safety rules and procedures. The modified OSHC

  14. The Elder Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Elder

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an autobiographical and biographical historical account of the genesis, evolution and resolution of the Elder Problem. It begins with John W. Elder and his autobiographical story leading to his groundbreaking work on natural convection at Cambridge in the 1960’s. His seminal work published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967 became the basis for the modern benchmark of variable density flow simulators that we know today as “The Elder Problem”. There have been well known and major challenges with the Elder Problem model benchmark—notably the multiple solutions that were ultimately uncovered using different numerical models. Most recently, it has been shown that the multiple solutions are indeed physically realistic bifurcation solutions to the Elder Problem and not numerically spurious artefacts. The quandary of the Elder Problem has now been solved—a major scientific breakthrough for fluid mechanics and for numerical modelling. This paper—records, reflections, reminiscences, stories and anecdotes—is an historical autobiographical and biographical memoir. It is the personal story of the Elder Problem told by some of the key scientists who established and solved the Elder Problem. 2017 marks the 50 year anniversary of the classical work by John W. Elder published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967. This set the stage for this scientific story over some five decades. This paper is a celebration and commemoration of the life and times of John W. Elder, the problem named in his honour, and some of the key scientists who worked on, and ultimately solved, it.

  15. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  16. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, P<0.0005). Highly similar differences were observed between microbiota profiles of young adult pneumonia patients and their healthy controls. Clustering resulted in 11 (sub)clusters including 95% (386/405) of samples. We observed three microbiota profiles strongly associated with pneumonia (P<0.05) and either dominated by lactobacilli (n=11), Rothia (n=51) or Streptococcus (pseudo)pneumoniae (n=42). In contrast, three other microbiota clusters (in total n=183) were correlated with health (P<0.05) and were all characterized by more diverse profiles containing higher abundances of especially Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella and Leptotrichia. For the remaining clusters (n=99), the association with health or disease was less clear. A decision tree model based on the relative abundance of five bacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with

  17. Cosmological and black hole apparent horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems....

  18. Contrast configuration influences grouping in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; Clifford, Colin W G; Wenderoth, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether the same principles that influence grouping in static displays also influence grouping in apparent motion. Using the Ternus display, we found that the proportion of group motion reports was influenced by changes in contrast configuration. Subjects made judgments of completion of these same configurations in a static display. Generally, contrast configurations that induced a high proportion of group motion responses were judged as more 'complete' in static displays. Using a stereo display, we then tested whether stereo information and T-junction information were critical for this increase in group motion. Perceived grouping was consistently higher for same contrast polarity configurations than for opposite contrast polarity configurations, regardless of the presence of stereo information or explicit T-junctions. Thus, while grouping in static and moving displays showed a similar dependence on contrast configuration, motion grouping showed little dependence on stereo or T-junction information.

  19. Apparent CPT violation in neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Nelson, Ann E.; Walsh, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    We consider searching for light sterile fermions and new forces by using long baseline oscillations of neutrinos and antineutrinos. A new light sterile state and/or a new force can lead to apparent CPT violation in muon neutrino and antineutrino oscillations. As an example, we present an economical model of neutrino masses containing a sterile neutrino. The potential from the standard model weak neutral current gives rise to a difference between the disappearance probabilities of neutrinos and antineutrinos, when mixing with a light sterile neutrino is considered. The addition of a B-L interaction adds coherently to the neutrino current potential and increases the difference between neutrino and antineutrino disappearance. We find that this model can improve the fit to the results of MINOS for both neutrinos and antineutrinos, without any CPT violation, and that the regions of parameter space which improve the fit are within experimental constraints.

  20. The apparent motion of the Sun revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Oliver

    2002-05-01

    The knowledge of the apparent motion of the Sun - due to the combined effects of the rotation of the Earth around its proper axis and the translation around the Sun - is important both in natural and man-made systems. In particular, a proper explanation of the seasons requires an understanding of this solar geometry. In this paper we present a simple derivation of the relevant formulae based on vector algebra. The possible trajectories are discussed in detail. An approximate explicit formula for the seasonal variations of solar radiation is derived and discussed. The calculations give useful insights into the geometry of the problem and are thought to be helpful for the undergraduate teaching of solar energy engineering, classical mechanics and astronomy.

  1. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  2. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  3. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  4. Elder physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Disability and handicap among elderly Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S S

    2001-08-01

    Singapore's elderly population has been growing rapidly and is expected to constitute more than 25 percent of the total population by the year 2030. The ageing process brings with it a host of health problems. Here the question arises--Are the increasing years of life going to create a high proportion of sick and disabled elderly people, or a rich human resource of healthy senior citizens? Since more women are living longer than men, who would face a higher risk of disability and handicap? These questions are yet to be answered in Singapore. This paper seeks answers to these questions. The study is based on a sample survey of 1209 elderly Singaporeans living in Kampong Glam, Kreta Ayer and Bukit Merah parliamentary constituencies which have some of the highest proportions of the aged population. The results revealed that more than half of the aged had a disability and the rate of disability was significantly higher among the women as compared to the men. More than one-third of the elderly had a handicap and the rate of handicap among the women was twice as much as that among the men. Severity of handicap was directly correlated with age.

  6. Factors associated with protein consumption in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália GASPARETO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective We evaluated factors associated with protein consumption by the elderly. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample of 295 elderly consumers of health facilities in São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. Protein consumption data (g and g/kg were obtained through 24-hour dietary recalls, which was reapplied in a 30% sub-sample to estimate habitual consumption, with an interval of two weeks. The association between protein consumption and sociodemographic, economic, health, and dietary variables was tested using multiple linear regression. Results There was a positive association between protein consumption (g and g/kg and better Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised, between protein consumption (g and male sex, and a negative association between protein consumption (g/kg and greater calf circumference. Higher average protein consumption (g or g/kg was observed among married elderly, individuals with higher income and schooling, who were economically active, eutrophic, without dyslipidemia and symptoms of dysphagia, who consumed three main meals and an intermediate snack. Conclusion The results showed that protein consumption was associated with diet quality, sex, and calf circumference. The identification of elderly groups prone to protein inadequacy may direct individual and collective interventions to prevent muscle mass reduction and its implications, such as sarcopenia and other adverse outcomes.

  7. Palliative care and elderly health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Amaral Soares Abou Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years elderly population is increasing substantially, about 650,000 per year, as well as the concept of unifamílies, ie, families consisting of a single person. In this paper, is proposed a reflection about health of elderly in Brazil, and the conditions of a chronic disease and its acute state - terminal. In the actual society, capitalist and capitalized, the individual is valued by his production, losing his value when acquires a disabling illnesses. There is a growing need for work, and each time there is less time and resources to manage the permanence of an elderly patient at home, or pay for a caregiver. This situation leads families to resort to hospitalization, which in turn makes the hospitals overcrowded with patients in this state, affecting both emergency care as the treatment of chronic patients. This fact occurs due to lack of hospital infrastructure, as well by the lack of units of the healthy system capable of providing palliative care. The questioning about the elderly who need palliative care, and reflection about the type of care dispended for this kind of patient, should be the focal point of professional's reflections, capable to lead him to a new way of thinking and, consequently, to inspire him to act in a new way.

  8. Absence of clinically relevant cardiovascular interaction upon add-on of mirabegron or tamsulosin to an established tamsulosin or mirabegron treatment in healthy middle-aged to elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Marcel; Tretter, Reiner; Meijer, John; Dorrepaal, Caroline; Gangaram-Panday, Shanti; Brooks, Ashley; Krauwinkel, Walter; Dickinson, James

    2014-08-01

    Tamsulosin and mirabegron may be used concomitantly in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Since alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are associated with cardiovascular side effects, potential pharmacokinetic and cardiovascular interactions were evaluated. This was an open-label, randomized, 2-arm, 2-sequence study in 48 healthy men (24/arm) aged 44 - 72 years. In arm 1, subjects received single-dose tamsulosin hydrochloride modified release capsules (0.4 mg) alone and with steady-state mirabegron oral controlled absorption system tablets (100 mg once daily) in random sequence. In arm 2, subjects received single-dose mirabegron alone and with steady-state tamsulosin. Samples for mirabegron and tamsulosin plasma concentrations were collected. Blood pressure (BP) and pulse rate (PR) were measured and orthostatic stress tests were performed. Mirabegron increased tamsulosin C(max) to 159% (90% confidence interval (CI) 143 - 177%), AUC(∞) to 161% (90% CI 149 - 173%), and t(1/2) to 116%. Tamsulosin reduced mirabegron C(max) to 85% (90% CI 71 - 103%) and AUC(∞) to 84% (90% CI 74 - 95%) without effect on t1/2. Mirabegron and tamsulosin co-treatment caused no statistically significant changes (p > 0.05) in PR or systolic BP versus mono-treatment up to 12 hours post-dose. Mean diastolic BP decreases of -2.1 (95% CI -4.1, -0.1) to -4.2 (-7.5, -0.9) mmHg in arm 1 and -3.0 (-5.7, -0.3) to -4.2 (-7.4, -1.0) mmHg in arm 2 were observed, statistically significant (p tamsulosin to existing tamsulosin or mirabegron therapy did not cause clinically relevant changes in cardiovascular safety or safety profiles.

  9. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša; Vuković-Ercegović Gordana; Šegrt Zoran; Đorđević Snežana; Jović-Stošić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collecte...

  10. Robots in Elderly Care

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Vercelli; Innocenzo Rainero; Ludovico Ciferri; Marina Boido; Fabrizio Pirri

    2018-01-01

    Low birth rate and the long life expectancy represent an explosive mixture, resulting in the rapid aging of population. The costs of healthcare in the grey society are increasing dramatically, and soon there will be not enough resources and people for care. This context requires conceptually new elderly care solutions progressively reducing the percentages of the human-based care. Research on robot-based solutions for elderly care and active ageing aims to answer these needs. From a general p...

  11. American Indian/Alaska Native Elders: A Growing Demographic that Is Changing How We View Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jordan P

    2016-01-01

    Today, AIAN Elders are more actively engaged in their families and communities, encouraging the development of intergenerational programs, language and cultural revitalization, being stewards in research conducted in their communities, as well passing on their knowledge and experiences on how to live as healthy Native people. Elders have traditionally been quiet and observant of their environment, but the current and future cohorts of Elders are advocates, leaders, and culture bearers for their families and communities and they are now in positions of leadership. Western society acknowledges the value of traditional knowledge and AIAN Elders are viewed as exemplars of healthy aging and their lessons and experiences can be attributed to our own lives. This commentary highlights the paradigm shift in how society views older adults, specifically AIAN Elders and their role in health and wellbeing.

  12. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcević, Natasa Perković; Ercegović, Gordana Vuković; Segrt, Zoran; Djordjević, Snezana; Stosić, Jasmina Jović

    2016-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender), benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old), middle aged (41-65-year old) and elderly (older than 65). During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  13. Epilepsy in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-An Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly people are the largest and continuously fastest growing population among patients with epilepsy. Elderly patients with epilepsy are very different from other age groups in many respects and clinicians shouldn’t treat them in the same way as younger adults. Accurate diagnosis of epilepsy in the elderly is much more difficult and atypical manifestations and misdiagnoses are certainly not the exception. Syncope is probably the most important differential diagnosis. High clinical suspicion and proper investigation are the best tools for prompt diagnosis. Etiologies of late-onset epilepsy are mainly symptomatic and cerebrovascular diseases are the most common causes in this age group, followed by degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. It is appropriate to consider starting antiepileptic drug (AED treatment at the first-ever seizure in elderly patients who have remote symptomatic causes such as stroke and dementia. According to the high recurrence rate of seizure and the good response to AEDs in elderly patients, the proper choice from various AEDs for seizure control is very important. Decision-making for AED choice depends on many different factors, including pharmacological properties, efficacy, tolerability from side effects, drug interactions, and medical comorbidities. The newer AEDs with lesser adverse effects and fewer drug interactions appear to be reasonable treatment options for elderly patients. However, more evidence from clinical trials in this specific age group is warranted.

  14. [Eating habits in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and associated factors in elderly hypertensive individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadenz, Sabrina Dalbosco; Benvegnú, Luís Antônio

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the elderly. In this study, healthy eating habits and associated factors in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in elderly hypertensive individuals were identified. It involved a cross-sectional study gathering primary data in a family health unit in a city in the interior of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and 212 elderly hypertensive individuals participated in the study. A higher prevalence among the lower age bracket of elderly individuals, female, with little schooling and low income was revealed. Healthy eating habits among the elderly hypertensive individuals assessed are below those recommended in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Social and economic factors, health characteristics and the use of health services influenced the adoption of healthy eating habits. The results of this study suggest that elderly hypertensive individuals find it difficult to adopt healthy eating habits. This contributes further to the definition of strategies for routine prevention and control of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly.

  15. Effect of laughter on salivary flow rates and levels of chromogranin A in young adults and elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Hiroe

    2012-11-01

    Salivary chromogranin A (CgA) levels and salivary flow rates were measured to evaluate the stress relief effect of laughter on the young and the elderly. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 aged 20-25 years; 15 aged 62-83 years) performed a serial arithmetic task for 15 min and then watched a comedy video for 30 min. On a different day, as a control, they watched a non-humorous video after performing a task similar to the first one. Saliva samples were collected immediately before and after the arithmetic task, 30 min after completing the task (immediately after watching the film), and 30 min after watching the film (60 min after completing mental task). Salivary CgA levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the elderly group, salivary flow rates, which had declined by the end of the arithmetic task, were statistically significantly higher after watching the comedy video. In the young group, salivary CgA levels, which had increased by the end of the task, had statistically significantly declined after watching the comedy video. No such post-task changes were apparent in control results; in the young group, there was a statistically significant interprotocol difference in salivary CgA levels. These findings suggest that laughter may relieve stress, particularly in the young people.

  16. Efectividad de las intervenciones cognitivas en la prevención del deterioro de la memoria en las personas mayores sanas Review of the effectiveness of cognitive interventions in preventing cognitive deterioration in healthy elderly individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Novoa

    2008-10-01

    these interventions has not been sufficiently evaluated. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of cognitive interventions in preventing age-associated memory impairment by means of a literature review. Methods: An exhaustive search was carried out in PubMed. Studies published from 1990 onwards that assessed the effectiveness of cognitive interventions on memory outcomes in older adults without mild cognitive impairment or dementia were included. The studies were classified according to their quality. The short- and long-term effects of the interventions on objective and subjective memory tasks and transfer of gains to other cognitive domains were assessed. Results: Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Eleven (44% were considered high-quality, of which all except one reported improved memory outcomes. The most common type of memory assessed was recent verbal objective memory, which improved in eight out of nine high-quality studies. Recent non-verbal and association objective memory, mainly assessed in medium-quality studies, improved in four out of seven and in 10 out of 11 studies, respectively. The results concerning subjective memory were heterogeneous. Transfer of gains was only observed in one out of seven high-quality studies. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that certain cognitive interventions performed in healthy older adults are effective in preventing cognitive deterioration, especially recent verbal memory.

  17. Genetics, Lifestyle, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Young and Apparently Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, Jan-Willem; Rimbert, Antoine; Zhang, Xiang; Viel, Martijn; Kanninga, Roan; van Dijk, Freerk; Lansberg, Peter; Sinke, Richard; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in

  18. Serological and molecular survey of Leishmania parasites in apparently healthy dogs in the West Bank, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamarsheh Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is caused by Leishmania infantum in all Mediterranean countries. The Leishmania parasite is transmitted by the bite of a corresponding sand fly vector and primarily maintained in nature by wild and domestic reservoirs, including dogs, foxes and jackals. Infected dogs are the primary reservoir host in endemic regions and are the most significant risk disposing humans to infection. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of infection with Leishmania and identification of Leishmania infantum in domestic dogs in the West Bank, Palestine. Methods The infection rate among domestic dogs collected from seven districts in the Palestinian West Bank was investigated by examination of parasites in culture from the buffy coat using serological and molecular methods; based on ELISA, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and cysteine protease (CPB PCR. Results Out of 215 dogs examined for Leishmania, 36 (16.7% were positive in at least one method. Twenty three animals (11.5% were positive for Leishmania DNA, whereas, ELISA and culture revealed 16 (7.5%, and 4 (1.5% respectively. CPB-PCR on one of three culture-positive isolates revealed Leishmania infantum as the causative agent for Leishmania infection in dogs. Conclusions Our study showed that canine leishmania infection is prevalent with varying degrees in all the seven studied districts in Palestine despite the absence of human VL cases in 4 of these districts. The causative agent was confirmed to be Leishmania infantum.

  19. Effect of fortified spread on homocysteine concentration in apparently healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Jacobs, R.G.J.M.; Deckere, E. de; Berg, H. van den; Bree, A. de; Put, N.M.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 fortified spreads on the blood concentrations of these vitamins and homocysteine. Design and setting: A 6-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel trial carried out in a clinical research center. Subjects: One

  20. Balanoposthitis as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus in an apparently healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Saoji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanoposthitis inflammation of the glans penis, which often involves prepuce is a common condition and are usually managed symptomatically without considering a possible association diabetes. Acquired balanoposthitis may be the first clinical presentation of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods: We enrolled 100 subjects with balanoposthitis with no history of diabetes mellitus in the past. Random blood sugar was done in all subjects, those with random blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl underwent fasting and 2 hour post prandial blood sugar estimation. Result: Out of 100 patients having balanitis,7 patients were detected to have diabetes mellitus for the first time, while another 4 patients were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for the first time. Conclusion: In conclusion, we must bear in mind that balanoposthitis may be the first clinical sign of diabetes mellitus in males and hence appropriate blood glucose testing should be carried out when assessing men with balanoposthitis.

  1. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, B. J.; Rana, J. S.; Lemieux, I.; Després, J.-P.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Wareham, N. J.; Khaw, K.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that for any given body mass index (BMI) category, active individuals would have a smaller waist circumference than inactive individuals. Our second objective was to examine the respective contribution of waist circumference and physical inactivity on coronary heart

  2. Characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle and their attendants in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, Balichene; Kudirkiene, Egle; Mtambo, Madundo

    2016-01-01

    attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle...... isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (40.8% and 33.1%), sulphamethazole-trimethoprim (49.0% and 8.8%) and ampicillin (44.9% and 21.3%). However, higher proportion of resistant E. coli and higher frequency of resistance to more than two antimicrobials was found in isolates from cattle attendants...

  3. Prevalence of sickle cell gene among apparently healthy under-two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the subjects had SCD and the prevalence of sickle cell trait (SCT) among them was 22%. Premarital counselling intervention in families seemed to increase the prevalence of SCT when compared to those not counselled but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.30). The lower prevalence of SCT among children ...

  4. Detection, quantification and genetic variability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from apparently healthy and pneumonic swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaima Burgher Pulgarón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As diferenças moleculares entre as estirpes de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae presentes em pulmões de suínos com pneumonia tem sido estudadas. Porém, estudos comparativos relativos as estirpes presentes nos suínos aparentemente saudáveis não foram levados a cabo. O objetivo do estudo foi a detecção, quantificação e analise molecular de M. hyopneumoniae nos pulmões suínos com e sem lesões pneumônicas. Para a detecção de M. hyopneumoniae usaramse o PCR Multiplo (YAMAGUTI, 2008, o PCR a Tempo Real (STRAIT et al., 2008 e a amplificação de múltiplo VNTR (VRANCKX et al., 2011. A caracterização molecular das estirpes foi realizada mediante a análise do número de copias de VNTR em P97R1, P146R3, H2R1 e H4. O M. hyopneumoniae foi detectado em amostras de suínos saudáveis e pneumônicos e a quantidade de M. hyopneumoniae nas amostras positivas variou com o tipo de ensaio. O maior número de amostras positivas foi identificado pela amplificação de múltiplas VNTR combinado com a eletroforese de capilares. Usando o PCR a Tempo Real, 4.9*104 copias de genoma/mL de M. hyopneumoniae foram detectadas em pulmões aparentemente saudáveis. Uma quantidade média de 3.9*106 copias de genoma/mL de M. hyopneumoniae foi detectada em pulmões pneumônicos. A análise do número de copias de VNTR demonstrou uma elevada variabilidade.

  5. Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Serum Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2015; 14 (6): 1071-1074. ISSN: 1596-5996 ... Revised accepted: 26 April 2015. Abstract. Purpose: To ... maintaining membrane integrity and protection from reactive ..... Plasma lipid profile ...

  6. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D......, and measured adiposity (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference), cases of T2D, cases of cardiovascular events, or risk markers thereof. RESULTS: In total, 13 studies were deemed eligible; 5 studies were related to obesity, 7 studies were related to T2D, and one study was related to CVD. Only....... CONCLUSIONS: The identified studies do not provide convincing evidence to suggest an association between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, or CVD. French fries may be associated with increased risks of obesity and T2D although confounding may be present. In this systematic review, only...

  7. Characterisation of Commensal Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Cattle and Their Attendants in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balichene P Madoshi

    Full Text Available While pathogenic types of Escherichia coli are well characterized, relatively little is known about the commensal E. coli flora. In the current study, antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli and distribution of ERIC-PCR genotypes among isolates of such bacteria from cattle and cattle attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (40.8% and 33.1%, sulphamethazole-trimethoprim (49.0% and 8.8% and ampicillin (44.9% and 21.3%. However, higher proportion of resistant E. coli and higher frequency of resistance to more than two antimicrobials was found in isolates from cattle attendants than isolates from cattle. Sixteen out of 66 ERIC-PCR genotypes were shared between the two hosts, and among these ones, seven types contained isolates from cattle and cattle attendants from the same farm, suggesting transfer of strains between hosts. Genome-wide analysis showed that the majority of the sequenced cattle isolates were assigned to phylogroups B1, while human isolates represented phylogroups A, C, D and E. In general, in silico resistome and virulence factor identification did not reveal differences between hosts or phylogroups, except for lpfA and iss found to be cattle and B1 phylogroup specific. The most frequent plasmids replicon genes found in strains from both hosts were of IncF type, which are commonly associated with carriage of antimicrobial and virulence genes. Commensal E. coli from cattle and attendants were found to share same genotypes and to carry antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes associated with both intra and extraintestinal E. coli pathotypes.

  8. Whole-grain and blood lipid changes in apparently healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollænder, Pernille Lærke Bjørndal; Ross, Alastair B; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole grains are recognized for their potential role in preventing cardiovascular diseases; however, results from randomized controlled studies on blood lipids are inconsistent, potentially because of compositional differences between individual grain types for some nutrients, including...... dietary fiber. OBJECTIVE: Using a meta-analytic approach, we assessed the effect of whole-grain compared with non-whole-grain foods on changes in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic literature search in selected databases. Studies...... were included if they were randomized controlled comparisons between whole-grain foods and a non-whole-grain control in adults. A total of 6069 articles were screened for eligibility, and data were extracted from 24 studies. Weighted mean differences were calculated, and meta-regression analyses were...

  9. Pubertal Onset in Apparently Healthy Indian Boys and Impact of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Vineet; Dabas, Aashima; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Marwaha, Raman Kumar; Sreenivas, V; Ganie, M Ashraf; Gupta, Nandita; Mehan, Neena

    2017-01-01

    Primary - to determine the age of pubertal onset in Indian boys. Secondary - (a) to assess the impact of obesity on pubertal timing, (b) to assess the relationship between gonadotropins and puberty. Cross-sectional. General community-seven schools across New Delhi. Random sample of 1306 school boys, aged 6-17 years. Anthropometric measurement for weight and height and pubertal staging was performed for all subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated to define overweight/obesity. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone, and serum testosterone were measured in every sixth subject. Age at pubertal onset-testicular volume ≥4 mL (gonadarche) and pubic hair Stage II. Median age of attaining gonadarche and pubarche was 10.41 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2-10.6 years) and 13.60 (95% CI: 13.3-14.0 years), respectively. No significant difference in the age of attainment of gonadarche was observed in boys with normal or raised BMI, though pubarche occurred 8 months earlier in the latter group. Serum gonadotropins and testosterone increased with increasing stages of puberty but were unaffected by BMI. Serum LH level of 1.02 mIU/mL and testosterone level of >0.14 ng/mL showed the best prediction for pubertal onset. The study establishes a secular trend of the age of onset of puberty in Indian boys. Pubarche occurred earlier in overweight/obese boys. The cutoff levels of serum LH and testosterone for prediction of pubertal onset have been established.

  10. Emotional exhaustion and cognitive performance in apparently healthy teachers: a longitudinal multi-source study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Stamov-Roßnagel, Christian; Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-10-01

    We investigate how emotional exhaustion (EE), the core component of burnout, relates to cognitive performance, job performance and health. Cognitive performance was assessed by self-rated cognitive stress symptoms, self-rated and peer-rated cognitive impairments in everyday tasks and a neuropsychological test of learning and memory (LGT-3); job performance and physical health were gauged by self-reports. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses in a sample of 100 teachers confirm that EE is negatively related to cognitive performance as assessed by self-rating and peer-rating as well as neuropsychological testing (all p Longitudinal linear regression analyses confirm similar trends (p longitudinal analyses, EE also significantly predicts physical health. Contrary to our expectations, EE does not affect job performance. When reversed causation is tested, none of the outcome variables at Time 1 predict EE at Time 2. This speaks against cognitive dysfunctioning serving as a vulnerability factor for exhaustion. In sum, results underpin the negative consequences of EE for cognitive performance and health, which are relevant for individuals and organizations alike. In this way, findings might contribute to the understanding of the burnout syndrome. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Effect of Consuming Ambon Banana (Musa paradisiaca Var. Sapientum on Sleep Latency of Elderly Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi Ria Ristania

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elderly hypertension often reported that their latency elongated was less compared to healthy elderly. The increase of latency impact on health, it causes susceptibility to illness, stress, confusion, disorientation, mood disorders, less fresh, decrease ability to make decisions. The aim of this research was to explain the effect of consuming Ambon banana on sleep latency of elderly hypertension in Mulyorejo, Surabaya. Time series one group pre-test post test design was used in this research. Affordable population in this research was elderly hypertension in RW 2 and RW 3 Mulyorejo Surabaya. Total sample was 15 respondents and taken by total sampling technique. The independent variable was consuming Ambon banana, and dependent variable was sleep latency of elderly hypertension. Every day the latency and blood pressure on elderly was monitored. Data was collected using questionnaire, and then analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The result showed that consuming Ambon banana affect sleep latency (p=0.009.

  12. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, J. H.; Schouten, A. C.; Aarts, R. G. K. M.; Meskers, C. G. M.; Maier, A. B.; van der Kooij, H.

    2015-01-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084

  14. What do healthcare workers in elderly care know about occupational health and safety? An explorative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrock, Stefanie; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert; Peters, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Demographic changes will lead to a growing demand for healthy, motivated healthcare workers (HCW) in the years ahead. Along with well-targeted prevention, knowledge of occupational health and safety and infection precaution is essential for a healthy working life. In this context back-friendly working methods and protection from infectious diseases are necessary in elderly care. In 2012, a survey was conducted in nine residential and two semi-residential nursing homes, as well as in one home care service in the Schwerin area of northeast Germany. Four hundred and seventy three HCWs were asked to fill in a questionnaire on what they knew about aspects of occupational health and safety such as vaccinations and preventative measures administered by occupational physicians, hygiene, back-friendly working methods and infection prevention. The statistical evaluation was descriptive, with a comparison between job title. Differences were examined with chi square or Fisher's exact test. The response rate was 28 % (n = 132). The largest group of respondents (36 %) were qualified geriatric HCWs. More than 74 % of employees felt well informed about opportunities for precautionary checks and vaccination by occupational physician, and 93 % utilized these opportunities. When it came to assigning modes of transmission to specific infectious diseases, only 23 % of participants were well informed, and one in three (31 %) care assistants was inadequately informed. Fewer than half of participants could correctly name the indications for hand disinfection. Only 66 % of the HCWs said they were aware of training offers for the management of multidrug-resistant organisms in their institution. They did know about possible aids to back-friendly working, although gaps in knowledge were apparent. Only 59 % of respondents knew that care utensils should preferably be stored at working height so as to reduce awkward body postures. Employees in elderly care are well informed about the

  15. The interplay between healthy behaviors and health outcomes among older adults in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A. Selivanova (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: Worldwide, populations are aging and the health of elderly individuals is deteriorating. Healthy habits may slow the process of health deterioration, but research investigating relationships between health and various health behaviors is lacking. This

  16. The effect of push factors in the leisure sports participation of the retired elderly on re-socialization recovery resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang-Uk; Kim, Hong-Rok; Yi, Eun-Surk

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide useful materials for the realization of healthy and happy welfare society through the re-socialization of the retired elderly by identifying the effect of the push factors in the leisure sports participation of the retired elderly on re-socialization and recovery resilience. To achieve the study purpose, 304 subjects over the age of 55 residing in Seoul and Gyeonggin among the retired elderly were selected by using the method of systematic stratified cluster random...

  17. National Center on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ... to further the field for those interested in elder abuse identification and prevention. What’s Happening National Center on ...

  18. The elderly and general anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2010-01-01

    Due to the aging population, the number of elderly patients taking advantage of healthcare services is increasing. A general physical decline of all organ systems and a high frequency of chronic disease accompanying aging.Comorbidity and polypharmacy are therefore common in the elderly. Hence, th......, the administration of general anesthesia to the elderly can be a very challenging task. This paper aims to highlight some of the important issues presented to the elderly undergoing surgery and to suggest some strategies for management....

  19. National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Teresa; Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina; Goulão, Beatriz; Mendonça, Nuno; Alarcão, Violeta; Santos, Nuno; de Oliveira, Rita Machado; Yngve, Agneta; Bye, Asta; Bergland, Astrid; Lopes, Carla; Nicola, Paulo; Santos, Osvaldo; Clara, João Gorjão

    2016-07-16

    Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly. Therefore, knowledge about nutritional status among the elderly is essential for the promotion and maintenance of healthy ageing and to support the development of health protection policies and equity in elderly health care. This is a nationwide nutrition survey of the Portuguese population over 65 years old, with data collection through face-to-face interviews. A representative and random sample of community dwelling elderly and nursing homes residents will be obtained by multistage sampling stratified per main Portuguese regions, sex and age groups. Minimum sample size was estimated to be 2077 elderly (979 in the community and 1098 in nursing homes). Data will be collected on food habits and eating patterns, nutritional status, food insecurity, lifestyle, self-rated general health status and self-reported diseases, functionality, loneliness, cognitive function, emotional status and demographic and socio-economic characterization. This is the first national survey to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition of the Portuguese population above 65 years old, including those living in nursing homes. It will allow the identification of population subgroups of elderly with increased odds of malnutrition and nutritional risk. In addition, this survey will contribute to the identification of psychosocial and clinical predictors of malnutrition among elderly, which is an important risk factor for other

  20. Identification of anaerobic threshold by analysis of heart rate variability during discontinuous dynamic and resistance exercise protocols in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Archiza, Bruno; Dos Santos, Daniel Augusto; Bonjorno, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine anaerobic threshold (AT) during discontinuous dynamic and resistive exercise protocols by analysing of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood lactate (BL) in healthy elderly subjects and compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic variables obtained from these two forms of exercise. Fourteen elderly (70 ± 4 years) apparently healthy males underwent the following tests: (i) incremental ramp test on cycle ergometer, (ii) one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press at 45°, (iii) a discontinuous exercise test on a cycle ergometer (DET-C) protocol and (iv) a resistance exercise leg press (DET-L) protocol. Heart rate, blood pressure and BL were obtained during each increment of exercise intensity. No significant differences (P>0·05) were found between methods of AT determination (BL and HRV) nor the relative intensity corresponding to AT (30% of maximum intensity) between the types of exercise (DET-C and DET-L). Furthermore, no significant differences (P>0·05) were found between the DET-C and DET-L in relation to HRV, however, the DET-L provided higher values of systolic blood pressure and BL (Presistive exercise protocols were similar when compared at the same relative intensity. However, DET-L resulted in higher values of blood pressure and BL at workloads beyond AT. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  2. Elderly Care Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagiman, Aliani; Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The demand for elderly centre has increased tremendously abreast with the world demographic change as the number of senior citizens rose in the 21st century. This has become one of the most crucial problems of today's era. As the world progress into modernity, more and more people are occupied with daily work causing the senior citizens to lose the care that they actually need. This paper seeks to elucidate the best possible design of an elderly care centre with new approach in order to provide the best service for them by analysing their needs and suitable activities that could elevate their quality of life. All these findings will then be incorporated into design solutions so as to enhance the living environment for the elderly especially in Malaysian context.

  3. Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired physical performance in frail elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Brouwer, E.M.; Nienaber-Rousseau, C.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has been associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in healthy elderly people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has not been studied. The objective of this study was to explore the

  4. Serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 levels as an indicator of functional ability in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); W.F. Blum (Werner); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In a cross-sectional study in 403 healthy, independently living elderly men (mean age 78 years), we determined which are the main physiological determinants of functional ability in the elderly, and which components of the somatotropic system contribute to

  5. Poverty among Elderly in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  6. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  7. The complexities of elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse is a growing societal concern, affecting at least 1 in 10 older Americans. Researchers and practitioners alike consistently assert that a dramatic discrepancy exists between the prevalence rates of elder abuse and the number of elder abuse cases reported. As a field of study, recognition and understanding of elder abuse is still emerging. Comparing findings of a small, but growing, body of literature on perceived and substantiated cases of elder abuse is challenging because there is no uniform term or agreed-upon definition used among state governments, researchers, health care and service providers, and advocates. This article summarizes current understanding of elder abuse, including what constitutes elder abuse, risk factors for elder abuse, perpetrators of elder abuse, and outcomes of elder abuse. Issues associated with the detection of elder abuse and intervention strategies for victims of abuse are addressed. In the final section, potential roles and contributions of psychologists for advancing elder abuse research, professional practice, and policy development are highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Benzodiazepine poisoning in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perković-Vukčević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Benzodiazepines are among the most frequently ingested drugs in self-poisonings. Elderly may be at greater risk compared with younger individuals due to impaired metabolism and increased sensitivity to benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to assess toxicity of benzodiazepines in elderly attempted suicide. Methods. A retrospective study of consecutive presentations to hospital after self-poisoning with benzodiazepines was done. Collected data consisted of patient's characteristics (age, gender, benzodiazepine ingested with its blood concentrations at admission, clinical findings including vital signs and Glasgow coma score, routine blood chemistry, complications of poisoning, details of management, length of hospital stay and outcome. According the age, patients are classified as young (15-40-year old, middle aged (41-65-year old and elderly (older than 65. Results. During a 2-year observational period 387 patients were admitted because of pure benzodiazepine poisoning. The most frequently ingested drug was bromazepam, the second was diazepam. The incidence of coma was significantly higher, and the length of hospital stay significantly longer in elderly. Respiratory failure and aspiration pneumonia occurred more frequently in old age. Also, flumazenil was more frequently required in the group of elderly patients. Conclusion. Massive benzodiazepines overdose in elderly may be associated with a significant morbidity, including deep coma with aspiration pneumonia, respiratory failure, and even death. Flumazenil is indicated more often to reduce CNS depression and prevent complications of prolonged unconsciousness, but supportive treatment and proper airway management of comatose patients is the mainstay of the treatment of acute benzodiazepine poisoning.

  9. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  10. Tremor in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuschl, Günther; Petersen, Inge; Lorenz, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tremor in the elderly is commonly diagnosed as essential tremor (ET). The prevalence of tremor increases steeply with increasing age, whereas hereditary tremor is becoming less common. Moreover, late-manifesting tremor seems to be associated with dementia and earlier mortality. We...... hypothesize that different entities underlie tremor in the elderly. Two thousand four hundred forty-eight subjects from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins older than 70 y answered screening questions for ET in 2001. Two thousan fifty-six (84%) participants drew Archimedes spirals to measure...

  11. Struggles in (Elderly) Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    This book provides a critical engagement with the intensified struggles to be found within elderly care provision. Various social and political processes, including the forces of globalisation and the de-gendering of care, have changed how we might understand this national and global political...... of contestation. Dahl approaches these issues from a post-structuralist and radical feminist position, while drawing from feminist sociology, feminist political science, nursing philosophy and feminist history. In particular, Struggles In (Elderly) Care highlights how the predominantly feminist theorization...

  12. [Serum sodium imbalance in the bedridden elderly. Part One: Realities and problem of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, A; Kogure, D; Ogawa, K; Sakurai, H; Katsunuma, H; Maehata, Y; Takasaki, M

    1996-06-01

    Symptoms and other abnormalities associated with serum sodium imbalance were studied in bedridden elderly and healthy elderly subjects. 1. A significantly higher number of the bedridden elderly suffered from chronic wasting disease. 2. The average serum sodium concentration in bedridden elderly subjects was significantly lower than in healthy subjects, as was the sodium intake and the sodium content in urine, which indicate that the bedridden elderly subjects suffered from chronic sodium deficiency. 3. The bedridden elderly subjects had high levels of plasma PRA and antidiuretic hormone, and their aldosterone levels were low, which indicate that their condition was associated with a decrease in available circulating plasma, hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone, and a decline in the ability to retain sodium. 4. Measurement of 24-hr creatinine clearance, albumin, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine revealed that bedridden elderly subjects had high levels of renal dysfunction, the result of which may a disturbance in water excretion. Abnormalities in serum sodium levels in the bedridden elderly subjects were related to a chronic deficiency in sodium intake, which reduced their ability to maintain sodium levels and impaired their renal function. Iatrogenic factors are likely to play an important role in the genesis of this condition, and should be taken into account in during management.

  13. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of ß-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, C.A.; Naber, T.H.J.; Breemen, van R.B.; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent ß-carotene absorption as measured by the oral–faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled,

  14. Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of beta-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. Van; Naber, T.H.; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D.; Dicke, H.; Siebelink, E.; Hulshof, P.J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Schaafsma, G.; West, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of beta-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent beta-carotene absorption as measured by the oral-faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled,

  15. Depressive symptoms and health problems among Chinese immigrant elders in the US and Chinese elders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Chi, Iris; Plassman, Brenda L; Guo, Man

    2010-08-01

    Researchers speculate that depression tends to be more prevalent among immigrant elders due to their lack of resources, acculturation stress, language problems, and social isolation. However, other characteristics of elderly immigrants, such as the healthy immigrant effect, may counteract these potential risk factors. This study examined whether depressive symptoms differed between Chinese immigrant elders and their counterparts in China and whether health conditions were similarly associated with depressive symptoms in these two samples. Depression and health information was collected from 177 Chinese immigrant elders in Boston, the US in 2000 and from 428 education and gender-matched elders in Shanghai, China in 2003. Chinese immigrants had a significantly lower score on the modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and its subscales: somatic symptoms and depressive affect. The association remained for the subscale depressive affect in multivariate analyses. Arthritis and back or neck problems were associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms among Chinese immigrants, while problems in walking were associated with depression among their counterparts in China. Pain was an underlying contributor to the association between depression and these health problems in both the groups. This study suggests that Chinese immigrant elders might be more resilient than their counterparts despite many challenges they face after moving abroad. With the growing number of older Chinese immigrants in the US, a better understanding of depressive symptoms is essential to provide culturally competent services to better serve this population.

  16. Relationships and Community Risk Factors for Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from the First National Prevalence Study on Elder Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to mesaure the 12-months prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in private huousehold and to examine the relationship and community level risk factors for elder abuse and neglect. METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study.  Nationally stratified quota sampling procedure was applied, through four stages. Information was collected in face-to face interview on socio-demographic, healthy life style, physical and mental health, and abuse and neglect types characteristics of elder population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and odd ratios (OR. Statistical significance was set up at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The respondents reported prevalence of psychological abuse 25.7%, followed by financial abuse 12 %, neglect 6.6%, physical abuse 5.7%, physical injury 3.1%, and sexual abuse 1.3% (reported only in female respondents in the previous 12-months. Living with close relatives, dissatisfaction with the household income, less equipped households, lacking property of house/flat are associated risk factors for elder maltreatment on relationship level. Living in the northeast, southeast, and Polog region are associated risk for elder maltreatment. CONCLUSION: Study findings emphasised the previous data obtained with regards to the community and relationships risk factors for elder maltreatment.

  17. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  18. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  19. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  20. Designing and Determining Psychometric Properties of the Elder Neglect Checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majideh Heravi-Karimooi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a checklist for assessing domestic elder neglect. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the meaning of domestic elder neglect explored using the qualitative method of phenomenology. In the second phase, a checklist was created, based on the results obtained in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third and fourth phases, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and Inter- rater reliability were measured. 110 elderly people participated in the this study. Results: The initial 26 item checklist designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 11 items and 2 factors including the health and care needs neglect, and neglect in providing healthy environment in the process of determining the face and content validity. Acceptable convergent validity was identified in the elder neglect checklist and care neglect scale of the domestic elder abuse questionnaire (r=0.862. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this checklist could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the index of re-hospitalization. The internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.824. Inter- rater reliability of the checklist was 0.850. Conclusion: The elder neglect checklist with 11 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect neglect among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers and researchers.

  1. Neuroanatomical correlates of personality in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Christopher I; Feczko, Eric; Dickerson, Bradford; Williams, Danielle

    2007-03-01

    Extraversion and neuroticism are two important and frequently studied dimensions of human personality. They describe individual differences in emotional responding that are quite stable across the adult lifespan. Neuroimaging research has begun to provide evidence that neuroticism and extraversion have specific neuroanatomical correlates within the cerebral cortex and amygdala of young adults. However, these brain areas undergo alterations in size with aging, which may influence the nature of these personality factor-brain structure associations in the elderly. One study in the elderly demonstrated associations between perisylvian cortex structure and measures of self transcendence [Kaasinen, V., Maguire, R.P., Kurki, T., Bruck, A., Rinne, J.O., 2005. Mapping brain structure and personality in late adulthood. NeuroImage 24, 315-322], but the neuroanatomical correlates of extraversion and neuroticism, or other measures of the Five Factor Model of personality have not been explored. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the structural correlates of neuroticism and extraversion in healthy elderly subjects (n=29) using neuroanatomic measures of the cerebral cortex and amygdala. We observed that the thickness of specific lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions, but not amygdala volume, correlates with measures of extraversion and neuroticism. The results suggest differences in the regional neuroanatomic correlates of specific personality traits with aging. We speculate that this relates to the influences of age-related structural changes in the PFC.

  2. [The life of elderly women living alone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chunmi; Ko, Moon Hee; Kim, Moon Jeong; Kim, Joohyun; Kim, Hee Ja; Moon, Jin Ha; Baek, Kyoung Seon; Son, Haeng-Mi; Oh, SangEun; Lee, YoungAe; Choi, Jung-Sook

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to uncover the fundamental nature of living alone in female elderly. The phenomenological research approach developed by van Manen was adopted. The theme was 'taking a firm stand alone on the edges of life'. The composition elements of living alone experienced by elderly women were as follows: 1) Corporeality: participants perceived their bodies by their health status. Unhealthy participants were suffering with diseases and dependant on other persons, while healthy participants were free from family responsibility and kept on moving. 2) Spatiality: participants felt both freedom and loneliness while they stayed home. 3) Relationality: participants felt pity and yearning for their bereaved husband and sometimes talked to his picture. According to their children's filial piety, participants were pleased or displeased. However, they incessantly devoted themselves to their children. 4) Temporality: participants considered the rest of their life as extra-time which was proceeding to death, and tried to keep themselves busy before they died. A nurse should understand the multifarious aspects of elderly women's life, and then intervene to consolidate their strengths for self-supporting the final years of life.

  3. Prevention of Potential Falls of Elderly Healthy Women: Gait Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung-suk; Kim, Sukwon

    2014-01-01

    The study attempted to see if exercise training would alleviate gait asymmetry between nondominant and dominant legs, thus, eliminate the likelihood of slips. The present study provided 18 older adults exercise training for eight weeks and evaluated kinematics and ground reaction forces (GRFs) in both legs. Participants were randomly assigned to…

  4. Cholecystectomy for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liv Bjerre Juul; Harboe, Kirstine Moll; Bardram, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The number of Danish inhabitants older than 65 years is increasing, and cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed for this age group. This study aimed to analyze the role of age as an independent predictor of outcome for elderly cholecystectomy patients....

  5. [Dignity of the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera Casado, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A discussion is presented on what is understood by «dignity» when applied to the elderly, highlighting it universal character and contrasting it with the greater risks of suffering «indignities» to which the elderly are exposed. The discussion is divided into 3 sections. In the first, the risk factors in this sense could lead to physiological losses and illnessess, which in in the physical, mental and social sense are associated with ageing. In the second, the question of discrimination of the elderly as a form of aggression due to age, and is so widespread and infrequently studied. Lastly, it is discussed how to interpret the advice of the United Nations on how to promote active ageing as a defence system against indignities. It concludes with the message that neither the limitations that accompany the ageing process, nor the different forms of aggression that the elderly may be subjected to, provide sufficient argument neither for a loss of individual nor collective dignity. This is something which we all must endeavour to achieve and which must be maintained and be respected by individuals and by society at all times. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetes in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mordarska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of both type 2 diabetes and prediabetes increases with advancing age. The most important factors leading to hyperglycaemia are as follows: deficiency of insulin secretion developing with age, and growing insulin resistance caused by a change in body composition and sarcopaenia. Clinical features of diabetes in the elderly could be different. Diabetes in elderly people is often diagnosed with delay due to atypical symptoms (dementia, urinary incontinence and occurrence of mainly postprandial hyperglycaemia. Elderly people are more exposed to diabetes complications, have more risk of myocardial infarction and end-stage renal disease, and are hospitalised more often due to hypoglycaemia than are younger patients. Elderly people with diabetes are a heterogeneous group with different life expectancy, concomitant of chronic diseases, and the ability to self-control blood glucose or give themselves an injection. The therapy should be individualised. Older people with long-term diabetes and numerous chronic complications need a more liberal approach to reach specific goals of therapy. Additional goals should be avoiding hypoglycaemia, safety of the therapy, and its acceptance by the patient.

  7. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Robots in Elderly Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Vercelli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low birth rate and the long life expectancy represent an explosive mixture, resulting in the rapid aging of population. The costs of healthcare in the grey society are increasing dramatically, and soon there will be not enough resources and people for care. This context requires conceptually new elderly care solutions progressively reducing the percentages of the human-based care. Research on robot-based solutions for elderly care and active ageing aims to answer these needs. From a general perspective, robotics has the power to completely reshape the landscape of healthcare both in its structure and its operation. In fact, the long-term sustainability of healthcare systems could be addressed by automation powered by digital health technologies, such as artificial intelligence, 3D-printing or robotics. The latter could take over monotonous work from healthcare workers, which would allow them to focus more on patients and to have lesser workload. Robots might be used in elder care with several different aims. (i Robots may act as caregivers, i.e. assist the elderly, (ii they can provide remainders and instructions for activities of daily life and safety, and/or assist their carers in daily tasks; (iii they can help monitor their behaviour and health; and (iv provide companionship, including entertainment and hobbies, reminiscence and social contact. The use of Robots with human subjects/patients raise several sensitive questions. First of all, robots may represent information hubs, and can collect an incredible amount of data about the subjects and their environment. In fact, they record habits such as sleeping, exercising, third persons entering in the house, appointments. Communications may be continuously recorded. Moreover, by connecting with medical devices, they can store medical data. On one hand, this represents a very powerful tool to collect information about the single subject (precision medicine, about disease (thus eventually finding

  9. The Physical Effect of Exergames in Healthy Elderly—A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth H.; Schou, Lone; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2013-01-01

    Exergames have been suggested as an innovative approach to enhance physical activity in the elderly. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of exergames on validated quantitative physical outcomes in healthy elderly individuals. We used Centre for Review and Disseminations...... of exergaming on the health of the elderly. However, the variation of intervention approaches and outcome data collected limited the extent to which studies could be compared. This review demonstrates how exergames have a potential to improve physical health in the elderly. However, there is a need...... guidance to conduct systematic reviews. Four electronic databases were searched. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the study participants were healthy elderly individuals, and the intervention of interest was exergaming. The title and abstract screening of the 1861 citations identified 36...

  10. Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of selected electrolytes in dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warminska, Dorota; Grzybkowski, Waclaw

    2010-01-01

    Densities at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K and sound velocities at T = 298.15 K of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide, sodium tetraphenylborate, sodium bromide, and sodium perchlorate in dimethylsulfoxide have been measured over the composition range from (0 to 0.3) mol . kg -1 . From these data, apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution as well as the expansibilities have been evaluated. The results have been discussed in terms of employing tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate as a reference electrolyte in splitting the limiting apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities into ionic contributions.

  11. Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Lotte D T; van Kleef, Ellen; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2014-09-01

    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N = 24, Mage = 67 years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N = 18, Mage = 83 years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test: useful for the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M; Berg, I; Deelman, B

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, a non-verbal intelligence test for deaf children, was investigated in a group of older adults, with a view to the future use of the test in older neurological patients. In a group of 58 healthy elderly persons intelligence was measured with the SON, the Raven Progressive Matrices and a Dutch reading test. The subjects were also asked for their subjective judgements of the tests. The SON-R 5 1/2-17 appears to be a user-friendly test. The high correlations between the subtests, and between the SON and other measures of intelligence suggest that the SON is a valid test for measuring fluid intelligence in elderly persons. The existing norms are not suitable when the SON is used in elderly people, new norms for adults should therefore be developed.

  13. Age differences in implicit memory: more apparent than real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R; Parkin, A J

    1993-01-01

    Elderly subjects and a group of young subjects identified fragmented picture sequences under conditions of focused attention. Two other groups of young subjects carried out this task under divided-attention conditions. Implicit memory, as measured by item-specific savings, was found in all groups, but this effect was smaller in the elderly group. The young subjects, but not elderly subjects, performed better on new items. The divided-attention conditions equated recall and recognition by the young and the elderly, but only the young subjects showed greater savings for recalled items. The elderly subjects' reduced implicit memory therefore stemmed from their inability to facilitate implicit memory with explicit memory. A second experiment, involving only young subjects tested after delay, produced findings similar to those for the young divided-attention subjects. Implicit memory, as measured by savings in picture completion, does not show an age-related change when the role of explicit memory is considered. Age does, however, reduce skill learning.

  14. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Esmarck, B; Kadi, F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men...... and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross.......15+/-0.06; mean+/-SD) and females (from 0.11+/-0.04 to 0.13+/-0.05). These results suggest that 12 weeks of resistance training is effective in enhancing the satellite cell pool in skeletal muscle in the elderly....

  15. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  16. The influence of occupation on wellbeing, as perceived by the elderly: a systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen-Winge, Christina; Morville, Anne-Le; Holtze, Dorte Buch

    2014-01-01

    of how the independently‐living elderly enhance their wellbeing through participation in occupations. Such a review will contribute to the knowledge and practice within the health promotion framework with the healthy elderly population. Thus the review will be of use to occupational therapists and others......Review objective/questions: The objective of the current review is to identify the types of occupations that are important in improving overall wellbeing amongst the elderly population. It is assumed that conducting a systematic review with a qualitative approach will lead to a deeper understanding...... working with elderly people in terms of both theory and practice, as the knowledge will be grounded in the reality of human experience. The specific question to be addressed in this review is: Which occupations do the independently‐living elderly consider to enhance their overall wellbeing?...

  17. [Multidisciplinary guideline 'Recognition and treatment of chronic pain in vulnerable elderly people'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Wilco P; de Ruiter, Corinne M; de Weerd-Spaetgens, Chantal M E E; Geels, Paul; Horikx, Annemieke; Verduijn, Monique M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in vulnerable elderly people is still poorly recognized and treated, both at home and in hospitals and care and nursing homes. Vulnerable elderly people experience and express pain differently to relatively healthy adults, especially when they suffer from cognitive impairment or specific conditions. Determining the nature and severity of the pain requires the use of pain assessment instruments that have been validated for use in vulnerable elderly people. Effective treatment of pain demands careful diagnosis and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions that have proven effectiveness in vulnerable elderly people. The combination of multiple morbidity and poly-pharmacy increases the chance of side-effects and complications. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of many drugs are different in vulnerable elderly people. The advice is to start with a lower dose of pain medication and gradually build up a level on the basis of pain relief and side-effects ('start low, go slow!').

  18. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark; Owen, Robert; Giesler, Matthew; Katebi, Reza; Szilagyi, Bela; Chu, Tony; Demos, Nicholas; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Afshari, Nousha; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The spin S of a Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area A of its apparent horizon: 8 πS A and e0 > 1 , but these surfaces are always surrounded by apparent horizons with 8 πS < A and e0 < 1 .

  19. On the Distinction of Suicide Ideation versus Attempt in Elderly Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Hermann; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Study of selected elderly psychiatric inpatients (n=152) suggests that suicidal ideation may initiate process of smoldering when patient, family, and professionals interact in such a way as to dampen apparent distress. Suicidal thoughts/mood may be masked by affective or cognitive constriction, camouflaged by anxiety and external agitation, and…

  20. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  1. [Suicide in the Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez Suarez, Juliana María

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem worldwide, with multiple features and risk factors. It has some common and unique trends in each phase across the lifespan. To review the medical literature related to suicide in the elderly, in order to determine the current status of this problem in the world, and especially in Colombia. Literature review. There is a high volume of articles about suicide in general, even in Colombia, with many papers describing the problem in a comprehensive manner, but there is a need for more studies and publications on the scope of this problem in the elderly. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  3. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a well-known phenomenon in elderly individuals and resistance exercise together with sufficient amino acid (AA) availability has proved to be a counteractive implement. However, the source of AA and supplement timing require further investigation. The objective was to compare muscle...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...

  4. Using mobile phones in healthcare management for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Lee, Kye-Hwa; Kim, Hyunah; Kim, Ju Han

    2014-12-01

    The increasing average life expectancy is simultaneously increasing the incidence of chronic diseases and the number of healthy elderly people, consequently leading to an increased demand for healthcare management methods that do not involve hospital visits. The development of health management services involving mobile phones will change the focus of medical services from hospital visits and treatments to managing the health decisions made by individuals in their daily lives. However, the elderly may experience specific difficulties in adapting to constantly evolving services. This study reviews various health-related devices such as mobile phones that are available for providing healthcare to the elderly, and the different ways of using them. As the use of mobile phone increases, it is expected that elderly mobile phone users will also be able to regularly check their health status at any time and place. The issues of an ageing population pertain to the entire society rather than only to the elderly, which make mobile-phone-based medical informatics as a health management service a worthy goal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of diabetes on physical function among the elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Tabassum

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition that the complications associated with type-2 diabetes may translate into functional impairments in older people.This cross sectional study was conducted between January and June 2008 to determine the influence of diabetes on physical functions in an elderly (³55 years population. Fifty-five elderly diabetics attending the out-patient department of a diabetic centre were selected by convenient sampling and compared with fifty-five non-diabetic elderly persons of the near-by community. Their physical functions were assessed by Barthel Index, SF-36 Health Survey and Modified Physical Performance test. Diabetic elderly persons, on average, obtained lower scores in all these three tests. After removing the effect of socio-demographic variables, influence of diabetes on level of independence measured by Barthel Index did not persist. However, the difference in SF-36 health survey and Modified Physical Performance test scores between diabetics and non-diabetics remained significant after controlling for socio-demographic variables. The current study showed influence of diabetes on physical functions in the elderly. People should be motivated and guided properly to practice a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent and control diabetes and thus avoid complications of diabetes mellitus and disabilities in later life. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(2: 45-49

  6. The elderly as a market--challenges to evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Roger P

    2014-02-01

    To review the role of the oral care industry in the oral health of elders and opportunities for partnership with other key stakeholders. The elder population is growing at a faster rate than any other segment of the population. This is coupled with a greater probability of maintaining the dentition into later life and an increase in complex restorative work. If an elder's situation changes, they are highly vulnerable to a rapid onset of oral disease that can be devastating and extremely difficult to address. This manuscript reviews the role of the oral care industry in understanding this population as a market and the different approaches that might be used in promoting health. Two key market segments were identified, the vulnerable elders with high levels of chronic oral disease, systemic complications, medications and often inability to maintain good standards of oral hygiene and a wealthier, health and beauty conscious group with a keen interest in maintaining a healthy, aesthetically pleasing and functional dentition throughout their lives. It is likely that within current healthcare models, the oral care of elders will be unsustainable, with a smaller working population funding ever-increasing health care needs. 'Home care' combined with effective professional preventive and effective therapeutic options are essential. Partnerships between the oral care industry and oral care providers, to deliver education and engagement of care workers, medical practitioners, pharmacists and social services, are essential over the next few decades. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Prasert, Romchat; Paungmali, Aatit; Boontha, Kritsana

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses. The pain measures were assessed over the cervical spine and at a remote site, the tibialis anterior muscle. Results Elders with chronic neck pain had lower pressure pain threshold over the articular pillar of C5-C6 and decreased cold pain thresholds over the cervical spine and tibialis anterior muscle when compared with controls (p pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses (p > 0.05). Conclusion The presence of pain hypersensitivity in elderly women with chronic neck pain appears to be dependent on types of painful stimuli. This may reflect changes in the peripheral and central nervous system with age. PMID:26039149

  8. Dizziness in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L E

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the causes of dizziness in elderly men. A descriptive study involving the clinical and laboratory features of elderly men with dizziness. A university-affiliated Veterans Affairs medical center. One hundred seventeen consecutive men more than 50 years of age attending a general neurology clinic with the chief complaint of dizziness. The median duration of dizziness at first office visit was 45 weeks. Forty-nine percent of patients had more than one diagnosis that contributed to their dizziness. Dysfunctions of the peripheral vestibular system were found in 71% and were the principal causes in 56%. Benign positional vertigo was present in 34%. Disorders of the visual system were found in 26% but were the major cause in only 1%. Diagnoses involving the proprioceptive system were present in 17% and were the principal cause in 7%. Structural lesions of the brainstem or cerebellum or metabolic disorders that affected normal brainstem function were identified in 59% and were the major diagnoses in 22%. A psychophysiologic diagnosis was made in 6% but was the major diagnosis in only 3%. At the 6-months follow-up, 55% of patients improved, 34% were unchanged, 4% worsened, and 7% were lost to follow-up. Contrary to reports in the literature, dizziness in the elderly is more persistent, has more causes, is less often due to a psychophysiologic cause, and seems to be more incapacitating than dizziness in younger patients.

  9. Electrical lighting for improved wellbeing of elderly citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Agnes Sander, Birgit; Kessel, Line

    2015-01-01

    Healthy elderly citizens living in their own homes may benefit from having replaced their existing indoor lighting with a lighting being superior in stimulating their circadian rhythm to improve sleep and general wellbeing. This was hypothesised in the presented study. We replaced the existing...... indoor lighting in the main living room of elderly citizens in 20 uniform private houses in a suburb of Copenhagen. In a randomized cross-over design 29 healthy participants over 65 years were exposed over 3 weeks to blue-enriched and 3 weeks to blue-deprived light with similar corneal photopic...... illuminances from 8 am to 13 pm. The two light epochs were separated by one week neutral indoor light. Daylight factors were measured for each of the houses. The pre-experimental lighting conditions were documented by pictures and the experimental light was measured on location using portable photometers...

  10. Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the apparent vegetation reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.K. Entcheva; Middleton, E.M.; Corp, L.A.; Kim, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance data, which provide estimates of vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements offer a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, technology based on ChlF may allow more accurate carbon sequestration estimates and earlier stress detection than is possible when using reflectance data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contributions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the relative contributions of reflectance and ChlF fractions to Ra in the red to near-infrared region (650-800 nm) of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate the relationship between ChlF and reflectance at the foliar level for corn, soybean and maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established for healthy vegetation changes under nitrogen (N) deficiency. To obtain generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (corn, soybean and maple) under controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization levels. Optical reflectance spectra and actively induced ChlF emissions were collected on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of photosynthetic function, pigment levels, and carbon (C) and N content. The spectral trends were examined for similarities. On average, 10-20% of Ra at 685 nm was actually due to ChlF. The spectral trends in steady state and maximum fluorescence varied significantly, with steady state fluorescence (especially red, 685 nm) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChlF to Ra varied significantly among species, with maple

  11. Noise and poise: Enhancement of postural complexity in the elderly with a stochastic-resonance based therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M.; Priplata, A. A.; Lipsitz, L. A.; Wu, Z.; Huang, N. E.; Goldberger, A. L.; Peng, C.-K.

    2007-03-01

    Pathologic states are associated with a loss of dynamical complexity. Therefore, therapeutic interventions that increase physiologic complexity may enhance health status. Using multiscale entropy analysis, we show that the postural sway dynamics of healthy young and healthy elderly subjects are more complex than that of elderly subjects with a history of falls. Application of subsensory noise to the feet has been demonstrated to improve postural stability in the elderly. We next show that this therapy significantly increases the multiscale complexity of sway fluctuations in healthy elderly subjects. Quantification of changes in dynamical complexity of biologic variability may be the basis of a new approach to assessing risk and to predicting the efficacy of clinical interventions, including noise-based therapies.

  12. Cardiac and renal damage in the elderly hypertensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ribstein

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In the elderly patient with essential hypertension of long duration or de novo systolic hypertension, the prevalence of co-morbid conditions, be they apparent or not, the burden of associated diseases and the alteration in nutritional status and lifestyle, result in specific problems with regards to hypertension-related target organ damage. Accumulating data suggest that left ventricular (LV remodelling is a common finding in the nor-motensive elderly, and that LV hypertrophy (LVH will herald the development of heart failure in a fraction of patients with either systolic/diastolic or isolated systolic hypertension. Increased arterial stiffness, as well as impaired myocardial relaxation, reduced early diastolic filling and decreased ?-adrenergic responsiveness, contribute to the large prevalence of abnormalities in LV function in the elderly hypertensive. The response to exercise is clearly attenuated, and coronary heart disease, although highly prevalent, may be misdiagnosed because symptoms are altered. The elderly hypertensive is exquisitely sensitive to both volume depletion and excessive sodium intake, due to a marked sodium sensitivity of blood pressure (BP. A decline in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR is a common finding in the elderly. Although structural alterations attributed to age and hypertension may differ, hypertension is often looked upon as an accelerated form of ageing with regards to the heart and the kidney. Lifestyle modifications and initial monotherapy with a low-dose diuretic are warranted in the elderly hypertensive with no co-morbidity; a variety of specific approaches are considered when associated clinical conditions are present. Blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may be the preferred first-line agents in many patients with cardiac or renal damage.

  13. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  14. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent the spread of germs between pets and people. Keep pets and their supplies out of the kitchen, and ... a local wildlife rehabilitation facility. More Information Healthy Pets Healthy People Clean Hands Save Lives! Stay Healthy at Animal ...

  15. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  16. Healthy food trends - kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...

  17. Elderly\\'s Medical Therapy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Saboor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that the elderly are more prone to chronic diseases in comparison to other age groups. Medical treatment is very common in aged people. On average, every aged person uses 4.5 prescribed and 2.1 over the counter medicines. And every year they have 12 to 17 prescriptions. Indeed, medicines are mostly used in hospitals and geriatrics. (1 the most common used medicines are: analgesics, anti-inflammatory, hypertensive drugs, cardiovascular medicines & tranquilizers. Natural trend of aging emphasizes on need of change in the way of drug administration in aged people. Because of different age-related diseases, the prescriptions and dosing of different drugs has been changed specially in hospitals and geriatrics. The changing in quality of life style in aged people has also affected the way of drug administration. In this article we emphasize treatment problems, drug side effects, physiological variations and their effects on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of drugs in aging population and we also have many suggestions for increasing health in the aged and their quality of life.

  18. Colonization of the Tongue Surface in Japanese Independent Elders: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Ohno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral care is important to decrease oral bacteria, especially in the dependent elders. There have been some reports on oral microflora in the dependent elders. However, investigations involving healthy independent elders are limited. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information on the microflora in Japanese independent elders. One hundred Japanese independent elders aged 65 years or older participated in this study. Eighty-one independent elders (male: 44, female: 37, mean age: 72.7 ± 5.8 participated in this study. Their mean Barthel Index was 99.1 ± 3.1, and mean score of MMSE was 28.0 ± 2.3. The tongue bacterial flora was examinved to identify microorganisms by the culture method. The predominant aerobic organisms were Streptococcus spp. (detection rate: 100%, Neisseria spp. (96%, and Corynebacterium spp. (56%. Candida spp. was also isolated (32%. In this study, the oral microflora of the tongue in Japanese independent elders was clarified. The results of this investigation may contribute to research on oral bacteria in elder persons in the future.

  19. Fermions tunneling from apparent horizon of FRW universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ran; Ren Jirong; Shi Dunfu

    2009-01-01

    In the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, (arXiv: 0809.1554)], the scalar particles' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe was investigated by using the tunneling formalism. They obtained the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon, which was extensively applied in investigating the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations. In this Letter, we calculate fermions' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of FRW universe via tunneling formalism. Applying WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation in FRW spacetime background, the radiation spectrum and Hawking temperature of apparent horizon are correctly recovered, which supports the arguments presented in the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, (arXiv: 0809.1554)

  20. Hawking radiation of an apparent horizon in a FRW universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Hu Yapeng

    2009-01-01

    Hawking radiation is an important quantum phenomenon of a black hole, which is closely related to the existence of an event horizon of a black hole. The cosmological event horizon of de Sitter space is also of Hawking radiation with a thermal spectrum. By use of the tunneling approach, we show that there is indeed a Hawking radiation with temperature, T=1/(2πr-tilde A , for a locally defined apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with any spatial curvature, where r-tilde A is the apparent horizon radius. Thus we fill in the gap existing in the literature investigating the relation between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations; there the apparent horizon is assumed to have such a temperature without any proof. In addition, we stress the implication of the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon.

  1. Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Elsie

    2015-09-01

    Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Digitalisation and digitalis detoxication in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, F I; Kennedy, R D

    1977-02-01

    Twenty-three elderly patients with normal renal function were studied during digitalisation for cardiac failure or atrial fibrillation. Mean serum digoxin concentrations were in the therapeutic range from the fourth day in seven patients given digoxin 0.25 mg daily, from the second day in seven patients given 0.5 mg followed by 0.25 mg daily, and from the first day in nine patients given 0.75 mg followed by 0.25 mg daily. Toxic effects were not encountered in any patient. Serial measurement of serum digoxin concentrations in six patients recovering from digitalis intoxication, all of whom had severe renal impairment, allowed calculation of serum half-times (62 to 189 hours), and elimination constants (9 to 27% per day). The apparent volumes of distribution of digoxin were around 300 litres, and the apparent body contents of the drugs around 20-25 mug/kg body weight. Differences between these figures and those determined by others for younger patients seem mainly to reflect the consequences of renal impairment. If reasonable assumptions are made for fractional absorption, volume of distribution, and elimination constant, serum digoxin levels during digitalisation can be predicted, and are found to agree well with those observed.

  3. Padrões de ativação cerebral em idosos sadios durante tarefa de memória verbal de reconhecimento: a single-photon emission computerized tomography study Brain activation patterns during verbal recognition memory in elderly healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Busatto Filho

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos que utilizam as técnicas de PET, SPECT e ressonância magnética funcional têm permitido o mapeamento dos circuitos cerebrais ativados durante diversas tarefas cognitivas. O campo da memória declarativa tem sido um dos mais intensamente estudados. No presente estudo, usa-se a técnica de mapeamento do fluxo sangüíneo cerebral regional (FSCr por SPECT para investigar mudanças na atividade cerebral durante uma tarefa de memória episódica, em voluntários idosos sadios (n=15. MÉTODOS: Duas avaliações de SPECT foram realizadas na mesma sessão, usando a técnica de dose dividida do traçador 99 m-Tc-HMPAO. Medidas de FSCr foram registradas durante uma tarefa de reconhecimento de material verbal previamente aprendido e durante uma tarefa-controle mais simples. Comparações de FSCr foram realizadas automaticamente, utilizando o programa Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento de FSCr durante a tarefa de memória em várias regiões cerebrais, incluindo: córtex pré-frontal lateral bilateralmente (mais acentuadamente à esquerda; porções posteriores e mediais de córtex parieto-occipital à esquerda; hemisférios cerebelares bilateralmente; e córtex temporal lateral bilateralmente (pINTRODUCTION: PET, SPECT and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have allowed the delineation of brain circuits activated during several types of cognitive tasks. The field of declarative memory has been one of the most extensively investigated. In the present study, the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF SPECT technique was used to investigate changes in brain activity during a verbal memory task in a group of elderly healthy volunteers (n=15. METHODS:Two SPECT acquisitions were performed in the same session, using the split-dose 99mTc-HMPAO technique. Measures of rCBF were taken during a recognition memory task and a simpler control task. Between-task comparisons were performed automatically

  4. Oral health in frail elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ageing points towards increasing health problems and rising costs for the society. One of these health problems is the deteriorating oral health in care dependent elderly. The latter is related to the high need for care on many levels in these elderly. The lack of attention for oral care can be

  5. Report on the Elderly 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alice de Boer

    2006-01-01

    The Report on the Elderly 2006 presents an overview of the changes in the life situation and life course of the elderly. Key themes are participation in education and employment, leisure time use, financial position, health and care provisions. Attention is also given to the end of working life,

  6. Brief hospitalizations of elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømgaard, Sofie; Rasmussen, Søren Wistisen; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crowded departments are a common problem in Danish hospitals, especially in departments of internal medicine, where a large proportion of the patients are elderly. We therefore chose to investigate the number and character of hospitalizations of elderly patients with a duration of less...

  7. Report on the Elderly 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.Y. de Klerk; J.M. Timmermans

    2000-01-01

    Report on the Elderly 1998 describes various aspects of the living circumstances of the elderly: the labour market position, financial situation, housing circumstances, health and uptake of health care. Extensive attention is also devoted to the scale and consequences of psychiatric disorders

  8. Report on the Elderly 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.Y. de Klerk; J.M. Timmermans

    2001-01-01

    (Full translation from the Dutch: Rapportage Ouderen 2001) Report on the Elderly 2001 presents an overview of the position of the elderly in Dutch society. The central themes of the Report are participation in education and the labour market, financial status, housing situation,

  9. Report on the Elderly 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.Y. de Klerk

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage ouderen 2001. The Report on the Elderly 2001 (Rapportage ouderen 2001) presents a broad picture of the social position of the elderly in the Netherlands. Central themes addressed are participation in education and the labour market, financial position,

  10. Report on the Elderly 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.Y. de Klerk; J.M. Timmermans

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage ouderen 1998. The Report on the Elderly 1998 (Rapportage ouderen 1998) describes various aspects of the life situation of the elderly: labour market position, financial situation, housing conditions, health status and use of care services. Extensive attention is

  11. The value of bone scintigram in elderly subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Hayashida, Koichi; Endoh, Kazuo; Nagashima, Junichi; Yamagata, Atsushi; Nishino, Hideo; Chiba, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate increased bone uptake of radionuclides at lumbar vertebra in elderly subjects, comparative study of bone scintigram with CT findings and autopsy finding of bone were performed. Incidence of abnormal increased bone uptake were 59 % in neoplastic disease group, while 50 % in benign disease group, respectively. Bone uptake of radionuclides to thoracic and lumbar vertebrae revealed marked high incidence even in both group. 13 out of 25 cases which revealed bone uptake at lumbar vertebrae in malignant disease group showed metastatic bone lesions and the rest of these cases did not show no apparent macroscopic metastatic bone lesions. In comparative study with CT findings of 18 cases most cases revealed osteosclerotic and osteoperotic changes of bone and fracture on CT imaging at the sites where bone uptake of radionuclides were observed. Thus, these evidence support that ageing process of bone must be considered as important factors to evaluate bone scintigram imaging in elderly subjects. (author)

  12. [Atrial fibrillation in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arquizan, Caroline

    2012-11-01

    Atrial fibrilation (AF) is frequent and a strong risk factor for ischemic stroke in elderly. Ischemic stroke in patients with AF are more severe. Vitamine K antagonist therapy is highly effective for stroke prevention but is associated with hemorrhagic risk. The new oral anticoagulants (direct thrombin inhibitor [dabigatran], and direct factor Xa inhibitors [rivaroxaban and apixaban]) have all shown non inferiority or superiority, with better safety, considering the risk of intracranial haemorrhage. On this basis, it is justified to give them in priority in the vast majority of patients with AF, the choice of the drug and the dose is individual.

  13. Dysphagia in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Elderly patients are inherently predisposed to dysphagia predominately because of comorbid health conditions. With the aging of the population in the United States, along with the increased prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease, healthcare providers will increasingly encounter older patients with either oropharyngeal or esophageal disease and complaints of dysphagia. Useful tests to evaluate dysphagia include the videofluoroscopic swallowing study and the fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Swallow rehabilitation is useful to help patients compensate for swallowing difficulty and ultimately help strengthen the neuromusculature involved in swallowing. PMID:24772045

  14. Viral hepatitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    As life expectancy continues to rise, elderly adults represent a rapidly growing proportion of the population. The likelihood of complications of acute and chronic liver disease and overall mortality are higher in elderly populations. Several physiological changes associated with aging, greater prevalence of co-morbid conditions, and cumulative exposure to hepatotropic viruses and environmental hepatotoxins may contribute to worse outcomes of viral hepatitis in the elderly. Although pharmacotherapy for hepatitis B and C continues to evolve, the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of these agents have not been studied extensively in elderly adults. Immunization against hepatitis A and B in naïve elderly adults is an important public health intervention that needs to be revised and broadened.

  15. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Have a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...

  17. Observations of apparent superslow wave propagation in solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, J. O.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Baes, M.; Wright, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Phase mixing of standing continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in atmospheric magnetic structures such as coronal arcades can create the apparent effect of a wave propagating across the magnetic field. Aims: We observe a prominence with SDO/AIA on 2015 March 15 and find the presence of oscillatory motion. We aim to demonstrate that interpreting this motion as a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) wave is faulty. We also connect the decrease of the apparent velocity over time with the phase mixing process, which depends on the curvature of the magnetic field lines. Methods: By measuring the displacement of the prominence at different heights to calculate the apparent velocity, we show that the propagation slows down over time, in accordance with the theoretical work of Kaneko et al. We also show that this propagation speed drops below what is to be expected for even slow MHD waves for those circumstances. We use a modified Kippenhahn-Schlüter prominence model to calculate the curvature of the magnetic field and fit our observations accordingly. Results: Measuring three of the apparent waves, we get apparent velocities of 14, 8, and 4 km s-1. Fitting a simple model for the magnetic field configuration, we obtain that the filament is located 103 Mm below the magnetic centre. We also obtain that the scale of the magnetic field strength in the vertical direction plays no role in the concept of apparent superslow waves and that the moment of excitation of the waves happened roughly one oscillation period before the end of the eruption that excited the oscillation. Conclusions: Some of the observed phase velocities are lower than expected for slow modes for the circumstances, showing that they rather fit with the concept of apparent superslow propagation. A fit with our magnetic field model allows for inferring the magnetic geometry of the prominence. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Coexisting principles and logics of elder care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    2015-01-01

    Healthy and active ageing has become an ideal in Western societies. In the Nordic countries, this ideal has been supported through a policy of help to self-help in elder care since the 1980s. However, reforms inspired by New Public Management (NPM) have introduced a new policy principle of consumer......-oriented service that stresses the wishes and priorities of older people. We have studied how these two principles are applied by care workers in Denmark. Is one principle or logic replacing the other, or do they coexist? Do they create tensions between professional knowledge and the autonomy of older people......? Using neo-institutional theory and feminist care theory, we analysed the articulation of the two policy principles in interviews and their logics in observations in four local authorities. We conclude that help to self-help is the dominant principle, that it is deeply entrenched in the identity...

  19. Sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism is maintained in elderly subjects and is not oestrogen dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, A A; Taylor, N F; Shalet, S M; Monson, J P

    2000-01-01

    The net interconversion of inactive cortisone to active cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) may determine hepatic and adipose tissue exposure to glucocorticoid action. Cortisol metabolism exhibits a sexual dimorphism with an apparently lower activity of 11betaHSD1 in females that, in an animal model, has been attributed to the effects of oestrogen. The aim of this study is to determine whether the sexual dimorphism of cortisol metabolism persists between post-menopausal, oestrogen-deficient women and elderly men. Fifteen healthy men, aged 60.8-82.0 years, and 7 healthy women, aged 62.4-87.5 years, were studied. None of the subjects was receiving steroid medication at the time of the study. All the women were post-menopausal and none was receiving sex steroid replacement therapy. 24-h urine collections were taken from each patient and assayed for steroid metabolites by gas chromatography. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was drawn, after an overnight fast, for the determination of serum IGF-I and IGFBP1 levels. The ratio of 11-hydroxy cortisol metabolites to 11-oxo cortisol metabolites (Fm/Em) was significantly higher in men than in women, 0.80 (0.55-1.86) vs. 0.67 (0.46-0.98) (P cortisol and cortisone metabolite (Fm/Em) and total fat mass approached significance, r = - 0.39 (P = 0.07). These relationships were not apparent in the women when considered alone. Among the men there were negative relationships between Fm/Em and total fat mass, r = - 0.48, and Fm/Em and trunk fat mass, r = - 0.48 which approached significance (both P = 0.07). Serum IGFBP-1 levels were not significantly different between the two sexes. There was a significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and Fm/Em in the men, r = 0. 84 (P sexual dimorphism in cortisol metabolism is not dependent on oestrogen, although the possibility that oestrogen exerts a permanent modifying effect on 11beta-HSD1 gene expression during the pre

  20. Why do care workers withdraw from elderly care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne

    2012-01-01

    . The article illustrates how working consciously with the researcher's subjectivity makes it possible to understand apparently irrational patterns. The insights thus gained may be used to prevent withdrawals in care work as an argument for care workers' need for emotional supervision....... relations, independently of whether we are in the role of care providers or care receivers. Through collusion theory, the interpretation accepts both the anxiety which the helpless elderly people arouse in the care workers and their motivation for care work as two sides of a subjectively important theme...