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Sample records for apparently healthy children

  1. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port ...

  2. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, ...

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection in apparently healthy South Indian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Caszo, B.; Raj, T.; Vaz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been established as a major cause of chronic gastritis in adults, and it has been implicated in the genesis of gastric carcinomas and the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is now postulated that neatly 90% of the adult population in developing countries may be affected with the infection since childhood. Earlier studies on Indians using serology and endoscopic biopsy have shown a high incidence of H. pylori infection in small numbers of patients. The 13 C-urea breath test, which is simple, specific and non-invasive, is also increasingly being used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Preliminary data from India has shown a high prevalence in the urban Indian environment, and there is an urgent need to quantify the prevalence of H. pylori infections on an epidemiological basis in both urban and rural settings. It is also important to study the possible impact of this infection on growth in children, particularly in environments with low sanitation and high crowding. In this paper, we outline a proposal to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in children from the following different environments: urban middle socio-economic class, urban slum, rural middle socio-economic class and rural village. (author)

  4. Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M M; Oderinde, B S; Patrick, P Z; Jarmai, M M

    2012-02-01

    Despite significant success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Nigeria, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, wild poliovirus still occurs due to persistently high proportions of under and unimmunized children. The study aimed at determining the type of poliovirus often excreted into the environment. Four hundred nine fecal samples collected from apparently healthy school children aged 5-16 years in Borno and Adamawa States, northeastern Nigeria, were tested for poliovirus by tissue culture technique. The isolates were characterized further by intratypic differentiation testing and genetic sequencing. Three wild poliovirus type, 11 Sabin type, combination of Sabin-types 1 + 2 and 2 + 3 poliovirus, and 22 non-polio enteroviruses were obtained. The continued excretion of wild-type poliovirus among children above 5 years old vaccinated with oral polio vaccine contributes to the persistent circulation of these viruses in the environment and may limit the population immunity. However, the excreted Sabin poliovirus is capable of immunizing the unvaccinated children and promotes herd immunity. Similarly, the excretion of combination of two polio serotypes indicates the child susceptibility to the missing serotype (s) and therefore indicates an immunity gap. The common unhygienic practices in the environment could aid the spread of these viruses through oral-fecal route. Asymptomatic transmission of wild poliovirus among older oral polio vaccine-vaccinated children poses a serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria and therefore, environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahnquist Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc binding protein, abundant in neutrophils and is extremely stable in faeces. Faecal calprotectin is used as a non-specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a good diagnostic precision to distinguish between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies have established normal concentrations in healthy children; all these studies have been performed in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda. Method We tested 302 apparently healthy children aged, age 0-12 years (162 female, 140 male in urban Kampala, Uganda. The children were recruited consecutively by door-to-door visits. Faecal calprotectin was analyzed using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Faeces were also tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori antigen, for growth of enteropathogens and microscopy was performed to assess protozoa and helminths. A short standardized interview with socio-demographic information and medical history was obtained to assess health status of the children. Results In the different age groups the median faecal calprotectin concentrations were 249 mg/kg in 0 H. pylori or having other pathogens in the stool. Conclusion Concentrations of faecal calprotectin among healthy children, living in urban Ugandan, a low-income country, are comparable to those in healthy children living in high-income countries. In children older than 4 years, the faecal calprotectin concentration is low. In healthy infants faecal calprotectin is high. The suggested cut-off concentrations in the literature can be used in apparently healthy Ugandan children. This finding also shows that healthy children living under poor circumstances do not have a constant inflammation in the gut. We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for

  6. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Nigeria. MG Mustapha, AM Garba, AI Rabasa, MS Gimba. Abstract. Background. The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among children, in whom the diagnosis is challenging.

  7. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in faecal samples of apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in faeces of apparently healthy individual volunteers was investigated. Faecal samples were collected from 216 individuals comprising 138 adults (70 males and 68 females) and 78 children aged between 4 months and 42 years (mean age was 30.2 months). Individuals on ...

  8. Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy Adults in Aba Metropolis, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the lipid profile pattern of apparently healthy adults in Aba metropolis and hence, identify the possible contributions of hyper lipidaemia in the ever increasing cardiovascular risk burden in our society. Subjects for this study were apparently healthy adult respondents who met the ...

  9. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst apparently healthy staff of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the serum lipid profile of apparently healthy staff of University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City. Consenting staff of UBTH who were apparently healthy were recruited for the study. Data extracted included the patient's age, sex, body mass index, weight, height, waist ...

  10. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 15, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...

  11. Urine examination findings in apparently healthy new school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Urinalysis as a part of medical examination of fitness in schoolchildren is useful in detecting abnormalities that could identify early disease conditions. Objective. To describe the urine examination findings in apparently healthy newly enrolled primary school entrants in Jos,. Plateau. Methods. Through a ...

  12. Haematological Values in Apparently Healthy Adults in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 232 apparently healthy adult Nigerians, aged 20-26 years comprising 100 females and 132 males, who came for medical examination at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, between May, 2000 and May, 2002 were studied to establish haematological values for adults in Kano, Nigeria. Standard methods were ...

  13. Relationship of insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone parameters in 7–15 years old apparently, healthy Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena H Ekbote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Growth hormone through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 plays an important role in both bone growth and mineralization. This cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentrations and dual energy X-ray (DXA measured whole body less head bone area (BA, lean body mass (LBM, and bone mineral content (BMC. Methods: One hundred and nineteen children (boys = 70, age = 7.3–15.6 years were studied for their anthropometric parameters by standard methods and bone and body composition by DXA. Their fasting serum IGF-1 concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Z-scores were calculated using available reference data. Bone and body composition parameter Z-scores were calculated using ethnic reference data. Results: Mean age of the boys and girls was similar (11.5 ± 1.8 years. The mean serum IGF-1concentrations and IGF-1 Z-scores were similar (P > 0.1 between boys and girls and were of the order of (302.3 ± 140.0 and − 1.4 ± 1.1, respectively. The LBM for age and BA for age Z-score was greater in children with IGF-1 Z-score > median than children with IGF-1 Z-score 0.1. Conclusion: Serum IGF-1 levels were more strongly associated with BA and LBM, suggesting that its effect on bone is greater with respect to periosteal bone acquisition and through its effect on muscle mass.

  14. Detection of betanodaviruses in apparently healthy aquarium fishes and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Dennis Kaw; Lim, Dong Joo; Baeck, Gun Wook; Youn, Hee Jeong; Shin, Nam Shik; Youn, Hwa Young; Hwang, Cheol Yong; Park, Jun Hong; Park, Se Chang

    2006-12-01

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) in cultured marine fish. A total of 237 apparently healthy aquarium fish, marine (65 species) and freshwater (12 species) fishes and marine invertebrates (4 species), which were stocked in a commercial aquarium in Seoul, South Korea, were collected from November 2005 to February 2006. The brains of the fish and other tissues of the invertebrates were examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR to detect betanodavirus. Positive nested PCR results were obtained from the brains of 8 marine fish species (shrimp fish Aeoliscus strigatus, milkfish Chanos chanos, three spot damsel Dascyllus trimaculatus, Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus, pinecone fish Monocentris japonica, blue ribbon eel Rhinomuraena quaesita, look down fish Selene vomer, yellow tang Zebrasoma flavesenes), 1 marine invertebrate species (spiny lobster Pamulirus versicolor), and 2 freshwater fish species (South American leaf fish Monocirrhus polyacanthus and red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri). The detection rate in nested PCR was 11/237 (4.64%). These subclinically infected aquarium fish and invertebrates may constitute an inoculum source of betanodaviruses for cultured fishes in the Korean Peninsula.

  15. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among children, in whom the diagnosis is challenging. Periodic skin testing by the Mantoux method is recommended in children living in regions of high TB prevalence. Objective. To determine the prevalence of ...

  16. Effect of Oral Vitamin E on Serum Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of oral vitamin E on serum lipid profile of Apparently Healthy Nigerians in Benin City Methods: Fifty eight apparently healthy non-smoking males aged 30 - 59 years were randomly selected from Benin metropolis and were divided in three groups. The effect of oral vitamin E (a potent ...

  17. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: One hundred and ninety-three apparently healthy adults were purposively recruited to participate in the study. An electronic blood pressure monitor was ...

  18. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. Methodology does not mention collection of data re- garding family size, birth order or maternal age. They are also not mentioned in the demographic characteristics presented in Table 1 but are being used in Table 3. 7. In view of significantly higher prevalence of IDA in. ≤ 2 years age group compared to older children, ...

  19. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nu- tritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in. Lagos. Methodology: The study ...

  20. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. Methodology: The study was ...

  1. pre-hypertension and hypertension in apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Fourth Report on management of BP in Children and Adolescents. 2004) and reference values computed by Andy et al (1985) for Nigerians in the first two decades of life and summarized as shown below;. Blood pressure level. Average Systolic ...

  2. Validity of the Inbody 520™ to predict metabolic rate in apparently healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salacinski, Amanda J; Howell, Steven M; Hill, Danielle L

    2017-05-30

    The present study seeks to assess the validity of the InBody 520™ device to predict RMR in apparently healthy adults relative to a metabolic cart (the standard, yet time intensive, method for determining resting metabolic rate). Twenty-six apparently healthy adults participated in the study. Predicted RMR (pRMR) was calculated by the InBody 520™ and measured RMR (mRMR) was determined by 30-minute gas analysis and ventilated hood system. Of the 78 measurement trials conducted, 64 yielded acceptable measurement trials. A Pearson product-moment correlation was used to determine the relationship between pRMR and mRMR (r = .87, P InBody520™ provides valid measurements of RMR in apparently healthy adults and can be an effective and efficient method for collecting data in a clinical setting.

  3. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha A Kajale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  4. Bacterial flora in the Urinary bladder of apparently healthy cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty apparently healthy adult cattle presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri Metropolitan Abattoir were examined to determine the bacterial flora in the urinary bladder. Isolation and identification of the isolates in the aseptic urine samples from the urinary bladder were done according to standard bacteriological techniques.

  5. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of

  6. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body

  7. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BY POISONOUS FUMES! ...PLAYTIME ACCIDENTS... NO SWIMMING ...AND DROWNING!! 11 SO, WITH SO MANY DANGERS, WHAT CAN ... BE WELL VENTILATED! AND SMOKERS SHOULD AVOID SMOKING NEAR CHILDREN! WE MUST TAKE CARE TO PREVENT DISEASES ...

  8. Avian influenza virus infection in apparently healthy domestic birds in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Okwundu Nwankwo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted among apparently healthy birds brought from different local government areas, neighbouring states and across international boundaries to the Sokoto central live bird market between October 2008 and March 2009. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from 221 apparently healthy birds comprising 182 chickens, 3 turkeys, 11 guineafowl, 17 ducks and 8 pigeons. These samples were analysed using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR to check for the presence of avian influenza virus. An overall prevalence of 1.4% (3 positive cases was detected with two cases observed in chickens and one in a pigeon. The findings indicate the circulation of avian influenza in the study area. This raises concern for human and animal health due to zoonotic and economic implications of this virus.

  9. A Marker of Endotoxemia Is Associated With Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders in Apparently Healthy Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Liang; Yu, Zhijie; Ye, Xingwang; Zou, Shurong; Li, Huaixing; Yu, Danxia; Wu, Hongyu; Chen, Yan; Dore, Joel; Clément, Karine; Hu, Frank B.; Lin, Xu

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Elevated lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of subclinical endotoxemia, may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma LBP and metabolic disorders in apparently healthy Chinese. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based study including 559 overweight/obese (BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2) and 500 normal-weight (18.0 ≤ BMI

  10. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting, and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, and healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children.…

  11. Heart rate response at the onset of exercise in an apparently healthy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, Allison; Myers, Jonathan N; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Whaley, Mitchell H

    2014-01-01

    The exercise test is a powerful non-invasive tool for risk stratifying patients with or suspected of having cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart rate (HR) response during and following exercise has been extensively studied. However, the clinical utility of HR response at the onset of exercise is less understood. Furthermore, conflicting reports exist regarding whether a faster vs. slower HR acceleration represents a CVD risk marker. The primary study purpose was to describe HR acceleration early in exercise in apparently healthy individuals. Retrospective analyses were performed in a sample (N = 947) representing a range of age and fitness (11-78 years; VO2peak 17-49 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). HR response was defined over the initial 7 min of the protocol. Associations between HR acceleration and CVD risk factors were also assessed. Mean increases in HR were 18 ± 9 and 23 ± 11 beats at minute one, for men and women, respectively (p exercise HR, only modest associations were observed between the change in HR at minute one and body mass index, resting blood pressure, cigarette smoking, physical activity, HR reserve, and cardiorespiratory fitness. There was wide variability in HR acceleration at the onset of exercise in this apparently healthy cohort. A lower increase in HR during the first minute of exercise was associated with a better CVD risk profile, including higher cardiorespiratory fitness, in apparently healthy individuals. These data suggest a greater parasympathetic influence at the onset of exercise may be protective in an asymptomatic population.

  12. Platelets count in apparently healthy Sudanese blood donors in Gezira state (Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas A.A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To detect Platelets count in apparently healthy male donors, to establish safety for both donors and recipient and also to transfuse safe blood and blood products. To perform platelets count for donors using automated machine (Blood cell counter. Venous blood samples were taken from 500 apparently healthy males donors and the platelets count was measured using an automated cell counter (sysmex KN21, accompanied by peripheral blood films were assessed to detect any abnormalities. The study revealed that the mean values of the platelets counts were 215.15 x 109 /L +/-68.367 with minimum count 9 x 109 /L and maximum 689 x 109 /L and 67donors presented with platelets count less than 150 which comprise 13.4 % of the cases, may be due to asymptomatic parasitism (e.g. malaria, no prominent aggregation or giant forms detected in all cases of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytosis occurred in 7donors with platelet count more than 400 (1.4% of cases accompanied by low MCV and low MCH (suggestive of iron deficiency which the one of causes of thrombocytosis. The study revealed thata significant number of donors with low & high platelets count

  13. A marker of endotoxemia is associated with obesity and related metabolic disorders in apparently healthy Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Yu, Zhijie; Ye, Xingwang; Zou, Shurong; Li, Huaixing; Yu, Danxia; Wu, Hongyu; Chen, Yan; Dore, Joel; Clément, Karine; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Xu

    2010-09-01

    Elevated lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of subclinical endotoxemia, may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic risk. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma LBP and metabolic disorders in apparently healthy Chinese. A population-based study including 559 overweight/obese (BMI >or=24.0 kg/m(2)) and 500 normal-weight (18.0 Metabolic syndrome was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criterion for Asian Americans. LBP levels were significantly higher in overweight/obese individuals than in normal-weight individuals (geometric mean 27.6 [95% CI 25.2-30.3] vs. 10.0 [9.1-11.1] microg/ml; P metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, respectively, comparing the highest with the lowest LBP quartile. Further adjustments for inflammatory markers almost abolished the significant association of LBP with metabolic syndrome but not that with type 2 diabetes, and controlling for adipokines and hepatic enzymes did not substantially alter the results. Elevated circulating LBP was associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy Chinese. These findings suggested a role of lipopolysaccharide via initiation of innate immune mechanism(s) in metabolic disorders. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results.

  14. Advanced oxidation protein products and their relationship with cardiovascular risk factors in young apparently healthy people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando Sánchez, Diana Carolina; Alvarez Aguilar, Cleto; Gómez García, Anel

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are used as a marker to estimate oxidative stress in plasma proteins. Oxidative stress is considered a factor of cardiovascular risk (CVRF) related to increased blood pressure, and dyslipidaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between plasma AOPPs and CVRF in apparently healthy young adults. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 students of the Faculty of Chemical-Pharmacobiology of the UMSNH. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were determined. A blood specimen was also collected to quantify AOPPs, glucose, total cholesterol, lipoproteins (high, low, and very low density), and triglycerides. Differences were observed in the groups with and without CVRF, with significant differences in BMI, waist, body fat (Pfactor, because their deposition in the atherosclerotic plaque favours the atherogenic process, and thus the development of cardiovascular disease. Quantification of AOPPs contributes to the indirect determination of oxidative status in the body. The study of metabolic and oxidative state of apparently healthy young adults is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in later life. More longitudinal studies are required to study its evolution. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of African swine fever virus in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuhaire, David Kalenzi; Afayoa, Mathias; Ochwo, Sylvester; Mwesigwa, Savannah; Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Okuni, Julius Boniface; Olaho-Mukani, William; Ojok, Lonzy

    2013-12-26

    African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people's livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease. The major aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in apparently healthy slaughter pigs at Wambizi slaughterhouse in Kampala city, Uganda. We also estimated the presence of ASFV antibodies and circulating viral antigens in pigs from selected districts of Uganda during targeted surveillance. We analysed 540 and 181 blood samples collected from slaughter pigs and pigs from targeted surveillance districts respectively. The prevalence of ASFV in slaughter pigs was 52.96% (95% CI, 48.75-57.14) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.06-14.45) by ELISA and PCR respectively. In surveillance districts, the proportion of ASFV positive pigs was 53.59% (95% CI, 46.33-60.71) and 0.55% (95% CI, 0.1-3.06) by ELISA and PCR respectively. The study has found out a high seroprevalence of ASFV antibodies in apparently healthy slaughter pigs and also a high proportion of ASFV antibody seropositive pigs in surveyed districts in Uganda indicating exposure to ASFV. However, there was a lower prevalence of ASFV infection implying that there could be low virulent strains of ASFV circulating in domestic pigs in Uganda which requires further investigation.

  16. Caribbean health: Healthy children, healthy nation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caribbean food groups, balanced diets and portion sizes, healthy snacking, nutrition label reading, physical activity, home gardening, food safety and hygiene as well as cooking methods. Two schools revived school gardens, providing an opportunity to consume their own produce and learn how to grow vegetables and ...

  17. Healthy Children, Healthy Minds: Creating a Brighter Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Lebrun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Children struggle with life today. Being children in the 21st century is both taxing and exciting and yet trying to cope with all of the technology and media that surrounds them. How do we as adults provide good models? Mindfulness, exercise, focus and attention, healthy living strategies need to play a role in shaping healthy children. Educators need to become well versed in strategies that both teach short and long term behaviors that will sustain healthy living and healthy minds. Children are the future and what kind of adult do we want running our countries and the world. The article provides many strategies for educators and parents to guide children in making choices that are both empowering and allow them the flexibility to be children.

  18. Soil transmitted helmeinthiasis among apparently healthy children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    130(22.8%) of the subject were infected by soil transmitted helminthes (STH). The overall prevalence by species were Ascaris Lumbricoides (7.9%), Hookworm (5.3%) and trichuris trichiura (3.5%) respectively. 35(6.1%) of the subjects were infected with two or more soil transmitted helminthes. The prevalence in males ...

  19. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D......, and CVD in apparently healthy adults. DESIGN: MEDLINE, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for intervention and prospective observational studies that investigated adults without any known illnesses at baseline, recorded intake of potatoes...... observational studies were identified; there were 3 studies with moderate, 9 studies with serious, and one study with critical risk of bias. The association between potatoes (not including french fries) and adiposity was neutral in 2 studies and was positive in 2 studies. French fries were positively associated...

  20. Prevalence of osteoporosis in apparently healthy adults above 40 years of age in Pune City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi S Kadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis and changes in bone mass with increasing age and compare bone health status of apparently healthy men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Methods: Data were collected on anthropometric and sociodemographic factors in 421 apparently healthy Indian adults (women = 228, 40–75 years of age, in a cross-sectional study in Pune city, India. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at two sites-lumbar spine (LS and left femur. Individuals were classified as having osteoporosis or osteopenia based on the World Health Organization criteria of T-scores. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.3 ± 8.4 years. Of the total women, 44.3% were postmenopausal with 49.2 ± 3.5 years as mean age at menopause. Postmenopausal women showed a rapid decline in BMD with age till 50 years while men showed a gradual decline. Premenopausal women showed no significant decline in BMD with age (P > 0.1. Significantly lower T-scores were observed at LS in men compared to premenopausal (P 0.1. The prevalence of osteoporosis in men at LS was lower than postmenopausal women but higher than premenopausal women. Conclusion: In Indian men, a low T-score compared to women indicates higher susceptibility to osteoporosis. In women, menopause causes a rapid decline in BMD. Therefore, both Indian men and postmenopausal women require adequate measures to prevent osteoporosis during later years in life.

  1. The Relationship of Body Composition and Coronary Artery Calcification in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Yu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association of coronary artery calcium score (CACS with body composition and insulin resistance in apparently healthy Korean adults.MethodsNine hundred forty-five participants (mean age, 48.9 years; 628 men in a medical check-up program were selected for analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CACS was assessed by multidetector computed tomography.ResultsOne hundred forty-six subjects (15.4% showed coronary artery calcification and 148 subjects (15.7% had metabolic syndrome. CACS showed a significant positive correlation with age, fasting glucose level, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-IR, and waist-hip ratio (WHR assessed by BIA. CACS had a negative correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Subjects with high CACS showed significantly higher mean WHRs and lower mean values for lean body mass compared with subjects without coronary artery calcification. In logistic regression analyses with coronary artery calcification as the dependent variable, the highest quartile of WHR showed a 3.125-fold increased odds ratio for coronary artery calcification compared with the lowest quartile after adjustment for confounding variables. When receiver operating characteristics analyses were performed with coronary artery calcification as the result variable, WHR showed the largest area under the curve (AUC value among other variables except for age and WC in women (AUC=0.696 for WHR, 0.790 for age, and 0.719 for WC in women.ConclusionIn our study population of apparently healthy Korean adults, WHR was the most significant predictor for coronary artery calcification among other confounding factors, suggesting that it may have implication as a marker for early atherosclerosis.

  2. Snoring, Inflammatory Markers, Adipokines and Metabolic Syndrome in Apparently Healthy Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Pan, An; Yu, Zhijie; Li, Huaixing; Shi, Aizhen; Yu, Danxia; Zhang, Geng; Zong, Geng; Liu, Yong; Lin, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chronic low-grade inflammation and adipokines dysregulation are linked to mechanisms underscoring the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Little is known about roles of these cytokines on the association between snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to investigate whether a cluster of cytokines are related to snoring frequency and its association with MetS in apparently healthy Chinese. Methods Current analyses used a population-based sample including 1059 Shanghai residents aged 35–54 years. Self-reported snoring frequency was classified as never, occasionally and regularly. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin were measured. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. Results Overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of regular snorers than their normal-weight counterparts (34.8% vs. 11.5%, Psnoring was associated with unfavorable profile of inflammatory markers and adipokines. However, those associations were abolished after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. The MetS risk (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 5.41, 95% confidence interval 3.72–7.88) was substantially higher in regular snorers compared with non-snorers. Controlling for BMI remarkably attenuated the association (2.03, 1.26–3.26), while adjusting for inflammatory markers and adipokines showed little effects. Conclusion Frequent snoring was associated with an elevated MetS risk independent of lifestyle factors, adiposity, inflammatory markers and adipokines in apparently healthy Chinese. Whether snoring pattern is an economic and no-invasive indicator for screening high-risk persons needs to be addressed prospectively. PMID:22110665

  3. Snoring, inflammatory markers, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

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    Liang Sun

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic low-grade inflammation and adipokines dysregulation are linked to mechanisms underscoring the pathogenesis of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Little is known about roles of these cytokines on the association between snoring and metabolic syndrome (MetS. We aimed to investigate whether a cluster of cytokines are related to snoring frequency and its association with MetS in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: Current analyses used a population-based sample including 1059 Shanghai residents aged 35-54 years. Self-reported snoring frequency was classified as never, occasionally and regularly. Fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and leptin were measured. MetS was defined by the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Overweight/obese subjects had significantly higher prevalence of regular snorers than their normal-weight counterparts (34.8% vs. 11.5%, P<0.001. Regular snoring was associated with unfavorable profile of inflammatory markers and adipokines. However, those associations were abolished after adjustment for body mass index (BMI or waist circumference. The MetS risk (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio 5.41, 95% confidence interval 3.72-7.88 was substantially higher in regular snorers compared with non-snorers. Controlling for BMI remarkably attenuated the association (2.03, 1.26-3.26, while adjusting for inflammatory markers and adipokines showed little effects. CONCLUSION: Frequent snoring was associated with an elevated MetS risk independent of lifestyle factors, adiposity, inflammatory markers and adipokines in apparently healthy Chinese. Whether snoring pattern is an economic and no-invasive indicator for screening high-risk persons needs to be addressed prospectively.

  4. Establishing reference intervals for ALT, AST, UR, Cr, and UA in apparently healthy Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Mussa, Ahmed Ebrahim; Tang, Aiguo; Xiang, Zhongyuan; Mo, Ximing

    2018-03-01

    The current child-specific reference intervals (RIs) are inadequate or even unavailable for many analyses in China. Many of the RIs used in Chinese laboratories were derived from Chinese adult standards or from foreign studies. The aim of this study was to establish specific RIs for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea (UR), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) for apparently healthy Chinese adolescents. Overall, 1682 apparently healthy adolescents were enrolled. Serum ALT, AST, UR, Cr and UA were measured by an ARCHITECT C-8000 automated chemistry analyzer. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentile RIs were determined using non-parametric methods. The established reference intervals for ALT, AST, UR, CR and UA were 7.5-42.8 U/L, 12.8-40.2 U/L, 3.12-6.38 mmol/L, 42.7-91.2 μmol/L, and 180.2-409.6 μmol/L in boys and 6.5-32.8 U/L, 10.4-32.5 U/L, 3.05-6.47 mmol/L, 40.2-88.8 μmol/L and 176.5-394.0 μmol/L in girls, respectively. The median and upper and lower limits for the RIs of ALT, AST, Cr and UA were higher in boys than they were in girls (P ALT, AST, UR, Cr and UA that are defined specifically for Chinese adolescents and are appropriate for universal use among Chinese laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

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    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  6. Detection and Clinical Patterns of Nephron Hypertrophy and Nephrosclerosis Among Apparently Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Aleksandar; Alexander, Mariam P; Kaushik, Vidhu; Lerman, Lilach O; Lieske, John C; Stegall, Mark D; Larson, Joseph J; Kremers, Walter K; Vrtiska, Terri J; Chakkera, Harini A; Poggio, Emilio D; Rule, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Even among ostensibly healthy adults, there is often mild pathology in the kidney. The detection of kidney microstructural variation and pathology by imaging and the clinical pattern associated with these structural findings is unclear. Cross-sectional (clinical-pathologic correlation). Living kidney donors at Mayo Clinic (Minnesota and Arizona sites) and Cleveland Clinic 2000 to 2011. Predonation kidney function, risk factors, and contrast computed tomographic scan of the kidneys. These scans were segmented for cortical volume and medullary volume, reviewed for parenchymal cysts, and scored for kidney surface roughness. Nephrosclerosis (glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy, and arteriosclerosis) and nephron size (glomerular volume, mean profile tubular area, and cortical volume per glomerulus) determined from an implantation biopsy of the kidney cortex at donation. Among 1,520 living kidney donors, nephrosclerosis associated with increased kidney surface roughness, cysts, and smaller cortical to medullary volume ratio. Larger nephron size (nephron hypertrophy) associated with larger cortical volume. Nephron hypertrophy and larger cortical volume associated with higher systolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and urine albumin excretion; larger body mass index; higher serum uric acid level; and family history of end-stage renal disease. Both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associated with older age and mild hypertension. The net effect of both nephron hypertrophy and nephrosclerosis associating with cortical volume was that nephron hypertrophy diminished volume loss with age-related nephrosclerosis and fully negated volume loss with mild hypertension-related nephrosclerosis. Kidney donors are selected on health, restricting the spectrum of pathologic findings. Kidney biopsies in living donors are a small tissue sample leading to imprecise estimates of structural findings. Among apparently healthy adults, the microstructural

  7. Work characteristics as predictors of diabetes incidence among apparently healthy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Sharon; Shirom, Arie; Melamed, Samuel; Armon, Galit

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the associations of the Job Demand Control-Support (JDC-S) model's components, job demands, job control, and work social support, as well as their interactive terms, with the risk of Type 2 diabetes. Participants were apparently healthy 5,843 men and women who underwent routine health checks at two points of time, about 41 months apart from one another. New cases of diabetes (N = 182) during follow-up period were defined based on fasting glucose value ≥ 126 mg/dl or glycosylated hemoglobin value ≥ 6.5% or self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes and taking medications to treat it. The measures for assessing workload (representing job demands), job control, and work social support were all based on validated scales constructed to test the JDC-S model. In testing the hypotheses, we used logistic regressions and controlled for well-established risk factors for diabetes, including sociodemographic, physiological, and behavioral risk factors. We also controlled for depressive symptoms. The hypothesis that the higher the baseline levels of work social support, the lower the risk of diabetes, was supported (Odd Ratio = .78, significant at the p diabetes risk. We did not find direct effects of job control nor of any interactive term including the JDC-S model components on diabetes risk. Work social support is a protective factor, reducing the risk of diabetes. Both underload and overload may increase the risk of diabetes.

  8. Ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms mark calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Carolien A; van Heemst, Diana; Hoogeveen, Evelien S; Slagboom, P Eline; Maier, Andrea B; de Craen, Anton J M; van der Ouderaa, Frans; Pijl, Hanno; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Mooijaart, Simon P

    2013-04-01

    Glucose metabolism marks health and disease and is causally inferred in the aging process. Ambulant continuous glucose monitoring provides 24-h glucose rhythms under daily life conditions. We aimed to describe ambulant 24-h glucose rhythms measured under daily life condition in relation to calendar and biological age in apparently healthy individuals. In the general population and families with propensity for longevity, we studied parameters from 24-h glucose rhythms; glucose levels; and its variability, obtained by continuous glucose monitoring. Participants were 21 young (aged 22-37 years), 37 middle-aged (aged 44-72 years) individuals from the general population, and 26 middle-aged (aged 52-74 years) individuals with propensity for longevity. All were free of diabetes. Compared with young individuals, middle-aged individuals from the general population had higher mean glucose levels (5.3 vs. 4.7 mmol L(-1) , P rhythms depending on calendar and biological age. © 2012 The Authors Aging Cell © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Fatal venous air embolism during anesthesia in an apparently healthy adult Chihuahua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Pamela J; Wilson, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    An apparently healthy adult female Chihuahua was presented for elective ovariohysterectomy. After induction of general anesthesia, but prior to the start of the surgery, air was inadvertently administered to the patient via the i.v. fluid line. The patient convulsed, became apneic, arrested, and died despite attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At necropsy, the pericardial sac was incised and filled with water to entirely submerge the intact heart. The right ventricular free wall was punctured, releasing several air bubbles from the right ventricle. Death was attributed to venous air embolism based on the clinical history, gross findings, and paucity of underlying gross and microscopic pathology that might have predisposed the dog to an anesthetic-related death. The discussion of this case includes a review of previously reported veterinary cases of fatal venous air embolism, including the varied mechanisms of embolus formation, the potential impact of pre-existing cardiopulmonary disease, and the methods used to detect emboli. This report outlines the events of fatal iatrogenic venous air embolization and emphasizes the importance of considering this entity in the case of sudden death of a patient with an indwelling catheter in order to pursue either appropriate diagnostic tests or necropsy techniques to aid in the diagnosis.

  10. Obesity and exercise-induced ectopic ventricular arrhythmias in apparently healthy middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Avi; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Beinart, Roy; Glikson, Michael; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are limited data on the association between excess weight and the risk of ectopic ventricular activity. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk for ectopic ventricular activity (defined as multiple ventricular premature beats (≥3), ventricular bigeminy, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or sustained ventricular tachycardia) during exercise stress testing among 22,516 apparently healthy men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between the years 2000 and 2014. All subjects had completed maximal exercise stress testing annually according to the Bruce protocol. Subjects were divided at baseline into three groups: normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) andexercise-induced ectopic ventricular activity arrhythmias was highest among obese subjects, intermediate among overweight subjects and lowest among subjects with normal weight (3.4%, 2.7% and 2.2% respectively; p exercise compared with subjects with normal weight (p = 0.005), and that each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a significant 4% (p = 0.002) increased adjusted risk for exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Obesity is independently associated with increased likelihood of ectopic ventricular arrhythmia during exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. Chromobacterium violaceum associated with recurrent vaginal discharge among apparently healthy females in Ekpoma, Nigeria

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    Agwu Ezera

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven hundred and two high vaginal swab samples of apparently healthy adult females with recurrent vaginal discharge were collected and analyzed at Searchlight Medical Diagnostic Centre, Ekpoma between July 2003 and August 2005. Isolation, identification and antibiogram of isolates were done using standard Microbiological techniques. Randomized Block Design and Completely Randomized Design at (α = 0.1 were used to test the statistical significance of results. While occupational distribution of isolates was not statistically significant, age and response of bacterial isolates to antibiotics used were statistically significant. Total number and percentage prevalence of bacteria isolated include: 297(42.4% Chromobacterium violaceum, 156 (22.2% Escherichia coli and 139 (19.8% Staphylococcus aureus. Chromobacterium violaceum was 81.8% sensitive to ofloxacin, and 12.8% to Ceftriazone. Escherichia coli and S. aureus were 70.5% and 71.9% sensitive to sparfloxacin respectively. Though source of infection of C. violaceum in Ekpoma was not very clear, soil and water contamination and other risk factors were hypothesized. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis. Surveillance with improved diagnostic facilities can increase awareness among health care providers on this form of infection. Appropriate systemic antimicrobial therapy to halt progression of infection is mandatory, even when the infection appears to be localized.

  12. Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Responses to Simulated Recreational Horseback Riding in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Brandon R.; Papadakis, Zacharias; Bane, Annie A.; Park, Jin K.; Grandjean, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of cardiorespiratory and pelvic kinematic responses to simulated horseback riding (SHBR) and to characterize responses to SHBR relative to walking in apparently healthy children. Method: Fifteen healthy children (Mage = 9.5 ± 2.6 years) completed SHBR on a commercially available…

  13. Associations of amylin with inflammatory markers and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese.

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    Xinwei Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular and animal studies implicate multiple roles of amylin in regulating insulin action, glucose and lipid metabolisms. However, the role of amylin in obesity related metabolic disorders has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of circulating amylin and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS and explore if this association is influenced by obesity, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance in apparently healthy Chinese. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1,011 Chinese men and women aged 35-54 years was employed to measure plasma amylin, inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], insulin, glucose and lipid profiles. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: Plasma amylin concentrations were higher in overweight/obese participants than normal-weight counterparts (P<0.001 without sex difference. Circulating amylin was positively associated with CRP, IL-6, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, amylin/insulin ratio, HOMA-IR, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while negatively associated with HDL cholesterol (all P<0.001. After multiple adjustments, the risk of MetS was significantly higher (odds ratio 3.71; 95% confidence interval: 2.53 to 5.46 comparing the highest with the lowest amylin quartile. The association remained significant even further controlling for BMI, inflammatory markers, insulin or HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that amylin is strongly associated with inflammatory markers and MetS. The amylin-MetS association is independent of established risk factors of MetS, including obesity, inflammatory markers and insulin resistance. The causal role of hyperamylinemia in the development of MetS needs to be confirmed prospectively.

  14. CARRIAGE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM AND ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS AMONG APPARENTLY HEALTHY HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesida, Solayide A; Ezenta, Cynthia C; Adagbada, Ajoke O; Aladesokan, Amudat A; Coker, Akitoye O

    2017-01-01

    Enterococci are indigenous flora of the gastro-intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Recently, interest in two major species, E. faecium and E. faecalis , has heightened because of their ability to cause serious infections and their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of E . faecium and E . faecalis in human faecal samples and evaluating the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. One hundred faecal samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals and analysed using conventionalbacteriological methods. The susceptibility profile of the isolates to nine antibiotics were determined using disk diffusion method. Seventy-three (73) Enterococcus were phenotypically identified and 65 of the isolates were differentiated into 36 (55.4%) E. faecium and 29 (44.6%) E. faecalis . Eight (8) isolates could not be identified by the conventional biochemical methods employed. No dual colonization by the E. faecalis and E. faecium was observed and isolation rate was not dependent on sex of the participants. All the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and ceftizoxime. Enterococcus faecium exhibited resistance toerythromycin (88.9%), gentamicin (77.8%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (63.9%), ofloxacin (44.4%), teicoplanin (19.4%) and vancomycin (16.7%). Enterococcus faecalis showed the least resistance to vancomycin (13.8%) and teicoplanin (27.7%). Remarkable multiple antibiotic resistances to the classes of antibiotic tested were observed among the two species. The high carriage rate of antibiotic resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis in this study provides information on the local antibiotic patterns of our enterococci isolates thereby suggesting that they could present as important reservoir and vehicle for dissemination of resistant genes in our community.

  15. Healthy growth in children with down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Dommelen, P. van; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Buuren, S. van; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide cross-sectional height and head circumference (HC) references for healthy Dutch children with Down syndrome (DS), while considering the influence of concomitant disorders on their growth, and to compare growth between children with DS and children from the general population.

  16. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  17. Salmonella serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility in apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiflu, Bitsu; Alemayehu, Haile; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Negash, Yohannes; Eguale, Tadesse

    2017-05-19

    The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Of the total 360 dogs examined, 42 (11.7%; 95% Confidence limit of 8.5%-15.4%) were positive for Salmonella. Fourteen serotypes were detected and the predominant ones were S. Bronx (n = 7; 16.7%), S. Newport (n = 6; 14.3%), followed by S. Typhimurium, S. Indiana, S. Kentucky, S. Saintpaul and S. Virchow (n = 4; 9.5%) each. Salmonella infection status was significantly associated with history of symptom of diarrhea during the past 60 days (OR = 3.78; CI = 1.76-8.13; p = 0). Highest resistance rates were found for oxytetracycline (59.5%), neomycin (50%), streptomycin (38.1%), cephalothin (33.3%), doxycycline (30.9%), ampicillin (30.9%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (26.2%). Thirty eight (90.5%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials was detected in 30 (71.4%) of the isolates. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 19 (45.2%) of the isolates. This study demonstrated high carriage rate of Salmonella serotypes known for causing human salmonellosis and large proportion of them were resistant to antimicrobials used in public and veterinary medicine for management of various bacterial infections, suggesting the possible risk of infection of human population in close contact with these dogs by drug resistant pathogens. Therefore, it is vital to work on raising public awareness on zoonotic canine diseases prevention measures and good hygienic practices.

  18. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p < 0.026, 95% CI 0.37-0.94). Seropositivity to B. canis was 3.41 times higher for dogs that lived outdoors/shelter (p < 0.006) or 4.57 times higher in mixed/hunting (p < 0.001) compared to indoor/companion dogs. This is the first comprehensive survey of VBP seropositivity conducted in Croatia. Some

  19. Relationship between Social Participation, Physical Activity and Psychological Distress in Apparently Healthy Elderly People: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owari, Yutaka; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2018-02-01

    Few studies examined the relationship between social participation, physical activity and psychological distress in elderly people. Here we examined these relationships in apparently healthy elderly people. After exclusion of subjects who dropped out or did not meet enrollment criteria, the data of 86 subjects (apparently healthy elderly embers at a college health club; 25 males, 61 females) from July 20 to September 10, 2016 were used. We evaluated each subject's psychological distress using the K6 questionnaire, social participation by a self-completed questionnaire, and physical activity level by a triaxial accelerometer (7 consecutive days). The K6 scores were significantly correlated with social participation in the total series and the women. The K6 scores of the subjects who had engaged in social participation (1.847±2.231) were significantly lower (better) than those of the subjects who had not (6.714±5.014). Both exercise limitation and social participation were significant predictors of the K6 scores. Our findings indicate that psychological distress in apparently healthy elderly people is not associated with physical activity, but is associated with social participation. Our results demonstrate that in healthy elderly people, participating in a social activity can help improve psychological distress.

  20. How Healthy Are Our Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Blum, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The past century has seen vast improvements in our children's health. The infectious diseases that once killed huge numbers of children have largely been conquered. Infant mortality has also fallen markedly, although the United States lags behind other industrialized nations in this and other measures of children's health. Accidents and injuries…

  1. Owner assessment of pruritus and gastrointestinal signs in apparently healthy dogs with no history of cutaneous or noncutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, Kacie M; Marks, Stanley L; Griffin, Craig E

    2015-08-01

    Determining the cause of pruritus relies on establishing the pattern of abnormal pruritus. The presence of gastrointestinal (GI) disease has also been helpful in determining the cause of pruritus. No study has systematically evaluated typical GI signs and pruritic behaviours in apparently healthy dogs. To evaluate owners' perceptions of pruritus and GI signs in apparently healthy dogs, and determine if age, breed, activity, diet or supplements affected these signs. Three hundred and fourteen apparently healthy dogs ≥ 12 months old with an unremarkable physical examination and no history of pruritus, otitis, skin/hair disease, metabolic or GI disease were enrolled. Thirty one veterinarians enrolled dogs after establishing their pruritus visual analog scale (PVAS) score and faecal consistency score (FCS); owners completed a comprehensive online survey regarding GI signs, possible pruritic behaviours, ear cleaning and sneezing. A PVAS score of ≤ 1.9 was recorded in 87.6% of dogs and the FCS was 2-3 in 94.9% of dogs. PVAS was positively correlated with paw licking/chewing, facial/muzzle rubbing, head shaking and sneezing. Scooting was positively correlated with sneezing. Over 96% of dogs had 1-3 bowel movements (BM) per day. Age was positively correlated with facial/muzzle rubbing, sneezing, coprophagia and borborygmi. The number of walks/day was positively correlated with paw licking/chewing, head shaking, sneezing, number of BM/day, coprophagia, belching, flatulence and borborygmi. A standard method of asking relevant questions was developed and the frequency of GI signs and many behaviours that may indicate pruritus in apparently healthy dogs was established. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Active Children: Healthy Now And Later

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    Campbell, Linley; Musumeci, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    Current research is revealing that physical activity can protect against a range of lifestyle diseases and illnesses. Consequently, early childhood practitioners and parents need to adopt guidelines and practices which encourage children of all ages to be physically active. In "Active children: Healthy Now and Later," authors Linley…

  3. Effect of Demographic Status and Lifestyle Habits on Glycaemic Levels in Apparently Healthy Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasuni Nisansala Wijesena Walatara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify the effects of sociodemographic status, family history, and lifestyle habits on fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting serum insulin (FSI levels in apparently healthy subjects. Methods. Information was gathered using an interviewer-administered questionnaire from 227 apparently healthy nondiabetic subjects residing in a suburban area in Sri Lanka. Venous blood samples were collected after an overnight fast for FBG and FSI analysis. Correlations and differences were analyzed using SPSS (ver. 17 software. Results. The majority of the subjects were females, having secondary or tertiary education, monthly income ≥Rs. 25,000 (USD 175, and a positive family history of diabetes. Among the subjects, 10.1% were identified as prediabetics and the majority had familial diabetes with monthly income ≥Rs. 25,000 (USD 175. Subjects with high income had significantly higher mean FBG. In addition FBG had a significant correlation with age. Males and subjects with less than 6 hours/day sleeping duration at night had significantly higher FBG. Subjects with less vigorous physical activity and longer sitting duration had significantly higher FSI levels. Conclusions. Increasing age, higher income, positive familial history of diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and short sleep at night have positive impact on glycaemic status in apparently healthy subjects.

  4. The impact of serum uric acid on the diagnostic of metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy brazilian middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Alessandro; Miranda Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana; Guedes Cocate, Paula; Bressan, Josefina; Azevedo Novello, Alexandre; Cardoso dos Santos, Eliziária; José Natali, Antônio

    2014-09-01

    Hyperuricemia is related to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases, but the use of serum uric acid (UA) to diagnose MetS is currently ignored in clinical practices. To examine the impact of serum UA on the diagnostic of MetS and the relationship of serum UA with cardiometabolic risk factors in apparently healthy Brazilian middle-aged men residents in a city of Minas Gerais. In a cross-sectional analysis, 289 apparently healthy middle-aged men underwent anthropometric, clinical, sociodemographic and blood serum biochemical evaluation. By using receive operating curve the internal cutoff of serum UA was determined (5.25 mg/dL). Subjects with two or more components of MetS exhibited higher serum UA as compared to those with one or none component. The inclusion of serum UA ≥ 5.25mg/dL as an additional component of MetS increased the occurrence of this syndrome by 13%. Subjects with UA ≥ 5.25mg/dL showed high prevalence for MetS and association with its components (central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension) as well as atherogenic risk. Serum UA has an important impact on the diagnostic of MetS and is related to cardiometabolic risk factors in apparently healthy Brazilian middle-aged men. Its use in clinical practices could aggregate accuracy to diagnose MetS. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, T.; Abbassi, A.; Khan, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Early detection of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in apparently healthy attendants of tertiary care hospital and assessment of its severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted from January 2015 to July 2015 at Dow University Hospital, Ojha campus. Methodology: A screening method was designed for apparently healthy individuals including attendants of patients, hospital staff, faculty and students, belonging to age group 18-60 years after excluding severe obesity and already diagnosed respiratory and cardiovascular diseases by means of history. Each participant performed pulmonary function tests via spirometer after filling a questionnaire based on various risk factors and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data was entered and analysed by SPSS-20. Results: Out of the 517 participants, 122 (23.6%) were found to have COPD diagnosed by means of spirometry. Out of these, 23 (4.4%) had COPD stage I, 42 (8.1%) had COPD II, 34 (6.6%) had COPD III, and 23 (4.4%) had COPD IV. Exposure to smoking, wooden stoves, pesticides, biomass fuel, aerosol sprays, gas grill and vehicle exhaust were found to be statistically significant factors in relation to development of COPD. Conclusion: Apparently healthy individuals may have underlying COPD and active screening by means of spirometry plays vital role in early detection of COPD. Smoking and exposure to certain hazardous environmental pollutants are responsible for the development and progression of COPD. (author)

  6. High levels of neutralizing IL-6 autoantibodies in 0.1% of apparently healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Svenson, Morten; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    as the vaccination-induced IL-6-deficient mice. Such donors might be IL-6 deficient, and if so, IL-6 seems be dispensable for several months in otherwise healthy individuals. Such highly positive donors also explain why normal human IgG for pharmaceutical use may contain high anti-IL-6 activity. Finally, transfusion...

  7. Plasmid profile of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 from apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred samples from healthy animals were screened for the presence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157: H7 and 17 were positive for EHEC 0157:H7 after confirmation using serology kits. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed the isolates to be highly susceptible to the various antibiotics screened with a ...

  8. Specificity of indexes of malnutrition when applied to apparently healthy people: the effect of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, T.H.J.; Bree, de A.; Schermer, T.R.J.; Bakkeren, J.; Bör, B.; Wild, de G.; Katan, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is thought to be widespread in hospitalized patients. However, the specificity of indexes used to assess malnutrition is uncertain. We therefore assessed the rate of false-positive diagnoses of malnutrition when biochemical-anthropometric indexes were applied to healthy

  9. Reduced levels of potential circulating biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in apparently healthy vegetarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio Acosta; de Gouveia, Luiza Antoniazzi; Rocha-Penha, Lilliam; Cinegaglia, Naiara; Belo, Vanessa; Castro, Michele Mazzaron de; Sandrim, Valeria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Several evidences report that a vegetarian diet is protector against cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have demonstrated the circulating profile of cardiovascular biomarkers in vegetarians. Therefore, the aims of the current study were compared the plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 between healthy vegetarian (Veg) and healthy omnivorous (Omn). Using ELISA and multiplexed bead immunoassay, we measured in plasma from 43 Veg and 41 Omn the cardiovascular biomarkers concentrations cited above. We found significant lower concentrations of MPO, MMP-9, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in Veg compared to Omn (all Pvegetarian diet is associated with a healthier profile of cardiovascular biomarkers compared to omnivorous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  11. Prevalence of sickle cell gene among apparently healthy under-two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the subjects had SCD and the prevalence of sickle cell trait (SCT) among them was 22%. Premarital counselling intervention in families seemed to increase the prevalence of SCT when compared to those not counselled but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.30). The lower prevalence of SCT among children ...

  12. Systematic review on vitamin D level in apparently healthy Indian population and analysis of its associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhiya Selvarajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D which is involved in the maintenance of bone mineral homeostasis has been found to portray various pleiotropic effects. Although it has been widely accepted that serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D level above 30 ng/ml is considered optimal for the biological actions of Vitamin D, there is a need to explore the levels of Vitamin D reported among Indians from various regions of the country. Hence, this systematic review aims to appraise the status of Vitamin D levels reported from apparently healthy Indians across various parts of India. Methodology: A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify the range of Vitamin D levels among apparently healthy individuals from various parts of India, with the search term “Vitamin D and India” in the search portals of PubMed, Google Scholar, Indmed, and ScienceDirect. A total of 2998 articles were retrieved by the above search strategy, of which only forty studies fulfilled the criteria to be included in the systematic review. Studies done in various states were compiled under the respective zones based on the classification of Indian zones as specified in Zonal maps of India. Results: The level of Vitamin D from all the forty included studies ranged from 3.15 ± 1.4 to 52.9 ± 33.7 ng/ml. The effect size of Vitamin D level was higher in the South Zone compared to other zones. Conclusion: The present study shows that Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among apparently healthy Indians living in different regions of India, irrespective of their exposure to sunlight.

  13. Self-reported faster eating associated with higher ALT activity in middle-aged, apparently healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Ichikawa, Yoko; Goda, Toshinao

    2014-01-01

    Faster eating and elevated circulating activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker for liver injury, are risk factors for the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their complications. The aim of this study was to examine the association between self-reported eating rate and circulating ALT activity in apparently healthy middle-aged Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 900 apparently healthy women ages 40 to 64 y (mean ± SD, 53.1 ± 7.1 y) who participated in health check-ups in Japan. We analyzed their clinical serum parameters and lifestyle factors, including self-reported eating rate. Associations between liver injury markers (ALT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase [GTP], and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]), other clinical parameters and lifestyle factors were analyzed using Tukey's multiple range test following analysis of variance and analysis of covariance for three groups, divided by self-reported eating rates. The associations between self-reported faster eating and ALT activity and lifestyle factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. ALT activity, but not γ-GTP or AST activities, was higher in participants who reported relatively fast/very fast eating than in those who reported medium eating after adjusting for age, alcohol intake, energy intake, smoking, and physical activity. The odds ratio of eating rate for ALT activity in T3 (18-128 U/L) compared with T1 (3-12 U/L) was 1.67 (P ALT activity is positively associated with faster eating, but is dependent on BMI in middle-aged, apparently healthy Japanese women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reference intervals of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in the apparently healthy adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Bai, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ming; Ma, Xiao-Bo

    2018-01-08

    To establish reference intervals of carbohydrate antigen 19-9(CA 19-9) according to the CLSI CA28-A3 guideline and to evaluate age- and gender-related variations. Serum CA 19-9 values of 10 149 healthy subjects (from 20 years old to 60 years old) were measured from location health checkups. The relationship between CA 19-9 and age was analyzed using Spearman's approach. The reference intervals of CA19-9 were established using Q 2.5 and Q 97.5 , and the 90% confidence intervals of upper limits were calculated. The reference intervals of CA 19-9 were 1.98-25.12 U/mL for males (1.97-25.06 U/mL for 20-50 years old and 2.31-26.13 U/mL for 50-60 years old) and 2.36-29.29 U/mL for adult (20-60 years old) females. The upper limit of reference intervals for all individuals was 26.45 U/mL; the level of CA 19-9 is higher in females than males. Carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is significantly associated with aging in adult males(r = .0930, P reference intervals for CA19-9 and giving age-related reference intervals of CA19-9 using a big data of healthy adult, we first discovered that CA19-9 tends to increase with age in adult males but not in females. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 polio viruses made up of 26 polio type 1, 55 type 2 and 49 type 3 were identified by neutralisation test with monoclonal antibodies and restriction ...

  16. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Vogel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermogenic (TRM supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective: To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design: Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9 or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14 for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results: Significant (p<0.05 group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05 within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG, creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL, eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73, globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL, A/G (+0.27±0.23, and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL, and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion: Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05 intragroup

  17. Effects of an Eight-Week Stepladder Exercise Protocol on Lower Limb Muscular Strength of Apparently Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olagbegi Oladapo Michael

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Backward descent of stairs is associated with improved muscle strength and reduced joint stress, but the effect of backward ascent of stairs on lower limb muscle strength has not been reported. This study compared the effects of forward and backward stair climbing on lower limb muscle strength in apparently healthy young adults. Methods. The total of 31 young volunteers were allocated to either forward or backward stair climbing group (n = 16 and 15, respectively. Dynamic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was assessed in addition to thigh girth at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 with the use of the repetitive maximum method and tape measure, respectively. Results. Between baseline and week 8, muscular strength in both groups (quadriceps: 14.4 ± 3.6 to 16.4 ± 3.4 kg; 14.0 ± 2.9 to 15.3 ± 2.7 kg; hamstring: 12.2 ± 3.2 to 13.4 ± 3.2; 11.7 ± 2.5 to 12.9 ± 2.7 kg increased significantly (p 0.05. The groups were comparable in all three measures post intervention. Conclusions. Forward and backward stair climbing protocols are effective for improving the dynamic strength of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of apparently healthy young adults. Thus, either protocol could be used for the improvement of lower limbs dynamic muscle strength.

  18. Reference Intervals of Alpha-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Apparently Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Guo, Xu-Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Guo-Ming

    2016-12-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to calculate 95% reference intervals and double-sided limits of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) according to the CLSI EP28-A3 guideline. MATERIAL AND METHODS Serum AFP and CEA values were measured in samples from 26 000 healthy subjects in the Shuyang area receiving general health checkups. The 95% reference intervals and upper limits were calculated by using MedCalc. RESULTS We provided continuous reference intervals from 20 years old to 90 years old for AFP and CEA. The reference intervals were: AFP, 1.31-7.89 ng/ml (males) and 1.01-7.10 ng/ml (females); CEA, 0.51-4.86 ng/ml (males) and 0.35-3.45ng/ml (females). AFP and CEA were significantly positively correlated with age in both males (r=0.196 and r=0.198) and females (r=0.121 and r=0.197). CONCLUSIONS Different races or populations and different detection systems may result in different reference intervals for AFP and CEA. Continuous reference intervals of age changes are more accurate than age groups.

  19. High bone mineral apparent density in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Brixen, K; Gram, J

    2013-01-01

    Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) in children with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. Children with XLH also had significantly higher BMAD...... of the spine compared to femoral neck. INTRODUCTION: BMAD obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in children with XLH was evaluated, as they are unlikely to have the extra-skeletal ossifications contributing to the elevated bone mineral density of the spine in adult patients. METHODS: A total of 15...... children with biochemically and genetically verified XLH were recruited. Anthropometric measurements were performed, and to correct for the short stature (small bones), the BMAD of the spine and the femoral neck was evaluated. RESULTS: Z-scores of BMAD of the spine (mean (95 % CI); 2.0 (1.3-2.7); p ...

  20. INCIDENCE OF SUB - CLINICAL AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY MEDICAL PERSONNEL; DIAGNOSIS AND COMPARISION BY SPIROMETRY AND PEAK FLOW METRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subba Rao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM & OBJE CTIVES OF THE STUDY: To diagnose sub - clinical airflow obstruction in apparently healthy medical personnel, and to compare Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR by using Spirometry and by Wright’s peak flow meter. METHODOLOGY: About 80 apparently healthy medical students including Post Graduates, internees and medical technicians were taken in to the study, all of them had no past history of Bronchial Asthma or any allergies. Spirometry was performed by Spirowin version 0.2 and simultaneously peak expiratory flow rate by Wright’s peak flow meter was done and FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR were recorded. RESULTS: About 13 subjects (16.25% showed moderate obstruction (FEV1 about 70%, and at that point a family history of atopies and allergies could be elicited in most of them. PEFR showed a variation - 3.42 to 2.76 ltrs/sec ( - 205.74 to 165.62 ltrs/min between Spirometry and Wright’s peak flow meter. INTERPRETATION AND C ONCLUSION : In spite of being medical personnel and having a family history of Bronchial Asthma and other atopies none of the 13 (16.25% subjects with sub clinical obstruction had ever approached us for a pulmonary function test. This shows that Spirometry has to be popularized in medical personnel as well as in lay men as a means to diagnose Bronchial Asthma and COPD. Also there is difference in PEFR measured by Spirometry and Wright’s peak flow metry though the difference is not significant with a p=0.5398 .

  1. Comparison of hemodynamics during hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing in apparently healthy females aged 50-60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietava, Jan; Vohnout, Branislav; Valent, Denis; Celko, Juraj

    2004-07-01

    Owing to excessive worries regarding adverse cardiac events, hyperthermal balneotherapy for patients with coronary artery disease is underprescribed. However, very few cardiac events occur in similar heat stress during Finnish sauna bathing. Exercise testing has proven to be a safe diagnostic procedure even in survivors of myocardial infarction. We compared the effects of hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing on cardiac hemodynamics in 21 apparently healthy women aged 50-60 years. The maximal symptom-limited bicycle exercise test was performed according to the modified protocol of Wasserman. Hyperthermal immersion was carried out in 40 degrees C water and was completed by increasing the core temperature by about 2 degrees C. The left ventricular function was evaluated using continuous measurement of thoracic electric bioimpedance during both tests. The blood pressure, index of contractility and heart rate were measured directly, whereas the cardiac index, left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index were calculated. The hemodynamic response, as assessed at continuous non-invasive monitoring, showed substantial differences between hyperthermal immersion and exercise testing. Overall, we found a significantly lower hemodynamic load during hyperthermal immersion in comparison with exercise testing. Entering the bath, there was a significant decrease in the left cardiac work, contractility and blood pressure. We recorded a slight increase in the heart rate towards peak hyperthermal immersion. However, other modulators such as the mean arterial pressure, index of contractility, cardiac index and left cardiac work index decreased even below resting values. Excessive hyperthermal immersion induced a lower hemodynamic load in apparently healthy women than standard maximal exercise testing.

  2. Relationship between anthropometric variables and nutrient intake in apparently healthy male elderly individuals: A study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawelec Graham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly population is increasing worldwide, which warrants their nutritional status assessment more important. The present study was undertaken to establish the nutritional status of the least-studied elderly population in Pakistan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 526 generally healthy free-living elderly men (mean age: 68.9 yr; range: 50-98 yr from Peshawar, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, WC were measured and BMI and WHR were calculated from these measurements following WHO standard procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr dietary recall. Nutrients were calculated from the information on food intake. Nutrients in terms of % of RNI were calculated using WHO data on recommended intakes. Results Based on BMI, the numbers of obese, overweight and underweight elderly were 13.1, 3.1 and 10.8%, respectively. Age was negatively and significantly correlated with BMI (p = 0.0028. Energy (p = 0.0564 and protein intake (p = 0.0776 tended to decrease with age. There was a significant increase in % BF with age (p = p p Conclusions Malnutrition is common in apparently healthy elderly Pakistani men. Very few elderly have adequate nutrient intake. Obese and overweight had higher % BF as compared to normal weight elderly. Older age is associated with changes not only in anthropometrics and body composition but also in intake of key nutrients like energy and protein.

  3. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy...... and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which...... suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates...

  4. Healthy Diet in Children: Facts and Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hasan Khodaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consuming a healthy diet throughout the lifecourse helps prevent malnutrition in all its forms as well as a range of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and conditions. But the increased production of processed food, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles have led to a shift in dietary patterns. People are now consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars or salt/sodium, and many do not eat enough fruit, vegetables and dietary fibre such as whole grains. In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life. Nutrition for kids is based on the same principles as nutrition for adults. Everyone needs the same types of nutrients; such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fat. Children, however, need different amounts of specific nutrients at different ages

  5. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  6. Impact of Probiotic SYNBIO(®) Administered by Vaginal Suppositories in Promoting Vaginal Health of Apparently Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Coata, Giuliana; Cresci, Alberto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether it promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. A single-arm, open-label controlled towards the baseline (pre-post) study including 35 apparently healthy women was conducted. Each woman was examined three times during the study. Women were instructed to receive daily for 7 days, the probiotic suppositories SYNBIO(®) gin (Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®)). Vaginal swabs were collected during visit 1, 2, and 3 to determine the total lactobacilli count, the presence of the two administered bacteria, the measure of the pH, and the estimation of Nugent score. Evaluation of treatment tolerability was based on analysis of the type and occurrence of adverse events. The probiotic vaginal suppository was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. Intermediate Nugent score was registered in 40 % of women at visit 1 and these intermediate scores reverted to normal at day 7 (end of treatment) in 20 % of subjects. Administration of SYNBIO(®) gin contributed to a significant increase in the lactobacilli level at visit 2. Molecular typing revealed the presence of the two strains originating from SYNBIO(®) gin in 100 % of women at visit 2 and 34 % at visit 3. No significant changes were registered for pH between visits. The SYNBIO(®) gin product is safe for daily use in healthy women and it could be useful to restore and maintain a normal vaginal microbiota.

  7. Increased association of coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults with hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byung Sub; Park, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Min-Kyung; Jeon, Won Seon; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Yong; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a simple screening parameter to identify people at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype increases the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 32,186 participants (mean age 41.3, 80.2% men) in a health screening program, in whom the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured, were analyzed. Subjects were divided into four groups: 1) normal waist circumference (WC)-normal triglyceride (TG) (NWNT), 2) normal WC-high TG (NWHT), 3) enlarged WC-normal TG (EWNT), and 4) enlarged WC-high TG (EWHT). Enlarged WC was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 85 cm for women; high serum TG was defined as TG ≥ 150 mg/dL. The presence of CAC was defined by CACS >0, and CACS was analyzed in a logarithmized form of CACS plus 1 {ln(CACS+1)}. A total of 14.9% of the participants had CAC. The EWHT group showed the highest mean value for ln(CACS+1) among the four groups. The EWHT group showed the highest odds ratio for CAC, with NWHT group the second, and with EWNT group the third compared with the NWNT group after adjusting for confounding variables (1.579, 1.302, and 1.266 vs. NWNT). The EWHT group showed the highest association for CAC, suggesting this HTGW phenotype as a useful marker for the detection of subjects with high cardiometabolic risk in healthy Korean adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Plasma levels of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides in apparently healthy subjects: Effects of sex, age, and hemoglobin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mareomi; Shigematsu, Yuji; Takezaki, Masayuki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the use of one value of natriuretic peptides to define "normal" is appropriate in all individuals, and to assess the influence of sex, age, and other variables on atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP) levels. A total of 1375 apparently healthy people (women:155, men:1220), aged 18-70years were enrolled. Both ANP and BNP levels were higher in women than in men (ANP: 12.50±6.82pg/mL vs 8.18±4.19pg/mL; BNP: 9.85±7.63pg/mL vs 7.03±6.97pg/mL). The subjects were divided into three age groups: group I, 18-30years; group II, 30-50years; group III, 50-70years. First, the influence of age on ANP and BNP levels was examined. In women, both ANP and BNP levels were higher in groups II and III than those in group I. In men, ANP and BNP levels increased with age. Second, sex differences in ANP and BNP levels due to age were examined. ANP level was higher in women than that in men in all age groups. BNP level was higher in women than that in men in groups I and II. Multivariate analysis indicated that both ANP and BNP levels were influenced by age, hemoglobin level, and platelet counts. Because ANP and BNP levels in healthy subjects are influenced by sex, age, and hemoglobin levels, the use of a single value to define "normal" in all individuals is not appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Doris M; Smolders, Lotte; Lin, Yuguang; de Roo, Niels; Trautwein, Elke A; van Duynhoven, John; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum; Mihaleva, Velitchka V

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1 H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  10. Effect of Theobromine Consumption on Serum Lipoprotein Profiles in Apparently Healthy Humans with Low HDL-Cholesterol Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris M. Jacobs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH. We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (CH in various lipoprotein (LP subclasses.Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2 with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum.Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses.Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.

  11. Dietary adequacy of Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder compared to healthy developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Anwar, Mona; Bjørklund, Geir; Hashish, Adel; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Hemimi, Maha; Sultan, Eman

    2017-04-01

    Although the etiology and pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still poorly understood, a number of environmental, anthropological, neurobiological and genetic factors have been related to the pathophysiology of ASD, even the impact of oxidative stress response related to the environment and nutrition intake. Usual recommended dietary habits are based on the combination of behavioral and dietary or nutraceutical interventions together with pharmacotherapy. Investigations about a reliable relationship between diet and ASD are still lacking. The present study aimed at comparing dietary regimens and habits of normally developing apparently healthy children, without diagnosed ASD, with a pediatric population of individuals affected by autistic disorder. Assessments of nutritional and anthropometric data, in addition to biochemical evaluation for nutrient deficiencies, were performed. A total of 80 children with autistic disorder and 80 healthy, normally developing pediatric individuals were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked to complete the standardized questionnaire regarding the different types of food and the proportion of a serving for their children. Biochemical analysis of micro- and macronutrients were also done. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific anthropometric growth (auximetric) chart, absolute weights as well as weight-related for age classes, were significantly higher in cases than healthy controls. No differences between groups were observed in regard to total kilocalories (kcal), carbohydrates, and fat intake. A total of 23.8% of children with autistic disorder vs. 11.3% in the healthy control group had a nutrient intake with features below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Children with autistic disorder showed low dietary intake of some micronutrients; calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and sodium (Na), also they had significantly high intake of potassium (K) and vitamin C compared to healthy

  12. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  13. Molecular detection of Salmonella spp. isolated from apparently healthy pigeon in Mymensingh, Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Khaled Saifullah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Here we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in cloacal swabs and pharyngeal swabs of apparently healthy pigeons sold in the live bird markets and villages in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 50 samples, comprised of cloacal swabs (n=24 and pharyngeal swabs (n=26 were collected. The samples were processed, and Salmonella was isolated through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques and biochemical tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The prevalence rate of Salmonella was found to be 37.5% (n=9/24 in cloacal swabs and 30.77% (n=8/26 in pharyngeal swabs with an overall prevalence rate of 34% (n=17/50. The prevalence rate of Salmonella pigeon varied slightly among locations; 34.62% (n=9/26 in live bird markets, and 33.33% (n=8/24 in villages. Molecular detection of 17 Salmonella isolates obtained from biochemical test was performed by genus specific PCR, where all of them amplified a region of 496-bp segment of the histidine transport operon gene. Antibiogram study revealed multi-drug resistant traits in most of the isolates tested. The highest resistance was found against Ampicillin (88.23% followed by Cephalexin (82.35%. The rate of sensitivity of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin was 100% followed by Azithromycin (82.35%, Gentamicin (76.47% and Nalidixic acid (76.47%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pigeons carry multi-drug resistant Salmonella that may transfer to the humans and animals. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 51-55

  14. Renal functional reserve in children with apparently normal congenital solitary functioning kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco-Antić, Amira; Paripović, Dušan; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Sćekić, Gordana; Miloševski-Lomić, Gordana

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate renal functional reserve (RFR) and to assess its relationship with serum cystatin C and blood pressure in children with apparently normal congenital solitary functioning kidney (SFK). RFR was obtained from the difference of endogenous creatinine clearance (CrCs) before and after a meat-free oral protein load (OPL) in the patients who were pre-treated with cimetidine. Serum cystatin C and urinary protein excretion were determined before and after OPL. Among 22 patients (13 boys), aged 9.5 ± 4.3 years, 72.7% had increased serum cystatin C, and 54.5% had decreased RFR. Following OPL, CrCs and urine creatinine increased, while serum creatinine and cystatin C remained unchanged. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that cystatin C could predict more than 90% of RFR variability. Half of the patients with apparently normal SFK had decreased RFR. Serum cystatin C is one of the best predictors of RFR. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthy Children, Healthy Lives: The Wellness Guide for Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research ­based…

  16. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... The high and growing incidence of obesity among young children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean. Influencing eating behaviours in early childhood to tackle poor diets and inadequate physical activity, however, can have a huge impact on children's health well into adulthood ...

  17. The traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in apparently healthy Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guan, Lei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Ouchi, Eriko; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-02-01

    Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between the traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese people. We designed a 3-year longitudinal study of 980 subjects living in Japan to evaluate how the Japanese dietary pattern is related to longitudinal changes in well-recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease among apparently healthy Japanese adults. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns-"Japanese," "sweets-fruits-cooked wheaten food," and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub)" from 39 food groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean (95% confidence interval) for the change per year in diastolic blood pressure for men, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure for women related to the "Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 0.89 (0.10, 1.68), 2.25 (0.19, 4.31), and 0.75 (-1.00, 2.50) for the lowest tertile, 0.77 (-0.02, 1.56), 1.01 (-1.13, 3.15), and 0.44 (-1.38, 2.26) for the middle tertile and - 0.04 (-0.81, 0.72), -0.48 (-2.52, 1.56), and -0.77 (-2.51, 0.96) for the highest tertile (trend P value = 0.03, pattern factor score tertiles and the longitudinal change in serum triglyceride concentration only in men (trend P value = 0.02). Greater adherence to a traditional Japanese diet was independently related to a decreased change every year in diastolic blood pressure in men and women and in systolic blood pressure in women over a 3-year follow-up period. The findings suggest that the "Japanese" dietary pattern appeared to be related to a fall in blood pressure, which might have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. A randomized trial is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.

  18. Sleep-related melatonin use in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Irvin; Goldman, Ran D

    2016-04-01

    A mother brought her 12-year-old son into my office because she is concerned that he has difficulty falling asleep almost every night. Her job involves shift work and she uses melatonin herself to help her fall asleep. She asked if her son could take melatonin. What are the recommendations and considerations for using melatonin in otherwise healthy children and adolescents? Insomnia is reported in up to a quarter of healthy children and in three-quarters of children with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, resulting in negative consequences. For children with delayed sleep phase syndrome, melatonin can be a useful treatment together with insomnia evaluation and regular follow-up. For children with otherwise undiagnosed insomnia and healthy sleep hygiene, melatonin use should be considered. While melatonin seems to be safe, there is a lack of evidence for its routine use among healthy children. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  19. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2016 ... The high and growing incidence of obesity among young children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean. Influencing eating ... en Argentine. L'alimentation malsaine est largement reconnue comme un facteur de risque majeur pour les maladies non transmissibles (MNT).

  20. Determinants of healthy eating in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Evers, Susan; McKenna, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the state of knowledge and research gaps in the area of determinants of healthy eating among children and youth. The article is structured around individual and collective determinants that affect healthy eating in children and youth. We defined healthy eating as "eating practices and behaviours that are consistent with improving, maintaining and/or enhancing health." Relevant databases were searched for papers published between January 1992 and March 2003 that focussed on children or youth and reported at least one factor relevant to healthy eating. Among collective factors, familial factors and the nature of foods available in the physical environment, including at home, schools and in fast-food establishments, stand out as significant influences on healthy eating in children and youth. The media, particularly television, also have an enormous potential influence and can overshadow familial influences. Individual factors identified include knowledge, attitudes and food preferences; only the latter have been identified as a strong determinant of healthy eating in both children and adolescents. The results of the review identified a significant body of literature in the area of determinants of healthy eating in children and youth; however, very little of this research has taken place in Canada. Only a few determinants, such as economic factors and food security, the content of media nutritional messages, and the issue of flavours, neophobia and food preferences, have undergone some examination by Canadian researchers. Research priorities for Canada in the area of determinants of healthy eating and surveillance of eating behaviours are identified.

  1. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  2. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  3. Ventricular arrhythmias and risk of death and acute myocardial infarction in apparently healthy subjects of age >or=55 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner

    2006-01-01

    arrhythmias were studied in a cohort of middle-aged and elderly subjects without apparent heart disease. Six hundred seventy-eight men and women aged 55 to 75 years without a history of heart disease or stroke were included. Baseline examinations included physical examinations, fasting laboratory testing...

  4. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  5. Randomized Trial of a Clinical Decision Support System: Impact on the Management of Children with Fever without Apparent Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Roukema (Jolt); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J. van der Lei (Johan); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess compliance with a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for diagnostic management of children with fever without apparent source and to study the effects of application of the CDSS on time spent in the emergency department (ED) and number of laboratory tests.

  6. Bienestar espiritual de enfermos terminales y de personas aparentemente sanas The spiritual wellbeing of terminally ill people and the spiritual well being of apparently healthy people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez Herrera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el objetivo principal del estudio fue describir y comparar el bienestar espiritual de personas con enfermedad terminal con el de personas aparentemente sanas. Metodología: se desarrolló con un método cuantitativo, descriptivo, comparativo. Incluyó 44 pacientes hospitalizados en la Clínica Luís Carlos Galán y 44 personas con características similares y aparentemente sanas. Para la medición del bienestar espiritual se empleó la Escala de Bienestar Espiritual de Ellison®. Resultados: el nivel general de bienestar espiritual de las personas con enfermedad terminal es alto, los niveles del componente religioso y el componente existencial del nivel de bienestar son medios. En las personas aparentemente sanas el nivel de bienestar general y por componentes es alto. Conclusión: al comparar el bienestar espiritual entre las personas con enfermedad terminal y las personas aparentemente sanas del estudio, se encontró un mayor bienestar espiritual general y del componente existencial en el grupo de las personas aparentemente sanas. No se encontró diferencia en el nivel de bienestar de la dimensión religiosa entre los grupos.Objective: The main objective of the study was to describe and compare the spiritual wellbeing of people with terminal illness with the spiritual well being of apparently healthy people. Methodology: the study was developed with a quantitative, descriptive and comparative approach. It included 44 patients hospitalized at the Luis Carlos Galan Clinic and 44 people with similar characteristics but apparently healthy. The spiritual well being was measured with the Ellison Spiritual Wellbeing Scale®. Results: the general level of spiritual well being of the people with terminal illness was high as well as its religious component. The level of the existential component of the spiritual well being in the same group was medium. In the apparently healthy people the general level of spiritual wellbeing and the level of

  7. Self-reported rate of eating is associated with higher circulating ALT activity in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Miyauchi, Rie; Hariya, Natsuyo; Misaki, Yasumi; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-04-01

    Elevated circulating activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a marker for liver injury, and the lifestyle of a higher rate of eating in healthy and preclinical subjects are associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined the associations between self-reported rate of eating and circulating ALT activity in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,929 apparently healthy men aged 40-59 years (mean ± SD age, 49.2 ± 5.8 years; BMI, 23.5 ± 2.8 kg/m²) who participated in health checkups in Japan. We analyzed their clinical serum parameters and lifestyle factors, including self-reported rate of eating. Associations between self-reported rate of eating and liver injury markers [ALT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GTP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], other clinical parameters or lifestyle factors were determined using analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (MLRA) were performed with ALT activity as the dependent variable and independent variables that included self-reported rate of eating. MLRA showed that ALT activity showed trends for higher self-reported rate of eating after adjustment for age, energy intake, and smoking status. The association between ALT activity and self-reported rate of eating disappeared after adjustment for BMI. The results of this study show that ALT activity is positively associated with self-reported rate of eating in middle-aged apparently healthy Japanese men.

  8. Role of C-peptide in Altered Lipid Profile among Apparently Healthy Adults of Vijayapura City, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrahas M.Kulkarni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-peptide is produced in equimolar concentration during insulin production as inactive molecule by beta islet cells of Langerhans. C-peptide is most useful biomarker of endogenous insulin production. Aim and Objectives: To predict metabolic syndrome in advance by estimation of C-peptide and lipid profile in healthy adults. Material and Methods: Serum C-peptide, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile of 128 healthy individuals were estimated. Adults in the age group of 18 to 60 years of both sexes were included in study. Results: C-peptide levels were increased in 27%, Serum cholesterol in 30%, LDL Cholesterol in 55% and triglyceride levels in 21% of healthy individuals. Significant correlation was observed between C peptide, age, serum cholesterol, LDL and cholesterol LDL ratio in male subjects only. In our study group most of the subjects (both males and females fell in overweight group. Conclusion: Cpeptide level and lipid profile may be considered as useful biomarkers to predict type 2 diabetes mellitus in advance, possibly due to insulin resistance.

  9. Association between Sleep Duration and Intelligence Scores in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Anja; Achermann, Peter; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep behavior and cognitive functioning in 60 healthy children between 7 and 11 years of age under nonexperimental conditions. Intellectual abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th edition) and sleep variables by questionnaires, actigraphy, and sleep diaries. Correlation…

  10. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  11. Modern Aspects of Healthy Lifestyle Formation in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Mirza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers topical issues of healthy lifestyle formation in preschool children. Physical training socializes children. Solving the problems of physical training contributes to the comprehensive education of a child, aimed at physical, intellectual, spiritual and emotional development, as well as psychophysical preparedness for work and study at school.

  12. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  13. Prevalence of optimal cardiovascular screening activities and associated factors among apparently healthy school teachers in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman A. Noraza, MMED

    2018-04-01

    ليومية. Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of optimal cardiovascular disease (CVD screening activities and the associated factors among apparently healthy school teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical observational study was conducted among 380 secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire addressing sociodemographic data and factors influencing CVD screening activities was administered. Descriptive analysis, simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: A total of 348 teachers responded to the questionnaire, with a response rate of 91.6%. The prevalence of optimal CVD screening activities was 29.3% (95% CI: 24.52, 34.08. Age, knowledge of CVD screening, family history of CVD and availability of health facilities were significantly linked to CVD screening. Conclusion: The prevalence of optimal screening activities was low. A great majority of the factors contributing to optimal screening were modifiable. Health care providers should widely implement global health-oriented rather than disease-orientated assessment in their daily practice. الكلمات المفتاحية: فحص أمراض القلب والأوعية الدموية, خطر أمراض القلب والأوعية الدموية, الفحص الصحي, تاريخ العائلة, معلمي المدارس, Keywords: Cardiovascular disease screening, Cardiovascular risk, Family history, Health screening, School teachers

  14. Comparison of the serumic levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc between apparently healthy and those affected by febrile pneumonia in Ghezel sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mashayekhi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between subclinical deficiency of Vit A, Vit C and zinc and ovine pneumonia. This study was conducted on 400 sheep affected by pneumonia and 100 apparently healthy sheep. All animals were from the Ghezel breed with the age of 0.5-2 years and body weight of 35-60 kg. Sampling was done during the summer and autumn in Miandoab province. Patients showing signs of rapid and shallow breathing, dyspnea, coughing, nasal discharge and abnormal lung sound were selected as having pneumonia. Animals without any sign of particular disease were selected as apparently healthy after general examination. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The results indicated that serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 46.94±0.26 (μg/dl, 1.83±0.05 (mg/dl and 183.25±1.86 (μg/dl in healthy sheep respectively and serum levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc were 42.45±0.19 (μg/dl, 1.47±0.02 (mg/dl and 134.59±1.77 (μg/dl in pneumonic sheep (p=0.000 respectively. It can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between subclinical deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin C and zinc serum and ovine pneumonia

  15. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' randomized controlled trial: efficacy of a healthy lifestyle program for overweight fathers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, P J; Lubans, D R; Callister, R; Okely, A D; Burrows, T L; Fletcher, R; Collins, C E

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' (HDHK) program, which was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and be a role model of positive health behaviors for their children. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 53 overweight/obese men (mean (s.d.) age=40.6 (7.1) years; body mass index (BMI)=33.2 (3.9)) and their primary school-aged children (n=71, 54% boys; mean (s.d.) age=8.2 (2.0) years) were randomly assigned (family unit) to either (i) the HDHK program (n=27 fathers, n=39 children) or (ii) a wait-list control group (n=26 fathers, n=32 children). Fathers in the 3-month program attended eight face-to-face education sessions. Children attended three of these sessions. The primary outcome was fathers' weight. Fathers and their children were assessed at baseline, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up, for weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, resting heart rate (RHR), objectively measured physical activity and self-reported dietary intake. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed significant between-group differences at 6 months for weight loss (Peating and physical activity among children. Targeting fathers is a novel and efficacious approach to improving health behavior in their children.

  16. Homocysteine level in urine of autistic and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Michalska, Monika; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid which plays several important roles in human physiology and is an important biomarker for possible deficiencies of various vitamins (vitamin B₆ and B₁₂, folic acid). In this work GC-MS method was used to determine the levels of homocysteine in the urine of autistic and healthy children. The levels of homocysteine in urine samples from 34 autistic and 21 healthy children were 2.36 ± 1.24 and 0.76 ± 0.31 (mmol∙mol⁻¹ creatinine), respectively. The higher level of homocysteine in autistic children may indicate deficiencies of folic acid and vitamins B₆ and B₁₂ in nutrition of these children. The results of this work were taken into consideration in the nutrition of autistic children treated in the Navicula Centre of Diagnosis and Therapy of Autism in Łódź (Poland).

  17. [How to feed children? Healthy eating behaviors starting at childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M

    2012-01-01

    Interventions to prevent malnutrition or overweight in children focus on the diet, and give little attention to the behaviors of their caretakers. In their first two years of life, children adopt practices that are embedded in their environment and the behaviors of their caretakers, thus turning into nutrition patterns that will persist during their lifetimes. Therefore, children and caretakers establish a relationship in which they recognize, construe and respond to verbal and non verbal communication signs. Feeding a child by adopting a "responsive" behavior in which caretakers provide guidance and structure, and respond to children's signs of hunger and satiety promotes self-regulation and children's awareness of healthy nutrition. In this article, we give recommendations to include responsive nutrition and model healthy eating behaviors in nutritional interventions.

  18. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Tom; Rohde, Judith; Phillips, Nyree Dale; Hampson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134), with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have made pigs in the

  19. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134, with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have

  20. Hypoxic challenge test applied to healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Hanel, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Commercial aircraft are pressurised to ~2438 m (8000 ft) above sea level that equates breathing 15% oxygen at sea level. A preflight hypoxic challenge test (HCT) is therefore recommended for children with cystic fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases and inflight oxygen is advised if...

  1. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  2. Skin dryness in apparently healthy human skin is associated with decreased expression of bleomycin hydrolase in the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E D; Kim, Y; Joo, K M; Kim, H J; Lee, E; Nam, G W; Cho, E G; Noh, M; Chung, J H; Byun, S Y; Lee, T R

    2015-04-01

    Maintenance of water balance in the stratum corneum (SC) is determined by the content of intercellular lipids and natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) in corneocytes. To investigate the association between the NMFs and (pro)filaggrin and the proteases responsible for the processing of (pro)filaggrin to NMFs in the SC of hydrated and dry skin areas of healthy human subjects. The SC hydration state and the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured using a Corneometer and a Tewameter, respectively. Proteases, (pro)filaggrin and NMFs were extracted from SC samples obtained by tape-stripping of the tested skin. Expression levels of (pro)filaggrin were determined by dot blotting and western blotting, and total NMFs by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Expression of the proteases caspase-14, calpain-1 and bleomycin hydrolase was measured by western blotting. The levels of (pro)filaggrin were not significantly different between hydrated and dry skin, whereas the level of total NMFs was significantly reduced in dry skin. A negative correlation between (pro)filaggrin and NMFs was found in dry skin (Pearson correlation coefficient r = - 0.57, *P < 0.05). Bleomycin hydrolase expression was significantly decreased in the SC of dry skin. These results suggest that the low hydration state of dry skin may be due to the reduction in (pro)filaggrin degradation caused by decreased bleomycin hydrolase expression. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Effect of sleep quality on hemodynamic response to exercise and heart rate recovery in apparently healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Murat; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Demir, Melike; Bilik, Mehmet Z; Ozaydogdu, Necdet; Aktan, Adem; Isik, Ferhat; Demir, Suleyman; Yazgan, Umit C; Toprak, Nizamettin

    2014-12-01

    Poor sleep quality has an unfavorable impact on autonomic nervous system activity, especially that of the cardiovascular (CV) system. The heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) at rest and during exercise, along with the heart rate recovery (HRR), were examined in poor sleepers and compared with individuals with good sleep quality. A total of 113 healthy individuals were enrolled to the study. All participants performed treadmill stress testing. Sleep quality of participants was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire: 48 subjects were categorized as ‘poor sleepers’ (PSQI score > 6 points), and the rest were grouped as ‘good sleepers’. The poor sleepers showed higher resting HR (p exercise (p=0.046) and less HR increase with exercise (chronotropic incompetence) (p=0.002) compared with individuals who reported good sleep quality. In addition, the poor sleepers demonstrated reduced heart rate recovery at the 1st and 3rd minute of recovery (p=0.005 and 0.037, respectively) compared with good sleepers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only resting diastolic BP was the independent predictor of HRE. The PSQI score was positively correlated with resting HR; while it was negatively correlated with HR response to exercise, HRR1 and HRR index-1. This cross-sectional study emphasizes the effect of poor sleep quality on unfavorable cardiovascular outcome indicators of the treadmill stress test.

  4. Galactose oxidation using (13)C in healthy and galactosemic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende-Campanholi, D R; Porta, G; Ferrioli, E; Pfrimer, K; Ciampo, L A Del; Junior, J S Camelo

    2015-03-01

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-(13)C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate (13)CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-(13)C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of (13)CO2 and (12)CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of (13)C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  5. Constipation is associated with incomplete bladder emptying in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Stephen Shei-Dei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between constipation and the results of uroflowmetry with post-void residual urine (PVR) tests in healthy children. We enrolled healthy children aged between 4 and 12 years for evaluation of voiding and defecation function. A parent of children completed the questionnaire, and the children were asked to do uroflowmetry and PVR. Constipation is defined as defecation frequency ≤ 2 times/week or type 1-2 stool forms on Bristol stool scale. Uroflowmetry curve and PVR were eligible for analysis if voided volume was between 50 ml and expected capacity for age. Totally, 778 children (415 boys and 363 girls) with a mean age of 7.2 ± 2.2 years were eligible for analysis. The prevalence of constipation was 10.9% by low defecation frequency, and 28.4% by Bristol stool scale, respectively. Regarding the rate of constipation, there were no statistically significant differences between genders. Compared to children without low defecation frequency, constipated children had higher PVR (9.0 vs. 5.9 ml, P = 0.01), higher rate of PVR > 20 ml (17.7% vs. 7.1%, P = 0.01) and lower voiding efficiency (93.2% vs. 94.9%, P = 0.04). Compared to children without type 1-2 Bristol stool, constipated children did not have higher PVR (7.2 ml vs. 5.8 ml, P = 0.10), nor lower voiding efficiency (94.0% vs. 95.0%, P = 0.11). Urgency symptom score and rate of abnormal flow patterns were comparable between children with or without constipation. Constipation defined as low defecation frequency was associated with incomplete bladder emptying in healthy children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    in children with orthopedic disabilities undergoing surgical procedures. Recent technology provides extremely usable sway analysis of balance parameters but a normal material for the standing balance of healthy children is lacking. Purpose/Aim of Study First, to assess standing balance in healthy Danish...... compared to open eyes (p=0,0000) and this difference was strongest in the lower grades. Girls had a significantly better balance than boys with open and closed eyes especially in the higher grades. Conclusions In this study we measured the effect of BMI, age, gender and visual information on standing...

  7. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  8. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  9. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-24

    Oct 24, 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  10. Common genetic determinants of glucose homeostasis in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelliny, Clara; Ekelund, Ulf; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    ) were genotyped in 2,025 healthy European children aged 9-11 and 14-16 years. Associations with fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) and HOMA-B were investigated along with those observed for type 2 diabetes variants available in this study (CDKN2A/B, IGF...

  11. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  12. Reference values of bone stiffness index and C-terminal telopeptide in healthy European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D; Intemann, T; Lauria, F; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Sioen, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound measurements and bone metabolic markers can help to monitor bone health and to detect impaired skeletal development. Population-based reference values for children may serve as a basis for preventive measures to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in later life. This is the first paper providing age-, sex- and height-specific reference values for bone stiffness index (SI) and serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in healthy, apparently prepubertal children. In the population-based IDEFICS baseline survey (2007-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010), 18,745 children from eight European countries were newly recruited. A total of 10,791 2-10.9-year-old and 1646 3-8.9-year-old healthy children provided data on SI of the right and left calcaneus and serum CTX, respectively. Furthermore, height and weight were measured. Percentile curves were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the distribution of SI and CTX depending on multiple covariates while accounting for dispersion, skewness, and the kurtosis of this distribution. SI was negatively associated with age and height in children aged 2-5 years, whereas a positive association was observed in children aged 6-10 years. The dip in SI occurred at older age for higher SI percentiles and was observed earlier in taller children than in smaller children. The CTX reference curves showed a linear-positive association with age and height. No major sex differences were observed for the SI and CTX reference values. These reference data lay the ground to evaluate bone growth and metabolism in prepubertal children in epidemiological and clinical settings. They may also inform clinical practice to monitor skeletal development and to assess adverse drug reactions during medical treatments.

  13. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... a cross-cutting national study of community programs and policies and their relationship to... healthy nutrition, physical activity, and healthy weight of children), food service personnel, physical...

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of S a l m o n e l l a isolates in apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals at Maiduguri central abattoir, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 154 lymph nodes (cattle-54, camel-22, sheep-12, goats-66 were collected from slaughtered animals and analysed using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Results: An overall prevalence of 39.0% [95% confidence interval (CI: 31.3–46.7] was obtained. The prevalence rate across studied species ranged from 24.2% (95% CI: 13.9–34.5 in goats to 61.1% (95% CI: 48.1–74.1 in cattle. There was statistically significant association between Salmonella infection and species of food animals (P 0.05. Younger animals had slightly higher prevalence (44.0%; 95% CI: 24.5–63.5 compared with adults (38.0%; 95% CI: 29.6–46.4 (P > 0.05. All isolates showed marked susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole and chloramphenicol. Whereas, high resistance patterns to ampicillin, kanamycin and streptomycin, and moderate resistance patterns to kanamycin and tetracycline were observed from camels. Conclusions: Salmonella is high in the mesenteric lymph nodes of apparently healthy slaughtered food animals in Maiduguri. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies should be carried out to identify the serotypes and phage typing of the isolates, and hazard analysis and critical control point should be applied in handling of meat and meat products to avoid the risk of foodborne salmonellosis as well as appropriate use of antibiotics like ciprofloxacin in food animals.

  15. Prevalence and characterization of exercise oscillatory ventilation in apparently healthy individuals at variable risk for cardiovascular disease: A subanalysis of the EURO-EX trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross; Pellegrino, Marta; Bandera, Francesco; Generati, Greta; Labate, Valentina; Alfonzetti, Eleonora; Villani, Simona; Gaeta, Maddalena M; Halle, Martin; Haslbauer, Robert; Phillips, Shane A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2016-02-01

    There has been a greater appreciation of several variables obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) is a CPX pattern that has gained recognition as an ominous marker of poor prognosis in cardiac patients. The purpose of the present study is to characterize whether such an abnormal ventilatory pattern may also be detected in apparently healthy subjects and determine its clinical significance. The study involved 510 subjects (mean age 60 ± 14 years; 49% male) with a broad cardiovascular (CV) risk factor profile who underwent CPX. The population was divided into two groups according to the presence (17%) or absence of EOV. Subjects with EOV were significantly older and a higher percentage was female. Risk factor profile and medication use was significantly different between subgroups, indicating subjects with EOV had a worse CV risk factor profile and were prescribed CV-focused preventive medications at a significantly higher frequency. Subjects with EOV had comparatively poorer CPX performance and gas exchange phenotype. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis found being female was the strongest predictor of EOV (odds ratio: 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-4.61, p healthy persons with results supporting an in-depth definition of abnormal exercise phenotypes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  16. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Resende-Campanholi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  17. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R.; Porta, G.; Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K.; Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo

    2015-01-01

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies. PMID:25608239

  18. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  19. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI: Effects of age, gender, and laterality in healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, S.-T.; Cao, M.-Q.; Ding, Y.-Z.; Yao, Q.-Y.; Wu, G.-Y.; Xu, J.-R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of age and gender on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI, and compare the ADC values of left and right kidneys. Materials and methods: In all, 137 healthy participants (mean age 42.8 ± 14.7 years; age range 16–75 years) comprising 68 male and 69 female participants were enrolled. Three Tesla echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of bilateral kidneys was performed and ADC values were measured in the cortex, medulla, and whole parenchyma. Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression were performed to determine the associations between the ADC values in each region and age. Effects of age and gender on ADC values were analysed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The paired-samples t-test was established to compare the ADC values between left and right kidneys. Results: ADC values were significantly higher in the young group (≤50 years) than in the old group (>50 years), and correlated inversely with the age in all regions. Male participants had higher ADC values than female participants in all regions except left medulla. Two-factor ANOVA of age × gender showed no significant interactions between the variables age and gender were found. No significant differences in ADC values between left and right kidneys were observed. Conclusion: Renal ADC values are age- and gender-dependent, and show no significant difference between left and right kidneys. Age- and gender-related effects should be taken into consideration in future renal DWI studies when using normal ADC values from health controls. - Highlights: • Renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values decrease with ageing. • Men tend to have higher renal ADC values than women. • Bilateral kidneys seem to have no significantly different ADC values

  20. Children's health care use in the Healthy Kids Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, E; Pendergast, J; Wegener, D H; Hartzel, T; Naff, R; Freedman, S; Bucciarelli, R

    1997-12-01

    In 1990, the Florida Legislature established the Florida Healthy Kids Corporation to implement the concept of school enrollment-based health insurance coverage for children. The county school districts are used as a grouping mechanism to negotiate health insurance policies. The Florida Healthy Kids Corporation negotiates contracts with health maintenance organizations (HMOs) to assume financial risk and to provide health care services at each program site. In 1994, there were five sites with four different participating HMOs. Assessing quality of care is particularly important when contracting with HMOs because of the perception that financial and utilization review arrangements may restrict the enrollees' access to needed health care. One essential component of health care quality is the extent to which health care services are used in a manner consistent with the expected pattern of use for the population of enrolled children. The purpose of this study is to compare children's health care use across five different Florida Healthy Kids Program sites. Specifically, we compare the enrollees' actual health care use across HMO settings and program sites to the expected health care use based on the enrollees' case-mix. Each HMO provided child-specific health care use data including Physician's Current Procedural Terminology codes and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. We used the Ambulatory Care Groups (ACGs) software to compare the children's actual health care use to the expected health care use at each site adjusted for case-mix. Several steps were then taken to determine if the children were receiving the anticipated number of health care visits based on their diagnoses. First, we divided the average number of encounters at each site by the group average across all of the sites, without adjusting for the case-mix of the enrollees. We then divided the average number of visits at each site by the expected number of visits based on the case

  1. Hemoglobin concentrations in 358 apparently healthy 80-year-old Danish men and women. Should the reference interval be adjusted for age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, A.N.; Ovesen, L.

    2008-01-01

    -95 percentile 114-147 g/L in women (panemia, as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, was 18% in men and 17% in women. Apparently healthy iron-replete men (n=129) and women (n=141) had median Hb of 141 g/L and 131 g/L. Median Hb levels were higher in 10-year surviving...... or supplemental iron intake. In men, Hb was correlated to meat consumption. Conclusions: WHO decision limits for anemia should not be lowered in 80-year-old subjects. "Optimal" Hb concentrations with respect to survival appear to be at least 140 g/L in men and 131 g/L in women. Further research should evaluate......Background and aims: In elderly Danes, reference intervals for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are derived from younger population groups. The aim was to examine reference intervals for Hb and cut-off limits for anemia by application of criteria for normality to a representative population of 80...

  2. Comparison of Serum Apolipoprotein Levels of Diabetic Children and Healthy Children with or without Diabetic Parents

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of diabetes and atherosclerosis with disorders of lipids and lipoproteins, notably high apolipoprotein B (apoB and low apolipoprotein A1(apoA1 is well established. Because of the beginning of the atherosclerosis' process from early life, in this study, the plasma levels of apoA1 and apoB were compared in diabetic children with type I diabetes mellitus(DM, healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs,and healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDPs. Methods. This case-control study was conducted among 90 children aged 9–18 years. Serum levels of apoA and apoB were compared among 30 diabetic children (DM, 30 healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs, and 30 healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDP. Results. The mean serum apoA1 was higher in DM (153±69 mg/dL followed by HNDPs (138±58 mg/dL and HDPs (128±56 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean apoB value in HNDPs was significantly lower than DM and HDPs (90±21 mg/dL versus 127±47 and 128±38 mg/dL, P0.05. Conclusions. Diabetic children and healthy children with diabetic parent(s are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Thus for primordial and primary prevention of atherosclerosis, we suggest screening these children for low plasma apoA1 and high plasma apoB levels.

  3. Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence Versus Matched Healthy Children.

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    Avis, Kristin T; Shen, Jiabin; Weaver, Patrick; Schwebel, David C

    2015-11-15

    Hypersomnia of central origin from narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia (IHS) is characterized by pathological levels of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Central hypersomnia has historically been underdiagnosed and poorly understood, especially with respect to its impact on daytime functioning and quality of life in children. Describe the psychosocial adjustment of children treated for narcolepsy or IHS on school performance, quality of life, and physical/extracurricular activities. Using a matched case control design, we compared child self- and parent-reported data from thirty-three 8- to 16-year-olds with an established diagnosis of narcolepsy or IHS, according to ICSD-2 criteria, to that of 33 healthy children matched by age, race/ethnicity, gender, and household income. Assessments evaluated academic performance, quality of life and wellness, sleepiness, and participation in extracurricular activities. Compared to healthy controls, children with central hypersomnia had poorer daytime functioning in multiple domains. Children with hypersomnia missed more days of school and had lower grades than healthy controls. Children with hypersomnia had poorer quality of life by both parent and child report. Children with hypersomnia were significantly sleepier, had higher BMI, and were more likely to report a history of recent injury. Finally, children with hypersomnia engaged in fewer after-school activities than healthy controls. A range of significant psychosocial consequences are reported in children with hypersomnia even after a diagnosis has been made and treatments initiated. Health care professionals should be mindful of the psychosocial problems that may present in children with hypersomnia over the course of treatment. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  4. Hematological and nutritional parameters in apparently healthy elderly individuals Parâmetros hematológicos e nutricionais em idosos aparentemente saudáveis

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    Mariza D'Agord Schaan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-probabilistic study in an elderly free living community was performed. The first analysis was cross-sectional in design and the additional analysis, a case-control design. In the first analysis, 745 subjects were enrolled. Additional analyses, made in 46 apparently healthy elderly subjects (AHE and 33 young adults (YA included: clinical, hematological and biochemical analyses, 24-hours nutritional recall and diet frequency questionnaire. The AHE were selected using the Senieur test protocol. To avoid selection bias in the AHE sample, additional analysis comparing cultural, socioeconomic, and health variables were compared between AHE and non-selected elderly with same dysfunction or morbidity (DE. The prevalence of AHE was 6.17% (n=46 among whom 4.3% were anemic. There were no statistically differences in hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocytes and vitamin B12 levels between AHE and YA groups. Mean values of MCV, RDW, eosinophils, folate and ferritin were higher in the AHE than the YA group. On the other hand, platelets were higher in the YA group. No statistically significant difference occurred between the AHE and DE groups when nutritional indicators were compared. The comparison between nutritional indicators of anemic and non-anemic apparently healthy elderly people showed statistically significant differences in vitamin B12 and protein intake, which were lower in the anemic elderly. The results suggest independent biological differences between hematological parameters of elderly and young individuals.Foi realizado um estudo não probabilístico em idosos que vivem na comunidade. A primeira análise teve um delineamento transversal e análises adicionais um delineamento caso-controle. Na primeira análise foram incluídos 745 indivíduos. Análises adicionais foram feitas em 46 idosos saudáveis (HE e em 33 adultos jovens (YA incluindo: análises clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas, recordatório nutricional de 24 horas e question

  5. Prevalence of Selected Intermediate Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in an Apparently Healthy Indian Community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

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    Naicker, Ashika; Venter, Christine S; MacIntyre, Una E; Ellis, Suria

    2017-02-01

    South Africa, burdened with the emerging chronic diseases, is home to one of the largest migrant Indian population, however, little data exists on the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in this population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of yet undiagnosed selected intermediate risk factors for non-communicable diseases among the Indian population in KwaZulu-Natal. We randomly selected 250 apparently healthy Indians, aged 35-55 years, living in KwaDukuza to participate in this study. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were taken under prescribed clinical conditions using Asian cut-off points. Pearson correlations was used to detect associations between anthropometric and clinical risk markers. A large percentage of participants' systolic blood pressure fell within the normal range. Diastolic blood pressure was >85 mmHg for 61 % of the participants and triglyceride levels were >1.69 mmol/L for 89 % of the participants'; 94 % of the women and 87 % of the men were classified as centrally obese. Raised fasting blood glucose was seen in 39 % of participants'. Waist circumference and body mass index showed statistically significant associations with all clinical risk markers except for diastolic blood pressure. Our findings suggest that the use of ethno specific strategies in the management of the disease profile of South African Indians, will enable the South African health system to respond more positively towards the current trend of increased metabolic and physiological risk factors in this community. Moreover, key modifiable behaviours such as increased physical activity and weight reduction may improve most of these metabolic abnormalities.

  6. Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

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    Park, Jongsin; Lee, Eun Seo; Lee, Da Young; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: 25 kg/m² (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0. When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]). Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

  7. Microbact™ 24E system identifiation and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of bacterial flra from raw milk of apparently healthy lactating cows in Gwagwalada, Nigeria

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    Samuel Mailafia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms from raw milk of cows in Gwagwalada and determine their susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Methods: A total of 120 samples of milk were obtained from lactating cows that were at different stages of postpartum from six different locations in Gwagwalada metropolis. Samples were subjected to Microbact™ 24E system identification, isolation and characterization of isolates, and antibiotics susceptibility test. Results: The most prevalent organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (34.1%, Escherichia coli (27.3% and Bacillus species (18.2% while the least isolated were Salmonella species (11.4% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.0%. The highest resistance patterns were shown by Staphylococcus aureus which displayed resistance to five drugs: amoxicillin, ampiclox, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. The least resistance was displayed by Bacillus species which were resistant to only two drugs, norfloxacin and chloramphenicol. Pseudomonas aeroginosa dissipated the highest pattern susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin while Salmonella species showed the lowest pattern of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Other microorganisms dissipated susceptibility patterns ranging from 16.6%–100.0%. Conclusions: This study documented the occurrence of bacterial flora in raw milk of apparently healthy lactating cows in the Gwagwalada area. The variation in patterns of multidrug resistance and susceptibilities in our studies may lead to possibility of transfer of antibiotic resistance from raw milk consumers. More studies are required using higher molecular techniques to expose different species of microorganisms causing milk borne illness and their antibiotic resistant genes.

  8. The Risk of Heart Failure and Cardiometabolic Complications in Obesity May Be Masked by an Apparent Healthy Status of Normal Blood Glucose

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    Shuchita Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many obese individuals are normoglycemic and asymptomatic of cardiometabolic complications, this apparent healthy state may be a misnomer. Since heart failure is a major cause of mortality in obesity, we investigated the effects of heme-oxygenase (HO on heart failure and cardiometabolic complications in obese normoglycemic Zucker-fatty rats (ZFs. Treatment with the HO-inducer, hemin, reduced markers of heart failure, such as osteopontin and osteoprotegerin, abated left-ventricular (LV hypertrophy/fibrosis, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins including collagen IV, fibronectin, TGF-β1, and reduced cardiac lesions. Furthermore, hemin suppressed inflammation by abating macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1 alpha, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β but enhanced adiponectin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP, HO activity, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Correspondingly, hemin improved several hemodynamic/echocardiographic parameters including LV-diastolic wall thickness, LV-systolic wall thickness, mean-arterial pressure, arterial-systolic pressure, arterial-diastolic pressure, LV-developed pressure, +dP/dt, and cardiac output. Contrarily, the HO-inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin nullified the hemin effect, exacerbating inflammatory/oxidative insults and aggravated insulin resistance (HOMA-index. We conclude that perturbations in insulin signaling and cardiac function may be forerunners to overt hyperglycemia and heart failure in obesity. Importantly, hemin improves cardiac function by suppressing markers of heart failure, LV hypertrophy, cardiac lesions, extracellular matrix/profibrotic proteins, and inflammatory/oxidative mediators, while concomitantly enhancing the HO-adiponectin-ANP axis.

  9. Insufficient amounts and inadequate distribution of dietary protein intake in apparently healthy older adults in a developing country: implications for dietary strategies to prevent sarcopenia

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    Ruiz Valenzuela RE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roxana E Ruiz Valenzuela, José A Ponce, Gloria Guadalupe Morales-Figueroa, Karina Aguilar Muro, Virginia Ramírez Carreón, Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo Nutrition and Metabolism Department, Division of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development, Hermosillo, Sonora, México Background: Both low dietary protein intake and inadequate distribution of protein over the three mealtimes have been reported in older Caucasian adults, but the association between protein intake at each meal and muscle mass has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary protein intake and distribution by mealtimes, and to explore their association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass in apparently healthy older adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional pilot study that included 78 people over the age of 60 years. Caloric and protein intake were estimated on the basis of three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls and appendicular skeletal muscle mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Men consumed 13.4 g of protein/day more than women (P < 0.05. The estimated value of dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day. In this sample, 28% of subjects did not cover 100% of the dietary reference intake for protein. Lower consumption of dietary protein was found at breakfast and dinnertime compared with the recommended amount of 25–30 g (P < 0.05. Also, the study observed that appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men and women who consumed <25 g of protein at each mealtime was different from that found in the group that consumed >25 g of protein at one, two, or three mealtimes. Conclusion: While protein intake was higher than current recommendations, it failed to achieve the values reported as necessary to prevent sarcopenia. In addition, there was under-consumption of protein per mealtime, especially at breakfast and dinner. Keywords: dietary protein intake, older adults, appendicular skeletal muscle mass

  10. Eating patterns may mediate the association between marital status, body mass index, and blood cholesterol levels in apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA study.

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    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Stafanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Marital status has been recognized as a significant health-influencing factor, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate whether eating habits mediate the relationship between marital status and levels of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA Study. During 2001-2002, we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) from the Attica area, Greece; the sampling was stratified by the age-gender distribution of the region. Participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and psychological assessment. Food consumption was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as never married, married, divorced and widowed. Discriminant analysis revealed that vegetable consumption, followed by red meat, potatoes, poultry, and soft drinks were the factors with the higher discriminating ability among the food groups studied. In particular, dietary patterns of never married participants were characterized by the consumption of potatoes and red meat, those of married participants by nuts, legumes and fish, those of divorced participants by fruits, cereals and soft drinks, whereas those of widowed participants by dairy, vegetables, sweets and poultry. In addition, never married and divorced participants reported eating fast-foods more frequently and drink less alcohol compared to married or widowed participants. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, physical activity, anxiety score and smoking habits), the reported marital status of the participants was associated only with body mass index and total serum cholesterol levels. When the analysis was repeated after taking into account the information on dietary habits by creating four "new" dietary-adjusted marital status groups, no significant association was revealed between marital status and body mass index and blood cholesterol levels. This finding

  11. High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

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    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined.

  12. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children.

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    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H; Kuiper, Marieke J; Lunsing, Roelinka J; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P; Sival, Deborah A

    2014-06-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo SD 3y 11mo). The investigated scales involved the commonly applied International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), the Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and PEG-board tests. We investigated the interrelatedness between individual ataxia scales, the influence of age and sex, inter- and intra-observer agreement, and test-retest reliability. Spearman's rank correlations revealed strong correlations between ICARS, SARA BARS, and PEG-board test (all prating scales are reliable, but should include age-dependent interpretation in children up to 12 years of age. To enable longitudinal interpretation of quantitative ataxia rating scales in children, European paediatric normative values are necessary. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Regional outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in healthy children

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    Hyun Jeong Do

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS is a relatively uncommon superficial blistering skin disease that is due to Staphylococcus aureus. We had experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS over 3 years in healthy children. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of those patients diagnosed as SSSS. Most of neonatal cases were nosocomial infections and excluded from the analysis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, the isolation and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus, the antibiotic management and other supportive treatments were analyzed. Results : Fifty-five patients with SSSS were admitted to our hospital from October 2001 to September 2004. The median age of patients was 3.0 years. Of the 55 patients, 9 were the generalized type, 13 were the intermediate type and 33 were the scarletiniform rash. All the patients were living in neighborhood of the Jinju area. S. aureus were isolated from 9 of the patients and all of the isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant. All the patients except two were treated with intravenous flocloxacillin or nafcillin and/or cefotaxime. All the patients recovered during the follow-up period of 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion : We experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS in previous healthy children. Further study for finding the carriers of S. aureus caused SSSS and preventing the spread of this disease is needed. Additionally, guidelines for treating SSSS due to methicillin resistant S. aureus should be established.

  14. Thymopoiesis and regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents

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    Maria Izabel Arismendi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between T cell receptor excision circle levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and regulatory T cells that co-express CD25 and Foxp3 in healthy children and adolescents of different ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The quantification of signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels in the genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed using real-time quantitative PCR. The analysis of CD4, CD8, CD25, and Foxp3 expression was performed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Ninety-five healthy controls (46 females and 49 males ranging in age from 1 to 18 years were analyzed. The mean T-cell receptor excision circle count in all individuals was 89.095¡36.790 T-cell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA. There was an inverse correlation between T-cell receptor excision circles counts and age (r = -0.846; p<0.001 as well as between the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and age (r = -0.467; p = 0.04. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between the amount of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and the amount of Tcell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA in individuals of all ages (r = -0.529; p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a decrease in the thymic function with age based on the fact that the level of T-cell receptor excision circles in the peripheral blood positively correlated with the proportion of regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents. These findings indicate that although T-cell receptor excision circles and regulatory T cells levels decrease with age, homeostasis of the immune system and relative regulatory T cells population levels are maintained in the peripheral blood.

  15. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

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    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masumeh; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011-May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.

  16. Factors associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet in healthy children in northern Spain.

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    Arriscado, Daniel; Muros, José J; Zabala, Mikel; Dalmau, José M

    2014-09-01

    There is a tendency in Mediterranean countries to abandon the characteristic Mediterranean diet. This is especially apparent within younger populations. This could have negative consequences for health such as, cardiovascular diseases, obesity or metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to the Mediterranean diet within a population of school children and to examine the influence of different socio-demographic factors and lifestyle habits. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 321 school children aged 11-12 years from 31 schools in the city of Logroño (La Rioja). Socio-demographic variables, anthropometric variables, blood pressure, level of development, aerobic fitness, lifestyle, physical activity habits and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet was reported by 46.7% of school children, with low adherence being reported by 4.7% of them. Children attending state schools, immigrants and families from low-to-medium socio-economic strata reported significantly lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p = .039), but the results did not reveal any significant differences in terms of body composition. Correlations were found between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and other lifestyle habits, especially level of physical activity (r = .38) and screen time (r = -.18). Adherence to a Mediterranean diet differs according to the type of school attended by children, and the child's nationality and socio-economic status. Children who attended state schools, immigrants and those from families with a medium-to-low socio-economic status were less likely to follow healthy diets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HCS will address the need for a cross-cutting national study of community programs and policies and... to healthy nutrition, physical activity, and healthy weight of children), food service personnel...

  18. Children with epilepsy against their healthy peers and those with headaches: Differences-similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarska, Dorota; Michalak, Michał; Talarska, Patrycja; Steinborn, Barbara

    Epilepsy, like most chronic diseases, affects bio-psycho-social functioning of children and adolescents. The aim of this work was to assess functioning of children with epilepsy compared with the group of healthy children and those with headaches carried out by children themselves and their mothers. The study included 209 children with epilepsy and 173 children with headaches and 182 healthy students and their mothers. The research tool was Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™ 4.0) questionnaire. Quality of life of healthy children was rated the highest in all areas by both children and mothers. In younger and older children, difference was demonstrated between the assessment of the quality of life of healthy children and the ones with epilepsy or healthy children and the ones with and headaches in all areas of the PedsQL™ 4.0 questionnaire (p<0.05). Children with epilepsy had the most difficulties in subscale School Functioning in their own and their mothers' opinion. Healthy children and their mothers rated the subscale Emotional Functioning lowest. The functioning of children with epilepsy in the assessment of children and their mothers was the closest to the functioning of children with headaches. Quality of children's life assessment by children with epilepsy and by healthy children differed between the group of girls and boys and between older and younger children in all PedsQL TM 4.0 questionnaire areas. A medium response compatibility between children with epilepsy and their mothers was shown in individual questions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  19. Potatoes and risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review of clinical intervention and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Daniel; Juul-Hindsgaul, Nicole; Veller, Mette; Astrup, Arne; Jaskolowski, Jörn; Raben, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Potatoes have been related to increased risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mainly because of their high glycemic index. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the relation between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, and CVD in apparently healthy adults. MEDLINE, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for intervention and prospective observational studies that investigated adults without any known illnesses at baseline, recorded intake of potatoes, and measured adiposity (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference), cases of T2D, cases of cardiovascular events, or risk markers thereof. In total, 13 studies were deemed eligible; 5 studies were related to obesity, 7 studies were related to T2D, and one study was related to CVD. Only observational studies were identified; there were 3 studies with moderate, 9 studies with serious, and one study with critical risk of bias. The association between potatoes (not including french fries) and adiposity was neutral in 2 studies and was positive in 2 studies. French fries were positively associated with adiposity in 3 of 3 studies. For T2D, 2 studies showed a positive association, whereas 5 studies showed no or a negative association with intake of potatoes and T2D. French fries were positively associated with T2D in 3 of 3 studies that distinguished this relation. For CVD, no association was observed. The identified studies do not provide convincing evidence to suggest an association between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, or CVD. French fries may be associated with increased risks of obesity and T2D although confounding may be present. In this systematic review, only observational studies were identified. These findings underline the need for long-term randomized controlled trials. This trial was registered at the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (www

  20. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( Digestibility of DM, OM, and energy did not differ from the control at any inclusion rate, except for a decrease ( digestibility was not affected by treatment and ranged from 82.9 to 86.2%. Fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations were greater ( < 0.01) in dogs fed 24

  1. Arm trajectories and writing strategy in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of elementary writing skills in children is usually obtained with high resolution (and high cost techniques or with low resolution pen-and-paper tests. In this observational study we tested a quantitative method to obtain normative data to describe arm movement during a writing precursor gesture. Methods We recruited 226 healthy children (mean age 9,1 years [range: 6.3 – 11.4 years], attending primary schools belonging to the “Istituto Comprensivo” of Rivanazzano Terme (Pavia. We asked to drive a cursor through a polygonal path (labyrinth projected in front of them using a wireless mouse. Dartfish™ video analysis software was used to elaborate images and Excel™, MedCalc™ and Statistica 7™ to analyze values of shoulder, elbow and wrist ranges of motion, arm trajectories, execution times and gesture accuracy. Results Differences seen in motor strategies, when divided according to attended class, suggest a proximal-distal maturation of motor control. Obtained values were not significantly correlated with variables such as gender, ethnicity or cognitive functioning. Conclusions This type of approach to a study of arm movement during childhood represents a valid alternative to other tests, considering that it can differentiate children who perform similarly in the VMI test and is non-invasive, low-cost and easily reproducible.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with sickle cell disease - detecting alterations in the apparent diffusion coefficient in hips with avascular necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, John D. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hernandez, Andrea; Pena, Andres; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ruppert, Kai [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jawad, Abbas F. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pediatrics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Orthopedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith-Whitley, Kim [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Hematology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common morbidity in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that leads to pain and joint immobility. However, the diagnosis is often uncertain or delayed. To examine the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on diffusion-weighted imaging to detect AVN in children with SCD. ADC values were calculated at the hips of normal children (n = 19) and children with SCD who were either asymptomatic with no known previous hip disease (n = 13) or presented for the first time with clinical symptoms of hip pathology (n = 12). ADC values were compared for differences among groups with and without AVN using non-parametric statistical methods. The ADC values were elevated in the hips of children with AVN (median ADC = 1.57 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s [95% confidence interval = 0.86-2.10]) and differed significantly in pairwise comparisons (all P < 0.05) from normal children (0.74 [0.46-0.98]), asymptomatic children with SCD (0.55 [0.25-0.85]), and SCD children who had symptoms referable to their hips but did not show findings of hip AVN on conventional MRI or radiographs (0.46 [0.18-0.72]). Children with sickle cell disease have elevated apparent diffusion coefficient values in their affected hips on initial diagnosis of avascular necrosis. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in children with sickle cell disease - detecting alterations in the apparent diffusion coefficient in hips with avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, John D.; Hernandez, Andrea; Pena, Andres; Khrichenko, Dmitry; Gonzalez, Leonardo; Jaramillo, Diego; Ruppert, Kai; Jawad, Abbas F.; Wells, Lawrence; Smith-Whitley, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a common morbidity in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that leads to pain and joint immobility. However, the diagnosis is often uncertain or delayed. To examine the ability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements on diffusion-weighted imaging to detect AVN in children with SCD. ADC values were calculated at the hips of normal children (n = 19) and children with SCD who were either asymptomatic with no known previous hip disease (n = 13) or presented for the first time with clinical symptoms of hip pathology (n = 12). ADC values were compared for differences among groups with and without AVN using non-parametric statistical methods. The ADC values were elevated in the hips of children with AVN (median ADC = 1.57 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s [95% confidence interval = 0.86-2.10]) and differed significantly in pairwise comparisons (all P < 0.05) from normal children (0.74 [0.46-0.98]), asymptomatic children with SCD (0.55 [0.25-0.85]), and SCD children who had symptoms referable to their hips but did not show findings of hip AVN on conventional MRI or radiographs (0.46 [0.18-0.72]). Children with sickle cell disease have elevated apparent diffusion coefficient values in their affected hips on initial diagnosis of avascular necrosis. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  5. IQ Scores of Children with Moderate Asthma: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masume

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence quotient is an indicator of one's efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may impact upon it. This study aims to compare the IQ of children diagnosed with moderate asthma to the IQ of healthy children. This comparative study was conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 in an Academic Referral Clinic. In this study, 114 patients aged 6 to 13 years who were diagnosed with moderate asthma were compared with 90 age and sex matched healthy patients from their families. Wechsler intelligence scale for children was used by split half method to calculate the overall IQ, verbal IQ and practical IQ. The t-test and Chi square test were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, 204 children, 114 (56%) in the case group and 90 children (44%) in the control group participated in comparing their IQs. One hundred and fifteen (56%) were males and 89 (44%) were females. The overall IQs of asthmatic patients and healthy patients were 109 and 108, respectively; the difference was not significant (p=0.905). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the IQ scores between males and females. Although asthma is a chronic disease and causes many respiratory problems, it has no negative impact on IQ.

  6. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  7. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    difference especially in late puberty and adolescence, even after adjustment for BMI or percent body fat; 3) the lower levels in males may be explained at least in part by a suppressive effect of androgens; 4) reference ranges with BMI as the independent variable should be stratified according to gender......Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...

  8. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Transferrin Saturation in the CALIPER Cohort of Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Victoria; Chan, Man Khun; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-03-01

    Transferrin saturation reference intervals specific for age and sex have not been previously reported for the pediatric population. The reference values for transferrin saturation have been previously reported to be lower in children compared to adults, caused by a combination of low serum iron and high serum transferrin levels in children, warranting specific reference intervals. Here we use the original iron and transferrin data from the CALIPER cohort to establish age- and sex-specific pediatric reference intervals for transferrin saturation. Iron and transferrin concentrations were measured in serum samples from the CALIPER cohort of healthy children and adolescents on the Abbott Architect c8000. Transferrin saturation was subsequently calculated and statistically relevant age- and sex-partitions were determined. After removing outliers, age- and sex-specific reference intervals with corresponding 90% confidence intervals were calculated using CLSI C28-A3 guidelines. Transferrin saturation required 3 separate age partitions, with an additional sex partition for 14-<19 year olds. Transferrin saturation was more variable during the first year of life, evident by a wider reference interval, which subsequently narrowed at one year until adolescence. Upon adolescence, a sex difference was apparent with females having lower percent transferrin saturation than males. Age- and sex-specific pediatric reference intervals for transferrin saturation were established based on a large cohort of healthy pediatric subjects. Transference studies suggest that these intervals established using Abbott assays are comparable to those on Beckman, Ortho, Roche, and Siemens assays. Individual laboratories should however verify these reference intervals for their individual instrument and local population as per CLSI guidelines.

  9. Be a Healthy Role Model for Children: 10 Tips for Setting Good Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can do many things to help your children develop healthy eating habits for life. Offering a variety ... new foods and to like more foods. When children develop a taste for many types of foods, it’s ...

  10. The prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of oral Viridans streptococci in healthy children and children with disabilities in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, Nathanael O; Rotimi, Vincent; Philip, Leeba; Haidar, Hussien A; Hamdan, Hussien M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Viridans streptococci (VS) isolated from the oral cavity of healthy children and children with disabilities in Kuwait. Plaque samples were collected from the tooth and tongue surfaces of 102 healthy children and 102 children who were intellectually disabled and institutionalized. The resistance to seven antibiotics (amoxicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, and vancomycin) was tested. A total of 330 (44.5%) VS were isolated from the children who were healthy and 411 (55.5%) from children with disabilities. The most common isolates were S. salivarius (27.3%) in healthy children; S. sanguis (22.6%) was predominant among children who were disabled. S. mutans was found in 12.1% of the healthy children and in 16.5% of the children who were disabled. The combined percentage of resistant strains (healthy and disabled) was found to be highest with amoxicillin (43%) and lowest with vancomycin (12%). S. sanguis, S. mitis and S. oralis were more resistant in healthy children (45%, 56%, and 55% respectively) than in children with disabilities (40%, 47% and 47% respectively). S. mutans was the least resistant species to all antibiotics in both groups of children. About 56% of all streptococci isolated from both groups were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. The data showed that there was a difference in the level of resistance of oral VS isolated from healthy children and children with disabilities to some antibiotics commonly used in dentistry.

  11. Muscle development in healthy children evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tomoka; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kuru, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to use bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to generate a new muscle density index (MDI), the MDI_BIA, to evaluate muscle development, and to demonstrate the changes that occur in the BIA-based muscle cross-sectional area index (MCAI_BIA) that accompany growth. We also sought to determine the traceability of chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. Healthy children (n=112) aged 8.68±3.16years (0.33-14.00years) underwent bioelectrical impedance (BI) measurements of their upper arms, thighs, and lower legs. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were calculated, and cross-sectional investigations were conducted into the changes in these indices that accompanied growth. Data collected after 1.10±0.08years from 45 participants determined the traceability of the chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly positively correlated with age and height at all locations (Pchildren, and they showed significant chronological increases. Hence, these indices could be used to represent muscle development and muscle mass increases. BIA is non-invasive, convenient, and economical and it may be useful in evaluating muscle development and muscle cross-sectional areas in children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validating Reference Equations for Impulse Oscillometry in Healthy Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Del Río-Hidalgo, Rodrigo; Hernández-Ruiz, Juana; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Martínez-Briseño, David; Mora-Romero, Uri; Cid-Juárez, Silvia; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis

    2017-09-01

    The impulse oscillometry system (IOS) measures the impedance (Z) of the respiratory system, but proper interpretation of its results requires adequate reference values. The objectives of this work were: (1) to validate the reference equations for the IOS published previously by our group and (2) to compare the adjustment of new available reference equations for the IOS from different countries in a sample of healthy children. Subjects were healthy 4-15-y-old children from the metropolitan area of Mexico City, who performed an IOS test. The functional IOS parameters obtained were compared with the predicted values from 12 reference equations determined in studies of different ethnic groups. The validation methods applied were: analysis of the differences between measured and predicted values for each reference equation; correlation and concordance coefficients; adjustment by Z-score values; percentage of predicted value; and the percentage of patients below the lower limit of normality or above the upper limit of normality. Of the 224 participants, 117 (52.3%) were girls, and the mean age was 8.6 ± 2.3 y. The equations that showed the best adjustment for the different parameters were those from the studies by Nowowiejska et al (2008) and Gochicoa et al (2015). The equations proposed by Frei et al (2005), Hellinckx et al (1998), Kalhoff et al (2011), Klug and Bisgaard (1998), de Assumpção et al (2016), and Dencker et al (2006) overestimated the airway resistance of the children in our sample, whereas the equation of Amra et al (2008) underestimated it. In the analysis of the lower and upper limits of normality, Gochicoa et al equation was the closest, since 5% of subjects were below or above percentiles 5 and 95, respectively. The study found that, in general, all of the equations showed greater error at the extremes of the age distribution. Because of the robust adjustment of the present study reference equations for the IOS, it can be recommended for both

  13. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Munz, Manuel; Molzow, Ina; Wilhelm, Ines; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2013-01-01

    Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline) and delayed (target) retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake). We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta) during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  14. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen

    Full Text Available Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline and delayed (target retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake. We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  15. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  16. From Diapers to Dating. A Parent's Guide to Raising Sexually Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, Debra W.

    This step-by-step program for raising sexually healthy children helps parents provide accurate information and communicate their own values to their children. Chapter 1, "The Basics"; includes "Sexually Healthy Families"; "The Key: Finding Teachable Moments"; and "Guidelines for Communication." Chapter 2,…

  17. Basal metabolic rate in children with chronic kidney disease and healthy control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caroline E; Gilbert, Rodney D; Elia, Marinos

    2015-11-01

    Meeting energy requirements of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is paramount to optimising growth and clinical outcome, but little information on this subject has been published. In this study, we examined basal metabolic rate (BMR; a component of energy expenditure) with the aim to determine whether it is related to kidney function independently of weight, height and lean body mass (LBM). Twenty children with CKD and 20 healthy age- and gender-matched control children were studied on one occasion. BMR was measured by indirect open circuit calorimetry and predicted by the Schofield equation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was related to BMR and adjusted for weight, height, age and LBM measured by skinfold thickness. The adjusted BMR of children with CKD did not differ significantly from that of healthy subjects (1296 ± 318 vs.1325 ± 178 kcal/day; p = 0.720). Percentage of predicted BMR also did not differ between the two groups (102 ± 12% vs. 99 ± 14%; p = 0.570). Within the CKD group, eGFR (mean 33.7 ± 20.5 mL/min/m(2)) was significantly related to BMR (β 0.3, r = 0.517, p = 0.019) independently of nutritional status and LBM. It seems reasonable to use estimated average requirement as the basis of energy prescriptions for children with CKD (mean CKD stage 3 disease). However, those who were sicker had significantly lower metabolic rates.

  18. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, Lucie; Gallagher, Frances; Haggerty, Jeannie

    2012-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2-5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents' representation of children's overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers' parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4-5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child's weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses will be done on the quantitative

  19. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...

  20. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Niklasson

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to (a compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD and (b compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99 and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199 with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88. Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  1. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and multiple breath nitrogen washout in preschool healthy and asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Lea; Buchvald, Frederik; Green, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Objectively assessing pulmonary disease is challenging in preschool children with asthma. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO) and multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) in children. We compared their capacities for discriminating between...... children with asthma and healthy controls. Methods We measured FeNO and N2MBW-derived indices of lung clearance (LCI2.5) and conductive and acinar ventilation heterogeneity (Scond and Sacin) in 65 preschool children; 35 with physician-diagnosed asthma and 30 healthy. FeNO was measured with a portable.......023), but similar FeNO, LCI2.5 and Sacinvalues. Conclusion The feasibility of measuring FeNO was highly age-dependent and not applicable in children under age 4. N2MBW was feasible in the majority of preschool children. Scond, but not FeNO, could discriminate between children with asthma and healthy controls....

  2. Towards Healthy Schools 2015: Progress on America's Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    States compel children to attend school; in fact, 98% of all school-age children attend schools--irrespective of conditions. Yet the environmental conditions of decayed facilities or facilities close to hazards can damage children's health and ability to learn. At the same time, it is well documented that healthy school facilities can help…

  3. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  4. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    clonidine, was performed in 108 adult patients who had previously been treated with GH in childhood. In healthy subjects, free IGF-I levels increased during childhood, with the highest mean values during puberty. After puberty, a subsequent decline in serum levels of free IGF-I was apparent. We found...... childhood with a peak in puberty, whereafter free IGF-I levels return to prepubertal levels. Three percent of healthy prepubertal children had unmeasurable free IGF-I levels using this assay. We found that determination of the free IGF-I serum concentration may predict the outcome of a GH provocative test...

  5. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemelin Lucie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL. Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1 describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2 describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3 explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4 try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and

  6. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  7. A Comparison of Quality of Life, Anxiety and Depression in Children with Cancer and Healthy Children, Kermanshah-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nazari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer is a major public health problem in many parts of the world. The present study aimed to compare the quality of life, anxiety and depression in in children with cancer and healthy children. Materials and Methods In this descriptive and causal-comparative study, the statistical population consisted of cancer patients visiting Mohammad Kermanshahi Hospital based in Kermanshah, Iran, in the summer of 2016. Moreover, 60 samples were selected through the convenience sampling. For data collection, three questionnaires were utilized: WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF, Children's Depression Scale (CDS, and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS. Furthermore, data were analyzed through the descriptive (frequency, mean, and standard deviation and inferential statistics (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA using the SPSS Statistics Software Version 23.0. Results The results of the present study demonstrated that there were significant differences between the cancer and healthy children in terms of all coping styles. The results also revealed that the mean scores of depression and anxiety of cancer children exceeded those of healthy children, while the mean score of cancer children’s quality of life was lower than that of healthy children. Conclusion According to the results of the present study, it can be concluded that emotional-behavioral changes are the strongest and most stable elements that make a difference in  cancer and healthy children. Hence, giving full consideration to Factors is of special importance.

  8. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  9. HLA-DQA1 is not an apparent risk factor for microchimerism in patients with various autoimmune diseases and in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artlett, Carol M; O'Hanlon, Terrence P; Lopez, Ana M; Song, Yeong Wook; Miller, Frederick W; Rider, Lisa G

    2003-09-01

    Microchimeric cells have been identified in lesions and peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), and HLA-DQA1*0501 is a risk factor for these diseases in some populations. Furthermore, DQA1*0501 has been associated with T lymphocyte microchimerism in SSc. To better define the strength of this association, we assessed the relationship among DQA1 alleles and microchimerism. DNA from whole peripheral blood or magnetically sorted T cells was tested for microchimeric cells by polymerase chain reaction of the Y chromosome or of HLA-Cw in 87 SSc patients, 28 juvenile IIM patients, and 88 healthy controls. Thirty-seven mother-son pairs were also analyzed for microchimerism and DQA1*0501. We were unable to demonstrate that DQA1*0501 is associated with microchimerism in T lymphocytes or in whole peripheral blood DNA in patients with SSc or juvenile IIM or in healthy individuals. In the 37 mother-son pairs, we were unable to demonstrate an association of DQA1*0501 with microchimerism in peripheral blood DNA or T lymphocytes, and compatibility between the donor's and recipient's HLA alleles did not influence microchimerism in the recipient. These data suggest that HLA-DQA1 alleles do not appear to play a role in the persistence of microchimerism in the peripheral blood or T lymphocytes of patients with selected autoimmune diseases or in healthy individuals.

  10. Physical Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Children with Repaired Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Michels, Nathalie; Bove, Thierry; François, Katrien; De Wolf, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are as fit as their peers. We studied 66 children (6-14 years) who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect (n = 19), coarctation of aorta (n = 10), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 15), and transposition of great arteries (n = 22); and 520 healthy children (6-12 years). All children performed physical fitness tests: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed. Metabolic score was assessed through z-score standardization using 4 components: waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin resistance. Assessment also included self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Linear regression analyses with group (CHD vs control) as a predictor were adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, and parental education. Measured physical activity level, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, and total metabolic score did not differ between children with CHD and controls, whereas reported physical activity was greater in the CHD group than control group. Boys with CHD were less strong in upper muscular strength, speed, and balance, whereas girls with CHD were better in lower muscular strength and worse in balance. High-density lipoprotein was greater in boys and girls with CHD, whereas boys with CHD showed unhealthier glucose homeostasis. Appropriate physical fitness was achieved in children after surgery for CHD, especially in girls. Consequently, children with CHD were not at increased total metabolic risk. Lifestyle counseling should be part of every patient interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal organization of rest defined by actigraphy data in healthy and childhood chronic fatigue syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Minako; Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kawatani, Junko; Tomoda, Akemi; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-04

    Accumulating evidence has shown a universality in the temporal organization of activity and rest among animals ranging from mammals to insects. Previous reports in both humans and mice showed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law) distributions, whereas activity bouts followed exponential distributions. We confirmed similar results in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Conversely, another report showed that the awakening bout durations, which were defined by polysomnography in bed, followed power-law distributions, while sleeping periods, which may correspond to rest, followed exponential distributions. This apparent discrepancy has been left to be resolved. Actigraphy data from healthy and disordered children were analyzed separately for two periods: time out of bed (UP period) and time in bed (DOWN period). When data over a period of 24 h were analyzed as a whole, rest bouts showed a power law distribution as previously reported. However, when UP and DOWN period data were analyzed separately, neither showed power law properties. Using a newly developed strict method, only 30% of individuals satisfied the power law criteria, even when the 24 h data were analyzed. The human results were in contrast to the Drosophila results, which revealed clear power-law distributions for both day time and night time rest through the use of a strict method. In addition, we analyzed the actigraphy data from patients with childhood type chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS), and found that they showed differences from healthy controls when their UP and DOWN data were analyzed separately. These results suggested that the DOWN sleep, the bout distribution of which showed exponential properties, contributes to the production of long-tail distributions in human rest periods. We propose that separate analysis of UP and DOWN period data is important for understanding the temporal organization of activity.

  12. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs*

    OpenAIRE

    Beloshapka, Alison N.; Alexander, Lucille G.; Buff, Preston R.; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3?3 (1?6) years; mean body weight: 8?4 (1?2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different a...

  13. Clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Li-Wei; Jiao, An-Xia; Wu, Xi-Rong; Zhao, Shun-Ying; Ma, Yun; Liu, Gang; Yin, Ju; Xu, Bao-Ping; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Background Disseminated cryptococcosis is a rare and fatal disease, and limited data exist regarding it in children. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China. Methods Hospitalized patients with disseminated cryptococcosis were enrolled during January 1996 to December 2015 in Beijing Children?s Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Data on clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and ...

  14. Latino family childcare providers' beliefs, attitudes, and practices related to promotion of healthy behaviors among preschool children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana C; Salkeld, Judith A; Greaney, Mary L; Sands, Faith D

    2015-01-01

    The continuing rise of obesity among Latinos is a public health concern with an immediate need for early prevention. Changes in family structures have increased demand and reliance for child care for young children. Latino children are the fastest-growing segment of the child population in the United States, and research shows that Latino families use preschools and day care centers much less than those of other ethnic groups, apparently because of cultural preferences for family-like care. Given that many low income Latino children attend family child care homes (FCCHs), there is a need to explore the role that FCCH providers may play in establishing and reinforcing children's early healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and consequently in the prevention of childhood obesity. Using purposive sampling, six focus groups were conducted in Spanish with licensed Latino FCCH providers (n = 44). Data was analyzed to identify recurrent themes. Latino FCCH providers described how they play an influential role in promoting healthful eating and physical activity behaviors of preschool children in their care. They also identified many barriers and challenges in establishing and maintaining healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors, including high cost of healthy foods, cold weather, and physical environment of FCCH. Latino FCCH providers can have a strong impact in promoting healthful behaviors in low-income, Latino communities. They may be able to effectively deliver interventions targeting low-income, minority families to promote healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and prevent child obesity.

  15. 77 FR 71426 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... address the need for a cross- cutting national study of community programs and policies and their... nutrition, physical activity, and healthy weight of children), food service personnel, physical education...

  16. Cardiac rhythm, St-t wave-forms, and common electrocardiographic variants among healthy Nigerian children

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    Ibrahim Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cardiac rhythm depends on the source and mode of spread of the generated impulse. ST-T segment represents the repolarization phase of the action potential. Racial variability has been established in the morphology of the ST segment among the adult population and four waveforms has been described among Nigerian adults which are different from that of Caucasian adults; therefore, there may be differences among the pediatric population. Materials and Methods: This study was a further review of the electrocardiograph (ECG of 650 apparently healthy primary school children aged 5-15 years, in Kano metropolis. Twelve-lead ECG was recorded, and interpretation was manually done. The subjects were categorized into three age groups namely 5-7, 8-11, and 12-15 years, respectively. The ST segment morphology was classified using Araoye′s criteria. Results: Early repolarization changes were recorded in the 12-15 years age-group. The presence of ECG variants such as T-wave inversion in precordial leads V 1 -V 3 was reported and left axis deviation was documented in 0.4% of the 5-7 years age-group. Type I morphology was common in leads I, II, aVF, V 5 , V 6 . Type II morphology was common in leads I, II, V 4 R, V 5 , V 6 , while Type III morphology was common in leads V 4 R, V 5 , V 6 but Type IV morphology was seen mostly in V 1 . Conclusion: ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads is a common finding in the pediatric ECG among Nigerian children; furthermore, T-wave inversion is also common in the right precordial leads and may extend way beyond precordial lead V 2 unlike in Caucasians.

  17. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ? 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting...

  18. Office-based simple frailty score and central blood pressure predict mild cognitive impairment in an apparently healthy Japanese population: J-SHIPP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Maya; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Okada, Yoko; Ochi, Masayuki; Nagai, Tokihisa; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Igase, Michiya

    2017-04-13

    Frailty is associated with cognitive impairment and can be used to identify people at high risk for dementia. We developed a simple frailty (SF) score using a combination of low hand grip strength (<32.5 kg in men, <19.5 kg in women), and short one-leg standing time (<20 seconds). These can be easily measured in the clinician's office when seeing patients. We investigated the possible association between SF score and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a cross-sectional study with 838 independent middle-aged to elderly participants (319 men, mean age 65.1years). In total, 118 participants were diagnosed with MCI. A SF score of 2 was significantly associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio 4.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-6.9, p = 0.0001) even after adjustment for age and sex. Stepwise regression analyses showed that a SF score of 2 was associated with the presence of MCI, independently of central pulse pressure and silent cerebral infarcts. These findings indicate that the SF score is a useful frailty parameter to predict MCI in an apparently independent population.

  19. Examining opportunities for promotion of healthy eating at children's sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2010-12-01

    Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  1. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community effectiveness trial: study protocol of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Philip J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' program was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and positively influence the health behaviors of their children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the previously established program in a community setting, in a large effectiveness trial. Methods/Design The Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community trial consists of three stages: (i Stage 1 - program refinement and resource development (ii Stage 2 - community randomized controlled trial (iii Stage 3 - community effectiveness trial. The program will be evaluated in five Local Government Areas in the Hunter Valley Region of NSW, Australia. For the community randomized controlled trial, 50 overweight/obese men (aged 18-65 years from one Local Government Area with a child aged between 5-12 years of age will be recruited. Families will be randomized to either the program or a 6-month wait-list control group. Fathers and their children will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention (3-months and 6-months. Inclusion criteria are: body mass index 25-40 kg/m2; no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire; and access to a computer with Internet facilities. In the community trial, the program will be evaluated using a non-randomized, prospective design in five Local Government Areas. The exclusion criteria is body mass index 2 or lack of doctor's approval. Measures will be collected at baseline, 3-, 6- and 12-months. The program involves fathers attending seven face-to-face group sessions (three with children over 3-months. Measures: The primary outcome is fathers' weight. Secondary outcomes for both fathers and children include: waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary intake. Father-only measures include portion size, alcohol consumption, parenting for physical activity and nutrition and parental engagement

  2. Healthy Children, Healthy Families: Parents Making a Difference! A Curriculum Integrating Key Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Parenting Practices to Help Prevent Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Megan; Hill, Tisa F.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Wolfe, Wendy S.; Dickin, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    A new dialogue-based curriculum combines nutrition, active play and parenting practices to help parents and caregivers gain skills that promote healthy habits for themselves and their families and to create healthy environments where children live, learn, and play. Graduates report significant improvements in behaviors that promote healthy weights…

  3. Comparing memory and meta-memory abilities between children with acquired brain injury and healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizony, Rachel; Tau, Shoshi; Bar, Orly; Engel Yeger, Batya

    2014-07-01

    This study compared visual memory and meta-memory abilities of children with ABI to that of healthy peers. Participants included 16 children (aged 13.55 ± 3.29 years) with moderate or severe ABI and 16 healthy children (aged 12.44 ± 3.24 years) with typical development. Children completed the Contextual Memory Test for Children (CMT-CH). The study group showed significantly lower immediate and delayed recall abilities. While the controls used the context for better memorizing, most of the children with ABI used rehearsals. In both groups better delayed recall correlated with the use of a more efficient strategy. Meta-memory should be an integral part of the assessment for children with ABI. Therapists should enhance child's self-awareness to his/her abilities and encourage the use of strategies (e.g. context) for memorizing in daily life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6 from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013. This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days. In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007 and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027 on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial

  5. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Scott; McPhee, Julia C; Schluter, Philip J; Zinn, Caryn; Smith, Richard; Schofield, Grant

    2011-11-15

    Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

  6. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community effectiveness trial: study protocol of a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin; Burrows, Tracy; Fletcher, Richard; Okely, Anthony D; Young, Myles D; Miller, Andrew; Clay, Victoria; Lloyd, Adam; Collins, Clare E

    2011-11-19

    The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' program was designed to help overweight fathers lose weight and positively influence the health behaviors of their children. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the previously established program in a community setting, in a large effectiveness trial. The Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community trial consists of three stages: (i) Stage 1 - program refinement and resource development (ii) Stage 2 - community randomized controlled trial (iii) Stage 3 - community effectiveness trial. The program will be evaluated in five Local Government Areas in the Hunter Valley Region of NSW, Australia. For the community randomized controlled trial, 50 overweight/obese men (aged 18-65 years) from one Local Government Area with a child aged between 5-12 years of age will be recruited. Families will be randomized to either the program or a 6-month wait-list control group. Fathers and their children will be assessed at baseline, post-intervention (3-months) and 6-months. Inclusion criteria are: body mass index 25-40 kg/m2; no participation in other weight loss programs during the study; pass a health-screening questionnaire; and access to a computer with Internet facilities. In the community trial, the program will be evaluated using a non-randomized, prospective design in five Local Government Areas. The exclusion criteria is body mass index Kids, which will enable it to be delivered on a larger scale. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12610000608066.

  7. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness and Safety of a Thermogenic Supplement in Addition to an Energy-Restricted Diet in Apparently Healthy Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Kristina L; Hyde, Parker N; Fairman, Ciaran M; Hollaway, Kaitlyn M; Mumford, Petey W; Haun, Cody T; Mobley, Brooks; Kephart, Wesley C; Tribby, Aaron C; Kimber, Dylan; Moon, Jordan R; Beck, Darren T; Roberts, Michael D; Young, Kaelin C

    2017-11-02

    The increasing interest in weight loss has seen a concurrent rise in the supplemental use of thermogenics to aid weight loss efforts. To date, the effectiveness and safety of supplemental proprietary blend thermogenics, in conjunction with high-protein energy-restricted diets have not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a low-calorie, high-protein diet with and without the concomitant use of a thermogenic supplement on body weight and body composition in apparently healthy females. Subjects were divided into three groups, Bizzy Diet+FitMiss Burn (BURN, N = 12), Bizzy Diet+Placebo (PLA, N = 13), and Control (CON, N = 14), and underwent two testing sessions separated by approximately 3 weeks. Resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (RHR), clinical safety markers, body weight (BW), and body composition were assessed during each testing session. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant effect for time relative to BW, total body fat mass (FM), leg FM, and trunk FM. Post hoc analysis revealed that the BURN and PLA groups experienced significant decreases in both BW and total body FM compared to CON (p thermogenic, appears to be safe for short-term use and may lead to greater improvement in body composition and BW in an apparently healthy female population.

  8. Enterobius vermicularis and risk factors in healthy Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Sødahl, John A; Rasmussen, Trond; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in neighboring countries of Norway show large variation. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence among Norwegian children and possible risk factors. The children were participants in "Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes: the MIDIA study." The study involved 2 groups with different genetic risks of type 1 diabetes: A high-risk group carries the Human Leukocyte Antigen genotype conferring the highest risk for type 1 diabetes and a nonhigh-risk group consisting of children without this genotype. Scotch tape samples were collected on 3 consecutive days and examined by light microscopy. A total of 18% (72/395) of children were positive for E. vermicularis. The highest prevalence (34%) was in children 6-11 years of age. Only 2 children were prior known positives. Increased number of siblings was linked to more infections, and there were fewer infections in the children with the high-risk genotype. E. vermicularis is a common parasite in Norwegian children. The likelihood of E. vermicularis infection depends on family size and prevalence increases with age. The reduced number of infections in the children carrying the high-risk genotype for type 1 diabetes is intriguing and should be investigated further.

  9. C-reactive protein, waist circumference, and family history of heart attack are independent predictors of body iron stores in apparently healthy premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Arbeláez, A; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C

    2012-08-01

    Ferritin levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of ferritin levels by variables related to cardiometabolic disease risk in a multivariate analysis. For this aim, 123 healthy women (72 premenopausal and 51 posmenopausal) were recruited. Data were collected through procedures of anthropometric measurements, questionnaires for personal/familial antecedents, and dietary intake (24-h recall), and biochemical determinations (ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP), glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) in blood serum samples obtained. Multiple linear regression analysis was used and variables with no normal distribution were log-transformed for this analysis. In premenopausal women, a model to explain log-ferritin levels was found with log-CRP levels, heart attack familial history, and waist circumference as independent predictors. Ferritin behaves as other cardiovascular markers in terms of prediction of its levels by documented predictors of cardiometabolic disease and related disorders. This is the first report of a relationship between heart attack familial history and ferritin levels. Further research is required to evaluate the mechanism to explain the relationship of central body fat and heart attack familial history with body iron stores values.

  10. Multivariable Analysis of the Association Between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Apparently Healthy Pigs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita, Kohei; Goto, Masaki; Ozawa, Manao; Kawanishi, Michiko; Koike, Ryoji; Asai, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between antimicrobial agent use and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs using data from 2004 to 2007 in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (JVARM). Fecal E. coli isolates from 250 pigs (one isolate each from a pig per farm) were examined for antimicrobial resistance. Information on the use of antimicrobials within preceding 6 months and types of farms recorded in JVARM was collected and statistically analyzed against the resistance patterns. In the univariate analysis, associations between both therapeutic and feed additive use of antimicrobials, and resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftiofur, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, colistin, and bicozamycin, and husbandry factors were investigated. In multivariable analysis, generalized estimating equations were used to control geographical intraclass correlation. Confounding for structurally unrelated associations was tested using generalized linear models. The results suggested direct and cross selections in the associations between use of aminoglycosides in reproduction farms and resistance to kanamycin, use of tetracyclines in larger farms and resistance to oxytetracycline, use of beta-lactams and resistance to ampicillin, use of phenicols and resistance to chloramphenicol, and use of fluoroquinolones and resistance to nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin. Coselection was suggested in the use of tetracyclines and chloramphenicol resistance. The associations between use of beta-lactams and dihydrostreptomycin resistance, use of macrolides and ampicillin and oxytetracycline resistance, and use of colistin and kanamycin resistance were significant, but were confounded by the simultaneous use of homologous antimicrobials.

  11. Metabolic differences between short children with GH peak levels in the lower normal range and healthy children of normal height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidblad, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan; Marcus, Claude; Ritzén, Martin; Ekström, Klas

    2017-06-01

    Severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD) leads to several metabolic effects in the body ranging from abnormal body composition to biochemical disturbances. However, less is known regarding these parameters in short children with GH peak levels in the lower normal range during provocation tests. Our aim was to study the metabolic profile of this group and compare it with that of healthy children of normal height. Thirty-five pre-pubertal short children (short children with GH peaks short pre-pubertal children with GH peak levels between 7 and 14μg/L did not differ significantly from healthy children of normal height but subpopulations within this group show significant metabolic differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing children with sickle cell anaemia and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumburg, F.; Biallas, B.; Alabi, A. S.; Grobusch, M. P.; Feugap, E. N.; Lell, B.; Mellmann, A.; Peters, G.; Kremsner, P. G.; Becker, K.; Adegnika, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) might carry hospital-associated bacterial lineages due to frequent hospital stays and antibiotic treatments. In this study we compared Staphylococcus aureus from SCA patients (n=73) and healthy children (n=143) in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. S. aureus

  13. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...... tidal breathing in young children....

  14. House dust mite exposure in asthmatic and healthy children : The difference is carpeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderHeide, S; Postma, DS; deReus, DM; Koeter, GH; vanAalderen, WMC; Meijer, G.

    1995-01-01

    Aim - To determine whether house dust mite (HDM) exposure in living rooms and bedrooms is higher in asthmatic children than in those of age and sex matched healthy children, living in the same area. Methods - Types of floor-coverings were recorded and dust samples were collected by vacuum cleaning

  15. House dust mite exposure in asthmatic and healthy children: the difference is carpeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G. G.; van der Heide, S.; Postma, D. S.; de Reus, D. M.; Koëter, G. H.; van Aalderen, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    To determine whether house dust mite (HDM) exposure in living rooms and bedrooms is higher in asthmatic children than in those of age and sex matched healthy children, living in the same area. Types of floor-coverings were recorded and dust samples were collected by vacuum cleaning the total area of

  16. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  17. Differences in Home Food and Activity Environments between Obese and Healthy Weight Families of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Saelens, Brian E.; Stark, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test a home food and activity instrument to discriminate between the home environments of obese and healthy weight preschool children. Design: A modified questionnaire about home environments was tested as an observation tool. Setting: Family homes. Participants: A total of 35 obese children with at least 1 obese…

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2017-01-01

    of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole...

  19. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  20. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  1. Teaching Healthy Habits to Young Children: Handwashing, Toileting and Toothbrushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikanlu, Seyi

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children habits is a routine part of many early childhood program curricula, with teachers never really stopping to think about what or how teaching is affecting their students. Habits are formed with consistent practice. Habits can be taught to children easily when teachers have some creativity to the actions. In this article, the author…

  2. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls--Physical Activity Questionnaire application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Melo, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Daniel; Coelho, Janine; Carvalho, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen) is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level). Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males) and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males) answered the questionnaire. There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40±0,7 vs 2,48±0,62; p=0,32). Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p=0,011) and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p=0,036). No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  4. THE CONSUMPTION OF ACAI PULP CHANGES THE CONCENTRATIONS OF PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 AND EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Pereira, Izabelle; Moreira Cançado Mascarenhas Pontes, Tereza Cristina; Lima Vieira, Renata Adrielle; de Freitas Folly, Gilce Andrezza; Cacilda Silva, Fernanda; Pereira de Oliveira, Fernando Luiz; Ferreira do Amaral, Joana; Nascimento de Freitas, Renata; Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina

    2015-08-01

    obesity, characterized by adiposity excess, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and possible inflammatory state with release of cytokines that determine endothelial function and can trigger chronic diseases. The dietary pattern are associated with the synthesis these cytokines. Fruits as the acai, which is rich in flavonoids, have a direct and beneficial effect on the control of this inflammatory process through the exercised antioxidant capacity. to evaluate the effect of acai pulp consumption on the inflammatory markers, anthropometric measurements, body composition, biochemical and dietary parameters in healthy women. forty women, were divided in 25 eutrophic and 15 with overweight. They intaked 200 g of acai pulp during 4 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, inflammatory markers, biochemical data, dietary intake and dietary antioxidants capacity were evaluated before and after the intervention. after the intervention, there was significant increase of EGF (p = 0.021) and PAI- 1(p = 0.011) in overweight women. Moreover, there was increase in body weight (p = 0.031), body mass index (p = 0.028), percentage of truncal fat (p = 0.003) and triceps skinfold thickness (p = 0.046) in eutrophic women. However, the skinfold thickness (p = 0.018) and total body fat (p = 0.016) decreased in overweight women. There was reduction of total protein (p = 0.049) due to the globulin reduction (p = 0.005), but the nutritional status was maintained in eutrophic group. the intake of 200g acai pulp, modulated the EGF and PAI-1 expression, possibly by modulation of acai on the parameters of body composition, dietary, clinical, biochemical and inflammatory, led to a redistribution and resizing of body fat of the trunk area, and presumably increased visceral fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy cost of ambulation in healthy and disabled Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Reyes, O B; Reyes, T M; So, F Y; Matti, B M; Lardizabal, A A

    1988-11-01

    The energy expenditures (Ee) for locomotion by nondisabled and disabled Filipino children aged 7 to 13 were determined and compared using indirect calorimetry. Forty-one controls (20 boys and 21 girls) ambulated at a comfortable pace; 16 children (eight boys and eight girls) with lower extremity poliomyelitis of varying severity ambulated by (1) wheelchair propulsion, (2) bilateral axillary crutches, (3) unilateral lower extremity ankle-foot orthoses or knee-ankle-foot orthoses, and (4) unassisted. Disabled children, regardless of their mode of ambulation, had to expend significantly more energy to ambulate than normal children (p less than 0.05). Wheelchair propulsion cost 16% more energy than the normal gait; crutch ambulation cost 41% more than the control. Children using unilateral braces sacrificed speed to attain near-normal Ee. When they ambulated without orthoses, their Ee increased by 109% over the control. In ascending order, the least energy was expanded by normal ambulation followed by disabled ambulation with unilateral brace, disabled propelling a wheelchair, disabled ambulation with bilateral axillary crutches, and disabled ambulation without brace. Efficiency of locomotion was reflected in the values obtained for Ee in terms of kcal x 10(-3)/kg/m, as demonstrated by the lower Ee but slower ambulation of children with braces, as compared to the nondisabled children.

  6. Children's reaction to depictions of healthy foods in fast-food television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M; Wilking, Cara; Gottlieb, Mark; Emond, Jennifer; Sargent, James D

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children. To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children's meals by McDonald's and Burger King (BK) restaurants. Descriptive qualitative study in a rural pediatric practice setting in Northern New England. A convenience sample of 99 children (age range, 3-7 years) was shown depictions of healthy foods in fast-food advertisements that aired from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The images from McDonald's and BK showed milk and apples. Children were asked what they saw and not prompted to respond specifically to any aspect of the images. Two still images drawn from advertisements for healthy meals at McDonald's and BK. Children's responses were independently content coded to food category by 2 researchers. Among the 99 children participating, only 51 (52%) and 69 (70%) correctly identified milk from the McDonald's and BK images, respectively, with a significantly greater percentage correct (P = .02 for both) among older children. The children's recall of apples was significantly different by restaurant, with 79 (80%) mentioning apples when describing the McDonald's image and only 10 (10%) for the BK image (P children (81%) recalled french fries after viewing the BK advertisement. Of the 4 healthy food images, only depiction of apples by McDonald's was communicated adequately to the target audience. Representations of milk were inadequately communicated to preliterate children. Televised depictions of apple slices by BK misled the children in this study, although no action was taken by government or self-regulatory bodies.

  7. Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes during sleep in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, Sarah A; Pamula, Yvonne; Kohler, Mark; Martin, James; Kennedy, Declan; Saint, David A; Baumert, Mathias

    2014-08-01

    To investigate respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during scored event-free (SEF) breathing periods of sleep. Interventional case-control repeated measurements design. Paediatric sleep laboratory in a hospital setting. Forty children with SDB and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children. Adenotonsillectomy in children with SDB and no intervention in controls. Overnight polysomnography; electroencephalography (EEG) power variations within SEF respiratory cycles in the overall and frequency band-specific EEG within stage 2 nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Within both groups there was a decrease in EEG power during inspiration compared to expiration across all sleep stages. Compared to controls, RCREC in children with SDB in the overall EEG were significantly higher during REM and frequency band specific RCRECs were higher in the theta band of stage 2 and REM sleep, alpha band of SWS and REM sleep, and sigma band of REM sleep. This between-group difference was not significant postadenotonsillectomy. The presence of nonrandom respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes (RCREC) in both healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) during NREM and REM sleep has been demonstrated. The RCREC values were higher in children with SDB, predominantly in REM sleep and this difference reduced after adenotonsillectomy. Immanuel SA, Pamula Y, Kohler M, Martin J, Kennedy D, Saint DA, Baumert M. Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes during sleep in healthy children and in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  8. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's…

  9. 77 FR 26019 - Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., effectiveness and impact of community-based projects post HTPCP funding, and the ability of projects to develop... communities. HTPCP has long encouraged Healthy Tomorrows projects involved in case management/care... Pediatrics (AAP). Up to $176,855 will be awarded over a one-year extended project period. The National...

  10. [Changes in food consumption pattern among Chilean school children after the implementation of a healthy kiosk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Nelly; Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Vio, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    In Chilean school there is a kiosk that sells a large number of high-calorie products. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers that children have for buying healthy food and evaluate changes in the pattern of food purchases during a school year at a school where a "Healthy Space" was created. We designed implemented and assessed changes in food purchases by developing a "Healthy Space" which included a kiosk that incorporated a range of healthy food at affordable prices. The staff in charge of the kiosk was trained and we generate communication and marketing strategies to promote the consumption of healthy food. A validated survey to determine food purchases was applied to 9-12 year-old children from both schools at baseline and follow up 8 months later. The total number of schoolchildren was 477 (291 from the intervention and 115 from the control school). There weren't significant differences in the amount of money available to buy food between children of both schools. There was a significant increase in the purchase of fruit, milk, yoghurt, soft drinks and light juices, dried seeds, healthy sandwiches and non-fat ice cream (p food, including communication and marketing strategies, significantly increases the consumption of these products among school children.

  11. The effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors of mothers on obesity in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Sevil; Canbulat, Nejla; Bozkurt, Gulcin

    2015-10-01

    To determine the relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviours of mothers and obesity in their pre-school children. The cross-sectional study was performed in a district of Istanbul, Turkey, between April and June 2011, and comprised children aged 4-6 years attending public pre-schools and their mothers.. Data was obtained using a questionnaire and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours Scale-II. Number Cruncher Statistical System 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 531 children in the study, 246(46.3%) were girls. Overall prevalence of overweight was 136(25.6%), obesity 77(14.5%)Overweight mothers were 126(23.7%), and obese mothers were 31(5.8%). The mothers of obese children obtained lower scores in the physical activity (pobesity among preschool children. Strategies should be developed to improve the physical activity and eating habits of mothers.

  12. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation ofStreptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Radhika; Sankar, Janani; Putlibai, Sulochana; Raghavan, Vaidehi

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16) was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51.

  13. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Raman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Objectives: Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. Methods: This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16 was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51%

  14. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    barriers. The motivational barriers are unwillingness to change eating habits, satisfaction with current diets and misconception about their healthiness; relatively low health consciousness and unwillingness to become excessively health-oriented. Implementation barriers include remembering the change...... and palatable healthy foods appeared to be significant implementation barriers. Older people tended to emphasize that their eating habits, craving for unhealthy food and practical issues hindered healthy eating. In general, in the absence of health problems (and, in some cases, in the presence of illnesses......  Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify barriers to healthy eating among older people and children/adolescents. Method: Four focus groups; two with older people and two with children/adolescents were conducted in Denmark. The focus groups were moderated to discuss the experienced...

  15. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  16. PERCEIVED DISCOMFORT LEVELS IN HEALTHY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN VACCINE RESEARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Anna E.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Aarts, Fenne; Rodenburg, Gerwin D.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Hak, Eelko; Scharloo, Margreet; Sukhai, Ram N.; Wit, Jan M.; de Beaufort, Inez; Sanders, Elisabeth (Lieke) A. M.

    WHEN ASSESSING THE RISKS OF A research protocol, review boards need to consider not only the possible harms but also the expected discomfort levels caused by the various study procedures. However, data on how children experience various study procedures are scarce. This study assessed perceived

  17. Tobacco or healthy children: the two cannot co-exist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Keith Pattemore

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco exposure increases mortality and morbidity of the fetus, the child, the adolescent, and their children in turn. Nearly half the children in the world are exposed. Smoking is not merely personal choice or personal responsibility; those subtle phrases undermine those who have no choice in the matter.Tobacco control must take a multi-pronged attack. Smoking cessation by adults in childbearing years must take centre stage of these efforts, because it is the only way to ensure a smoke-free environment for children. Smoke-free parents provide a role model for smoke-free young people, and erode the image of smoking as a desirable adult behaviour to emulate. Pediatricians and pediatric pulmonologists have a key role to play here. This goal will reduce morbidity and mortality among adults and children. Legislation regarding taxation, environments, tobacco constituents, product placement and display, packaging, and media education are all key to this core goal. Smokefree policy must be protected from attack based on trade agreements.Research is needed into more effective ways to attract and help people give up smoking, and into educating and re-deploying tobacco industry workers in emerging and developed countries.

  18. Promoting Children's Healthy Social-Emotional Growth: Dialogue Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Park, Sol

    2017-01-01

    Dialogue journals are a form of writing in which a student and a teacher carry on a conversation over time. This paper addresses the benefits of using dialogue journals for promoting a positive social-emotional learning (SEL) environment for children in school settings. Educators and researchers have increasingly acknowledged the importance of SEL…

  19. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air of healthy children: reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); S.L. Schellekens; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a marker of inflammation, has been described in the condensate of exhaled air from adults and children with inflammatory lung disorders, including asthma. However, the normal range of [H2O2] in the exhaled

  20. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    to 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.). RESULTS: %BF differed with age, sex, pubertal...

  1. Biochemical Risk Factors for Stone Formation in Healthy School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasumeh Mohkam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of urolithiasis in childhood is increasing. The wide geographic variation in the incidence of lithiasis in childhood is related to climatic, dietary, and socioeconomic factors. Many children with stone disease have a metabolic abnormality. In Southeast Asia, urinary calculi are endemic and are related to dietary factors. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal stone, urine metabolic abnormality, control of blood pressure and demographic character in elementary school children of Qom. A cross sectional study was performed on 110 primary school children (56 girls and 54 boys aged 7 to 11 years old. Demographic data such as age, height, weight were gathered, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Urine analysis and culture, urinary levels of calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, uric acid, cystine, citrate, oxalate, protein and sonographic findings were evaluated. The mean (±SD of age was 8.85±1.51 years. Only one child had renal stone (1%, but the prevalence of abnormal renal sonography was 7%. The most prevalent urine metabolic abnormalities were hypercalciuria (23% and hypocitraturia (100%. 11.2% of children had positive urine culture that all were female. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 7.1% for girls and 11.1% for boys. The prevalence of renal stone in children in this study was 1%, which means the accurate judgment about the prevalence of renal stone in Qom city needs more comprehensive studies. Similar to other studies in Iran this study shows that the prevalence of hypercalciuria is significantly higher comparing to other countries, it may be associated with excessive intake of sodium.

  2. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded. The standard deviation in reaction time was significantly shorter in girls than in boys (p snacks (p snacks, and chocolate (p good cognitive function. These results suggest that diet is closely related to cognitive function, even in healthy children and adolescents.

  3. [Physical self-concept, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in children with cancer and healthy children without cancer history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragado, Carmen; Hernández-Lloreda, Ma José; Sánchez-Bernardos, Ma Luisa; Urbano, Susana

    2008-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to test if children with cancer receiving chemotherapy show a poorer physical self-concept, less self-esteem and more anxiety and depression than healthy children (with no cancer history) within the same age range (9-16 years old) and social condition. Furthermore, the capacity of self-concept and self-esteem to predict emotional distress is analyzed. The Spanish versions of PSDQ, CDI and STAIC were administered to 30 children with cancer and 90 healthy children. Except for the health and flexibility dimensions in the PSDQ, no significant differences between groups were found. Self-esteem was the best predictor of depression, whereas health and self-concept predicted anxiety.

  4. Can School Organic Food Policy Promote Healthy Behaviors in Danish Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    Schools are a well suited setting for learning and establishment of good habits of children and youth. Using schools in healthy eating strategies may play an important role in preventing children from becoming obese and overweight, and a growing number of schools and municipalities engage...... therefore arises whether these two trends - healthier eating strategies for youth, and increased public consumption of organic food, interact. This paper investigates the interrelation between the two trends: healthy eating and organic consumption. In Denmark, public schools are utilised for public organic...

  5. Contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the knee in healthy children; establishing normal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemke, Robert; van den Berg, J Merlijn; Nusman, Charlotte M; van Gulik, E Charlotte; Barendregt, Anouk M; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Dolman, Koert M; Kuijpers, Taco W; Maas, Mario

    2018-03-01

    To define normative standards for the knee in healthy children using contrast-enhanced MRI, focusing on normal synovial membrane thickness. Secondly, presence of joint fluid and bone marrow oedema was evaluated. For this study, children without disorders potentially resulting in (accompanying) arthritis were included. Patients underwent clinical assessments, followed by contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI features were evaluated in consensus using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system. Additionally, the presence of joint fluid was evaluated. No cartilage lesions or bone abnormalities were observed. We included 57 healthy children. The overall mean thickness of the normal synovial membrane was 0.4 mm (min-max; 0.0-1.8mm). The synovium was thickest around the cruciate ligaments and retropatellar and suprapatellar regions. The mean overall diameter of the largest pocket of joint fluid was 2.8 mm (min-max; 0.9-8.0mm). Bone marrow changes were observed in three children (all in the apex patellae). The normal synovial membrane was maximally 1.8 mm thick, indicating that the JAMRIS cut-off value of 2 mm can be considered a valid measure for evaluating synovial hypertrophy. Some joint fluid and bone marrow changes suggestive of bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae can be seen in healthy children. • Knowledge on the normal synovial appearance using contrast-enhanced MR is lacking. • In healthy children, normal synovial membrane is maximally 1.8 mm thick. • Normal synovium is thickest around the cruciate ligaments, retropatellar and suprapatellar. • Bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae is seen in healthy children.

  6. Urinary tract infection among apparently healthy commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with age playing a prominent factor. Therefore, as road safety campaigns are encouraged for transport workers, concerted efforts must also be made to enlighten them on the need to avoid risky sexual behaviours including drug and alcohol abuse. Keywords: Urinary Tract Infections, Asymptomatic UTI, Personal hygiene, ...

  7. Polyparasitism in tuberculosis patients and apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarka Local Government Area had the highest prevalence (47%) of intestinal parasites which was significantly higher than Apa, the Local Government Area with the least prevalence of 17.7% parasitic infection, and this had no significant difference from the prevalence of multiple parasitism in the remaining six Local ...

  8. Anaemia in Apparently Healthy Adult Nigerians | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a direct relationship between health and social position, especially between anaemia, level of education and social development. ... Among female students 69.4% had hypochromic red cells while all the male students had normochromic red cell; 75.0% of female students had mircrocytic red cells ...

  9. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  10. Healthy caregivers-healthy children (HC2) phase 2: Integrating culturally sensitive childhood obesity prevention strategies into childcare center policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Lebron, Cynthia; Moise, Rhoda; Sunil Mathew, M; Sardinas, Krystal; Chang, Catherina; Palenzuela, Joanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Shelnutt, Karla P; Spector, Rachel; Altare, Fiorella; Natale, Ruby

    2017-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children, most states lack childcare center (CCC) nutrition and physical activity policies. The Healthy Caregivers, Healthy Children (HC) Phase 2 project is examining the relationship between the CCC nutrition and physical activity environment and child dietary intake/physical activity patterns and body mass index (BMI). A total of 24 "Quality Counts" (Miami Dade County, Florida's Quality Rating Improvement System [QRIS)]) CCCs serving low resource families with ≥50 2-to-5year olds attending have been randomized to either intervention (n=12) or control (n=12). The HC2 intervention arm CCCs receive implementation of a daily curricula for (1) teachers/parents; (2) children; (3) snack, beverage, physical activity, and screen time policies; and (4) technical assistance with menu modifications. Control arm schools receive an attention control safety curriculum. HC2 is delivered once a month in year 1, quarterly in year 2 and will be disseminated throughout the Quality Counts network in year 3. Primary outcome measures include the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool (EPAO), standardized dietary intake and physical activity patterns surveys, and child BMI. The 'Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM)' framework will guide the interpretation of outcome measures. CCCs are in need of evidence-based standardized nutrition and physical activity policies. The intersection of RE-AIM and early childhood obesity prevention in the childcare setting could generate robust and new information to the field about potential barriers, facilitators, adoption, and sustainability in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The energy cost of playing active video games in children with obesity and children of a healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, C; Roche, E F; Hussey, J

    2014-08-01

    Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour form a large part of the treatment of paediatric obesity. However, many children today spend prolonged periods of time playing sedentary video games. Active video games (AVGs) represent a novel and child friendly form of physical activity. To measure the energy cost of playing two AVGs in children with obesity and healthy age- and gender-matched children. The energy cost of gaming and heart rates achieved during gaming conditions were compared between groups. AVG play can result in light-to-moderate intensity physical activity (2.7-5.4 metabolic equivalents). When corrected for fat-free mass those with obesity expended significantly less energy than healthy weight peers playing Nintendo Wii Fit Free Jogging (P = 0.017). No significant difference was seen between groups in the energy cost of playing Boxing. Certain AVGs, particularly those that require lower limb movement, could be used to increase total energy expenditure, replace more sedentary activities, or achieve moderate intensity physical activity among children with obesity. There seems to be some differences in how children with obesity and children of a healthy weight play AVGs. This could result in those with obesity expending less energy than their lean peers during AVG play. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    of this study could not support a causal association between FG and BP in healthy children and adolescents; however, it is possible that rs560887 has pleiotropic effects on unknown factors with a BP lowering effect or that these results were due to a lack of statistical power.Journal of Human Hypertension......The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single......-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the G6PC2 locus found to be robustly associated with FG in children and adolescents, as an instrument to associate FG with resting BP in 1506 children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Rs560887 was associated with increased FG levels corresponding...

  13. Feeding Problems in Healthy Young Children: Prevalence, Related Factors and Feeding Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Chaithirayanon, Suthida; Eiamudomkan, Monchutha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demo...

  14. Resistance exercise and strong healthy children: safe when done right!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2008-06-01

    Weight lifting in children and youth is often viewed as a potentially harmful activity that could result in damage to bones, connective tissue, and muscle. Reviews, such as the one appearing in this issue of the journal by Behm et al. (Appl. Physiol. Metab. Nutr. 33: this issue), show that the balance of evidence indicates that weight lifting in pediatric populations is safe. Importantly, weight lifting, when performed in a safe and age-appropriate manner, is very beneficial on a number of health fronts, including strength and balance, self-esteem, and reducing cardiovascular risks. This is an understudied area that is still lacking in key areas of research to establish efficacy, dose-response relationships, and other health benefits.

  15. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  16. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  17. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy Venezuelan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; Gaast-de Jongh, C.E. van der; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5 years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of

  18. Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 2003, le partenariat canado-ougandais Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) a mis en oeuvre un programme de bénévolat en santé dans 175 villages. ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  19. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children...

  20. Muscle fatigue during repetitive voluntary contractions: a comparison between children with cerebral palsy, typically developing children and young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, M M; Dallmeijer, A J; Houdijk, H; Doorenbosch, C A M

    2013-09-01

    To combine peak torque and EMG analyses to investigate the hypothesis that 1) children with cerebral palsy (CP) have lower muscle fatigability than typically developing children (TD) and whether 2) muscle fatigue correlates with muscle strength. Seven CP children, eight TD children and ten young healthy adults (YHA) performed an all-out fatigue test of 35 maximal concentric knee extension and flexion contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Angular velocity was set at 60°/s. Peak torque (PT) was determined per repetition and either normalized to bodyweight or maximum voluntary torque. Surface-EMG of quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured to obtain changes in median frequency (EMG-mf) and smooth rectified EMG amplitude per contraction. Decline in PT differed between all groups for extensors and flexors, where YHA showed the largest decline and CP children the smallest decline over the course of the test. YHA showed a larger decline in EMG-mf of all quadriceps and hamstrings than TD and CP children, while TD children showed a larger decline in EMG-mf of m.rectus femoris and m.vastus lateralis than CP children. Results confirm that children with CP show lower fatigability than TD children and that the lower fatigability coincides with lower maximal muscle strength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence rate and antibiotic susceptibility of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) in healthy children population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozkiewicz, D; Daniluk, T; Sciepuk, M; Zaremba, M L; Cylwik-Rokicka, D; Luczaj-Cepowicz, E; Milewska, R; Marczuk-Kolada, G; Stokowska, W

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluated the prevalence rate of oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) and their susceptibilities to some antibiotics in healthy children. Samples of pharyngeal swabs and supragingival dental plaques for microbiological studies were collected from 206 healthy children, aged 4-18 years. Additionally, 75 samples of carious lesions from children with dental caries were included. The streptococci were isolated and identified using standard methods and commercial identification kits. For performance of antibacterial susceptibility testing of VGS strains disk diffusion and/or breakpoints procedures were used according to NCCLS standards and criteria. A total of 425 VGS strains were tested against penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. A total of 239 VGS strains belonging to 8 species from pharyngeal swabs of 192 (93.2%) children were isolated. VGS strains from supragingival plaques were isolated in 149 (72.3%) healthy children (p mitis species were isolated most frequently from 4-5 year old as compared to 12 and 18 year old children (p or = 2.0 mg/L) was shown in 71 (16.7%) strains, 33 (46.5%) of them belonged to S. mitis species. VGS strains were also resistant to erythromycin (23.5%), clindamycin (23.1%), tetracyclines (T-52%, DOX-16%), gentamycin (25.9%) and ciprofloxacin (55.2%). All VGS strains were vancomycin - susceptible. 1. In the oral cavities of healthy children, approximately 98% of streptococci belonged to two VGS groups, i.e. mitis and salivarius groups. Streptococci of mutans and anginosus groups were isolated sporadically (2%). 2. We observed difference in susceptibility to penicillin and other antibiotics between the various species of viridans groups streptococci. Mitis group strains (except S. pneumoniae) were more frequently penicillin-resistant (23%) in comparison to salivarius group of VGS strains (9%) (p = 0.0001).

  2. Mechanical ventilatory constraints during incremental exercise in healthy and cystic fibrosis children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Benoit; Leclair, Erwan; Thevenet, Delphine; Beghin, Laurent; Gottrand, Frédéric; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-03-01

    To analyze breathing pattern and mechanical ventilatory constraints during incremental exercise in healthy and cystic fibrosis (CF) children. Thirteen healthy children and 6 children with cystic fibrosis volunteered to perform an incremental test on a treadmill. Exercise tidal flow/volume loops were plotted every minute within a maximal flow/volume loop (MFVL). Expiratory flow limitation (expFL expressed in %Vt) was evaluated and end-expiratory and end-inspiratory lung volumes (EELV and EILV) were estimated from expiratory reserve volume relative to vital capacity (ERV/FVC) and from inspiratory reserve volume relative to vital capacity (IRV/FVC). During the incremental exercise, expFL was first observed at 40% of maximal aerobic speed in both groups. At maximal exercise, 46% of healthy children and 83% of CF children presented expFL, without significant effect of cystic fibrosis on the severity of expFL. According to the two-way ANOVA results, both groups adopted similar breathing pattern and breathing strategies as no significant effect of CF has been revealed. But, according to one-way ANOVA results, a significant increase of ERV/FVC associated with a significant decrease of IRV/FVC from resting value shave been observed in healthy children at maximal exercise, but not in CF children. The hypothesis of this study was based on the assumption that mild cystic fibrosis could induce more frequent and more severe mechanical ventilatory constraints due to pulmonary impairment and breathing pattern disturbances. But, this study did not succeed to highlight an effect of mild cystic fibrosis on the mechanical ventilatory constraints (expFL and dynamic hyperinflation) that occur during an incremental exercise. This absence of effect could be due to the absence of an impact of the disease on spirometric data, breathing pattern regulation during exercise and breathing strategy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Distinct distal gut microbiome diversity and composition in healthy children from Bangladesh and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrie Lin

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of the composition and stability of the human distal gut microbiota is based largely on studies of infants and adults living in developed countries. In contrast, little is known about the gut microbiota and its variation over time in older children and adolescents, especially in developing countries.We compared the diversity, composition, and temporal stability of the fecal microbiota of healthy children, ages 9 to 14 years, living in an urban slum in Bangladesh with that of children of the same age range in an upper-middle class suburban community in the United States. We analyzed >8,000 near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences and over 845,000 pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 region. The distal gut of Bangladeshi children harbored significantly greater bacterial diversity than that of U.S. children, including novel lineages from several bacterial phyla. Bangladeshi and U.S. children had distinct fecal bacterial community membership and structure; the microbiota of Bangladeshi children was enriched in Prevotella, Butyrivibrio, and Oscillospira and depleted in Bacteroides relative to U.S. children (although similar to Bangladeshi adults. Furthermore, community membership and structure in Bangladeshi children was significantly less stable month-to-month than U.S. children.Together, these results suggest that differing environmental or genetic factors may shape the microbiota of healthy children in the two countries. Further investigation is necessary to understand the mechanisms and factors that underlie these differences, and to incorporate these findings into new strategies for the prevention and treatment of childhood and adolescent diseases.

  4. Dietary outcomes of overweight fathers and their children in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids community randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A; de Vlieger, N; Young, M; Jensen, M E; Burrows, T L; Morgan, P J; Collins, C E

    2018-02-23

    Few studies have examined dietary intake changes following a weight loss intervention in fathers and the association between father-child dietary intakes. The present study aimed to: (i) evaluate the change in dietary intake in overweight fathers randomised to a family-based lifestyle intervention [Healthy Dads Healthy Kids (HDHK)] versus controls and (ii) investigate whether an association exists between father-child dietary intakes. A secondary analysis was conducted of father-child baseline and 3-month post-intervention data (n = 93) collected in the HDHK community randomised controlled trial. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models were used to assess dietary changes by group, time (baseline and 3-month) and the group-by-time interaction. Cohens d was used to determine effect sizes. Significant group-by-time effects (all P eating patterns also correlated with those of their children for several dietary variables. These novel data suggest that fathers can be targeted as agents of dietary change within obesity prevention and treatment programmes. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. An educational intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in preschool children: a cluster-RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaia, M; Pasini, M; Burnazzi, A; Vitali, P; Allara, E; Farneti, M

    2017-04-01

    Promoting four healthy behaviours among preschool children:⩾4 servings of fruit and vegetables/day, ⩾2 h/day of active play, ⩽1 h per day of TV-watching and 0 sugar sweetened beverages/day. We conducted a c-RCT on 425 3-year-old children at 16 childcare centres based in Cesena, Italy. We randomly allocated eight childcare centres (199 children) to the intervention group and eight childcare centres (226 children) to the control group. All the randomized childcare centres completed our study protocol. Parents recorded their children's target behaviours at home over 3 Saturdays, at baseline and at follow-up. Then trained nurses measured children's weight and height. We conducted a 6-month-long intervention trial in local health care centres where nurses and primary care pediatricians, respectively, conducted two subsequent motivational interviews with parents to encourage children's healthy behaviours at home. At the same time, teachers involved children in learning experiences about healthy behaviours. Our primary outcome is a children's combined health behaviour score (CHBS) at home. Our secondary outcomes measure the BMI z-score and the percentage of children that show a BMI trajectory crossing upward. After collecting the CHBS and BMI data at baseline as well as at 1- and 2-year follow-ups, we performed an Intent-to-Treat (ITT) analysis. After 2 years from baseline, 48.4% of intervention group children showed a low-risk CHBS in comparison with 28.0% of control group children. A multilevel analysis showed that they were by far more likely to achieve low-risk scores (adjusted OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.48-7.88; P=0.004). Our BMI outcomes showed no significant difference between groups. A multidimensional educational intervention, which consists of motivational interviews with parents and teacher-led learning experiences for children, improved preschool children's CHBS in the long term without influencing the outcomes of BMI z-score and BMI increase.

  6. Latino Family Childcare Providers’ Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Promotion of Healthy Behaviors among Preschool Children: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The continuing rise of obesity among Latinos is a public health concern with an immediate need for early prevention. Changes in family structures have increased demand and reliance for child care for young children. Latino children are the fastest-growing segment of the child population in the United States, and research shows that Latino families use preschools and day care centers much less than those of other ethnic groups, apparently because of cultural preferences for family-like care. Objectives. Given that many low income Latino children attend family child care homes (FCCHs, there is a need to explore the role that FCCH providers may play in establishing and reinforcing children’s early healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and consequently in the prevention of childhood obesity. Design. Using purposive sampling, six focus groups were conducted in Spanish with licensed Latino FCCH providers n=44. Data was analyzed to identify recurrent themes. Results. Latino FCCH providers described how they play an influential role in promoting healthful eating and physical activity behaviors of preschool children in their care. They also identified many barriers and challenges in establishing and maintaining healthful nutrition and physical activity behaviors, including high cost of healthy foods, cold weather, and physical environment of FCCH. Conclusions. Latino FCCH providers can have a strong impact in promoting healthful behaviors in low-income, Latino communities. They may be able to effectively deliver interventions targeting low-income, minority families to promote healthful eating and physical activity behaviors and prevent child obesity.

  7. Is parenting style related to children's healthy eating and physical activity in Latino families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic characteristics on their use of controlling styles to promote a healthy home environment. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from a community sample of Latino parents (n = 812) and their children in kindergarten through second grade. Parental use of positive reinforcement and monitoring was associated with children's healthy eating and exercise. Also, parents' use of appropriate disciplining styles was associated with healthier eating, while parental use of control styles was associated with unhealthy eating. The daughters of parents who used controlling styles ate more unhealthy foods than did the sons. Older, employed and more acculturated parents used less controlling styles than their counterparts. Parenting interventions targeting children's dietary intake and physical activity should encourage parents to use more positive reinforcement and monitor their children's health behaviors as these parenting styles are associated with healthier behaviors. Moreover, intervention researchers may want to encourage Latino parents to use less controlling styles with girls as this parenting style increased girls' risk for unhealthy eating.

  8. Healthy Weights Interventions in Aboriginal Children and Youth: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Claire; Cooke, Martin; Rysdale, Lee; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that Aboriginal children and youth in Canada and elsewhere are at higher risk of obesity and overweight than other children. However, there has been no review of healthy weights interventions specifically aimed at Aboriginal children. A structured search for peer-reviewed articles presenting and evaluating healthy weights interventions for Aboriginal children and youth was conducted. Seventeen articles, representing seven interventions, were reviewed to identify their main characteristics, evaluation design, and evaluation outcomes. Interventions included several large community-based programs as well as several more focused programs that all targeted First Nations or American Indians, rather than Métis or Inuit. Only 1 program served an urban Aboriginal population. None of the published evaluations reported significant reductions in obesity or overweight or sustained increases in physical activity, although some evaluations presented evidence of positive effects on children's diets or on nutrition knowledge or intentions. We conclude that broader structural factors affecting the health of Aboriginal children may limit the effectiveness of these interventions, and that more evidence is required regarding interventions for Aboriginal children in various geographic and cultural contexts in Canada including Inuit and Métis communities.

  9. Cortical maturation and myelination in healthy toddlers and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoni, Sean C L; Dean, Douglas C; Remer, Justin; Dirks, Holly; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan

    2015-07-15

    The maturation of cortical structures, and the establishment of their connectivity, are critical neurodevelopmental processes that support and enable cognitive and behavioral functioning. Measures of cortical development, including thickness, curvature, and gyrification have been extensively studied in older children, adolescents, and adults, revealing regional associations with cognitive performance, and alterations with disease or pathology. In addition to these gross morphometric measures, increased attention has recently focused on quantifying more specific indices of cortical structure, in particular intracortical myelination, and their relationship to cognitive skills, including IQ, executive functioning, and language performance. Here we analyze the progression of cortical myelination across early childhood, from 1 to 6 years of age, in vivo for the first time. Using two quantitative imaging techniques, namely T1 relaxation time and myelin water fraction (MWF) imaging, we characterize myelination throughout the cortex, examine developmental trends, and investigate hemispheric and gender-based differences. We present a pattern of cortical myelination that broadly mirrors established histological timelines, with somatosensory, motor and visual cortices myelinating by 1 year of age; and frontal and temporal cortices exhibiting more protracted myelination. Developmental trajectories, defined by logarithmic functions (increasing for MWF, decreasing for T1), were characterized for each of 68 cortical regions. Comparisons of trajectories between hemispheres and gender revealed no significant differences. Results illustrate the ability to quantitatively map cortical myelination throughout early neurodevelopment, and may provide an important new tool for investigating typical and atypical development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Shear wave velocity of the healthy thyroid gland in children with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Sağlam, Dilek; Delibalta, Semra; Yücel, Serap; Tomak, Leman; Elmalı, Muzaffer

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a kind of shear wave elastography that can be used in children for differentiating thyroid pathologies. Possible changes in the healthy thyroid gland in children may create difficulties in the use of shear wave velocities (SWV) in thyroid pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the normal values of SWV for the healthy thyroid gland in children, elucidate the correlation of the SWV values with potential influencing factors, and evaluate intra-operator reproducibility of the SWV. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 145 healthy children (81 girls, 64 boys; mean age, 10.5 ± 3.14 years; range 6-17 years) were enrolled in the study. The SWV and volume of the thyroid gland were determined. The mean shear wave velocity of the thyroid gland was 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s. There was no correlation between age and the mean SWV of the thyroid gland (Spearman Rho = 0.049, p = 0.556). There was also no correlation between the thyroid gland volume or BSA and the mean SWV. The only correlation detected was between BSA and total thyroid gland volume (p thyroid gland in children was determined. There was no correlation between the SWV of the thyroid gland and age, BSA, or thyroid gland volume.

  11. Palmar abduction measurements: reliability and introduction of normative data in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kraker, Marjolein; Selles, Ruud W; Molenaar, Ties M; Schreuders, Ton A; Hovius, Steven E; Stam, Henk J

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we studied normative and reliability data of palmar thumb abduction measurements (conventional goniometry, the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal, the Inter Metacarpal Distance, the American Society of Hand Therapists method, and the American Medical Association method) in healthy adults. Because many interventions aiming to improve palmar abduction are performed at an early age, the goal of this study was to assess normative and reliability data of these measurement methods in children. We performed measurements with the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal and Inter Metacarpal Distance in 100 healthy children to acquire normative data. A retest was performed in 63 children to assess intraobserver reliability. Mean active and passive palmar abduction measured with the Pollexograph thumb was 62 degrees (range, 40 degrees to 76 degrees). The range of motion of the Pollexograph metacarpal was smaller (mean 49 degrees, range, 32 degrees to 64 degrees). The mean Inter Metacarpal Distance was 50 mm (range, 36-70 mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients of the Pollexograph thumb, Pollexograph metacarpal, and Inter Metacarpal Distance indicated excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.85 and 0.92). Normative Pollexograph thumb and Pollexograph metacarpal data showed that means measured in children are comparable to values found in healthy adults. Reliability data indicated that the Pollexograph thumb, the Pollexograph metacarpal, and Inter Metacarpal Distance are also reliable measurement methods in children.

  12. Apparent Bicarbonate Space in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Repetto, Horacio A.; Penna, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The amount needed to change the concentration of a solute requires the knowledge of its volume of distribution in the solution. Electrolytes that do not participate in active metabolic reactions have a fixed volume of distribution that corresponds to the volume of water in which they solubilize. Bicarbonate infusion is used to correct hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Its volume of distribution (bicarbonate space) changes with its participation in the blood buffer systems. In other words, it...

  13. When do healthiness and liking drive children's food choices? The influence of social context and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Nicklaus, Sophie; Miguet, Maud; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2018-06-01

    Children identify liking and healthiness of foods as factors influencing their food choices. However, the food decision making process is also influenced by both personal characteristics and food contexts. The present study explored the influence of liking and perceived healthiness of foods in normal- and overweight children's food choices intentions in a pleasure-oriented social eating context and a health-oriented social eating context. Children aged from 6 to 11 years old (n = 63; 34 children who were of normal weight and 29 who were overweight) were asked to select 5 foods among 10, based on food pictures, to make up a snack that would be suitable for their birthday party or a nutrition class. In addition, they rated their liking and healthiness perception of the foods. No significant difference in food choices was found between children who were of normal weight and children who were overweight. Both groups of children chose more healthy food items in a health-oriented social context (i.e., a fictive nutrition class) than in a pleasure-oriented social context (i.e., a fictive birthday party). Moreover, only liking significantly predicted food choices in the pleasure-oriented social context whereas both healthiness and liking significantly predicted food choices in the health-oriented social context. Overall these results advance our understanding on how children make food decisions and inform strategies that may help children to adopt a healthy diet. Because liking predicted children's food choices in both eating contexts, emphasizing the "good" taste of healthy foods and providing children with healthy foods they like could be efficient strategies to promote healthy eating habits in children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consultation and participation with children in healthy schools: choice, conflict and context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Paul; Kagan, Carolyn; Sixsmith, Judith

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we report on our use of a participatory research methodology to consult with children in the UK on how to improve pupil well-being in secondary schools, framed within the wider social policy context of healthy schools. We worked with children on the selection of our research methods and sought to voice the views of children to a local education authority to improve the design of school environments. The consultation process ultimately failed not because the children were unforthcoming with their views on either methods or on well-being in schools, but because of difficulties in how their views were received by adults. We show how the socio-economic, cultural and political context in which those difficulties were set might have led to the eventual break down of the consultation process, and we draw out a number of possible implications for consultative and participatory work with children in school settings.

  15. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Andréa Villela Baroncini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective: To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods: A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2 were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%; males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%; males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%; males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results: There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243. CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004. Conclusions: CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years.

  16. Identifying Low pH Active and Lactate-Utilizing Taxa within Oral Microbiome Communities from Healthy Children Using Stable Isotope Probing Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Jeffrey S.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Majors, Paul D.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Allen, Lisa Z.; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2012-03-05

    Many human microbial infectious diseases including dental caries are polymicrobial in nature and how these complex multi-species communities evolve from a healthy to a diseased state is not well understood. Although many health- or disease-associated oral microbes have been characterized in vitro, their physiology in vivo in the presence of the complex oral microbiome is difficult to determine with current approaches. In addition, about half of these oral species remain uncultivated to date and little is known except their 16S rRNA sequence. Lacking culture-based physiological analyses, the functional roles of uncultivated microorganisms will remain enigmatic despite their apparent disease correlation. To start addressing these knowledge gaps, we applied a novel combination of in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) with RNA and DNA based Stable Isotope Probing (SIP) to oral plaque communities from healthy children for temporal monitoring of carbohydrate utilization, organic acid production and identification of metabolically active and inactive bacterial species.

  17. Welfare babies: poor children's experiences informing healthy peer relationships in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lynne M; McIntyre, Lynn; Officer, Suzanne

    2005-12-01

    Positive peer relationships among children living in poverty are important for their well-being, resiliency and mental and physical health. This paper explicates the 'felt experience' of children living in poverty, and the implications of these experiences for healthy peer relationships, from a re-analysis of two qualitative research studies in Canada examining children living in food insecure circumstances. Poor children feel deprived, part of the 'poor group', embarrassed, hurt, picked on, inadequate and responsible. Poor children internalize their own lack of social resources in feelings of deprivation. They experience negative feelings relative to their peers-inadequacy, embarrassment and hurt. Children do identify group membership but it is not used as a social resource, as it could be, but rather as a symbol of social segregation. Children also feel responsible for ameliorating some of the effects of their poverty and this seems to strengthen their relationship with their mothers. This could equally be translated into peer-related support, such as standing up to poor bashing, or engaging constructively with higher social class peers. Health promotion strategies that seek to foster positive peer relationships and enhance children's sense of belonging should offer novel social environments in which poor children can engage a variety of peers.

  18. Assessment of Parent Orientation towards Autonomy vs. Control in Promoting Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Padilla, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    Self-determination theory has been widely applied to understanding individuals' health-related behaviors such as eating healthy foods and exercising. Different reasons for engagement are associated with varying levels of personal agency or autonomy. Authority figures in the environment can be supportive of autonomy or, in contrast, controlling. Although researchers have assessed individuals' perceptions of the autonomy-support in their environments, studies have not directly examined the authority figures' orientations to autonomy with respect to health contexts. A new scale, Parent Orientations to Health, was created to investigate parent orientation to autonomy and control with respect to healthy eating and exercise in children. One hundred and forty-three parents of elementary school-aged children responded to the scale. Scale validation and reliability results indicate that the scale successfully assessed parent orientation towards autonomy for children in health contexts. Furthermore, parent autonomy orientation varied according to child weight status and the healthiness of the child's diet. Parent orientation towards autonomy can be evaluated through the use of the Parent Orientations to Health scale. In addition, parent autonomy orientation is associated with both the healthiness of the child's diet (as perceived by the parent) and the child's body mass index. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  19. HOW TO DESIGN NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION TRIALS TO SLOW COGNITIVE DECLINE IN APPARENTLY HEALTHY POPULATIONS AND APPLY FOR EFFICACY CLAIMS: A STATEMENT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY ON NUTRITION AND AGING TASK FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M.; Coley, N.; Andrieu, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Caubere, J.P.; Cesari, M.; Gautry, J.; Garcia Sanchez, I.; Hugonot, L.; Mansuy, L.; Pahor, M.; Pariente, J.; Ritz, P.; Salva, A.; Sijben, J.; Wieggers, R.; Ythier-Moury, P.; Zaim, M.; Zetlaoui, J.; Vellas, B.

    2015-01-01

    Interventions are crucial as they offer simple and inexpensive public health solutions that will be useful over the long term use. A Task Force on designing trials of nutritional interventions to slow cognitive decline in older adults was held in Toulouse in September 2012. The aim of the Task Force was to bring together leading experts from academia, the food industry and regulatory agencies to determine the best trial designs that would enable us to reach our goal of maintaining or improving cognitive function in apparently healthy aging people. An associated challenge for this Task Force was to determine the type of trials required by the Public Food Agencies for assessing the impact of nutritional compounds in comparison to well established requirements for drug trials. Although the required quality of the study design, rationale and statistical analysis remains the same, the studies designed to show reduction of cognitive decline require a long duration and the objectives of this task force was to determine best design for these trials. Two specific needs were identified to support trials of nutritional interventions: 1- Risk- reduction strategies are needed to tackle the growing burden of cognitive decline that may lead to dementia, 2- Innovative study designs are needed to improve the quality of these studies. PMID:23933873

  20. [Are children from resort spa healthy? The overweight and obesity in children from Kudowa-Zdrój].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połubok, Joanna; Gonera, Aleksandra; Ubysz, Jakub; Wójcik, Maria; Kozicka, Marta; Barg, Ewa

    2015-12-15

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a more and more common problem among children and teenagers. . The aim of this study is to evaluate the development of children and teenagers from Kudowa-Zdroj and to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population. . The study included 545 children, aged 5-16 years from Kudowa-Zdroj. The following anthropometric parameters were assessed: body weight and height, BMI, Quetelet index, Rohrer's index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to height ratio (WHtR). . Overweight or obesity diagnosed by BMI SDS were observed in 26.7% of children from grades 0-3, 22.02% of children from grades 4-6 and 22.52% of Junior High School students. Students in grades 0-3 (mean 0.95 ± 2.17) achieved higher BMI SDS compared to students in grades 4-6 (mean 0.37 ± 1.71) and secondary school (mean 0.65 ± 1.61) (p= 0.023).Overweight or obesity diagnosed by Rohrer index SDS and Quetelet index SDS were observed in 22,84% and 17,13% children. Elevated value of the hip circumference SDS was found in 19.48% of children and waist circumference SDS was increased in 17.5% of children. In the group of children with overweight and obesity 59.4% had elevated waist circumference SDS and 53.4% waist circumference SDS. WHtR was elevated in 8.3% of children, more often in boys (p overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity are common disorders among children from Kudowa-Zdroj. It is recommended to educate children, adolescence and their family about healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  1. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  2. Antinociceptive fatty acid patterns differ in children with psychosomatic recurrent abdominal pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfven, Gösta; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2016-06-01

    Stress is considered to trigger psychosomatic recurrent abdominal pain (RAP), but the mechanism behind the pain is unclear. Because the essential fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3, are involved in pain, by regulating lipid mediators, we analysed the fatty acid patterns in children with RAP compared to healthy children. This was a cross-sectional study of plasma phospholipid fatty acids in 22 consecutively included children with RAP, aged six to 16 years, at an outpatient clinic specialising in RAP. The controls were 100 healthy children previously reported on and analysed in the same laboratory. The children with psychosomatic RAP showed higher mean concentrations of saturated fatty acids than the controls (49.0 mol% versus 47.4 mol%) but lower mean levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (38.6 mol% versus 39.9 mol%). Omega-3 fatty acids were lower in children with psychosomatic RAP, resulting in higher ratios of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acids (p psychosomatic RAP. Further studies, including lipid mediators and oxidative products, are necessary to confirm an association. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Galactose oxidation using {sup 13}C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Porta, G. [Unidade de Hepatologia Pediátrica, Instituto da Criança Prof. Pedro de Alcântara, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-20

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-{sup 13}C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate {sup 13}CO{sub 2} enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-{sup 13}C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}CO{sub 2} were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of {sup 13}C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  4. Cognitive outcomes for congenital hypothyroid and healthy children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordooei, Mahtab; Mottaghipisheh, Hadi; Fallah, Razieh; Rabiee, Azar

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the prevention of developmental retardation is the main goal of public health national screening programs. This study compares the cognitive ability of children with CH diagnosed by neonatal screening with a healthy control group (2007) in Yazd, Iran. In a case-controlled study, the intelligent quotient (IQ) of 40 five-year-old children with early treated CH and good compliance were evaluated by the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligent test and compared to 40 healthy age and gender matched children as controls. 22 boys (55%) and 18 girls (45%) in both groups were evaluated. In children with CH, 19 (47.5%) and 21 (52.5%) persons had transient and permanent hypothyroidism, respectively. Range of TSH and T4 level at the onset of diagnosis were 11.41-81 mu/l and 1.50-14.20 μg/dl, respectively. The intelligence levels of all children with CH were within the average or normal range and IQs ranged from 91-108. Children with CH had lower full-scale IQs (107.25 ± 2. 9 versus 110.50 ± 2.66, p=0.001), verbal IQ (106.95 ± 3.5 versus 109.90 ± 3.44, P-value=0.001) and performance IQ (106.3 ± 3.68 versus 108.87 ± 3.70) than the control group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed for mean IQ scores in permanent and transient CH. Children with CH who had early treatment and good compliance had normal cognitive abilities, but may have a decreased IQ relative to the healthy control group.

  5. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriollo Marcelo Fabiano Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the protein polymorphism degree among seventy-five C. albicans strains from healthy children oral cavities of five socioeconomic categories from eight schools (private and public in Piracicaba city, São Paulo State, in order to identify C. albicans subspecies and their similarities in infantile population groups and to establish their possible dissemination route. Cell cultures were grown in YEPD medium, collected by centrifugation, and washed with cold saline solution. The whole-cell proteins were extracted by cell disruption, using glass beads and submitted to SDS-PAGE technique. After electrophoresis, the protein bands were stained with Coomassie-blue and analyzed by statistics package NTSYS-pc version 1.70 software. Similarity matrix and dendrogram were generated by using the Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, respectively, which made it possible to evaluate the similarity or intra-specific polymorphism degrees, based on whole-cell protein fingerprinting of C. albicans oral isolates. A total of 13 major phenons (clusters were analyzed, according to their homogeneous (socioeconomic category and/or same school and heterogeneous (distinct socioeconomic categories and/or schools characteristics. Regarding to the social epidemiological aspect, the cluster composition showed higher similarities (0.788 < S D < 1.0 among C. albicans strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic bases (high, medium, or low. Isolates of high similarity were not found in oral cavities from healthy children of social stratum A and D, B and D, or C and E. This may be explained by an absence of a dissemination route among these children. Geographically, some healthy children among identical and different schools (private and public also are carriers of similar strains but such similarity was not found among other isolates from children from certain schools. These data may reflect a

  6. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenarius, Derk F.M.; Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Rosendahl, Karen

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  8. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk F.M. [University of Tromsoe, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department for Radiology and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  10. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... a Wright peak flowmeter. The equation for prediction of PEFR in boys was calculated as (3.8 x height) + (10.6 x age) - 313.2 (p ... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  11. Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are "good" or "bad" for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in a structured grocery aisle setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insulin level and insulin sensitivity indices among healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, María G; Bergadá, Ignacio; Rodríguez, María E; Keselman, Ana; Bengolea, Viviana S; Pipman, Viviana; Domené, Horacio M; Jasper, Héctor G; Ropelato, María G

    2016-08-01

    Information on insulin reference values and insulin sensitivity indices in the field of pediatrics is scarce. To describe insulin range and insulin sensitivity surrogate indices during childhood. Fasting insulin level range and surrogate indices, such as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), among healthy children and adolescents by age, body mass index, pubertal stage (PS), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Two hundred and twenty-six healthy children and adolescents (1-18 years old) were included. Insulin increased with age, body mass index, pubertal stage, IGF-1 and triglyceride levels (r2= 0.38, p 〈 0.0001). Prepubertal children 〉 7.5 years old had higher insulin levels [median (P3 and P97) pIU/mL: 5.0 (1.7-9.6)] than prepubertal children 〈 7.5 years old [2.9 pIU/ mL (1.3-10.9), p 〈 0.01]. During puberty (from PS II to PS V), insulin was higher in girls than in boys [7.4 (1.8-16.9) versus 5.8 (1.8-12.9), p 〈 0.01]. The HOMA-IR index increased in the group of prepubertal children 〉 7.5 years old: 1.1 (0.32.0) versus children 〈 7.5 years old: 0.6 (0.3-1.4, p 〈 0.01). The insulin level and HOMA-IR results were higher in pubertal children compared to the prepubertal group (p 〈 0.001). Known physiological changes were observed inboth insulin levels and the HOMA-IR index among children and adolescents. A fasting blood insulin level of 10 pIU/mL in prepubertal children and of 17 pIU/mL and 13 pIU/mL in pubertal girls and boys, respectively, may be considered as an acceptable cut-off value in healthy children. A HOMA-IR value 〉 2.0 and 〉 2.6 in prepubertal and pubertal children, respectively, may be considered a warning sign for pediatricians to further investigate insulin resistance. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  14. Salivary cortisol and melatonin levels in children with frequent episodic tension-type headache do not differ from healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Martínez, Inés; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Linares-García-Valdecasas, Rafael; Palomar-Gallego, Maria A

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the differences in cortisol and melatonin concentrations between children with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and healthy children. Forty-four children, 12 boys/32 girls (age: 9 ± 2 years) with FETTH associated to peri-cranial tenderness and 44 age- and sex- matched healthy children participated. Both salivary cortisol and melatonin concentrations were collected from non-stimulated saliva following standardized guidelines. A headache diary for 4 weeks was used for collecting intensity, frequency and duration of headache. No significant differences for cortisol (t = -0.431; p = 0.668), and melatonin (z = -1.564; p = 0.118) concentrations and salivary flow rate (z = -1.190; p = 0.234) were found between both groups. No significant effect of age or gender was found. In addition, no significant association between cortisol-melatonin concentrations and between cortisol-melatonin concentrations and headache clinical parameters were found. These results suggest that children with FETTH, at first instance, do not present deficits in the secretion of these cortisol and melatonin. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to further elucidate the direction of current findings, particularly the synchronism of cortisol and melatonin and the course of the headache. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.

  16. A Community-based Healthy Living Promotion Program Improved Self-esteem Among Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Ortiz, Christina L; Stuff, Janice E; Mikhail, Carmen; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Alejandro, Mercedes E; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, Elliot O'Brian

    2016-07-01

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority children. The after-school program was implemented at community centers in low-income neighborhoods with close proximity to public schools. The program consisted of 3 6-week sessions. Each week, children attended 2 2-hour sessions. Each 2-hour session in the intervention included 90 minutes of structured physical activities and 30 minutes of nutrition and healthy habit lessons. The control group received typical enrichment programs. Outcomes were measured before the intervention and at the end of each 6-week session. We enrolled 877 children (age 10.2 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE); body mass index z score: 1.49 ± 0.1; 52.0% boys; 72.6% Hispanic) in the program with 524 children received the intervention at 14 community centers and 353 children served as control at 10 community centers. The intervention led to no improvements in BMI z score (P = 0.78) and dietary habits (P = 0.46). Significant improvements (P ≤ 0.02) were detected in the amount of exercise that a child perceived to be required to offset a large meal and in several key self-esteem scores. No improvements were detected in physical activities (P ≥ 0.21). The improvement in some key self-esteem scores and nutrition knowledge may act as a mediator to motivate these children to adopt a healthier lifestyle in the future.

  17. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  18. Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Have Similar Neuroradiological Abnormal Findings as Healthy Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rachmiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the neuroradiological findings of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT compared to healthy controls (HC. Patients and Methods. Thirty children with CHT, mean age 12.5 ± 1.6 years, 14 (44.8% males, were compared with 38 HC mean age 11.7 ± 1.7 years, 16 (45.7% males. Clinical data were collected from medical charts and questionnaires seeking information on family history, birth and perinatal period events, medications, and overall health history. Neurocognitive function was assessed for global intelligence, visual and verbal memory, and executive functioning using standardized tests. Neuroimaging was performed using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging and assessed by two pediatric radiologists. Results. Children with CHT had a similar proportion of incidental findings as did the children in the HC group, at 43.3% and 39.5%, respectively, . Abnormalities of the sellar region were reported in 13.3% of CHT group and 7.9% of HC group, . Other incidental findings included cerebellar ectopia, choroidal fissure and pineal cysts, and multiple increased signal intensity foci. Neuroradiological findings were not associated with clinical and neurocognitive abnormalities. Conclusion. Neuroimaging of children with CHT demonstrated a similar incidence of structural abnormalities as in the healthy population. There is no association between those findings and neurocognitive function.

  19. A study of the Healthy Growth Charter in socially disadvantaged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Musicco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attendance and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.

  20. Hemodynamics of Right Heart in Healthy Children according to Doppler Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kondratiev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There was studied intracardiac hemodynamics in 96 healthy children aged from 3 to 15 years old. There were identified age-related standards for dopplerechocardiography parameters of right heart, which can be used for the diagnosis of pathological abnormalities of the cardiac functionality in children with cardiac and somatic pathology in the practice of pediatrics and pediatric cardiology. The use of standardized methodological approaches to the assessment of systolic and diastolic function of the right ventricle will allow compare the results of studies obtained in different clinics, and use these data in scientific research.

  1. Can School Organic Food Policy Promote Healthy Behaviors in Danish Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    Schools are a well suited setting for learning and establishment of good habits of children and youth. Using schools in healthy eating strategies may play an important role in preventing children from becoming obese and overweight, and a growing number of schools and municipalities engage...... therefore arises whether these two trends - healthier eating strategies for youth, and increased public consumption of organic food, interact. This paper investigates the interrelation between the two trends: healthy eating and organic consumption. In Denmark, public schools are utilised for public organic...... food supply strategies in a few dedicated municipalities. Concurrently, the schools are an arena for innovative strategies that may increase the availability of healthier food options. The purpose of this study was to examine whether organic food intervention strategies in Danish school meal systems...

  2. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy Venezuelan children

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, C.; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5?years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae colonization, S. aureus colonization, and S. pneumoniae?S. aureus co-colonization was 28%, 56%, and 16%, respectively. Pneumococcal serotypes 6B (14%), 19F (12%), 23F (12%), 15 (9%), 6...

  3. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    IGF-I concentrations increased slowly in prepubertal children from 80-200 micrograms/L with a further steep increase during puberty to approximately 500 micrograms/L. After puberty, a subsequent continuous fall in circulating IGF-I levels was apparent throughout adulthood to a mean of 100 micrograms....../L at the age of 80 yr (P puberty was diminished when data were separated according to sex...... and Tanner stage of puberty. Interestingly, we found a significant variation with age within the Tanner stages; there was an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations with age in the early pubertal stages and a decrease in the late stages (P

  4. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    IGF-I concentrations increased slowly in prepubertal children from 80-200 micrograms/L with a further steep increase during puberty to approximately 500 micrograms/L. After puberty, a subsequent continuous fall in circulating IGF-I levels was apparent throughout adulthood to a mean of 100 micrograms...... and Tanner stage of puberty. Interestingly, we found a significant variation with age within the Tanner stages; there was an increase in serum IGF-I concentrations with age in the early pubertal stages and a decrease in the late stages (P

  5. Effects of a hops (Humulus lupulus L.) dry extract supplement on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in apparently healthy young adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Christou, Aimilia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Skenderi, Katerina; Katsana, Konstantina; Tsigos, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The Humulus lupulus L. plant (hops) is used as a herbal medicinal product for anxiety/mood disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of a hops dry extract on self-reported depression, anxiety and stress levels in young adults. Apparently healthy young adults from our university completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and those reporting at least mild depression, anxiety and stress were invited to complete the study intervention. This followed a randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design with two 4-week intervention periods (hops or placebo; two 0.2 gr capsules once daily) separated by a 2-week wash-out. Anthropometric measurements, DASS-21 assessments and measurements of morning cortisol plasma levels were performed at the beginning and the end of the 4-week treatment periods. 36 participants (Females/Males: 31/5; age: 24.7±0.5 years) completed the study intervention (attrition: 6/42). No significant changes in body weight and composition or morning circulating cortisol were noted with the hops or placebo. Significantly decreased DASS-21 anxiety, depression and stress scores were documented with hops (9.2±7.3 vs. 5.1±5.9, 11.9±7.9 vs. 9.2±7.4, and 19.1±8.1 vs. 11.6±8.1; all p values hops dry extract can significantly improve all these symptoms over a 4-week period. These beneficial effects agree with the indication of hops for anxiety/mood disorders and restlessness, as approved by the German Commission E.

  6. Paternal Lifestyle-Related Parenting Practices Mediate Changes in Children's Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: Findings From the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids Community Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morgan, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined potential parenting-related mediators of children's physical activity and dietary behavior change in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK) community program. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 45 overweight/obese (mean [SD] age = 39.8 [5.4] years; BMI = 32.4 [3.8]) fathers and their children (n = 77; 58% boys; mean [SD] age = 7.7 [2.5] years). Families were randomized to either the HDHK program or wait-list control group. The program involved 7 sessions. Fathers and their children were assessed at baseline and at 14 weeks for physical activity (pedometery) and core food intake (Questionnaire). Fathers' lifestyle-related parenting practices included; self-efficacy, beliefs, modeling, logistic support, rules, cophysical activity, shared mealtime frequency and intentions. Significant intervention effects were found for cophysical activity and modeling physical activity. Cophysical activity mediated children's physical activity in the intervention ('mediated effect,' AB = 653, 95% CI = 4-2050) and was responsible for 59.5% of the intervention effect. Fathers' beliefs mediated children's percent energy from core foods (AB = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.05-5.55) and accounted for 72.9% of the intervention effect. Participation in the HDHK program positively impacted on fathers' cophysical activity with their child and beliefs about healthy eating which mediated changes in children's diet and physical activity behaviors.

  7. Evaluation of medical and psychological parameters of quality of life in supraventricular tachyarrhythmia children. A comparison with healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, Emilia; Baszko, Artur; Bukowska-Posadzy, Anna; Moszura, Tomasz; Werner, Bożena; Siwińska, Aldona; Banach, Maciej; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bobkowski, Waldemar

    2016-10-01

    There are only a few available studies evaluating quality of life (QoL) in pediatric patients with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of the study was to evaluate medical and psychological parameters of the QoL in children with a diagnosed supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (SVT) and to compare the obtained data with a group of healthy children (HC). Inclusion criteria: children aged 7-18 with SVT, treated at Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Cardiology. The evaluation tools were the WHOQOL-BREF instrument and a questionnaire related to the patient's feelings and observations concerning arrhythmia (Pediatric Arrhythmia Related Score - PARS), developed by the authors and adjusted to the group of arrhythmia patients. The study included 180 SVT children and 83 HC. On the basis of WHOQOL-BREF the SVT group was found to have lower assessment values of QoL within the physical domain (Phd) (mean ± SD: 65.7 ±15.8 vs. 81.6 ±12.8; p psychological domain (Psd) (mean ± SD: 75.8 ±15.2 vs. 81.3 ±14.1; p psychological parameters of the QoL in SVT children are significantly lower in comparison with HC. A diagnosis of SVT has no influence on the social and environmental areas of QoL. The PARS appears to be a useful tool to supplement the generic questionnaire for QoL evaluation in SVT children.

  8. Effects of a randomized intervention promoting healthy children's meals on children's ordering and dietary intake in a quick-service restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Braun, Abbey C; Ehrenberg, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H; Gampp, April; Leone, Lucia A; Singh, Anita; Tauriello, Sara

    2018-01-31

    Children's consumption of restaurant foods is associated with higher energy intake and lower nutritional quality compared to foods prepared at home. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether an in-restaurant intervention promoting healthy children's meals (i.e. two meals that met nutrition recommendations and were thus healthier than typical children's meal offerings across leading restaurants) affected children's meal selection and intake. Families with 4-to-8-year-old children were recruited from one location of Anderson's Frozen Custard, a regional quick-service restaurant chain. Families were randomly assigned to return to the restaurant during an intervention or control period and were blinded to group assignment. All families received free meals. During the intervention period families also received placemats featuring two healthy "Kids' Meals of the Day" upon restaurant entry. After families finished dining, researchers recorded children's orders and collected leftovers for quantifying dietary intake via weighed plate waste. Poisson regression and chi-square tests were used to compare children's orders between study groups, and t-tests were used to test for differences in dietary intake among children ordering a promoted healthy entrée (main dish) versus those who did not. Fifty-eight families participated. Children who were exposed to the study placemats prior to ordering ordered a significantly greater number of healthy food components compared to controls (p = 0.03). Overall, in the intervention group, 21% of children ordered a healthy entrée or side dish, versus 7% of controls. Children who ordered one of the promoted healthy entrées consumed less saturated fat across the total meal compared to those who did not (p = 0.04). Manipulating the prominence of healthy choices in restaurants may shift children's meal selections. Future research should build on these initial promising results, aiming to increase the potency of the intervention

  9. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. Lactis (B. lactis) Strain BB-12-Supplemented Yogurt in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary E; D'Amico, Frank J; Roberts, Robert F; Smith, Keisha H; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Sixty children ages 1 to 5 years were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12-supplemented yogurt or nonsupplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 186 nonserious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12 groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. The present study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in different disease states.

  10. Neural activation associated with the cognitive emotion regulation of sadness in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy C. Belden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When used effectively, cognitive reappraisal of distressing events is a highly adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER strategy, with impairments in cognitive reappraisal associated with greater risk for psychopathology. Despite extensive literature examining the neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal in healthy and psychiatrically ill adults, there is a dearth of data to inform the neural bases of CER in children, a key gap in the literature necessary to map the developmental trajectory of cognitive reappraisal. In this fMRI study, psychiatrically healthy schoolchildren were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions and responses of negative affect after viewing sad photos. Consistent with the adult literature, when actively engaged in reappraisal compared to passively viewing sad photos, children showed increased activation in the vlPFC, dlPFC, and dmPFC as well as in parietal and temporal lobe regions. When children used cognitive reappraisal to minimize their experience of negative affect after viewing sad stimuli they exhibited dampened amygdala responses. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of identifying and characterizing neural processes underlying adaptive CER strategies in typically developing children in order to understand how these systems go awry and relate to the risk and occurrence of affective disorders.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology and Antibacterial Susceptibility of Streptococci Isolated from Healthy Children Attending Day Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Perçin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of the study were to investigate antibacterial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of streptococci isolated from healthy children attending day care units and to evaluate clonal relatedness of the strains. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibilities of streptococci isolated from 212 children attending 3 different day care units were evaluated using the agar dilution method. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to investigate resistance mechanisms. Clonal relatedness was evaluated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results: Of 212 children, 11 (5.2% carried Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17 (8.0% S. pyogenes, and 42 (19.8% erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci. All S. pyogenes were susceptible to penicillin G and macrolides. Ten of 11 clonally unique S. pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin G. Three of 11 S. pneumoniae were macrolide resistant and carried erm(B. Among clonally unique 42 erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci, 2 (4.8% had erm(B, 33 (78.6% had mef(A and 7 (16.6% had both erm(B and mef(A genes. All S. pyogenes from the first centre and three strains from the second centre were pulse-type A. Conclusion: Among healthy children, colonization with penicillin resistant pneumococci and erythromycin resistant viridans group streptococci is quite high. Clonal spread of S. pyogenes is important for day care units.

  12. Total Breast-Feeding Duration and Dental Caries in Healthy Urban Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Venu, Isvarya; Chen, Yang; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if there is an association between longer breast-feeding duration and dental caries in healthy urban children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of urban children aged 1 to 6 years recruited through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) practice-based research network between September 2011 and August 2013. The main outcome measure was parental report of dental caries. The adjusted predicted probability of dental caries was 7%, 8%, 11%, and 16% with total duration of breast-feeding duration of 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, relative to breast-feeding 0 to 5 months, the odds of dental caries with total breast-feeding duration >24 months was 2.75 (95% confidence interval 1.61-4.72). Among healthy urban children, longer breast-feeding duration was associated with higher odds of dental caries. These findings support heightened awareness and enhanced anticipatory guidance for preventive dental care, particularly among children who breast-feed beyond 2 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  14. Active Healthy Kids Canada’s Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart JH; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC’s position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation). PMID:24497779

  15. Electroencephalographic sleep of healthy children. Part II: Findings using automated delta and REM sleep measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, P A; Reynolds, C F; Kupfer, D J; Houck, P

    1987-12-01

    Using earlier developed computer-based measurement methods, delta and REM activity were examined during sleep as a function of age, gender, and time of night in 85 healthy, 6- to 16-year-old children. Chronological age was found to account most strongly for differences in automated delta and REM count measures in this age range. Increasing age was shown to be associated with a significant decline in both automated measures, but the effect was much greater for the delta count measure. The age-related decline in delta wave activity was reflected primarily in a linear decline in 2.0-3.0 Hz delta activity, that is, in the faster end of the delta frequency band. Examination of these measurements in successive NREM and REM sleep periods confirmed that, in children as in adults, delta activity decreases and REM activity increases across the night. Findings are discussed relative to those obtained in the same children using standard measurement methods.

  16. Height in healthy children in low- and middle-income countries: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Mahesh; Subramanian, S V; Fink, Günther

    2017-01-01

    Despite rapid economic development and reductions in child mortality worldwide, continued high rates of early childhood stunting have put the global applicability of international child-height standards into question. We used population-based survey data to identify children growing up in healthy environments in low- and middle-income countries and compared the height distribution of these children to the height distribution of the reference sample established by the WHO. Height data were extracted from 169 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) that were collected across 63 countries between 1990 and 2014. Children were classified as having grown up in ideal environments if they 1) had access to safe water and sanitation; 2) lived in households with finished floors, a television, and a car; 3) were born to highly educated mothers; 4) were single births; and 5) were delivered in hospitals. We compared the heights of children in ideal environments with those in the WHO reference sample. A total of 878,249 height records were extracted, and 1006 children (0.1%) were classified as having been raised in an ideal home environment. The mean height-for-age z score (HAZ) in this sample was not statistically different from zero (95% CI: -0.039, 0.125). The HAZ SD for the sample was estimated to be 1.3, and 5.3% of children in the sample were classified as being stunted (HAZ environments were used. The large current gaps in children's heights relative to those of the reference sample likely are not due to innate or genetic differences between children but, rather, reflect children's continued exposure to poverty, a lack of maternal education, and a lack of access to safe water and sanitation across populations. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Salt, fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure development: a longitudinal investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lijie; Krupp, Danika; Remer, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Low salt intake and high fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP) in adults. Longitudinal data on the independent effect of both FVI and salt intake on BP in healthy normotensive children are not available yet. In the present study, we aimed to characterise the concomitant influence of salt intake and FVI on BP development throughout childhood and adolescence. We examined 435 healthy subjects, for whom at least three repeated measurements of BP had been taken and who had provided 24 h urine samples and 3 d weighed dietary records between 4 and 18 years of age. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer (Mercuro 300, WelchAllyn) and salt intake was determined based on 24 h Na excretion. The intra-individual change in salt intake was almost significantly associated with the change in systolic BP (SBP, P= 0·06) and marginally (P= 0·09) with that in diastolic BP (DBP) in puberty, but not in pre-puberty. A 1 g/d increase in salt intake was associated with a 0·2 mmHg increase in SBP. In pre-puberty, but not in puberty, differences in FVI between children predicted between-person variations in SBP and DBP (P= 0·03). Corresponding findings were obtained for 24 h K excretion (a urinary indicator for FVI). A 100 g/d lower FVI was related to a 0·4 mmHg higher BP value. In conclusion, in healthy children and adolescents with BP in the low-normal range, both salt intake and FVI may already start to influence BP, although at a small magnitude. The potential importance of establishing healthy eating habits in childhood for later BP development emphasises the role of higher FVI and lower salt intake in the prevention of hypertension in the long run.

  18. Polysomnographic Sleep Characteristics of Generally-Anxious and Healthy Children Assessed in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Mellman, Thomas A.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Alfano, Candice A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) we recently provided evidence of significantly prolonged sleep onset latency (SOL) and reduced latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep among non-depressed children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to healthy age-matched controls. In the current study we conducted unattended ambulatory PSG in a new sample of children with GAD and controls in order to examine sleeping characteristics in the home environment. Method Thirty-two children (ages of 7–11 years) including 16 children with primary GAD and 16 controls receiving no psychotropic medications were studied. The anxious group had a primary diagnosis of GAD without secondary mood disorders and controls were free of any medical or psychiatric diagnoses. All participants underwent structured diagnostic assessments and completed one night of home-based polysomnography (PSG). Results Children with GAD exhibited significantly higher sleep efficiency (SE) and fewer rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods compared to controls. Self-reported somatic arousal during the pre-sleep period was negatively correlated with the percentage of total REM sleep among controls, but positively correlated with REM sleep percentage in the GAD group. Limitations A small sample size and one night of PSG only. Conclusions Home-based PSG recording do not provide evidence of disrupted sleep patterns in children with GAD. Contextual factors that better elucidate differences between laboratory and home-based sleep findings are suggested as important directions for future research. PMID:24751311

  19. Relationship between Sleep Habits and Nighttime Sleep among Healthy Preschool Children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ming Jae

    2016-12-01

    Introduction : We examined the nighttime sleep habits associated with insufficient sleep quantity and poor sleep quality among healthy preschool-aged Taiwanese children. Materials and Methods : The study population of this cross-sectional survey was a stratified random sample of 3 to 6-year-old preschool children from 19 cities and counties in Taiwan. A caregiver-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on preschooler sleep quantity (sleep duration and sleep latency) and sleep quality (sleep disturbances and disruption) and potentially related sleep habits. Results : Of the 1253 children for whom analysable survey data were collected (children's mean age: 5.03 ± 1.27 years), more than half (53.07%) engaged in bedtime television (TV)-viewing, 88.95% required a sleep reminder, 43.85% exhibited bedtime resistance, 93.6% engaged in co-sleeping (bed-sharing or room-sharing), and only 33.72% slept in a well darkened bedroom. Bedtime TV-viewing, co-sleeping, bedroom light exposure, and bedtime resistance were the primary predictors, without a bedtime TV-viewing habit was the strongest predictor analysed; it explained 15.2% and 19.9% of the variance in adequate sleep quantity and improved sleep quality in preschool children. Conclusion : Sleep loss and poor sleep quality in preschool children could be alleviated, at least partly, by curtailing bedtime TV-viewing, limiting light exposure during sleeping, and reducing bed-sharing habit.

  20. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations.

  1. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Calcium supplements in healthy children do not affect weight gain, height, or body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzenberg, Tania; Shaw, Kelly; Fryer, Jayne; Jones, Graeme

    2007-07-01

    Calcium intake is a potential factor influencing weight gain and may reduce body weight, but the evidence for this in children is conflicting. The aim of this study was to use data from randomized controlled trials to determine whether calcium supplementation in healthy children affects weight or body composition. This study is a systematic review. We identified potential studies by searching the following electronic bibliographic databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, MANTIS, ISI Web of Science, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and Human Nutrition up until April 1, 2005 and hand-searched relevant conference abstracts. Studies were included if they were placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of calcium supplementation, with at least 3 months of supplementation, in healthy children and with outcome measures including weight. Meta-analyses were performed using fixed effects models and weighted mean differences for weight and height and standardized mean differences (SMDs) for body composition measures. There were no statistically significant effects of calcium supplementation on weight [+0.14 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.28, +0.57 kg], height (+0.22 cm; 95% CI, -0.30, +0.74 cm), body fat (SMD, +0.04; 95% CI, -0.08, +0.15), or lean mass (SMD, +0.14; 95% CI, -0.03, +0.31). There is no evidence to support the use of calcium supplementation as a public health intervention to reduce weight gain or body fat in healthy children. Although our results do not rule out an effect of dietary supplementation with dairy products on weight gain or body composition, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis.

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Healthy Children in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Suzi P.; de Almeida, Jéssica B.; de Freitas, Leandro M.; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia S.; do Nascimento, Naíla C.; dos Santos, Andrea P.; Messick, Joanne B.; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the draft genome sequences of two community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains, C18 and C80, isolated from healthy children from day care centers. To our knowledge, these are the first draft genome sequences of CA-MRSA ST398/CC398/SccmecV and CA-MRSA ST5/CC5/SccmecIVa isolated from healthy children in Brazil. PMID:28408675

  4. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Adriana Cândida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães

    2016-11-06

    To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed: Socio-demographic condictions, clinical health, anthropometric, biochemical, lifestyle and data on food consumption. The 56 healthy children were divided into two groups, overweight (C1) and non-overweight (C2), as well as their mothers, respectively, in overweight (M1) and non-overweight (M2). Nutritional status was defined according to results obtained through the Anthro ® Software for nutritional analysis. Thirty-five children were male, with mean age of 4.44 ± 1.0 years old. Eighty-nine percent of them were eutrophic, 86.7% were sedentary and they had five meals a day. Body mass index (BMI) for age and total cholesterol (TC) was higher on C1 ( P = 0.0001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was higher on C2. Mothers were 32.5 ± 7.1 years old, mostly married and employed. Eighty-six percent of them were sedentary and 62.5% were overweight with BMI = 26.38 ± 5.07 kg/m 2 . Eighteen percent of the overweight mothers had isolated total hypercholesterolemia (TC levels elevated) and 12.5% had low HDL-c levels. The present study showed an association between overweight and obesity during the preschool years and the correspondent mothers' nutritional status of overweight and obesity (OR = 4.96; 95%CI: 0.558-44.17). There was a positive correlation between the food risk associated with CVD by children and mothers when their consumption was 4 times/wk ( P = 0.049; r = 0.516) or daily ( P = 0.000008; r = 0.892). Analyzed children showed high rates of physical inactivity, high

  5. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  6. Suzie's Mommy Is Having a Baby: Don't Freak out! Healthy Sexuality Development in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Is it the teacher's job to assist children in developing a healthy sexual identity in early childhood? A healthy sexual identity is developed over the course of a lifetime through the "process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about such important topics as identity, relationships, and intimacy." Teachers may feel…

  7. Instruments to assess self-care among healthy children: A systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpí-Fernández, Ana-María; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Roldán-Merino, Juan-Francisco; Lluch-Canut, María-Teresa

    2017-12-01

    To identify, critically appraise and summarize the measurement properties of instruments to assess self-care in healthy children. Assessing self-care is a proper consideration for nursing practice and nursing research. No systematic review summarizes instruments of measurement validated in healthy children. Psychometric review in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Open Grey were searched from their inception to December 2016. Validation studies with a healthy child population were included. Search was not restricted by language. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COSMIN checklist. Eleven studies were included in the review assessing the measurement properties of ten instruments. There was a maximum of two studies per instrument. None of the studies evaluated the properties of test-retest reliability, measurement error, criterion validity and responsiveness. Internal consistency and structural validity were rated as "excellent" or "good" in four studies. Four studies were rated as "excellent" in content validity. Cross-cultural validity was rated as "poor" in the two studies (three instruments) which cultural adaptation was carried out. The evidence available does not allow firm conclusions about the instruments identified in terms of reliability and validity. Future research should focus on generate evidence about a wider range of measurement properties of these instruments using a rigorous methodology, as well as instrument testing on different countries and child population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Simon H

    2013-01-01

    Although our continuing evolution can never achieve our perfection, we long for our children's birth and health to be near-perfect. Many children are born healthy, though fewer than is possible. Birthing and health rapidly improved generally due to modern housing, sanitation and medicine, as well as birth interventions. Arguably interventions have exceeded the optimal level, without enough regard for natural physical and intuitive resources. Conception, often too easy, receives too little personal preparation unless a couple has problems. Nurturing the health of sperm and ovum seems hard to focus on, yet is needed by both parents - and even by the four grandparents. What are the key factors? Positive: The fields of hormones/emotions and of nutrition/metabolism. Negative: stress, poor nutrition, toxins, diseases; much being due to poverty. Positive and negative both have structural and also epigenetic effects. Interventions, essential or inessential, are seldom without negative side effects. Health can best, and most economically, be generated at the beginning of life, through healthy conception, gestation and birth. Understanding prime needs improves initial health. It also informs therapy of any early-life problems. Healing is therefore more efficient when transgenerational, and much more powerful than individual healing. My vision of healing is safeguarding our evolution in progress. Children's choices - eating, exercise, emotional attitudes and relationships - are already profoundly affecting any children they may have, their mental and physical health. The most practical starting point seems to be educating boys as well as girls. Childhood is therefore the time to educate them in choices. The correction of often unnoticed problems- nutrient deficits, toxins, uro-genital disease - has enabled nearly nine out of ten couples to bear fully healthy babies, even following severe problems - infertility, miscarriages, stillbirths and malformations. Correcting problems

  9. An Interactive Web-Based Intervention to Achieve Healthy Weight in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R; Ewing, Linda J; Moyer, Stacey C L; Eickhoff, Jens C

    2018-05-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial for parents of overweight and obese 3- to 7-year-olds was performed to assess the feasibility of a program promoting healthy eating and lifestyle by targeting parents as agents of change. The intervention was composed of 6-in-person group sessions and a customized website over 12 months. The control group received customary care. The primary outcome was feasibility of the intervention to promote healthy behavior change measured by attendance. The secondary outcome was effectiveness assessed by attaining reduced body mass index (BMI) z scores, healthy behavior changes and increased parent self-efficacy. Seventy-three child-parent dyads were enrolled; 14 parents never attended any sessions. Participation in follow-up assessments did not meet the hypothesized level. Ultimate BMI z scores did not differ between control and intervention groups. Parenting skills did not improve in the intervention group. This intervention to achieve healthy lifestyle changes in children via their parents as "change agents" was unsuccessful.

  10. Healthy characters? An investigation of marketing practices in children's food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Jessica; Kunkel, Dale; Wright, Paul; Duff, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    To determine the nutritional quality of foods advertised with familiar children's characters and health-related messages. Children's programming aired on the most popular broadcast and cable channels during 2011 was sampled to form a composite weekday and weekend day. All food advertisements (ads) included in this programming were content analyzed. Five hundred seventy-seven food ads. Familiar characters promoting products were either trade or licensed characters. A product's nutritional quality was determined using the United States Department of Health and Human Services' categorizations, based on the frequency foods should be consumed. Health cues were present when a food was claimed to be healthy, physical activity was depicted, or the product was associated with fruit. Frequencies and chi square analyses were conducted; P advertising to children, yet marketers do not adhere to recommendations that characters promote strictly healthy foods. Future research is needed to investigate effects and inform policy decisions in this realm. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of selective immunoglobulin A deficiency in healthy Turkish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baştürk, Bilkay; Sari, Sinan; Aral, Arzu; Dalgiç, Buket

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is the most common primary deficiency. We aimed to define the prevalence of IgA deficiency among healthy school children in Turkey and the differences between geographical regions. Blood samples were collected from 20,331 healthy school children from all regions across Turkey. The serum IgA levels were tested through nephelometric method, and all 108 samples with IgA levels lower than 5 g/L were tested through ELISA for IgG and IgM levels. All IgG and IgM values were within the normal range in all cases, and no concomitant deficiency was observed. Our study results showed that the selective IgA deficiency incidence was 0.52% (1:188). The highest incidence, of 1:128.7, was observed in children from the Marmara region; the Black Sea Region levels (1:132.7) were lower, and the Mediterranean levels (1:365.7) were the lowest.

  12. Specific airway resistance, interrupter resistance, and respiratory impedance in healthy children aged 2-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klug, B; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    resistance (sRaw) by a modified procedure method in the whole body plethysmograph. Measurements were attempted in 151 children and were successfully obtained in 121 children with a mean (SD) age of 5.3 (1.5) years; no measurements were possible in 30 children (mean age 3 (0.9) years). The repeatability...... with age, height, and weight was found for Rint, Zrs, and Rrs5. Xrs5 was positively correlated to age and body size. The mean values of Rint, Rrs5, Xrs5, and Zrs in children younger and older than 5 years were 1.04, 1.38, -0.5, and 1.48 kPa x L(-1) x s and 0.9, 1.18, -0.37, and 1.23 kPa x L(-1) x s......We report data on respiratory function in healthy children aged 2-7 years in whom we measured respiratory resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint); total respiratory impedance (Zrs), respiratory resistance (Rrs), and reactance (Xrs) by the impulse oscillation technique; and specific airway...

  13. Growth references for Brazilian children and adolescents: healthy growth in Cariri study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simonete; Maia, José; Claessens, Albrecth L; Beunen, Gaston; Pan, Huiqi

    2012-01-01

    To construct reference values for height, body mass and BMI of children and adolescents from the Cariri region, Brazil; to compare the growth of Cariri children with those from CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and with references from other Brazilian regions; to verify the associations between socioeconomic status and height, body mass and BMI in children and youth from both sexes. The sample comprised 3311 girls and 3280 boys aged 7-17 years, participating in the study 'Healthy Growth in Cariri'. Socioeconomic status was defined according to school attendance: private and public. Centile curves for height, body mass and BMI were constructed using the LMS method. Significant differences between children and adolescents from Cariri and those from other Brazilian regions and the CDC references were found for height and body mass. In girls from private schools, average differences in height compared to the CDC references ranged from 0.79-5.9 cm and in boys from 2.9-8.6 cm. Children from Cariri show a growth pattern in height, body mass and BMI that closely resembles the patterns observed in developed countries, but the absolute values in height and body mass are markedly lower than CDC references and growth references for other regions in Brazil.

  14. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cuetoa, Federico J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...... and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which...... selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention...

  15. Food through the child's eye: An eye-tracking study on attentional bias for food in healthy-weight children and children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Vreugdenhil, Anita C E; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Schyns, Ghislaine; Roefs, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Obesity prevalence among children is high and knowledge on cognitive factors that contribute to children's reactivity to the "obesogenic" food environment could help to design effective treatment and prevention campaigns. Empirical studies in adults suggest that attention bias for food could be a risk factor for overeating. Accordingly, the current study tested if children with obesity have an elevated attention bias for food when compared to healthy-weight children. Another aim was to explore whether attention biases for food predicted weight-change after 3 and 6 months in obese children. Obese children (n = 34) were recruited from an intervention program and tested prior to the start of this intervention. Healthy-weight children (n = 36) were recruited from local schools. First, attention biases for food were compared between children with obesity (n = 30) and matched healthy-weight children (n = 30). Second, regression analyses were conducted to test if food-related attention biases predicted weight changes after 3 and 6 months in children with obesity following a weight loss lifestyle intervention. Results showed that obese children did not differ from healthy-weight children in their attention bias to food. Yet automatically directing attention toward food (i.e., initial orientation bias) was related to a reduced weight loss (R² = .14, p = .032) after 6 months in children with obesity. High palatable food is a salient stimulus for all children, irrespective of their weight status. However, automatically directing attention to food cues might facilitate further weight gain in children with obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Increased oxidative stress in healthy children following an exercise program: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Melita M; Zhang, Renliang; Super, Dennis M; Hazen, Stanley L; Hall, Howard R

    2010-06-01

    Exercise can induce oxidative stress or an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and cellular antioxidant defenses. We investigated the effect of a real-life exercise program on systemic oxidative stress measured by urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha), a noninvasive index of lipid peroxidation, in a well-characterized pediatric group. Healthy but primarily sedentary, 8- to 10-year-old children (n = 6, mean age 8.8 +/- 0.9 years) of equally distributed healthy weight, overweight, and obese categories, participated in a 5-week exercise program (track and field summer camp, 2 hours/day, 1-2 days/week). By using high-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), we found a significant (p = .028) increase in group mean urinary 8-iso-PGF2 alpha concentration from 8.163 +/- 6.919 ng/mg creatinine pre-exercise program to 32.320 +/- 16.970 ng/mg creatinine post-exercise program. The increase was also measured at each individual level. We found preliminary evidence that pre- and post-exercise program urinary 8-iso-PGF2 alpha concentrations selectively correlated with children's cardiometabolic characteristics and mood. Our results warrant further exploration of the relationships between pre/post-exercise oxidative stress marker 8-iso-PGF2 alpha and cardiometabolic characteristics, exercise habits, eating habits, and mood to determine whether increased post-exercise oxidative stress in healthy children is part of their normal adaptation to exercise or mediator of oxidative injury.

  17. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables.METHODS:this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%.RESULTS:40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051.CONCLUSIONS:asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  18. Cocolonization of Pneumococcal Serotypes in Healthy Children Attending Day Care Centers: Molecular Versus Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha Á; Gumundsdóttir, Pálína Fanney; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Kristinsson, Karl G; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn

    2016-05-01

    Pneumococci are common colonizer, especially of children, and cocolonization of different serotypes is an important factor for intraspecies genetic exchange. The aim of this study was to analyze pneumococcal carriage and serotype distribution in unvaccinated healthy children in Iceland and compare conventional culture methods and molecular methods using DNA extracted directly from the samples. Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 514 children aged 2-6 year attending day care centers in Reykjavik in 2009. The swabs were selectively cultured for pneumococci and the isolates serotyped using latex agglutination. DNA was also extracted directly from the swabs and serotyped using a multiplex PCR panel designed to detect vaccine serotypes and the most commonly carried non-vaccine serotypes. Pneumococcal carriage was detected in 391 (76.1%) of the children using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in 371 (72.2%) using conventional methods. Cocolonization was detected in 92 (23.5%) of the carriers when PCR method was used and in 30 (8.1%) when conventional methods were used, detecting 500 and 401 strains, respectively (P < 0.0001). The most common serotypes were 23F, 19A, 6B, 6A and 19F, rates 13-8%. The number of isolates of serotypes included in the 10-valent and 13-valent vaccines and detected by PCR were 234 (58.4%) and 363 (90.5%), respectively and by conventional methods 186 (46.4%) and 293 (73.1%), respectively. Cocolonization was detected in a fourth of the children carrying pneumococci using DNA extracted directly from nasopharyngeal swabs. The rate of carriage was very high, but no serotype dominated, and the children were commonly colonized by vaccine serotypes, especially cocolonized children.

  19. Rapid Assessment with Qualitative Telephone Interviews: Lessons from an Evaluation of California's Healthy Families Program & Medi-Cal for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J.; Simmes, Diana R.; Landsverk, John A.; Kurtin, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    California's Healthy Families/Medi-Cal for Children (HF/MCC) program provides low- and no-cost health insurance to low-income children. In December 1999 and January 2000, 72 community-based organizations (CBOs) were contracted by California's Department of Health Services (DHS) to supply culturally appropriate HF/MCC outreach and enrollment…

  20. Promotion of a Healthy Weight and Lifestyle among Children: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOverweight and obesity among children has become a public health issue. This thesis aimed to describe interventions promoting a healthy weight and lifestyle among children and provide insight in elements that may be related to intervention improvement. Health care has an important role

  1. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p overweight/obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of mastication in healthy children and children with cerebral palsy: a validity and consistency study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijn, L.; Speyer, R.; Groen, B.E.; Holtus, P.C.; Limbeek, J. van; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the Mastication Observation and Evaluation instrument for observing and assessing the chewing ability of children eating solid and lumpy foods. This study describes the process of item definition and item selection and reports the content validity,

  3. Children's Literacy: Children's Books for Healthy Families/Libros de Ninos Para Familias Saludables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Jo Anne

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year project taught reading methods and provided culturally appropriate books for Spanish-speaking and English-speaking families (year 1, 1,013 families; year 2, 1,408 families). Data from home visits and follow-up surveys (n=207) revealed that positive parent/child interaction and time spent reading to children increased and the number of…

  4. Nasal peak inspiratory flow through Turbuhaler (R) in children with symptomatic rhinitis and in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, JGCM; van der Weij, AM; Duiverman, EJ; Akerlund, A; Kouwenberg, JM

    2000-01-01

    Topical treatment of allergic or vasomotor rhinitis is possible by means of pressurized metered dose inhalers, aqueous spray, or dry powder inhalers. In children, little is known about nasal drug delivery by dry powder inhalation. The airflow through the device is critical for the drug release and a

  5. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  6. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  7. Clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Wei; Jiao, An-Xia; Wu, Xi-Rong; Zhao, Shun-Ying; Ma, Yun; Liu, Gang; Yin, Ju; Xu, Bao-Ping; Shen, Kun-Ling

    2017-05-22

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is a rare and fatal disease, and limited data exist regarding it in children. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of disseminated cryptococcosis in previously healthy children in China. Hospitalized patients with disseminated cryptococcosis were enrolled during January 1996 to December 2015 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Data on clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatment, and prognosis were evaluated. A total of 52 pediatric patients with no underlying disease were enrolled, including 38 boys and 14 girls. Only 10 cases had a history of exposure to pigeon droppings. Fever, cough, and hepatomegaly were 3 main manifestations of disseminated cryptococcosis. However, headache was more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) invasion than in patients with non-CNS invasion (P scattered distribution (57.1%, 12/21) or miliary distribution (42.9%, 9/25), especially localized in subpleural area. Subsequent invasion occurred in the CNS, abdomen lymph nodes, liver, spleen, peripheral lymph nodes, and skin. In all patients, 42.3% (22/52) and 51.9% (27/52) had elevated eosinophils or IgE, respectively. The positive rate of serum cryptococcal antigen was higher, especially in patients with CNS invasion (approximately 83.3%), than with other primary methods used for pathogen detection, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal antigen, cultures of blood, bone marrow, or CSF, and CSF ink staining. The overall mortality rate of pediatric patients in our study was 11.5% (6/52). Some cases had long-term sequela, including hydrocephalus, cirrhosis, or blindness. Disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in previously healthy or immunocompetent children in China. Lung and CNS were most commonly invaded by this disease. Furthermore, most cases usually showed no obvious or specific symptoms or signs, and therefore pediatricians should pay more careful attention to identify

  8. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in otherwise healthy overweight school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Ferri, Raffaele; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-03-01

    To compare sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) characteristics in otherwise healthy overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) children. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study. Sleep laboratory. Fifty-eight (26 NW and 32 OW) 10-year-old children. N/A. Participants were part of a longitudinal study beginning in infancy and free of sleep disorders. Groups were based on body-mass index (BMI) z-score. From polysomnographic overnight recordings, sleep-waking states were scored according to international criteria. CAP analysis was performed visually during NREM sleep. Conventional sleep parameters were similar between groups. BMI was positively related to CAP rate and CAP sequences but inversely related to CAP B phase duration. Differences between groups were confined to slow-wave sleep (SWS), with OW children showing higher CAP rate, CAP cycles, and CAP A1 number and index and shorter CAP cycles and B phase duration. They also showed more CAP class intervals shorter than 30 s, and a suggestive trend for fewer intervals longer than 30 s. Cyclic alternating pattern characteristics in children related to nutritional status and were altered in overweight subjects during slow-wave sleep. We suggest that the more frequent oscillatory pattern of electroencephalographic slow activity in overweight subjects might reflect less stable slow-wave sleep episodes.

  9. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging volumetric findings in children with Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disability, or healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate selected regions of interest in children and adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), Asperger syndrome (AS), and age-matched healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was hypothesized that children with AS would show larger volumes of the amygdala and hippocampal regions than the other groups. It was also hypothesized that both clinical groups would show differences in the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). There were a total of 89 children in the final sample (31 controls, 29 NVLD, 29 AS). Each child completed a MRI scan as well as basic cognitive screening measures. High-resolution T1-weighted MR volumetric images were acquired. The volume of gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was obtained. The hypothesis that the AS group would show larger hippocampal and amygdala volumes than the other groups was confirmed. For the AS and NVLD groups, the ACC was found to be significantly smaller than that of the control group. These results suggest that the ACC and amygdala/hippocampal regions are deficient in children with AS, likely contributing to difficulty with modulating of emotional reactivity.

  11. Enterobiasis epidemiology and molecular characterization of Enterobius vermicularis in healthy children in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiak K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiasis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Despite being the most prevalent nematode infection in Europe and North America, predominantly among in school aged children, the data concerning infection rate and knowledge of genetic variability of pinworms are incomplete. The aim of the study was the estimation of prevalence and molecular typing of Enterobius vermicularis among healthy children in north-eastern Poland. In 2013 – 2015, 296 individuals (aged 2 – 18 years from 12 kindergartens, schools and orphanages were examined by the adhesive cellophane tape method. Data on socio-demographic status were collected using a questionnaire. Molecular analysis was performed using the DNA of adult female pinworms and primers targeting the region of cytochrome oxidase I gene. The overall prevalence of enterobiasis was 10.1 %. Enterobius vermicularis infection rates were 3.9 % in children living in families and 32.8 % among the orphans (OR=0.08; 95 % CI: 0.04 – 0.19; p<0.001. There were no associations between distribution of enterobiasis and gender, pets possession and the season of examination. In 43.3 % of the infected children enterobiasis was asymptomatic. Based on a molecular marker three different haplotypes of pinworm were identified. All sequences clustered within type B, together with human E. vermicularis isolates from Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Japan. This paper provides complementary data on the occurrence and intraspecific variability of E. vermicularis in human population in Europe.

  12. Dog attachment and perceived social support in overweight/obese and healthy weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Sacheck, Jennifer M; Noubary, Farzad; Nelson, Miriam E; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    The development of effective and sustainable interventions to treat childhood obesity remains both a priority and a challenge. Previous studies support that dogs provide social support in overweight adults in obesity interventions, but the child-dog relationship is not as well understood. The goal of the study was to examine the child-dog relationship among children to inform novel childhood obesity interventions including dogs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston in 2015. Children aged 8-13, with a dog in the household, answered surveys on pet attachment (Pet Relationship Scale), perceived social support from parents and close friends (Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale), and had a height and weight measurement taken for calculation of body mass index percentile. Overweight and obese children (≥ 85th body mass index percentile) had greater mean attachment score to their dog and less mean perceived social support from their parents and friends combined compared to healthy weight children (73.1 ± 5.6 vs. 68.5 ± 7.2, p  = 0.037; 110.5 ± 13.5 vs. 122.9 ± 14.8, p  = 0.015, respectively; n  = 43). In conclusions, children who are overweight/obese report greater mean dog attachment and lower mean perceived social support, supporting the concept that pet dogs are considered part of overweight/obese children's social support networks. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of including pet dogs as additional health support in child obesity interventions.

  13. Dog attachment and perceived social support in overweight/obese and healthy weight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E. Linder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective and sustainable interventions to treat childhood obesity remains both a priority and a challenge. Previous studies support that dogs provide social support in overweight adults in obesity interventions, but the child-dog relationship is not as well understood. The goal of the study was to examine the child-dog relationship among children to inform novel childhood obesity interventions including dogs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Living Laboratory® at the Museum of Science, Boston in 2015. Children aged 8–13, with a dog in the household, answered surveys on pet attachment (Pet Relationship Scale, perceived social support from parents and close friends (Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale, and had a height and weight measurement taken for calculation of body mass index percentile. Overweight and obese children (≥85th body mass index percentile had greater mean attachment score to their dog and less mean perceived social support from their parents and friends combined compared to healthy weight children (73.1 ± 5.6 vs. 68.5 ± 7.2, p = 0.037; 110.5 ± 13.5 vs. 122.9 ± 14.8, p = 0.015, respectively; n = 43. In conclusions, children who are overweight/obese report greater mean dog attachment and lower mean perceived social support, supporting the concept that pet dogs are considered part of overweight/obese children's social support networks. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of including pet dogs as additional health support in child obesity interventions.

  14. Healthy-lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are disproportionately higher rates of overweight and obesity in poor rural communities but studies exploring children’s health-related behaviors that may assist in designing effective interventions are limited. We examined the association between overweight and obesity prevalence of 401 ethnically/racially diverse, rural school-aged children and healthy-lifestyle behaviors: improving diet quality, obtaining adequate sleep, limiting screen-time viewing, and consulting a physician about a child’s weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of school-aged children (6–11 years in rural regions of California, Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina participating in CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active, and Nurturing Growing-up Environments Program, created by Save the Children, an independent organization that works with communities to improve overall child health, with the objective to reduce unhealthy weight gain in these school-aged children (grades 1–6 in rural America. After measuring children’s height and weight, we17 assessed overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile associations with these behaviors: improving diet quality18 (≥ 2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day, reducing whole milk, sweetened beverage consumption/day; obtaining19 adequate night-time sleep on weekdays (≥ 10 hours/night; limiting screen-time (i.e., television, video, computer,20 videogame viewing on weekdays (≤ 2 hours/day; and consulting a physician about weight. Analyses were adjusted 21 for state of residence, children's race/ethnicity, gender, age, and government assistance. Results Overweight or obesity prevalence was 37 percent in Mississippi and nearly 60 percent in Kentucky. Adjusting for covariates, obese children were twice as likely to eat ≥ 2 servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.0,95% CI 1.1-3.4, less likely to consume whole milk (OR=0.4,95% CI 0.2-0.70, Their parents are more likely to

  15. Remembering apparent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment systematically investigates the role of narrative templates (Wertsch, 2002) in remembering. To stimulate the construction of a diversity of narratives I used Heider and Simmel’s (1944) celebrated “apparent behavior” film, in which geometric shapes moving around a screen...

  16. Effects of Active Videogames on Physical Activity and Related Outcomes Among Healthy Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W C

    2014-06-01

    This review systematically evaluated the effects of active videogames (AVGs) on physical activity (PA) and related outcomes in healthy children. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve articles published from January 2000 through August 2013. Included were original studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, that included at least one subgroup of healthy participants not older than 18 years, and that measured at least one PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, or behavioral outcome. All study designs were included, but only intervention studies with PA comparison between groups or across time were assessed for methodological quality. Evidence strength for intervention studies was stratified by settings (including the free-living home setting, the school, community, or primary care setting with structured AVG sessions [i.e., AVG play of participants was organized by teachers or researchers], and multiple settings). Fifty-four articles were identified, including 32 studies that examined the immediate PA effects (i.e., energy expenditure and PA levels during AVG play), one survey study, and 21 intervention studies aimed to promote PA. AVGs led to light- to moderate-intensity PA among studies of immediate PA outcomes. No effect was identified of AVGs on PA in the home setting. Moderate evidence was found that structured AVG play could improve PA. Inconclusive evidence was found for the effect of AVGs on PA in multiple settings. The present review does not support using AVGs alone in the home setting to promote PA. Structured AVG play has the potential to promote PA in children.

  17. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  18. A Parental Health Education Model of Children's Food Consumption: Influence on Children's Attitudes, Intention, and Consumption of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.

  19. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  20. Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naderer, B.; Matthes, J.; Binder, A.; Marquart, F.; Mayrhofer, M.; Obereder, A.; Spielvogel, I.

    Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such

  1. Maternal and family characteristics associated with the Healthy Eating Index among low socioeconomic status Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, F; da Costa Louzada, M L; Feldens, C A; Vitolo, M R

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of the factors that influence children's diets is important for supporting the development of public health policies for the prevention of diet-related diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the diet quality of preschoolers by using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and to identify maternal and family characteristics associated with this score and its components. The present study comprised a cohort study conducted with 345 low socioeconomic status children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil aged 6 months and 3-4 years old. Dietary data were collected through 24-h recalls and diet quality was evaluated according to the HEI. The mean (SD) total HEI score was 65.7 (11.2). Only 9.6% (n = 33) of the children had a good diet. No significant association was detected between the overall diet quality of children and the characteristics. The prevalence of children who achieved the 75th percentile of the scores for grains [prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43-0.98] and total fat (PR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.69-0.93) was lower among children whose families had higher incomes, whereas the prevalence for grains was lower in those whose fathers were employed (PR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.34-0.81). The prevalence for diet variety (PR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.01-2.05) and milk (P = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.04-1.35) was higher and for total fat (PR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70-0.98) and saturated fat (PR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59-0.98) was lower among children whose mothers had higher levels of education. The total HEI score in these children indicates that compliance with dietary guidelines is generally poor. Although the overall diet quality did not show variation across maternal and family characteristics, some components of the diet were affected by these features. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Maternal pain influences her evaluation of recurrent pain in 6- to 11-year-old healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    2016-01-01

    adjusted for child characteristics and socio-demographic parameters, mothers who had chronic pain were five times more likely to report frequent pain in their children than mothers without pain. This is a new finding. CONCLUSION: Maternal health factors may influence her evaluation of her child's pain......AIM: Children with recurrent pain rely on their parents to acknowledge it. We compared pain reported by healthy children and their mothers, to evaluate their agreement, and also looked at the effect of maternal health on children's pain. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire......-based survey in Danish public schools. The participants were 131 healthy children aged 6-11 years and their mothers. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of recurrent pain reported by the mother and child, agreements between their reports and any associations between the child's pain, socio...

  3. Feeding behaviors and other motor development in healthy children (2-24 months).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Betty Ruth; Skinner, Jean D

    2002-04-01

    To monitor infant's gross, fine and oral motor development patterns related to feeding. An incomplete block design was used with 57 to 60 (sample = 98) mothers interviewed when their children were 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 months (within +/- 5 days of birth date). Each mother had 5 to 6 interviews. Selected developmental feeding behaviors were monitored using in-home interviews conducted by trained interviewers (n = 2). At each interview, mothers reported the child's age when behaviors first occurred, and anthropometric measurements were performed. Subjects were healthy white children who lived mostly in homes with educated two-parent families of upper socioeconomic status. Mean behavioral ages were within normal ranges reported in the literature, whereas individuals exhibited a wide diversity in reported ages. Examples of gross motor skills (age in months, +/- SD) included sitting without help (5.50+/-2.08) and crawling (8.00+/-1.55). Mean ages for self-feeding fine motor skills showed children reaching for a spoon when hungry (5.47+/-1.44), using fingers to rake food toward self (8.87+/-2.58) and using fingers to self-feed soft foods (13.52+/-2.83). Oral behaviors included children opening their mouth when food approached (4.46+/-1.37), eating food with tiny lumps (8.70+/-2.03) and chewing and swallowing firmer foods without choking (12.17+/-2.28). Mean ages for feeding behaviors occurred within expected age ranges associated with normal development. However, mothers reported that individual children exhibited a wide age range for achieving these behaviors. Our results should be considered in counseling mothers about infant feeding practices.

  4. Nasopharyngeal carriage, antibiogram & serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy under five children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Information related to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children is scanty in India. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the presence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization, assess serogroups/types (SGT and drug resistance of S. pneumoniae in children below five years of age. Methods: A total of 109 male and 81 female children in the age group of three months to five years belonging to different socio-economic classes were enrolled. They were recruited across all age groups from those attending paediatric OPD of a tertiary care and research centre for immunization program. Fifty three isolates identified as pneumococci were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion and E-Test methods. Serotyping was performed by detection of the quelling reaction with specific antiserum. Result: The pneumococcal carriage rate in the study population was 27.9 per cent. The isolation rate was associated with age being higher (49.2% in smaller children (3-12 months and among male (62.2%. The most prevalent SGTs were 19 followed by 10, 14 and 7; 21 per cent of isolates belonging to serotype 10 (n=7 were 11 (n=4 were not covered in any of the conjugate vaccines currently available in Indian market. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin was observed in 91 per cent (n=48, 36 per cent (n=19, 17 per cent (n=9 and 9 per cent (n=5 isolates, respectively. All the penicillin resistant isolates were found to be intermediately resistant by E-Test. Multidrug resistance was observed in 19 per cent (n=10 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: High level of antibiotic resistance was present in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children below age five. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the prevailing SGTs would help to reduce the pool of antibiotic resistant pneumococci. Continued surveillance of serotypes and tracking

  5. Possibilities for Providing Healthy Nutrition for Developing Children in Primary Schools in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olšteine Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The resources for optimal growth are biologically valuable substances that ensure life, and their consumption needs to be balanced and moderate with an adequate eating plan. Survey showed that 84% of respondents chose food products with low nutritional value and high energy value. The general aim of the research was to evaluate the eating habits of primary school pupils and to compare the tendencies in city and regional schools. Catering services are very different schools of Latvia in terms of both mealtimes and prices. Basic criteria were elaborated for estimation of catering quality for children in schools. It was found that 36% of school children in out-of-school conditions regularly consumed snacks with simple carbohydrates on a daily basis. For better utilisation of food, fresh unprocessed fruits and berries with high mineral and vitamin content have great significance. Pectin found in black currants is used as a natural gelling agent. Structured fruit puree was found to have the most important physical-chemical and sensory parameters. Recommendations to improve healthy eating habits of school children were developed.

  6. Parental competence programs to promote positive parenting and healthy lifestyles in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Zaldibar, Cayetana; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Mujika, Agurtzane

    2017-11-04

    To analyze the available evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions on parents whose children were aged 2-5 years to promote parental competence and skills for children's healthy lifestyles. Articles published in English and Spanish, available at PubMed, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Eric, and Cochrane Library were reviewed. The literature search yielded 2282 articles. Forty-one full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion using the PRISMA flow diagram. Twenty-six articles were excluded, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In the end, 15 studies were included. The studies were conducted between 2003 and 2016, nine in North America, four in Europe, and two in Asia. Extracted data were synthesized in a tabular format. CASPe guide was used to assess the quality of studies that was moderate overall. Parental self-efficacy was the main construct assessed in most studies. Four studies reported an increase in parental self-efficacy, although most of them were studies without control groups. Outcomes of interventions to improve parental competence in order to promote children's lifestyles are promising, but inconsistent. Additional studies with higher methodological and conceptual quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. The paediatric wrist revisited - findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenarius, Derk M.F.; Eldevik, Petter; Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Owens, Catherine M.; Rosendahl, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The presence of erosions is used for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Assessment of carpal bone erosions in children is challenging due to lack of normal references. To define normal appearances of bony depressions in the wrist on radiographs and MRI. MRI and radiography of the wrist were performed in 88 healthy children, 5-15 years of age. We assessed the number of bony depressions within the carpals/proximal metacarpals on both modalities, separately and combined. A total of 75 carpal depressions were identified on radiography compared to 715 on MRI. The number of bony depressions identified radiographically showed no statistically significant difference across age-groups. Within the metacarpals, there was no significant difference between bony depressions identified by MRI or radiography, except at the bases of the second metacarpal. Bony depressions that resemble erosions are normal findings in the wrist in children. MRI identifies more depressions than radiographs in the carpus. Some bony depressions occur at typical locations and should be accounted for when assessing the wrist in JIA to avoid overstaging. (orig.)

  8. Seroprevalence rate of Poliovirus antibodies among the Healthy and Protein Energy Malnutrition children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Aliya; Syed Shah, Skindar Ali; Syed Jaffery, Imtiaz Ahmed; Ahmed, Syed Azher; Khan, M A Basit; Aslam, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    To study the association between Protein energy malnutrition and polio-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies production among children in Gadap Town Karachi, Pakistan. Comparative cross sectional survey conducted at fixed EPI center and Pediatric OPD of a tertiary care hospital Karachi. Children were selected by convenient sampling method during the period from 17 March to 17 May 2013. It was ensured that they must have received more than seven oral polio vaccine doses as eligibility criteria for the study. A total of 170 blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of polio-specific IgG antibodies using Poliomyelitis IgG ELISA Test Kit produced. Statistically significant relation was found between PEM and IgG antibodies production OR (P = 0.000). Overall Seroprevalence rate among the study population was 98.8%, PEM group 97.6% and healthy group 100%. The study demonstrated that there is a need to focus on the protein energy malnutrition among the children as an immunization strategy for the 100% seroprevalence rate in all population against polio in Pakistan.

  9. Effectiveness of brain-based learning and animated cartoons for enhancing healthy habits among school children in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Duangsong, Rujira; Muangsom, Niramon; Kamsong, Theppamon; Phangwan, Krittiya

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of brain-based learning (BBL) and animated cartoons on video compact discs (VCDs) in enhancing the healthy habits of school children. A representative sample of 1085 school children in the first through the third grades at 16 schools was selected by multistage random sampling. Knowledge of healthy habits and self-reported adoption of practices were assessed by a questionnaire. BBL and VCD, either combined or as single-intervention techniques, led to improved knowledge and practice of healthy behavior, whereas conventional teaching did not. As a single-intervention technique, BBL on its own led to a greater improvement in healthy practices than VCD, but the addition of BBL to VCD made no difference, and there was no difference between BBL and VCD in terms of improvements in knowledge. In conclusion, both BBL and VCD are effective, but VCD requires fewer resources. Recommendations are made for further research. © 2012 APJPH.

  10. Association of Healthy Food Intake with Psychiatric Distress in Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Zahedi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.

  11. Dietary patterns and breakfast consumption in relation to insulin resistance in children. The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Moschonis, George; Barouti, Afroditi-Alexandra; Lionis, Christos; Chrousos, George P; Manios, Yannis

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance is a significant cross-point for the manifestation of several chronic diseases in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship of certain dietary patterns and breakfast consumption habits with insulin resistance in children. A representative sample of 1912 schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years) participated in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the Healthy Growth Study, which was initiated in May 2007 and completed in June 2009. It was conducted in seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. Dietary intake, breakfast consumption, anthropometric and physical examination data, biochemical indices and socio-economic information collected from parents were assessed in all children. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. A dietary pattern of increased consumption of margarine, sweets (candies, lollipops, jellies, traditional fruit in heavy syrup) and savoury snacks (chips, cheese puffs and not home-made popcorn) was associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR; β = 0·08, P 3·16) than those in the first tertile. Breakfast consumption had an inverse correlation with insulin resistance, but the correlation lost its significance after adjustments for waist circumference, birth weight, parental BMI and socio-economic status. Increased consumption of margarine, sweets and savoury snacks, which is a common dietary pattern in childhood, was positively associated with insulin resistance, while breakfast consumption had an inverse association with HOMA-IR, in schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years). Identification of dietary behaviours that might affect insulin resistance in children offers valuable advice in cardiometabolic risk prevention strategies.

  12. Reference values for the 6-minute walk test in healthy children and adolescents in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hildenbrand, Florian F; Treder, Ursula; Fischler, Manuel; Keusch, Stephan; Speich, Rudolf; Fasnacht, Margrit

    2013-08-05

    The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple, low tech, safe and well established, self-paced assessment tool to quantify functional exercise capacity in adults. The definition of normal 6MWT in children is especially demanding since not only parameters like height, weight and ethnical background influence the measurement, but may be as crucial as age and the developmental stage. The aim of this study is establishing reference values for the 6MWT in healthy children and adolescents in Switzerland and to investigate the influence of age, anthropometrics, heart rate, blood pressure and physical activity on the distance walked. Children and adolescents between 5-17 years performed a 6MWT. Short questionnaire assessments about their health state and physical activities. anthropometrics and vitals were measured before and after a 6-minute walk test and were previously defined as secondary outcomes. Age, height, weight and the heart rate after the 6MWT all predicted the distance walked according to different regression models: age was the best single predictor and mostly influenced walk distance in younger age, anthropometrics were more important in adolescents and females. Heart rate after the 6MWT was an important distance predictor in addition to age and outreached anthropometrics in the majority of subgroups assessed. The 6MWT in children and adolescents is feasible and practical. The 6MWT distance depends mainly on age; however, heart rate after the 6MWT, height and weight significantly add information and should be taken into account mainly in adolescents. Reference equations allow predicting 6-minute walk test distance and may help to better assess and compare outcomes in young patients with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and are highly warranted for different populations.

  13. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Sahashi, Yukari; Watanabe, Kaori; Ohtsuchi, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ando, Kyoko; Nagata, Chisato

    2011-08-10

    Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent) agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008). In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038). Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030). Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  14. Assessing foods offered to children at child-care centers using the Healthy Eating Index-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Ball, Sarah C; Hanson, Phillip P; Vaughn, Amber E; Ward, Dianne Stanton

    2013-08-01

    The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) has been applied primarily to assess the quality of individual-level diets but has recently been applied to environmental-level data as well. Currently, no studies have applied the HEI-2005 to foods offered in child-care settings. This cross-sectional study used the HEI-2005 to assess the quality of foods and beverages offered to preschool children (3 to 5 years old) in child-care centers. Two days of dietary observations were conducted and 120 children (six children per center) were observed at 20 child-care centers in North Carolina between July 2005 and January 2006. Data were analyzed between July 2011 and January 2012 using t tests. Mean total HEI-2005 score (59.12) was significantly (Pcenters met the maximum score for milk. A majority also met the maximum scores for total fruit (17 of 20 centers), whole fruit (15 of 20 centers), and sodium (19 of 20 centers). Mean scores for total vegetable (mean=2.26±1.09), dark green/orange vegetables and legumes (mean=0.20±0.43), total grain (mean=1.09±1.25), whole grain (mean=1.29±1.65), oils (mean=0.44±0.25), and meat/beans (mean=0.44±0.25) were significantly lower than the maximum scores recommended (Pcenters to ensure that the foods provided contribute to children's daily nutrition requirements. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Response profiles of oxygen uptake efficiency during exercise in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Bart C; Hulzebos, Erik Hj; Helbing, Willem A; Ten Harkel, Arend Dj; van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Oxygen uptake efficiency (OUE), the relation between oxygen uptake (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE), differs between healthy children and children with heart disease. This study aimed to investigate the normal response profiles of OUE during a progressive cardiopulmonary exercise test. Cross-sectional. Healthy children between eight and 19 years of age (114 boys and 100 girls, mean ± SD age 12.7 ± 2.8 years) performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Peak VO2 (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold and peak VE were determined. OUE was determined by the OUE plateau (OUEP), OUE at the ventilatory threshold (OUE@VT) and OUE slope (OUES). OUEP (42.4 ± 4.6) and OUE@VT (41.9 ± 4.7) were similar and less variable than OUES (2138 ± 703). OUEP correlated strongly with OUE@VT (r = 0.974); however, OUEP was weak-to-moderately correlated with VO2peak (r = 0.646), the ventilatory threshold (r = 0.548) and OUES (r = 0.589). OUES correlated strongly with VO2peak (r = 0.948) and the ventilatory threshold (r = 0.856). Reference centiles for OUEP show an almost linear increase from about 37 in eight-year olds to about 47 in 18-year olds, with no sex-difference. OUES increased from about 1400 in eight-year-old boys to approximately 3500 in 18-year-old boys. OUES increased from roughly 1250 in eight-year-old girls to about 2650 in 18-year-old girls. This study provides sex- and age-related normative values for both OUEP and OUES, which facilitates the interpretation of OUE in children. OUEP and OUES are objective and non-invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters which do not require a maximal effort and might be indicative of cardiorespiratory function during exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (Biovac-A™ in healthy Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhave S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Bhave,1 Apurba Ghosh,2 Amita Sapru,1 Monjori Mitra,2 Suparna Chatterjee,3 Nisha Bhattacharya,2 Ganesh Kadhe,4 Amey Mane,4 Sucheta Roy41Department of Pediatrics, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 3Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education & Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India; 4Medical Affairs Department, Wockhardt Ltd, Mumbai, IndiaIntroduction: The World Health Organization (WHO recommends either inactivated or live attenuated vaccine against the hepatitis A virus (HAV infection in countries with high incidence. Live attenuated vaccines against HAV infection have been developed and used exclusively in the People’s Republic of China and have shown promising results. This is the first study conducted outside the People’s Republic of China to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (Biovac-A™ in healthy Indian children.Material and methods: This was an open-labeled, 8-week (July 2012 to October 2012, non-comparative, non-randomized, confirmatory study conducted at two centers (Kolkata and Pune in India. A total of 140 healthy Indian children aged 12 months to 12 years were administered live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine at the two centers. Overall, 137 subjects (female: 66, mean age: 4.09±2.5 years completed the study. The subjects were vaccinated (subcutaneous over the deltoid muscle of the upper arm with 0.5 mL of live attenuated H2 strain hepatitis A vaccine.Results: Eight weeks after a single dose of the vaccine, 136 subjects from both the centers developed protective immunoglobulin (IgM G antibodies ≥20 mIU/mL. The overall seroconversion rate was 99% (Kolkata: 100%, Pune: 98%. The hematological and biochemical parameters remained within normal limits. All the adverse events were non-serious and mild in severity.Conclusion: Live attenuated H2 strain hepatitis A vaccine is

  17. Sodium and chlorine levels in hair and nails of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, M.T.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Pen-Aguilar, M.T.; Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium and chlorine values are reported in μ/g, as determined by neutron activation analysis in washed hair and nails from healthy and cystic fibrosis children. The values thus determined in cystic fibrosis tended to be higher than those in controls, however statistical differences were not significant (p>0.01). Additional experiments were carried out for comparison between washed and unwashed samples of the cystic fibrosis and control group and only the differences between washed and unwashed cystic fibrosis nails were significant (p<0.01) in both sodium and chlorine values. Analysis of a standard reference milk sample, A-11 from IAEA, for the elements mentioned above gave a good agreement with the certified values. (author) 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Simultaneously measured pupillary light reflex and heart rate variability in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daluwatte, C; Yao, G; Miles, J H

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the potential inter-relationship between two measures of autonomic nervous system: pupillary light reflex (PLR) and heart rate variability (HRV), in healthy children of 8–16 years old. PLR was measured at both dark- and light-adapted conditions with various stimulation intensities. Simultaneously measured HRV was obtained in five different PLR testing phases: before PLR test, light-adapted PLR test, dark adaptation, dark-adapted PLR test and after PLR test. The frequency domain HRV parameters measured during the PLR test were significantly different from those measured during rest. Both the regression analysis and factor analysis indicated that PLR and HRV parameters were not correlated, which suggests that they may provide complementary assessment of different aspects of the overall autonomic nervous system. (paper)

  19. Enhancing healthy habits among overweight and obese children through Serious Games: Review and Technical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Arambarri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity that begins in childhood results in excess adult mortality estimated at between 50 and 80%. The medical community developed an understanding of obesity as a chronic condition that must be managed on an ongoing basis. An integrated system based on ICT, including games adapted to the age and profile of the children and youth can be the key to support them and their families in the prevention of obesity and the acquisition of healthy habits. Important societal and economic impact is foreseen from the adoption of these technologies. In this paper, Serious Games will be research to remark its potential for fostering desirable health-related behaviors through motivational reinforcement, personalized teaching approaches, and social networking as well as more effective utilization of obesity-related nutrition and lifestyle information.

  20. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    predicted pubertal development more accurately than chronological age. We demonstrate for the first time that pubertal attainment of secondary sexual characteristics is mirrored by changes in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood. Thus, modulations of the epigenome seem involved in regulation...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... the promoter of TRIP6 was co-ordinately regulated as a function of pubertal development. In accordance, immunohistochemistry identified TRIP6 in adult, but not pre-pubertal, testicular Leydig cells and circulating TRIP6 levels doubled during puberty. Using elastic net prediction models, methylation patterns...

  1. Eating Habits and Food Additive Intakes Are Associated with Emotional States Based on EEG and HRV in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Hye Lim; Kim, Dae-Keun; Kang, Seung Wan; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2017-07-01

    Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals. The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11.8 ± 3.6 years). Analysis indicators were a dietary intake checklist for children's nutrition-related behavior score (NBS), consisting of 19 items; food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), consisting of 76 items; the Child Depression Inventory (CDI); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S); State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T); electroencephalograph (EEG); and heart rate variability (HRV). Higher scores on the CDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T indicate negative emotions, and these scores were significantly decreased from the first to the fourth quartiles. The HRV results showed that the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals was significantly higher in the first quartile than in the fourth quartile (p < 0.05). The intakes of artificial sweeteners and processed foods such as hamburgers correlate with higher theta/beta ratios, and intakes of natural foods such as legumes and fruits correlate with lower theta/beta ratios (p < 0.05). From this result we confirmed a link between overall nutritional behavior, food additive intakes, and emotion in apparently healthy children and adolescents.

  2. Reliability of radiographic measurement of lateral capitellohumeral angle in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masaki; Suzuki, Taku; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Oka, Yusuke; Maeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroki; Shizu, Kanae; Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Harumoto

    2018-04-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to validate the reliability of measurement of the lateral capitellohumeral angle (LCHA), an index of sagittal angulation of the elbow, in healthy children. The results were compared to the Baumann angle (BA), which is a similar concept to LCHA.Sixty-two radiographs of the elbow in healthy children (range, 2-11 years) were reviewed by 6 examiners at 2 sessions. The mean value and reliability of the measurement of LCHA and BA were assessed. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).The mean LCHA value was 45° (range, 22° to 70°) and the mean BA was 71° (range, 56° to 86°). The ICCs for intraobserver reliability of the LCHA measurements were almost perfect for 2 examiners, substantial for 3 examiners, and moderate for 1 examiner with a mean value of 0.77 (range, 0.57-0.95). For BA measurements, the ICCs were almost perfect for 1 examiner and substantial for 5 examiners with a mean value of 0.74 (range, 0.66-0.83). The ICCs for interobserver reliability between the first and second measurements were both moderate for LCHA (0.56 and 0.51) and for BA (0.52 and 0.50).LCHA showed almost the same reliability in measurement as BA, which is the gold standard assessment for coronal alignment of the elbow. LCHA showed moderate-to-good reliability in the evaluation of sagittal plane elbow alignment.

  3. A healthy school start - Parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7 and control (n = 7 groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1 a health information brochure; 2 two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3 teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed

  4. A healthy school start - parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Asa; Elinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2011-03-25

    Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7) and control (n = 7) groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1) a health information brochure; 2) two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3) teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed. Participants will be interviewed. The results from

  5. Teaching approaches and strategies that promote healthy eating in primary school children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Dean A; Cotton, Wayne G; Peralta, Louisa R

    2015-02-25

    Healthy eating by primary school-aged children is important for good health and development. Schools can play an important role in the education and promotion of healthy eating among children. The aim of this review was to: 1) perform a systematic review of randomised controlled, quasi-experimental and cluster controlled trials examining the school-based teaching interventions that improve the eating habits of primary school children; and 2) perform a meta-analysis to determine the effect of those interventions. The systematic review was limited to four healthy eating outcomes: reduced food consumption or energy intake; increased fruit and vegetable consumption or preference; reduced sugar consumption or preference (not from whole fruit); increased nutritional knowledge. In March 2014, we searched seven electronic databases using predefined keywords for intervention studies that were conducted in primary schools which focused on the four healthy eating outcomes. Targeted internet searching using Google Scholar was also used. In excess of 200,000 possible citations were identified. Abstracts and full text of articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data pertaining to teaching strategies that reported on healthy eating outcomes for primary school children was extracted from the 49 eligible papers. Experiential learning strategies were associated with the largest effects across the reduced food consumption or energy intake; increased fruit and vegetable consumption or preference; and increased nutritional knowledge outcomes. Reducing sugar consumption and preference was most influenced by cross-curricular approaches embedded in the interventions. As with most educational interventions, most of the teaching strategies extracted from the intervention studies led to positive changes in primary school children's healthy eating behaviours. However, given the finite resources, increased overcrowding of school curriculum and capacity of

  6. Factors Related to Healthy Siblings' Psychosocial Adjustment to Children With Cancer: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegaczewski, Tara; Chang, Karen; Coddington, Jennifer; Berg, Abby

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors related to the psychosocial adjustment of healthy siblings of children with cancer (HSCC). An integrative review was conducted. Controlled vocabularies relevant to siblings, pediatrics, children, neoplasms, and psychosocial adaptation were used to search Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed. Articles that met inclusion criteria (eg, quantitative studies related to HSCC's psychosocial adjustment; had sample sizes of at least 30; and HSCC age between 1 and 19 years) were reviewed. Key findings of selected articles were analyzed according to sibling characteristics, social support, and contextual factors. Seven nonexperimental and 5 quasi-experimental studies were reviewed. HSCC's characteristics (eg, age, gender), perceived social support from family and summer camp, and perceived contextual factors (eg, role overload, family adaptability) were significant factors that correlated with HSCC's psychosocial adjustment. When caring for a child diagnosed with cancer, nurses need to include HSCC in the assessment of a family unit's adaptation to cancer distress and provide appropriate interventions to promote HSCC's psychosocial well-being. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  7. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.

  8. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t-test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231–255). Actinobacteria (2.8–24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2–25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9–50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5–57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2–17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample

  9. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t -test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231-255). Actinobacteria (2.8-24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2-25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9-50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5-57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2-17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample grouping by

  10. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative evaluation of oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelam Hasmukhbhai; Deshpande, Anshula Neeraj; Deshpande, Neeraj Chandrahas; Rathore, Ashutosh Singh

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is a gathering of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. Epileptic children, who are on active treatment with antiepileptic drugs, have a well-recognized side effect of gingival enlargement. Therefore, all efforts should be made, particularly for the population who are diagnosed or affected by the systemic disease. This study was conducted with an aim to determine oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs. The cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of pedodontics and attached general hospital. A sample size of 120 participants with 60 healthy and 60 epileptic children between age 2 and 14 years were included. Oral health status of participants was examined using oral hygiene simplified index and plaque index. Gingival enlargement was assessed using Miranda-Brunet index. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA test, independent t -test, and Pearson's Chi-square test were used. From the total participants included in the study, 49% of participants had good oral hygiene from healthy group, and 28% participants had poor oral hygiene from the epileptic group. Sodium valproate was the most common drug used and was associated with increased gingival enlargement. Conclusion can be drawn that epileptic children under medication had poor oral hygiene and an increased risk for gingival enlargement as compared to their healthy counterparts. It must be stressed that the epileptic patients should be given dental care without conditions and provided with best possible care to restore esthetics and functions.

  12. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  13. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  14. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulatory fit effects on children's responses to healthy eating promotion: an experiment testing message and celebrity fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Benjamin Ka Lun

    2015-01-01

    This study adopts the regulatory fit theory and examines the effects of the celebrity and message fit on children's responses to the promotion of healthy eating. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted with 87 Hong Kong children ages 11 to 16. The results showed that a regulatory fit between the celebrity focus and the message focus yielded a better affective response. Specifically, children found a poster ad more convincing, liked it more, held more positive feelings, and found the poster ad more interesting in the fit conditions. Implications and future research directions were discussed.

  16. Three Independent Evaluations of Healthy Kids Programs Find Substantial Gains in Children's Dental Health Care. In Brief, September 2008, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dana; Howell, Embry; Trenholm, Christopher; Hill, Ian; Dubay, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This brief presents highlights from rigorous, independent evaluations of the Healthy Kids programs in three California counties: Los Angeles, San Mateo, and Santa Clara. Launched by Children's Health Initiatives (CHIs) in these counties between 2001 and 2003, the three Healthy Kids programs provide children with comprehensive health insurance…

  17. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L; Buchvald, Frederik; Mortensen, Jann; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    The diffusing capacity (DL) of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values. The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method. A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio. These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  18. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Thomas

    Full Text Available The diffusing capacity (DL of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc. DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO. This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO, involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values.The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children.DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS statistical method.A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio.These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  19. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  20. A "novel" intervention: a pilot study of children's literature and healthy lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravender, Terrill; Russell, Alexandra; Chung, Richard J; Armstrong, Sarah C

    2010-03-01

    To determine if reading an age-appropriate novel has the potential to improve BMI percentile and exercise- and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviors in girls aged 9 to 13 years who were enrolled in a childhood obesity-treatment program. This preliminary, randomized, controlled trial followed 81 obese girls aged 9 to 13 years who were enrolled in the Duke University Healthy Lifestyles Program, a comprehensive clinical and behavioral lifestyle-modification program for overweight and obese children. Thirty-one girls were randomly assigned to read the intervention novel, which describes an overweight girl who discovers improved health and self-efficacy, and 33 participants were given a control novel to read. Participants were evaluated at the study intake and again at their scheduled follow-up appointments 1 to 2 months later. Intake and follow-up BMI percentiles were evaluated for 17 girls in the program who did not receive either book. Follow-up data were available for 11 of 31 girls in the intervention-book group, 14 of 33 girls in the control-book group, and 14 of 17 girls who did not receive a book. There was a significantly greater reduction in BMI percentile among those in the intervention-book group (-0.71) versus those in the control-book group (-0.33; P = .03). Girls who read either book had a significantly greater reduction in BMI percentile (-0.49) than girls who were followed in the program but who were not assigned a book (0.05; P = .02). Age-appropriate fiction, particularly if it addresses health-oriented behaviors, shows potential for augmenting weight loss in girls who participate in a weight-management program. Future research is needed to determine if the novel is effective for healthy lifestyle promotion among all overweight and obese adolescents.

  1. Apparent compensation effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, G.M.

    1983-11-01

    It is shown that by linear extrapolation of low temperature Arrhenius lines to 1/T = 0 a phenomenon resembling the compensation effect is generated because the absolute position of those lines is raised by the entropy of activation energy distribution so that the lines have an intersection point. An equation first derived by O. K. Rice (Actication et Structures des Molecules, p. 304, Paris (1928); O. K. Rice and Ramsberger, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 50, 617 (1928)) and C. N. Hinshelwood (Kinetics of Chemical Change in Gaseous Systems, 3rd ed., Oxford Clarendon Press (1933)) is used. For a well documented example it is shown graphically that the construction described fits the observations. From the rate equation used an expression is derived which gives for any reaction the number of degrees of freedom contributing to the activation of the critical complex as a function of the limiting activation energies and of the apparent isocatalytic temperature. It is applied to a number of catalyses by alloys, salts, supported and inverse supported catalysts for a variety of reactions. In all cases values around 10 to 20 result for the freedom numbers. The conductivity of several doped semiconductors follows the same rule. The results are briefly discussed. 21 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Urinary Magnesium, Calcium, and Phosphorus to Creatinine Ratios of Healthy Elementary School Lebanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mallah, Carla; Ghattas, Hala; Shatila, Dareen; Francis, Sirine; Merhi, Karina; Hlais, Sani; Toufeili, Imad; Obeid, Omar

    2016-04-01

    Urinary magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) excretions are known to vary greatly between populations due to dietary habits, physical activity, mineral content of water, climate, genetics, and race. Thus, it is essential to determine the normal values in each population in order to assess the status as well as to diagnose any possible abnormality of metabolisms especially hypercalciuria. A study was conducted to determine urinary Mg/creatinine (Cr), Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios of healthy Lebanese elementary schoolchildren. Using a multi-stage cluster sampling at district, school, and class levels, a sample of 1403 children (781 boys and 622 girls), from 26 different schools, was selected. Non-fasting morning urine samples and anthropometric data were collected and analyzed. The mean Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were 0.122 ± 0.075 mg/mg (0.568 ± 0.348 mM/mM), 0.084 ± 0.101 mg/mg (0.237 ± 0.286 mM/mM), and 0.692 ± 0.417 mg/mg (2.527 ± 1.524 mM/mM), respectively, with no significant difference between boys and girls (P = 0.706, 0.161, and 0.604; respectively). The 95th percentile of Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios fluctuated with age, showing a sharp decrease in Ca/Cr and P/Cr at the age of 10. The mean Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were comparable to those of similar age groups in other populations. The 95th percentiles of Mg/Cr, Ca/Cr, and P/Cr ratios were 0.26 mg/mg (1.23 mM/mM), 0.27 mg/mg (0.76 mM/mM), and 1.48 mg/mg (5.40 mM/mM), respectively. These values can be used as cutoffs to detect abnormalities in these three minerals' metabolisms among healthy Lebanese children.

  3. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  4. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  5. Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent. PMID:22413030

  6. Bacterial diversity in oral samples of children in niger with acute noma, acute necrotizing gingivitis, and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bolivar

    Full Text Available Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods.Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites were amplified using "universal" PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis, gender, and site status (diseased or control site. Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98-99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries.Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

  7. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Yan, Dah-Chin; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis.

  8. A comparison of healthcare resource use for rotavirus and RSV between vulnerable children with co-morbidities and healthy children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockett, Rhys D; Campbell, David; Carroll, Stuart; Rajoriya, Fiona; Adlard, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the differences in hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost between healthy and vulnerable children with cystic fibrosis (CF), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), cancer, and epilepsy who contract rotavirus (RVGE) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data were collected for England, for children consideration, as for rotavirus vaccines, evaluation of a vaccination programme should consider the potentially positive impact on vulnerable children. Limitations of the study include a dependency on accurate coding, an expectation that patients are identified through laboratory testing, and the possibility of unidentified underlying conditions affecting the burden.

  9. Concordance of parent proxy report and child self-report of posttraumatic stress in children with cancer and healthy children: influence of parental posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Ashley H; Jurbergs, Niki; Lindwall, Jennifer; Phipps, Sean

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), child PTSS, and parent-child concordance for child PTSS. Participants were children with cancer (n = 199), and healthy children (n = 108) and their parents. Children self-reported on PTSS and parents completed measures of child and parent PTSS. In the cancer group, child and parent reports of child PTSS were significantly correlated with no mean differences between reporters. In contrast, correlations were non-significant in the control group, and parents reported significantly lower levels of child PTSS than children. Increased parental PTSS was associated with better concordance in the cancer group but not in the control group. In fact, in the cancer group, parent-child concordance was strongest at the highest level of parental PTSS. Parents of children with cancer were found to be accurate reporters of their children's distress, even with high levels of reported personal distress. In contrast, parents of healthy children appear primarily influenced by personal distress when reporting child PTSS. Although multiple informant assessments are always desirable, it appears that utilization of a single informant may be reasonable in the cancer setting when access to informants is limited. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Fetal programming of temperamental negative affectivity among children born healthy at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Strandberg, Timo E; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa

    2006-12-01

    The fetal programming hypothesis suggests that an adverse in utero environment, reflected in small body size at birth, has life-long effects on different physiological systems that may affect both health and behavior. We explored whether fetal growth was associated with biologically based temperamental outcomes (negative affectivity scales, the CBQ) among 5(1/2)-year-old children (n = 416) born healthy at term (gestational weeks 37-42). In line with the hypotheses, small body size at birth (thinness measured by ponderal index, kg/m(3)) was related to increased negative affectivity and its subscales: anger-, discomfort-, and sadness-proneness in childhood. Longer length at birth was predictive of higher levels of child anger- and sadness-proneness. Length of gestation moderated the associations of weight and length at birth with negative affectivity. The results suggest that the biological basis of temperament may be subjected to antenatal environmental influences, and that the mechanisms, proposed to be related to fetal glucocorticoid environment, may operate even within the normal range of term birth. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automatic determination of Greulich and Pyle bone age in healthy Dutch children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Lequin, Maarten H.; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Bone age (BA) assessment is a routine procedure in paediatric radiology, for which the Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas is mostly used. There is rater variability, but the advent of automatic BA determination eliminates this. To validate the BoneXpert method for automatic determination of skeletal maturity of healthy children against manual GP BA ratings. Two observers determined GP BA with knowledge of the chronological age (CA). A total of 226 boys with a BA of 3-17 years and 179 girls with a BA of 3-15 years were included in the study. BoneXpert's estimate of GP BA was calibrated to agree on average with the manual ratings based on several studies, including the present study. Seven subjects showed a deviation between manual and automatic BA in excess of 1.9 years. They were re-rated blindly by two raters. After correcting these seven ratings, the root mean square error between manual and automatic rating in the 405 subjects was 0.71 years (range 0.66-0.76 years, 95% CI). BoneXpert's GP BA is on average 0.28 and 0.20 years behind the CA for boys and girls, respectively. BoneXpert is a robust method for automatic determination of BA. (orig.)

  12. Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli B. D. Toffano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies.

  13. The role of trefoil factor family in apparently healthy subjects administrated gastroprotective agents for the primary prevention of gastrointestinal injuries from low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Takagi, Yu; Fukuzawa, Mari; Yamagishi, Tetsuya; Goto, Shinya

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid induces gastrointestinal complication. Recently, trefoil factor family has been reported as a mucosal protective factor. We focused on trefoil factor family as one of defensive system for gastrointestinal injuries. The aim of this trial was to evaluate trefoil factor family levels in the serum of healthy subjects with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with placebo or proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide were administered in 30 healthy subjects. Transnasal endoscopy was performed at 0, 24 h, 3 and 7 day. Changing of trefoil factor family (1,2,3) and numbers of gastric injuries were evaluated. The numbers of gastric injuries were significantly increased in the placebo group at 3 and 7 days. Injuries in the proton pump inhibitor group were not induced, in the rebamipide group were slightly induced. Trefoil factor family level in the placebo group were decreased in 3 and 7 days compared with prior to starting the trial. Trefoil factor family may have an important association with acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal damage. Proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide prevented low-dose acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal complications compared with the placebo group.

  14. Comparison of penile length at 6–24 months between children with unilateral cryptorchidism and a healthy normal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Soo Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urologic diseases affected by testosterone can be associated with smaller penis size compared to the normal population. We sought to compare penile length in children with unilateral cryptorchidism and normative data from a cohort of healthy Korean boys. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in 259 Korean boys (212, normal cohort; 47, cryptorchidism aged 6–24 months, each of whom had been brought to an outpatient clinic at one of five tertiary hospitals (Gyeongsangnam-do Province between April 2014 and June 2015. Penile length was measured via stretched penile length (SPL and testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL. Results: SPL in children with cryptorchidism was significantly shorter compared to a cohort of healthy Korean boys aged 6–24 months (3.7±0.5 cm and 4.3±0.8 cm, p<0.001, although there were no differences with regard to height, body weight and contralateral testicular size between the two groups. According to the stratified ages (6–12, 12–18, and 18–24 months, SPL in children with cryptorchidism was persistently shorter at their ages than those without. Conclusions: It might be that the penile length aged 6–24 months of children with unilateral cryptorchidism is shorter than that of a cohort of healthy Korean boys.

  15. Test-retest reliability of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response in healthy children at a low sensation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Jalaei, Bahram

    2017-11-01

    Auditory brainstem responses evoked by complex stimuli such as speech syllables have been studied in normal subjects and subjects with compromised auditory functions. The stability of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) when tested over time has been reported but the literature is limited. The present study was carried out to determine the test-retest reliability of speech-ABR in healthy children at a low sensation level. Seventeen healthy children (6 boys, 11 girls) aged from 5 to 9 years (mean = 6.8 ± 3.3 years) were tested in two sessions separated by a 3-month period. The stimulus used was a 40-ms syllable /da/ presented at 30 dB sensation level. As revealed by pair t-test and intra-class correlation (ICC) analyses, peak latencies, peak amplitudes and composite onset measures of speech-ABR were found to be highly replicable. Compared to other parameters, higher ICC values were noted for peak latencies of speech-ABR. The present study was the first to report the test-retest reliability of speech-ABR recorded at low stimulation levels in healthy children. Due to its good stability, it can be used as an objective indicator for assessing the effectiveness of auditory rehabilitation in hearing-impaired children in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscle fatigue during repetitive voluntary contractions: a comparison between children with cerebral palsy, typically developing children and young healthy adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eken, M.M.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To combine peak torque and EMG analyses to investigate the hypothesis that 1) children with cerebral palsy (CP) have lower muscle fatigability than typically developing children (TD) and whether 2) muscle fatigue correlates with muscle strength. Methods: Seven CP children, eight TD children and

  17. Children of parents with BED have more eating behavior disturbance than children of parents with obesity or healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-06-01

    A limited literature suggests an association between parental eating disorders and child eating-disorder behaviors although this research has focused primarily on restrictive-type eating disorders and very little is known about families with binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study focused on parents (N = 331; 103 fathers and 226 mothers), comparing parents with core features of BED (n = 63) to parents with obesity and no eating disorder (OB; n = 85) and parents with healthy-weight and no eating disorder (HW; n = 183). Parents with BED were significantly more likely than OB and HW parents to report child binge eating, and more likely than HW parents to report child overeating. Parents with BED felt greater responsibility for child feeding than OB parents, and felt more concern about their child's weight than OB and HW parents. Dietary restriction of the child by the parents was related to child binge eating, overeating, and child overweight, and parental group was related to child binge eating (parental BED), overeating (parental BED), and child weight (parental OB). Parents with BED report greater disturbance in their children's eating than OB and HW parents, and OB parents report higher child weight than HW parents. This suggests that it is important to consider both eating-disorder psychopathology and obesity in clinical interventions and research. Our cross-sectional findings, which require experimental and prospective confirmations, provide preliminary evidence suggesting potential factors in families with parental BED and obesity to address in treatment and prevention efforts for pediatric eating disorders and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:648-656). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ensuring children eat a healthy diet: a theory-driven focus group study to inform communication aimed at parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlor, Leeann; Mackert, Michael; Junker, Dave; Tyler, Diane

    2011-02-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) served as a framework for analyzing focus group transcripts (N = 43) focused on parents' perceptions of the challenges of ensuring their children eat a healthy diet. The results suggest that parents consider their beliefs and behaviors as individuals within a society, within families, within cultures, as inheritors of family traditions, and as parents who influence or fail to influence the attitudes and behaviors of their children. The results showed the particular salience of factors related to the TPB concepts of perceived norms and control. Approaches to building theory-driven nursing interventions are suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of gender and lean body mass on kidney size in healthy 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I. M.; Mølgaard, C.; Main, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    When evaluating renal abnormalities, kidney volume is an important parameter. Most reference materials on kidney size in children are based on data from pediatric patients examined for non-uronephrological problems. Renal size is traditionally related to body height, weight, or surface area......, but not to body composition. As part of a prospective cohort study we have examined 102 healthy 10-year-old children measuring kidney volume by ultrasonography, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body height and weight. Boys had significantly larger kidneys than girls. The strongest...

  20. Feasibility, tolerability and safety of pediatric hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers and children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkup, Laura L.; Watters, Erin; Ruppert, Kai; Thomen, Robert P.; Woods, Jason C.; Akinyi, Teckla G.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Clancy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 129 Xe is a promising contrast agent for MRI of pediatric lung function, but its safety and tolerability in children have not been rigorously assessed. To assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of hyperpolarized 129 Xe gas as an inhaled contrast agent for pediatric pulmonary MRI in healthy control subjects and in children with cystic fibrosis. Seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 6-15 years, 11 boys) and 11 children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8-16 years, 4 boys) underwent 129 Xe MRI, receiving up to three doses of 129 Xe gas prepared by either a commercially available or a homebuilt 129 Xe polarizer. Subject heart rate and SpO 2 were monitored for 2 min post inhalation and compared to resting baseline values. Adverse events were reported via follow-up phone call at days 1 and 30 (range ±7 days) post-MRI. All children tolerated multiple doses of 129 Xe, and no children withdrew from the study. Relative to baseline, most children who received a full dose of gas for imaging (10 of 12 controls and 8 of 11 children with cystic fibrosis) experienced a nadir in SpO 2 (mean -6.0 ± standard deviation 7.2%, P≤0.001); however within 2 min post inhalation SpO 2 values showed no significant difference from baseline (P=0.11). There was a slight elevation in heart rate (mean +6.6 ± 13.9 beats per minute [bpm], P=0.021), which returned from baseline within 2 min post inhalation (P=0.35). Brief side effects related to the anesthetic properties of xenon were mild and quickly resolved without intervention. No serious or severe adverse events were observed; in total, four minor adverse events (14.3%) were reported following 129 Xe MRI, but all were deemed unrelated to the study. The feasibility, safety and tolerability of 129 Xe MRI has been assessed in a small group of children as young as 6 years. SpO 2 changes were consistent with the expected physiological effects of a short anoxic breath-hold, and other mild side effects were consistent with the

  1. Health-related quality of life of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder versus children with diabetes and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, David; Hodgkins, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reported to be similar to that of other mental health and physical disorders. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that children with ADHD and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) would have significantly worse HRQoL compared with healthy children, and that better clinical status in ADHD and T1DM would be associated with better HRQoL. Children were recruited from three outpatient services in Scotland. Responses to two frequently used validated HRQoL instruments, the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and Child Health and Illness Profile-child edition (CHIP-CE), were obtained from parents/carers and children (6-16 years) with/without ADHD or T1DM. Child and parent/carer-completed HRQoL measurements were evaluated for 213 children with ADHD, 58 children with T1DM and 117 healthy children (control group). Significantly lower self and parent/carer ratings were observed across most PedsQL (P ADHD group compared with the T1DM and control groups. Parent/carer and child ratings were significantly correlated for both measures of HRQoL (PedsQL total score: P ADHD severity and HRQoL was significant with both PedsQL and CHIP-CE for all parent/carer (P ADHD symptoms were associated with poorer HRQoL. These data demonstrate that ADHD has a significant impact on HRQoL (as observed in both parent/carer and child ratings), which seems to be greater than that for children with T1DM.

  2. Comparative evaluation of oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Hasmukhbhai Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a gathering of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. Epileptic children, who are on active treatment with antiepileptic drugs, have a well-recognized side effect of gingival enlargement. Therefore, all efforts should be made, particularly for the population who are diagnosed or affected by the systemic disease. This study was conducted with an aim to determine oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of pedodontics and attached general hospital. A sample size of 120 participants with 60 healthy and 60 epileptic children between age 2 and 14 years were included. Oral health status of participants was examined using oral hygiene simplified index and plaque index. Gingival enlargement was assessed using Miranda–Brunet index. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA test, independent t-test, and Pearson's Chi-square test were used. Results: From the total participants included in the study, 49% of participants had good oral hygiene from healthy group, and 28% participants had poor oral hygiene from the epileptic group. Sodium valproate was the most common drug used and was associated with increased gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Conclusion can be drawn that epileptic children under medication had poor oral hygiene and an increased risk for gingival enlargement as compared to their healthy counterparts. It must be stressed that the epileptic patients should be given dental care without conditions and provided with best possible care to restore esthetics and functions.

  3. A randomized controlled trial for families with preschool children - promoting healthy eating and active playtime by connecting to nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sobko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promotion of healthy lifestyles in children focuses predominantly on proper nutrition and physical activity, elements now widely recognised as essential for a healthy life. Systematic reviews have shown that nature-related activities also enhance general well-being as reflected in increased physical activity, a healthier diet, reduced stress and better sleep. Recent research suggests that many young children in Hong Kong between the ages of two and four in Hong Kong are more sedentary than recommended and seldom participate in active play, placing them at risk of becoming overweight or obese. The proposed project aims to investigate whether connecting families to nature positively influences physical activity (i.e., active playtime and healthy eating routines in children aged 2 to 4. Methods We recently conducted a pilot study in Hong Kong to develop a programme, Play & Grow, based on the most successful evidence-based international preschool interventions. In addition to adopting the healthy eating and physical activity elements of these interventions, this project will additionally include a third novel element of Connectedness to nature: discovering nature through games and awareness of sounds, touch, smells, and temperature. To test the effectiveness of this modified intervention, a randomised controlled trial (RCT involving 240 families with children aged 2 to 4 will be conducted. Families and children will take part in weekly one-hour activity sessions for 10-weeks. Lifestyle-related habits will be assessed before and immediately after the 10-week intervention, with follow up testing at 6 and 12 months’ post intervention. Discussion A novel measuring tool created specifically for assessing Connectedness to nature, Nature Relatedness Scale (NRS, will be validated and tested for reliability prior to the RCT. The results of the RCT are intended to be used to understand which components of the intervention are most

  4. A randomized controlled trial for families with preschool children - promoting healthy eating and active playtime by connecting to nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobko, Tanja; Tse, Michael; Kaplan, Matthew

    2016-06-13

    Promotion of healthy lifestyles in children focuses predominantly on proper nutrition and physical activity, elements now widely recognised as essential for a healthy life. Systematic reviews have shown that nature-related activities also enhance general well-being as reflected in increased physical activity, a healthier diet, reduced stress and better sleep. Recent research suggests that many young children in Hong Kong between the ages of two and four in Hong Kong are more sedentary than recommended and seldom participate in active play, placing them at risk of becoming overweight or obese. The proposed project aims to investigate whether connecting families to nature positively influences physical activity (i.e., active playtime) and healthy eating routines in children aged 2 to 4. We recently conducted a pilot study in Hong Kong to develop a programme, Play & Grow, based on the most successful evidence-based international preschool interventions. In addition to adopting the healthy eating and physical activity elements of these interventions, this project will additionally include a third novel element of Connectedness to nature: discovering nature through games and awareness of sounds, touch, smells, and temperature. To test the effectiveness of this modified intervention, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving 240 families with children aged 2 to 4 will be conducted. Families and children will take part in weekly one-hour activity sessions for 10-weeks. Lifestyle-related habits will be assessed before and immediately after the 10-week intervention, with follow up testing at 6 and 12 months' post intervention. A novel measuring tool created specifically for assessing Connectedness to nature, Nature Relatedness Scale (NRS), will be validated and tested for reliability prior to the RCT. The results of the RCT are intended to be used to understand which components of the intervention are most effective. The objectives of this project will be achieved

  5. Nailfold capillary microscopy in healthy children and in childhood rheumatic diseases: a prospective single blind observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, P; Young, S P; Bacon, P A; Southwood, T R

    2003-05-01

    To develop an objective method of nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC), applicable to a wide age range of paediatric patients. To compare the morphological characteristics of the nailfold capillaries in different rheumatology patient groups and controls. A colour digital video camera attached to a stereomicroscope was used to capture nailfold capillary images. Computerised image processing was used to analyse and store data. Subsequent quantitative and qualitative morphological analysis was performed in the following paediatric patient and control groups: 18 children with connective tissue diseases (CTD: juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease), eight with systemic lupus erythematosus, nine with primary Raynaud's disease, three with primary vasculitis, 15 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 17 healthy children and 20 healthy adults. Images were analysed by a single assessor who was unaware of the patient details. The NFC technique was simple to perform and gave reproducible results, although some intra- and intersubject variation was noted. Capillary density and width was age related, with younger children having fewer and wider capillaries than older children and adults. Linear capillary density was significantly higher in healthy adults (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.6) capillaries/mm) compared with healthy children (HC 6.9 (0.9) capillaries/mm). The group with CTD had the most abnormal findings, with lower linear density (4.9 (1.7) capillaries/mm) and increased capillary loop width (10.7 (7.3) mm) compared with HC (3.5 (1.7) mm). In addition, 11/18 (61%) patients in the CTD group had more than two definitely abnormal capillaries in at least two nailfolds, an abnormality not seen in other subjects. Two qualitative measures, the degree of avascularity and general disarrangement of capillary pattern, were more commonly observed in the CTD group than in HC. The proportion of tortuous capillaries did not differ significantly between

  6. Development of short-range white matter in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyefiade, Adeoye A; Ameis, Stephanie; Lerch, Jason P; Rockel, Conrad; Szulc, Kamila U; Scantlebury, Nadia; Decker, Alexandra; Jefferson, Jaleel; Spichak, Simon; Mabbott, Donald J

    2018-01-01

    Neural communication is facilitated by intricate networks of white matter (WM) comprised of both long and short range connections. The maturation of long range WM connections has been extensively characterized, with projection, commissural, and association tracts showing unique trajectories with age. There, however, remains a limited understanding of age-related changes occurring within short range WM connections, or U-fibers. These connections are important for local connectivity within lobes and facilitate regional cortical function and greater network economy. Recent studies have explored the maturation of U-fibers primarily using cross-sectional study designs. Here, we analyzed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data for healthy children and adolescents in both a cross-sectional (n = 78; mean age = 13.04 ± 3.27 years) and a primarily longitudinal (n = 26; mean age = 10.78 ± 2.69 years) cohort. We found significant age-related differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) across the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes of participants within the cross-sectional cohort. By contrast, we report significant age-related differences in only FA for participants within the longitudinal cohort. Specifically, larger FA values were observed with age in frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Our results extend previous findings restricted to long range WM to demonstrate regional changes in the microstructure of short range WM during childhood and adolescence. These changes possibly reflect continued myelination and axonal organization of short range WM with increasing age in more anterior regions of the left hemisphere. Hum Brain Mapp 39:204-217, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: effect of parents and teachers on preschool children's healthy lifestyle habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan; Arheart, Kris L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a child's healthy lifestyle curriculum, and (3) an adult (teacher- and parent-focused) healthy lifestyle role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an attention control safety curriculum. Nutrition and physical activity data were collected at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the school year. Exploratory factor analysis identified positive and negative nutrition and physical activity practices by children, parents, and teachers. Intervention parents' baseline (β = .52, p junk food consumption (β = -.04, p junk food consumption (β = .60, p junk food consumption (β = .11, p = .01) and sedentary behavior (β = .09, p junk food, and level of sedentary behavior. Future obesity prevention intervention efforts targeting this age group should include parents as healthy lifestyle role models for their children.

  8. Molecular identification and analysis of human enteroviruses isolated from healthy children in Shenzhen, China from 2010 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and distribution of human enteroviruses (HEVs among healthy children in Shenzhen, China. METHOD: Clinical specimens were obtained from 320 healthy children under 5 years old in Shenzhen, China from 2010 to 2011. The specimens were evaluated using real-time PCR and cell cultures. The positive specimens were further tested using reverse transcription-seminested PCR (RT-snPCR. Molecular typing and phylogenetic analysis were based on the sequence determined. RESULTS: Among the 320 samples, 34 were tested positive for HEVs (10.6% and 22 different serotypes were identified using RT-snPCR. PV1 and PV2 were also detected. The predominant serotype observed was EV71 (17.6%, followed by CV-B4 (14.7%. HEV-B was detected most frequently, with an overall prevalence of 47.1%. HEV-A and HEV-C were found in 32.3% and 20.6% of the samples, respectively. No HEV-D was identified. Molecular phylogeny indicated that all EV71 strains were of C4 genotype. CONCLUSION: Although a variety of HEVs was detected in healthy children, HEV-B was relatively more prevalent than other HEV species. Considering HEV-A is more prevalent than HEV-B among patients with hand-foot-mouth disease, additional long-term surveillance of HEV is warranted in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations.

  9. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct Detection and Identification of Enteroviruses from Faeces of Healthy Nigerian Children Using a Cell-Culture Independent RT-Seminested PCR Assay

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    Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol. Amplicons were sequenced and sequences subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fifteen (25% of the 60 samples yielded the expected band size. Of the 15 amplicons sequenced, 12 were exploitable. The remaining 3 had electropherograms with multiple peaks and were unexploitable. Eleven of the 12 exploitable sequences were identified as Coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1, CVA3, CVA4, CVA8, CVA20, echovirus 32 (E32, enterovirus 71 (EV71, EVB80, and EVC99. Subsequently, the last exploitable sequence was identified as enterobacteriophage baseplate gene by nucleotide BLAST. The results of this study document the first description of molecular sequence data on CVA1, CVA8, and E32 strains present in Nigeria. The result further showed that species A enteroviruses were more commonly detected in the region when cell-culture bias is bypassed.

  11. Putting Children's Sleep Problems to Bed: Using Behavior Change Theory to Increase the Success of Children's Sleep Education Programs and Contribute to Healthy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Sarah; Benveniste, Tessa; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-07-01

    Sleep is critical for the healthy development of children, yet most children simply don't get enough. Whilst school based sleep education programs have been developed for parents and their children, they have had mixed success. We consider how use of behavior change theory in existing school-based sleep education programs can be improved by applying and apply a broader model to these programs. We find that the mixed success of school-based sleep education programs may be due to a plausible but misleading assumption that simply increasing information about the importance of sleep and the risks of insufficient and/or inefficient sleep will necessarily result in improved sleep behaviors. We identify the potential benefits of using behavior change theory in the development of sleep education programs but in particular, there is a need for theories incorporate the multiple biological, environmental and social impacts on children's sleep. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological model is presented to illustrate how one such behavior change theory could significantly improve the success of sleep education programs and ultimately support the healthy development of children.

  12. Serum zinc reference intervals and its relationship with dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in 6- to 9-year-old healthy children

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    Camila Xavier Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an important cause of morbidity, particularly among young children. The dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators should be used to assess zinc status and to indicate the need for zinc interventions. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the zinc status and reference intervals for serum zinc concentration considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators in apparently healthy children in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Design: The cross-sectional study included 131 healthy children: 72 girls and 59 boys, aged between 6 and 9 years. Anthropometric assessment was made by body mass index (BMI and age; dietary assessment by prospective 3-day food register, and an evaluation of total proteins was performed. Zinc in the serum samples was analyzed in triplicate in the same assay flame, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: With respect to dietary assessment, only the intake of fiber and calcium was below the recommendations by age and gender. All subjects were eutrophic according to BMI and age classification. Zinc intake correlated with energy (p=0.0019, protein (p=0.0054, fat (p<0.0001, carbohydrate (p=0.0305, fiber (p=0.0465, calcium (p=0.0006, and iron (p=0.0003 intakes. Serum zinc correlated with protein intake (p=0.0145 and serum albumin (p=0.0141, globulin (p=0.0041, and albumin/globulin ratio (p=0.0043. Biochemical parameters were all within the normal reference range. Reference intervals for basal serum zinc concentration were 0.70–1.14 µg/mL in boys, 0.73–1.17 µg/mL in girls, and 0.72–1.15 µg/mL in the total population. Conclusions: This study presents pediatric reference intervals for serum zinc concentration, considering dietary, functional, and biochemical indicators, which are useful to establish the zinc status in specific groups. In this regard, there are few studies in the literature conducted under these conditions, which make it an innovative methodology.

  13. The mediating effects of family functioning on psychosocial outcomes in healthy siblings of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Treadwell, Marsha; Weissman, Lina; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2011-12-01

    Children with siblings coping with chronic illness experience stresses and disruptions in daily life as families work together to care for the affected child. Research suggests that children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) may be at risk for adjustment problems, impaired psychosocial functioning, and reduced quality of life. These potential stressors affect the child with SCD as well as their caregivers and other family members. This study examined the role of family functioning on the psychosocial functioning of healthy siblings of children with SCD. Participants were 65 healthy African-American siblings of children with SCD with a mean age of 11.19 years (range: 7-16) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adjustment including demographic surveys, the Family Relations Scale (FRS), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Increased number of emergency room visits (β = -0.28, P Family functioning mediated this effect (β = 0.27; P family expressiveness (total score, r = -0.34; P family conflict (total score, r = 0.41; P family expressiveness, support, and conflict are indicated for this population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Using a dual-task protocol to investigate motor and cognitive performance in healthy children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Tracy L; Wilson, Katherine E; Holland, Nicole; Hickling, Andrea; Murphy, James; Fait, Philippe; Reed, Nick

    2017-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (or concussion) is a prevalent yet understudied health concern in children and youth. This injury can cause dysfunction in both motor and cognitive domains; however, most literature focuses on single-task neuropsychological tests which only assess cognition. Although dual-task research on concussed children and youth is needed as many daily activities require both motor and cognitive domains, we must first investigate whether performing simultaneous motor and cognitive tasks of varied complexity impact these domains in healthy children and youth. Data collected from 106 healthy children and youth (5-18 years) created a normative dataset. Participants performed motor (postural stability) and cognitive (visual attention) tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive task difficulty remained constant while the motor task had four conditions of increasing difficulty. The relationship between the number of correct responses (cognitive performance) and sway index (motor performance) was determined using two repeated measures ANOVAs (pchildren and youth following concussion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) of healthy school-age children is associated with grades in math and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Enros, Paul; Paquin, Soukaina; Kestler, Myra; Gillies-Poitras, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency with the grades obtained by healthy typically developing children in math, language, science, and art while controlling for the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. We studied healthy typically developing children between 7 and 11 years of age. Sleep was assessed for five week nights using actigraphy, and parents provided their child's most recent report card. Higher sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) was associated with better grades in math, English language, and French as a second language, above and beyond the contributions of age, gender, and SES. Sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, is associated with academic performance as measured by report-card grades in typically developing school-aged children. The integration of strategies to improve sleep efficiency might represent a successful approach for improving children's readiness and/or performance in math and languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  17. A healthy lifestyle in the system of formation of health preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Trush

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the influence of human lifestyle on his health and well-being. The basis of healthy lifestyle among preschoolers will be the knowledge about the structure of the body, the means of preserving and strengthening human health, the necessity of careful attitude to their own health.Key words: health, healthy lifestyle, preschool age, culture, health.

  18. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents: Estimation of daily phthalate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of chemicals with widespread use in the industrial production of numerous consumer products. They are suspected to be involved in male reproductive health problems and have also been associated with several other health problems in children including obesity...... and asthma. Objectives To study the urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in Danish children recruited from the general population, and to estimate the daily intake of phthalates in this segment of the population. Method One 24 h urine sample and to consecutive first morning urine samples were collected...... from 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (range 6–21 yrs). The concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites of 5 different phthalate diesters were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The analyzed metabolites were detectable in almost all 24 h urine samples...

  19. Lung function response to cold air challenge in asthmatic and healthy children of 2-5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess feasibility, sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and repeatability of cold, dry air challenge (CACh) as a diagnostic test for asthma in young children 2 to 5 yr of age. Response to a 4-min single-step isocapnic CACh was measured in 38 asthmatics and 29...... subjects. Thus sRaw had the highest sensitivity (68%). Specificity ranged from 93 to 100%. The correlation coefficient between sRaw responses to CACh repeated within 8 wk was 96%. In conclusion, CACh is feasible in young children age 2 to 5 yr. Whole body plethysmography (sRaw) was superior in separating...... technique. At baseline, lung function measures differed significantly between asthmatics and healthy control subjects. CACh was readily performed in young children. Response was expressed as change from baseline in numbers of within-subject standard deviation (SDw). Hyperresponsiveness defined as change...

  20. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP — An Overview of and Recommendations Arising from the Conceptualisation and Development of an Innovative Approach to Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Children and Their Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity.

  1. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  2. Discriminative capacity of bronchodilator response measured with three different lung function techniques in asthmatic and healthy children aged 2 to 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    as compared with placebo in healthy control subjects. Lung function improved to a significantly greater extent in asthmatic children than in control subjects as reflected by all methods. sRaw provided the best discriminative power of such a bronchodilator response, with a sensitivity of 66% and specificity......The primary aim of this study was to quantify and compare bronchodilator responsiveness in healthy and asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr. The secondary aim of the study was to compare discriminative capacity (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversibility test......) as measured with the impulse oscillation technique were assessed before and 20 min after inhalation of terbutaline from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler via a metal spacer by 92 children (37 healthy controls and 55 asthmatic subjects). The study of healthy children followed a randomized, double...

  3. Using Family Backpacks as a Tool to Involve Families in Teaching Young Children about Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisoo; Bales, Diane W.; Wallinga, Charlotte R.

    2018-01-01

    Children's obesity rates have increased substantially over the past several decades, due in part to unhealthy eating habits. About 75% of preschool-aged children consume fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended for health. Because children begin developing eating habits during early childhood, obesity prevention programs are increasingly…

  4. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  5. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

  6. Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelsen S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children.Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls, aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.Keywords: ADHD-like symptoms, sleep duration, inattention

  7. Awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Democratic People's Republic of Korea after a preventive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sipilä, Kirsi; Ri, Yon Sil; Jang, Jong Hyon; Kim, Jong Hyok; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to examine awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after a preventive programme. The data were collected in 2013 with self-completed, partly structured questionnaires from 1994 children aged 10 and 13 years and from 200 parents. Association between awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by the children and their parents was evaluated using Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses, children's oral health habits according to themselves and their parents were analysed using McNemar's test. Both children and their parents seemed to be familiar with healthy oral habits, although the awareness was not directly related to the reports of the children's oral practices. Most of the children reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day, using fluoride toothpaste and drinking water for thirst but frequent sweet snacking was common. Children's and their parents' reports were consistent with regard to sweet snacking frequency (p = 0.736) and the main thirst quencher (p = 0.349). Awareness of healthy oral habits appeared to be good among children and their parents. Unhealthy oral habits seemed to coincide with one another.

  8. Smart cities, healthy kids: the association between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and time spent sedentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esliger, Dale W; Sherar, Lauren B; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2012-07-26

    To determine whether, and to what extent, a relation exists between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Saskatoon. Three neighbourhood designs were assessed: 1) core neighbourhoods developed before 1930 that follow a grid pattern, 2) fractured-grid pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the 1930s and mid-1960s, and 3) curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods that were developed between the mid-1960s through to 1998. Children aged 10-14 years (N=455; mean age 11.7 years), grouped by the neighbourhoods they resided in, had their physical activity and sedentary behaviour objectively measured by accelerometry for 7 days. ANCOVA and MANCOVA (multivariate analysis of covariance) models were used to assess group differences (p<0.05). Group differences were apparent on weekdays but not on weekend days. When age, sex and family income had been controlled for, children living in fractured-grid neighbourhoods had, on average, 83 and 55 fewer accelerometer counts per minute on weekdays than the children in the core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. Further analyses showed that the children in the fractured-grid neighbourhoods accumulated 15 and 9 fewer minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day and had a greater time spent in sedentary behaviour (23 and 17 minutes) than those in core and curvilinear-pattern neighbourhoods, respectively. These data suggest that in Saskatoon there is a relation between neighbourhood design and children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Further work is needed to tease out which features of the built environments have the greatest impact on these important lifestyle behaviours. This information, offered in the context of ongoing development of neighbourhoods, as we see in Saskatoon, is critical to an evidence-informed approach to urban development and planning.

  9. Body mass index and elbow range of motion in a healthy pediatric population: a possible mechanism of overweight in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Daniel W; Wojcicki, Janet M; Jhee, Jeffrey T; Gilpin, Susan L; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Heyman, Melvin B

    2008-02-01

    Childhood overweight has become a serious health problem among children and adolescents in the United States. No previous study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the effect of body mass index (BMI) on range of motion and carrying angle of the elbow joint in a healthy pediatric population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of BMI on orthopedic parameters of the elbow joint, including range of motion, flexion, extension, and carrying angle. Healthy children age 2 to 18 years (mean 12.0 +/- 3.9 years) were recruited at an urban pediatric orthopedic clinic as pediatric orthopedic patients or as the siblings or friends of patients. Measures of range of motion (flexion and extension) and carrying angle of 226 elbows and of BMI from 113 study participants were analyzed. BMI was negatively correlated with right and left elbow range of motion (r = -0.54, P consequences of impaired range of motion associated with overweight on activity levels and energy expenditure in growing children and adolescents.

  10. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2 Methods: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas—namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang—of China; (3 Results: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years. Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children’s physical activity (PA behavior (p < 0.0001. However, an insignificant correlation is observed between preschool children’s fruits and vegetables (FV behavior, screen time (ST behavior, and maternal social cognition; (4 Conclusions: This study provides some implications for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, increasing physical activity time, and reducing screen time in preschool children using SCT in China. Maternal social cognition is associated with preschool children’s PA behavior, and the results suggest that maternal social cognition may not affect children FV and ST behaviors. Further research is necessary to test the mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children’s ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children’s ST behavior.

  12. Body image of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analytic comparison with healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    This meta-analysis integrates results from 330 studies on differences between body image of children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illness. Young people with a chronic illness had a less positive body image than their healthy peers although the average size of differences was small (g=-.30 standard deviation units). A comparison of diseases showed that young people with obesity (g=-.79), cystic fibrosis (g=-.50), scoliosis (g=-.41), asthma (g=-.37), growth hormone deficits (g=-.35), spina bifida (g=-.23), cancer (g=-.20), and diabetes (g=-.17) evaluated their body less positively than their healthy peers. Furthermore, levels of body dissatisfaction varied by age at onset of the disease, method for assessing body image, ethnicity, year of publication, and comparison group. Recommendations are stated for reducing effects of chronic illness on the body image of people with chronic illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Promoting Children's Healthy Eating in Obesogenic Environments: Lessons Learned from the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Leann L.; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Current statistics on children's eating patterns and obesity rates are consistent with the idea that genetic taste predispositions, traditional feeding practices, and the obesogenic environment combine to increase the likelihood of unhealthy outcomes in many individuals. In this paper, we focus on one particular level of analysis through which this unhealthy combination of factors may begin to be disassembled: children's learning about food and flavors. Much of the research on children's lear...

  14. Healthy Environments

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This issue of Early Childhood in Focus draws attention to some key global challenges in providing healthy environments for young children. Section 1 recognises that multisectoral policy responses are needed to ensure adequate housing and improved water and sanitation, as well as recreational spaces. For young children, physical spaces are closely intertwined with emotional security and feelings of well-being. Section 2 explores the opportunities and challenges of living in urban environments....

  15. High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could

  16. Common Variants in CYP2R1 and GC Genes Predict Vitamin D Concentrations in Healthy Danish Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors such as diet, intake of vitamin D supplements and exposure to sunlight are known to influence serum vitamin D concentrations. Genetic epidemiology of vitamin D is in its infancy and a better understanding on how genetic variation influences vitamin D concentration is needed....... We aimed to analyse previously reported vitamin D-related polymorphisms in relation to serum 25(OH)D concentrations in 201 healthy Danish families with dependent children in late summer in Denmark. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and a total of 25 SNPs in GC, VDR, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, C10or88...

  17. Serum hepcidin measured by immunochemical and mass-spectrometric methods and their correlation with iron status indicators in healthy children aged 0.5-3 y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, Lieke; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Domellöf, Magnus; Lagerqvist, Carina; Hudig, Cisca; Tjalsma, Harrold; Vos, Rimke; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brus, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic use of hepcidin is limited by the absence of standardization and lack of age-specific reference ranges in children in particular. The aim of this study was to determine reference ranges of serum hepcidin in healthy children aged 0.5-3 y using mass spectometry (MS) and a commercial

  18. The Role of "Kilimani Sesame" in the Healthy Development of Tanzanian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L. G.; Macha, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    "Kilimani Sesame," a media intervention that employs print, radio, and television, was developed to entertain and educate preschool children in Tanzania. This study examined the effects of a six-week intervention delivering "Kilimani Sesame" material to 223 children in the rural district of Kisarawe and the city of Dar es…

  19. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.S. van der; Vucic, S.; Marrewijk, D.J.F. van; Ongkosuwito, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dental development

  20. Impact of an active video game on healthy children's physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This naturalistic study tests whether children receiving a new (to them) active video game spontaneously engage in more physical activity than those receiving an inactive video game, and whether the effect would be greater among children in unsafe neighborhoods,who might not be allowed to play outsi...

  1. A normal reference of bone mineral density (BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy thai children and adolescents aged 5-18 years: a new reference for Southeast Asian Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pairunyar Nakavachara

    Full Text Available Ethnic-specific normative data of bone mineral density (BMD is essential for the accurate interpretation of BMD measurement. There have been previous reports of normative BMD data for Caucasian and Asian children including Japanese, Chinese, Korean and Indian. However, the normative BMD data for Southeast Asian including Thai children and adolescents are not currently available. The goals of our study were 1 to establish normative data of BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, bone area (BA and lean body mass (LBM for healthy Thai children and adolescents; aged 5-18 years measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy and 2 to evaluate the relationships between BMD vs. age, sex, puberty, weight, height, calcium intake and the age of menarche in our population. Gender and age-specific BMD (L2-4; LS and total body; TB, BMADLS (apparent BMD of the lumbar spine, BMC (L2-4 and total body, BA (L2-4 and total body and LBM were evaluated in 367 children (174 boys and 193 girls. All parameters increased progressively with age. A rapid increase in BMD, BMC and BMADLS was observed at earlier ages in girls. Gender and Tanner stage-specific BMD normative data were also generated. The dynamic changes of BMD values from childhood to early and late puberty of Thai children appeared to be consistent with those of Caucasian and Asian populations. Using a multiple-regression, weight and Tanner stage significantly affected BMDLS, BMDTB and BMADLS in both genders. Only in girls, height was found to have significant influence on BMDTB and BMADLS. The positive correlation between BMD and several demographic parameters, except the calcium intake, was observed. In summary, we established a normal BMD reference for Thai children and adolescents and this will be of useful for clinicians and researchers to appropriately assess BMD in Thais and other Southeast Asian children.

  2. Glucose intolerance among apparently healthy Hausa-Fulani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glucose intolerance has been recently reclassified by the World Health Organization (WHO) incorporating a new class known as impaired fasting glycaemia. Previous studies in this environment looked as diabetes mellitus only but not the other forms of glucose intolerance. Objectives: To study the prevalence ...

  3. The Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined using software by Kidney Health Australia. The figures obtained thereafter were multiplied by 1.21 to accommodate for the black race. Differences between subjects were tested, using Chi‑squared test for categorical data, while two tailed unpaired t‑test was used ...

  4. The birth weight of apparently healthy Nigerian newborns in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 253 babies were enrolled. Results: There were 131 males and 122 females giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. Gestational age by maternal dates ranged from 28 to 44 weeks. There was a consistent increase in mean values of weight as the ...

  5. Occurrence of helminths and coccidia in apparently healthy free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smears of intestinal scrapings were examined under light microscope to detect coccidia oocysts. Two hundred and twenty chickens (87.3%) were infested with helminth species, whereas 28 birds (11.1%) were infected with coccidia. Twenty five birds (9.9%) had conjoint infestations with helminth and coccidia. In the present ...

  6. Haemorrheologic profiles in apparently healthy pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    100 non-pregnant subjects (controls) of age range 18 - 40 years were studied to estimate packed cell volume (PCV), relative whole blood viscosity (RWBV), relative plasma viscosity (RPV) and plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC) using standard manual techniques. PVC and RWBV were significantly lower in pregnant ...

  7. Prevalence Of Dyslipidaemia In Apparently Healthy Professionals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Triglycerides were determined using standard cholesterol LDLprecipitating reagents/kits. Themean age of the subjectswas 41.5 9 8.22 years (range 29 to 58 years) withmale to female ratio of 1:1.2. Mean total cholesterol was 180.69 36.248 mg/dl (4.67 0.94 mmol/L), ...

  8. Avian Influenza H5-Subtype Antibodies in Apparently Healthy Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The figures were 16.39% and 9.90±0.10 log2 and 9.92% and 6.92±0.58 log2 for ducks and guinea fowls respectively. Taura live bird market had the highest prevalence of 39.1% with a mean titre of 9.9 ± 0.11 log2. Chickens, ducks and guinea fowls in live bird markets in Jigawa State were exposed to H5 subtype antigen ...

  9. Pre-Hypertension And Hypertension In Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is a major public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been shown to track from adolescence to adulthood. Pre-hypertension refers to consistent systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (BP) measurement between 90 - < 95th percentile, while hypertension is when systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 95th ...

  10. The Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Apparently Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimates have been reported in Asia,[2] Australia,[3] and across Europe.[4-6] It is more difficult to get accurate estimates in the developing countries like Nigeria, due to lack of national registries of CKD and limited surveys. However, the risk factors for CKD are known to be just as prevalent in many developing countries as ...

  11. Haemorrheologic profiles in apparently healthy pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Rheological properties can be influenced by packed cell volume, plasma viscosity, red cell aggregation and red cell deformability. In order to assess haemorrheologic activity in pregnancy, 100 pregnant and. 100 non-pregnant subjects (controls) of age range 18 - 40 years were studied to estimate packed ...

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among apparently healthy adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of multiple metabolic abnormalities that increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a resultant severe economic implication.This study assessed the burden of MetS in a Nigerian rural community setting. Method: This was a cross-sectional, community ...

  13. Advances in Pediatric Reference Intervals for Biochemical Markers: Establishment of the Caliper Database in Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasy, Kimiya; Ariadne, Petra; Gaglione, Stephanie; Nieuwesteeg, Michelle; Adeli, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Clinical laboratory reference intervals provide valuable information to medical practitioners in their interpretation of quantitative laboratory test results, and therefore are critical in the assessment of patient health and in clinical decision-making. The reference interval serves as a health-associated benchmark with which to compare an individual test result. Unfortunately, critical gaps currently exist in accurate and up-to-date pediatric reference intervals for accurate interpretation of laboratory tests performed in children and adolescents. These critical gaps in the available laboratory reference intervals have the clear potential of contributing to erroneous diagnosis or misdiagnosis of many diseases. To address these important gaps, several initiatives have begun internationally by a number of bodies including the KiGGS initiative in Germany, the Aussie Normals in Australia, the AACC-National Children Study in USA, the NORICHILD Initiative in Scandinavia, and the CALIPER study in Canada. In the present article, we will review the gaps in pediatric reference intervals, challenges in establishing pediatric norms in healthy children and adolescents, and the major contributions of the CALIPER program to closing the gaps in this crucial area of pediatric laboratory medicine. We will also discuss the recently published CALIPER reference interval database (www.caliperdatabase.com) developed to provide comprehensive age and gender specific pediatric reference intervals for a larger number of biochemical markers, based on a large and diverse healthy children cohort. The CALIPER database is based on a multiethnic population examining the influence of ethnicity on laboratory reference intervals. Thus the database has proved to be of global benefit and is being adopted by hospital laboratories worldwide.

  14. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12®-supplemented yogurt in healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P.; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary Ellen; D’Amico, Frank J.; Roberts, Robert F.; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Merenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration (FDA) has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12® (BB-12®)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12®-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Methods Sixty children aged 1–5 years were randomly assigned to consume four ounces of either BB-12®-supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. Results A total of 186 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12® groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. Conclusions BB-12®-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12®-supplemented yogurt in different disease states. PMID:28114246

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of a pediatric dose of a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine in healthy children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Hemat; Kumavat, Vandana; Singh, Tejinder; Versteilen, Amanda; Sarnecki, Michal

    2014-01-01

    As India is transitioning from high to intermediate hepatitis A endemicity, the need for hepatitis A vaccination programs increases. This study investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a virosomal hepatitis A vaccine (HAVpur Junior) compared with an aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix 720 Junior) in Indian children. Healthy children aged 18-47 months, stratified by age, were randomized to either HAVpur Junior or Havrix 720 Junior. The first dose of vaccine was administered on Day 1 and the second (booster) dose 6 months later. Antibodies against hepatitis A virus (HAV) were measured using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. The primary objective assessed non-inferiority of HAVpur Junior to Havrix 720 Junior in terms of seroprotection rates (≥ 10 mIU/mL anti-HAV antibodies) at 1 month after the first vaccination. Non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval of the group difference was greater than -10%. Local and systemic adverse events were recorded. The seroprotection rate at 1 month was 95.9% in the HAVpur Junior group and 96.6% in the Havrix 720 Junior group. As the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval of the group difference was greater than -10% (-4.7), non-inferiority of HAVpur Junior to Havrix 720 Junior was established. The overall incidence of adverse events (solicited and unsolicited) after each vaccination was similar in both groups. In conclusion, the aluminum-free virosomal vaccine HAVpur Junior induced a similar immune response to Havrix 720 Junior in healthy Indian children aged 18 to 47 months. Both vaccines were well tolerated. The study shows that the low-dose virosomal HAV vaccine is consistently efficacious and well tolerated in children of all age groups and is suitable for inclusion into Indian childhood vaccination schedules.

  16. Assessment of self-reported self-esteem in healthy and diabetic children and adolescents in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachioti, Efrosini; Petsios, Konstantinos; Boutopoulou, Barbara; Chrisostomou, Anthi; Galanis, Petros; Matziou, Vasiliki

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate any possible negative effect of diabetes on the self-esteem of children and adolescents with diabetes. Self-esteem was evaluated using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2) in 144 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM; 7-18 years of age) treated in a diabetes center and compared against that of 136 healthy children and adolescents. Self-esteem was correlated with age (P = 0.017), but not with diabetes (P = 0.886). The median CFSEI-2 score for both healthy and diabetic children was 22. There was no significant correlation between self-esteem and sex, body mass index (BMI), physical exercise, HbA1c or parental educational level. According to Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r(s)), there was a significant association between age and self-esteem (r(s) = -0.15). Conversely, although BMI (r(s) = -0.09) and treatment duration (r(s) = -0.107) had a slight negative effect on self-esteem and the duration of physical exercise (r(s) = 0.11) and parental education (r(s) = 0.07) seemed to have a positive effect, the associations did not reach statistical significance. Self-esteem in diabetic children is mainly affected by their age, level of physical activity and level of family support. These findings emphasize the need to discriminate between glycemic control and diabetic adjustment. © 2010 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, M S; Vucic, S; van Marrewijk, D J F; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2017-05-01

    In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. Dental development was scored on orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 95 children with Down syndrome. The dental age was determined at the left mandibular side according to the Demirjian method and by converting the assigned scores to the dental maturity score. Dental development scores of control children and DS children were compared with a mixed model linear regression analysis. The model showed statistically significant changes relating to increasing age (Pchildren and the control group after using the Nyström imputation (with and without hypodontia). The findings showed that dental development in DS children is similar to the development of control children and that a relationship exists between hypodontia and dental development. The clinically observed late eruption is probably not due to late dental development but due to the other processes that take place during eruption, such as the possible impaired processes at the apical side and the occlusal side of an erupting element. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Incentivizing healthy eating in children: An investigation of the "ripple" and "temporal" effects of a reward-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Saied

    2017-10-01

    Although previous studies have established the effectiveness of using small reward-based incentives in inducing the choice and consumption of healthier foods among children, little is known about their impact outside of experimental settings or their effectiveness over time when administered daily. This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted to provide insight on these matters. The study employs a removed treatment within-subject design and was conducted at a summer program catering to low-income children between the ages of 5 and 12. The month long experiment-wherein participants were offered a small prize for choosing a fruit cup for dessert after lunch in lieu of cookies-involved 23 children between the ages of 5 and 8. Corroborating existing studies, the introduction of small reward-based incentives in this context was found to induce large increases in the number of children choosing the healthy dessert options after lunch, but disaggregating the results by week and day suggests that their impact diminished over time. Attempts to ascertain their effect outside of experimental settings did not indicate that the introduction of rewards had any adverse effects, but also did not provide definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  20. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids' Choice Restaurant Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Castro, Iana A; Pickrel, Julie L; Lin, Shih-Fan; Williams, Christine B; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants.

  1. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Castro, Iana A.; Pickrel, Julie L.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Williams, Christine B.; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants. PMID:29194392

  2. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe X. Ayala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants.

  3. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2016-01-01

    . Methods: A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6–18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free...

  4. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  5. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy

  6. Impulse oscillometry, spirometry, and passive smoking in healthy children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I.S. Schivinski

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Children and adolescents exposed to PS had lower values for the spirometric variables and higher values for the oscillometric variables, indicating changes in forced and quiet parameters of lung function compared to the NPSG.

  7. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Use of Information Collection: The HCS will address the need for a cross-cutting national study of... programs/policies related to nutrition, physical activity, and weight of children), food service personnel...

  8. A comparison of Theory of Planned Behavior beliefs and healthy eating between couples without children and first-time parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) beliefs and eating behavior, explore which beliefs have the greatest association with eating behavior, and explore differences between adults without children and first-time parents. Longitudinal evaluation via questionnaires and food records at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Couples without children (n = 72) and first-time parents (n = 100). fruit and vegetable consumption and fat consumption. TPB beliefs. Pearson correlations between TPB beliefs and eating behavior; exploratory data reduction via linear regression. Control beliefs were associated with eating behavior (r = .26-.46; P controlling for past behavior, control beliefs were associated with eating behavior for first-time parents only. Control beliefs regarding preparation and time had the strongest associations with fruit and vegetable consumption for mothers (β = .26; P control beliefs suggests room for improvement via intervention. Interventions guided by TPB should target control beliefs to enhance healthy eating among new parents. Strategies (eg, individual, environmental, policy) to enhance control beliefs regarding healthy eating despite limited time and opportunity for preparation may be particularly valuable. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family meal frequency, weight status and healthy management in children, young adults and seniors. A study in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvoli, Gianfranco

    2015-06-01

    To examine family meal frequency, and weight management as a protective factor throughout life. Selected by city and by town in Sardinia (Italy), the 522 participants were divided into 162 children (7-11 years), 187 young adults (19-30 years), and 173 seniors (65-90 years). Chi-square analyses were used to compare the frequency of family meals, weight (self-reported and perceived) and healthy management (physical activity, dieting, perceived appetite) between age groups. In addition, multinomial regression analyses were carried out to find associations, with age group as the dependent variable and frequency of family meal, weight status, and healthy management categories as independent variables, adjusted for moderating effects. Significant associations with age variables were observed in mealtime frequency (skipping breakfast and mid-morning snack in adults and lunch in children and seniors), in decreasing self-reported normal weight with age and increasing perceived overweight with age, and in physical activity, dieting and perceived appetite. The results suggest the protective nature of family meals for adults and seniors, and identify significant associations (and some differences) between age groups. Discrepancies suggest the importance of education about body weight awareness throughout life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Normal bladder wall thickness measurement in healthy Iranian children, a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Adibi, Atoosa; Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal bladder function is necessary for micturition. Many causes such as urinary tract infection, bladder outlet obstruction, and neuropathic bladder can influence bladder wall thickness (BWT).This study was designed to determine normal BWT in Iranian children. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done in Isfahan in 2012 comprising 82 children aged 2-14 years without any urinary complaint. We measured thickness of posterior and lateral walls of the bladder ...

  11. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among healthy school-age Cree children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverin, Bruno; Dewailly, Eric; Côté, Suzanne; Johnson-Down, Louise; Morin, Suzanne; Dodin, Sylvie

    2014-03-01

    First Nations children are at higher risk for vitamin D deficiency and rickets. To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the correlations between fat mass, parathyroid hormone and dietary habits with serum vitamin D level in a random sample of Cree children eight to 14 years of age. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and additional information regarding anthropometrics and dietary habits were obtained from participants in two Cree communities. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D levels children (mean [± SD] age 11.1±2.0 years; 27 boys) were included in the analyses. The median serum 25(OH)D level was 52.4 nmol/L (range 22.1 nmol/L to 102.7 nmol/L). Forty-three percent (95% CI 29% to 58%) and 81% (95% CI 70% to 92%) of Cree children had vitamin D levels Obese children had lower vitamin D levels; however, the difference was nonsignificant. There may be a substantial proportion of Cree children who are vitamin D deficient. Increasing age, lower dietary vitamin D intake and, possibly, higher body mass index were associated with decreased vitamin D levels; however, causality cannot be inferred.

  12. The stress-reducing effects of art in pediatric health care: art preferences of healthy children and hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Sarajane L; Ulrich, Roger S; Shepley, Mardelle M; Varni, James W; Sherman, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Art is assumed to possess therapeutic benefits of healing for children, as part of patient-focused design in health care. Since the psychological and physiological well-being of children in health care settings is extremely important in contributing to the healing process, it is vitally important to identify what type of art supports stress reduction. Based on adult studies, nature art was anticipated to be the most preferred and to have stress-reducing effects on pediatric patients. Nature art refers to art images dominated by natural vegetation, flowers or water. The objective of this study was to investigate what type of art image children prefer, and what type of art image has potentially stress-reducing effects on children in hospitals. This study used a three-phase, multi-method approach with children aged 5-17 years: a focus group study (129 participants), a randomized study (48 participants), and a quasi-experimental study design (48 participants). Findings were evaluated from three phases.

  13. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.

  14. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  15. UK reference data for the Hologic QDR Discovery dual-energy x ray absorptiometry scanner in healthy children and young adults aged 6-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kate A; Ashby, Rebecca L; Roberts, Steven A; Adams, Judith E; Zulf Mughal, M

    2007-01-01

    The use and correct interpretation of bone densitometry measurements in paediatric patients relies on the availability of appropriate reference data. Ideally, such data should be matched for sex, chronological age, height, weight, pubertal development and ethnicity. To provide UK-specific reference data for the Hologic QDR Discovery dual-energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanners. Healthy, Caucasian children aged 5-18 years were recruited from local schools, colleges, general practitioner surgeries and staff from the University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Suitable participants had DXA measurements taken of the lumbar spine, hip and total body. Sex-specific reference centile curves for bone mineral apparent density (BMAD; spine and femoral neck) are provided, using the approach suggested by Mølgaard et al. to interpret the scans. LMS (lambda, mu, varsigma) tables for calculation of individual standard deviation scores (SDSs) were produced; a weblink is provided to these tables to allow calculation of an individual child's SDSs. The total study population consisted of 442 participants (239 male). The total numbers of scans available for analysis were 431 of the lumbar spine, 426 of the total body and 393 of the proximal femur. Data are provided for clinical interpretation of the spine and femoral neck scans based on BMAD (g/cm3), which reduces the size dependence of DXA areal bone mineral density (g/cm2). The spine and total-body data are also presented for interpretation of results using the approach suggested by Mølgaard et al. This article provides the first sex-specific and ethnicity-specific reference databases for UK, which should allow the clinician to assess bone mineral density in paediatric patients, measured by the Hologic QDR Discovery DXA scanner.

  16. Correlates of Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs and Behaviors in Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children Before and After a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention With Text Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p healthy lifestyle behaviors (rs = 0.545, p healthy lifestyle beliefs increased and perceived difficulty lessened, their response rate and subsequent feedback lessened to the static text messaging support. Findings from this study support the interconnections between parents' thoughts, feelings, and actions toward healthy lifestyles. As parental beliefs became stronger through cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened