Sample records for apparatus functional anatomy

  1. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.


    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures co

  2. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam]. (United States)

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P


    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys.

  3. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system]. (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y


    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  4. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities. (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan


    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  5. Chapter 1: Sinonasal anatomy and function. (United States)

    Dalgorf, Dustin M; Harvey, Richard J


    An understanding of paranasal sinus anatomy based on important fixed landmarks rather than variable anatomy is critical to ensure safe and complete surgery. The concept of the paranasal surgical box defines the anatomic limits of dissection. The boundaries of the surgical box include the middle turbinate medially, orbital wall laterally, and skull base superiorly. The "vertical component" of the surgical box defines the boundaries of the frontal recess and includes the middle turbinate and intersinus septum medially, medial orbital wall and orbital roof laterally, nasofrontal beak anteriorly, and skull base and posterior table of frontal sinus posteriorly. The paranasal sinuses are divided into anterior, posterior, and sphenoidal functional cavities based on their distinct drainage pathways into the nose. The ultimate goal of surgery is to create a functional sinus cavity. Application of the paranasal surgical box and its vertical component enables the surgeon to view the limits of dissection with a single position of the endoscope. This will ensure complete dissection of the functional sinonasal compartments and effectively avoid leaving behind disconnected cells from the surgical cavity, mucocele formation, mucous recirculation, overcome obstructive phenomenon and enable maximal delivery of topical therapy in the post-operative setting. This article reviews the structure and function of the nasal cartilages and turbinates. It also describes the concept of the paranasal surgical box, key anatomical landmarks and limits of dissection. Normal anatomy and common variants of normal anatomy are discussed.

  6. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor. (United States)

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore


    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  7. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti


    Full Text Available Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  8. Functional Anatomy of Gerstmann Syndrome


    J Gordon Millichap


    Structural and functional neuroimaging was used to examine a common denominator for the clinical triad of Gerstmann syndrome (a selective association of acalculia, finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, and agraphia) in a study at centers in Gif-sur-Yvette and Orsay, France; and University College, London, UK.

  9. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor


    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti


    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its mul...

  10. Animating functional anatomy for the web. (United States)

    Guttmann, G D


    The instructor sometimes has a complex task in explaining the concepts of functional anatomy and embryology to health professional students. However, animations can easily illustrate functional anatomy, clinical procedures, or the developing embryo. Web animation increases the accessibility of this information and makes it much more useful for independent student learning. A modified version of the animation can also be used for patient education. This article defines animation, provides a brief history of animation, discusses the principles of animation, illustrates and evaluates some of the video-editing or movie-making computer software programs, and shows examples of two of the author's animations. These two animations are the inferior alveolar nerve block from the mandibular nerve anesthetics unit and normal temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function from the muscles of the mastication and the TMJ function unit. The software discussed are the industry leaders and have made the job of producing computer-based animations much easier. The programs are Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, Apple QuickTime and Macromedia Flash .

  11. The functional anatomy of the cricothyroid joint. (United States)

    Windisch, Gunther; Hammer, Georg Philipp; Prodinger, Peter Michael; Friedrich, Gerhard; Anderhuber, Friedrich


    Postoperative long-term treatment problems of male-to-female transsexuals can be caused by the underestimated mobility of the cricothyroid joint. One hundred cadaveric larynges were analysed to reveal the morphological and functional anatomy of the CTJ focusing on possible horizontal and vertical gliding movements. Furthermore, the distance of the cricothyroid space for rotational movements was measured. The articular surface of the cricothyroid joint showed three different possibilities: a well-defined facet (Type 1 61%), no definable facet (Type 2 22%) or a flat surface with or without a tiny protuberance (Type 3 17%). Side different statements and intraindividual differences between male and female specimens were included. These different types affect horizontal and vertical gliding movements, besides rotational movements. The mobility between Type 1 and the others was highly significant (P < 0.001). Regarding different motions in the cricothyroid joint, rotational movements caused significant elongation of the vocal folds, which should be taken into consideration for phonosurgical methods.

  12. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis. (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W


    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  13. Individual functional anatomy of verb generation. (United States)

    Herholz, K; Thiel, A; Wienhard, K; Pietrzyk, U; von Stockhausen, H M; Karbe, H; Kessler, J; Bruckbauer, T; Halber, M; Heiss, W D


    Examination of the individual functional anatomy of language is of particular interest in clinical neurology to explain the variability of aphasic symptoms after focal lesions and to avoid damage of language-related brain areas by surgery. For a silent verb generation task, we examined whether activation PET with 3D data acquisition, multiple replication of conditions, and coregistration with MRI provides results that are consistent and reproducible enough to be useful clinically. Visual analysis was performed on PET-MRI fusion images, including renderings of the brain surface. Quantitative analysis was based on volumes of interest. In seven right-handed normals, activation of the triangular part of the left inferior frontal cortex [Brodman area (BA) 45] was the most significant finding that was present in each subject. Two subjects showed minor anatomical variants of the ascending or horizontal ramus of the sylvian fissure that were associated with the least activation of BA 45. In the left hemisphere the other frontal gyri, the superior temporal and posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus, and the paracingulate gyrus were also significantly activated. There was significant bilateral cerebellar activation, but it was significantly more intense on the right than on the left side. The consistency and high interindividual reproducibility of these findings suggest that this technique may be useful for clinical assessment of language-related areas.

  14. Interprofessional approach for teaching functional knee joint anatomy. (United States)

    Meyer, Jakob J; Obmann, Markus M; Gießler, Marianne; Schuldis, Dominik; Brückner, Ann-Kathrin; Strohm, Peter C; Sandeck, Florian; Spittau, Björn


    Profound knowledge in functional and clinical anatomy is a prerequisite for efficient diagnosis in medical practice. However, anatomy teaching does not always consider functional and clinical aspects. Here we introduce a new interprofessional approach to effectively teach the anatomy of the knee joint. The presented teaching approach involves anatomists, orthopaedists and physical therapists to teach anatomy of the knee joint in small groups under functional and clinical aspects. The knee joint courses were implemented during early stages of the medical curriculum and medical students were grouped with students of physical therapy to sensitize students to the importance of interprofessional work. Evaluation results clearly demonstrate that medical students and physical therapy students appreciated this teaching approach. First evaluations of following curricular anatomy exams suggest a benefit of course participants in knee-related multiple choice questions. Together, the interprofessional approach presented here proves to be a suitable approach to teach functional and clinical anatomy of the knee joint and further trains interprofessional work between prospective physicians and physical therapists as a basis for successful healthcare management.

  15. The anatomy and physiology of the suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx. (United States)

    Pollitt, Christopher C


    The equine hoof capsule protects the softer, more sensitive, structures within. Failure of the connection between hoof and bone (suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx or SADP) results in the crippling lameness of laminitis. Active basal cell proliferation occurs principally in tubular hoof and proximal and distal lamellae. The remaining lamellae are virtually non-proliferative and the hoof wall moves past the stationary distal phalanx, by controlled activation and inhibition of constituent proteases. The lamellar corium derives most of its blood supply from the branches of the terminal arch which perforate the distal phalanx. Valveless veins within the foot can be exploited clinically for retrograde venous therapy or contrast radiography (venography). The basement membrane (BM) forms the interface between the lamellar epidermis and the adjacent dermis and the plasma membrane of each lamellar basal cell is attached to the BM by numerous electron dense adhesion plaques or hemidesmosomes the ultimate attachment unit of the SADP. Laminitis destroys and dislocates the BM and its components and without an intact, functional BM, the structure and function of the lamellar epidermis is pathologically compromised. Transcription and activation of constituent proteases occurs in normal hoof lamellae but in increased amounts during laminitis.

  16. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

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    Ewings Ember


    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  17. The functionality of the anatomy in the physical education career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Buffone


    Full Text Available Historically, the teaching of anatomy within the area of Physical Education has not focused its content on the practice of the course of studies; it has not been contextualized in its difficulties. This is an attempt to show that the subject that is offered to us could answer the needs of a dynamic Physical Education, and because of this, it is important to highlight the functional contribution which adapts in a more realistic sense to our teaching practice. The functional anatomy that is proposed goes beyond the static description of the different regions of the human body, having a wider and more dynamic vision of the body in motion. From this idea, we try to see the contents of the subject not as something rigid or invariable, but to use them to think and to create spaces of discussion on our practice and to wonder, how a descriptive anatomy reduced to only its descriptive contents may helps us. The anatomy, in this aspect, must begin from its own field and here lies our main concern as regards focusing on its functions, starting from the movement and not from the dead bodies where we observe the lack of dynamics

  18. Anatomy, function, and evolution of jaw and hyobranchial muscles in cryptobranchoid salamander larvae. (United States)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Matsui, Masafumi; Haas, Alexander


    Larval salamanders (Lissamphibia: Caudata) are known to be effective suction feeders in their aquatic environments, although they will eventually transform into terrestrial tongue feeding adults during metamorphosis. Early tetrapods may have had a similar biphasic life cycle and this makes larval salamanders a particularly interesting model to study the anatomy, function, development, and evolution of the feeding apparatus in terrestrial vertebrates. Here, we provide a description of the muscles that are involved in the feeding strike in salamander larvae of the Hynobiidae and compare them to larvae of the paedomorphic Cryptobranchidae. We provide a functional and evolutionary interpretation for the observed muscle characters. The cranial muscles in larvae from species of the Hynobiidae and Cryptobranchidae are generally very similar. Most notable are the differences in the presence of the m. hyomandibularis, a muscle that connects the hyobranchial apparatus with the lower jaw. We found this muscle only in Onychodactylus japonicus (Hynobiidae) but not in other hynobiid or cryptobranchid salamanders. Interestingly, the m. hyomandibularis in O. japonicus originates from the ceratobranchial I and not the ceratohyal, and thus exhibits what was previously assumed to be the derived condition. Finally, we applied a biomechanical model to simulate suction feeding in larval salamanders. We provide evidence that a flattened shape of the hyobranchial apparatus in its resting position is beneficial for a fast and successful suction feeding strike.

  19. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

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    Benny eLiberg


    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  20. Morphology and functional anatomy of the growing thorax; Morphologie und funktionelle Anatomie des wachsenden Thorax

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    Weninger, W.J.; Meng, S.; Geyer, S.H.; Weninger, S.U.G. [Integrative Morphology Group, Unversitaet Wien (Austria); Institut fuer Anatomie, Universitaet Wien (Austria)


    Morphogenesis of most thoracic organs and structures is not finished with birth but perpetuates in postnatal life. The postnatal growth is partly associated with enormous changes in structure, morphology, and function. Our study presents an overview of morphological, topological and functional peculiarities of thoracic anatomy during infancy, childhood and adolescence. It focuses on the development of the mammary gland, osseous structures of the chest wall, thymus, heart, and lungs. Most of the presented data are based on post-mortem studies. Measurements and numerical data are mainly included for illustration of growth-associated changes. (orig.) [German] Die Morphogenese mancher thorakaler Strukturen und Organe ist zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt noch nicht vollstaendig abgeschlossen. Ihr postpartales Wachstum geht mit teils enormen strukturellen, morphologischen und funktionellen Veraenderungen einher. Die hier praesentierte Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber morphologische, topologische und funktionelle Besonderheiten der Anatomie des Thorax und seiner Organe im Neonatus, Saeugling, Kind und Jugendlichen. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Beschreibung der Entwicklung der Brustdruese, des knoechernen Thorax, des Thymus, des Herzen und der Lunge. Die vorgestellten Daten stammen grossteils aus Post-mortem-Studien und dienen vorwiegend dazu, das Ausmass wachstumsassoziierter Veraenderungen und Relationen zu illustrieren. (orig.)

  1. Functional Anatomy of the Human Microprocessor. (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Jo, Myung Hyun; Choi, Yeon-Gil; Park, Joha; Kwon, S Chul; Hohng, Sungchul; Kim, V Narry; Woo, Jae-Sung


    MicroRNA (miRNA) maturation is initiated by Microprocessor composed of RNase III DROSHA and its cofactor DGCR8, whose fidelity is critical for generation of functional miRNAs. To understand how Microprocessor recognizes pri-miRNAs, we here reconstitute human Microprocessor with purified recombinant proteins. We find that Microprocessor is an ∼364 kDa heterotrimeric complex of one DROSHA and two DGCR8 molecules. Together with a 23-amino acid peptide from DGCR8, DROSHA constitutes a minimal functional core. DROSHA serves as a "ruler" by measuring 11 bp from the basal ssRNA-dsRNA junction. DGCR8 interacts with the stem and apical elements through its dsRNA-binding domains and RNA-binding heme domain, respectively, allowing efficient and accurate processing. DROSHA and DGCR8, respectively, recognize the basal UG and apical UGU motifs, which ensure proper orientation of the complex. These findings clarify controversies over the action mechanism of DROSHA and allow us to build a general model for pri-miRNA processing.

  2. Cryosectional observations of functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint. (United States)

    Westesson, P L; Kurita, K; Eriksson, L; Katzberg, R W


    The anatomy and function of the temporomandibular joint are complex, and our understanding about how the retrocondylar tissues change when the condyle translates anteriorly has been incomplete. We therefore examined the sectional anatomy of 24 fresh human temporomandibular joints at different gradations of jaw opening, protrusion, and laterotrusion. We found that the tissues of the posterior disk attachment expanded in volume and occupied the space behind the condyle when the mouth was opened, protruded, or laterotruded to the contralateral side. Volumetric expansion of the tissue seemed to be due mainly to distension of the venous structures in the retrodiskal area. In the lateral region of the joint, tissue from the superior aspect of the parotid gland also seemed to contribute to the filling of the space posterior to the condyle. Thus, the retrodiskal tissue appears to have a substantial capacity to expand and fill the mandibular fossa when the condyle translates anteriorly. The possibility of a dynamic vascular physiology is suggested.

  3. The function of the disco-muscular apparatus in the human temporomandibular joint. (United States)

    Bade, H


    The morphology and function of the disco-muscular apparatus of the human TMJ is a controversial subject. Connections between the muscles which move the mandible and the "disco-capsular complex" have been described in a contradictory way. The disco-muscular apparatus is also described as being more extensive than that of the M. pterygoideus alone to include to the Mm. temporalis and masseter. However, the involvement of the latter is considered to be a peripheral variation of the normal anatomy and of little, if any, functional significance. The existence of independent relationships between the deep portions of the masseter and temporal muscles and the disco-capsular apparatus of the human TMJ is rarely discussed or explained. The morphologic findings were derived from fixed and unfixed human temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of varying ages and both sexes, whereby the functional maturity of the masticatory apparatus was taken into consideration. The results of the study show that aside from fibers originating from the superior venter of the M. pterygoideus lateralis, additional muscle or connective tissue fibers from the perimysium of the M. masseter are inserted to varying extents into the disc. The same is true for the M. temporalis, which is also directly connected to the disc via muscular or fibrous elements, or indirectly via fibers from the M. masseter. The insertion of the M. pterygoideus lateralis is always in the medial portion of the Discus articularis and those of the Mm. temporalis and masseter in the middle and lateral portions of the disc respectively. It is highly probable that a direct force transfer through the Mm. temporalis and masseter to the articular disc takes place, and that these muscles contribute to the movement of the disc during jaw movement, whereas the size and form of the muscle insertions are subject to a great deal of individual variation.

  4. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

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    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F


    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  5. Sinus Anatomy (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  6. Nasal Anatomy (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  7. Integrating anatomy and function for zebrafish circuit analysis. (United States)

    Arrenberg, Aristides B; Driever, Wolfgang


    Due to its transparency, virtually every brain structure of the larval zebrafish is accessible to light-based interrogation of circuit function. Advanced stimulation techniques allow the activation of optogenetic actuators at different resolution levels, and genetically encoded calcium indicators report the activity of a large proportion of neurons in the CNS. Large datasets result and need to be analyzed to identify cells that have specific properties-e.g., activity correlation to sensory stimulation or behavior. Advances in three-dimensional (3D) functional mapping in zebrafish are promising; however, the mere coordinates of implicated neurons are not sufficient. To comprehensively understand circuit function, these functional maps need to be placed into the proper context of morphological features and projection patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, and key anatomical landmarks. We discuss the prospect of merging functional and anatomical data in an integrated atlas from the perspective of our work on long-range dopaminergic neuromodulation and the oculomotor system. We propose that such a resource would help researchers to surpass current hurdles in circuit analysis to achieve an integrated understanding of anatomy and function.

  8. The anatomy and function of the gluteus minimus muscle. (United States)

    Beck, M; Sledge, J B; Gautier, E; Dora, C F; Ganz, R


    In order to investigate the functional anatomy of gluteus minimus we dissected 16 hips in fresh cadavers. The muscle originates from the external aspect of the ilium, between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines, and also at the sciatic notch from the inside of the pelvis where it protects the superior gluteal nerve and artery. It inserts anterosuperiorly into the capsule of the hip and continues to its main insertion on the greater trochanter. Based on these anatomical findings, a model was developed using plastic bones. A study of its mechanics showed that gluteus minimus acts as a flexor, an abductor and an internal or external rotator, depending on the position of the femur and which part of the muscle is active. It follows that one of its functions is to stabilise the head of the femur in the acetabulum by tightening the capsule and applying pressure on the head. Careful preservation or reattachment of the tendon of gluteus minimus during surgery on the hip is strongly recommended.

  9. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) forelimb. (United States)

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M


    Despite the cheetah being the fastest living land mammal, we know remarkably little about how it attains such high top speeds (29 m s(-1)). Here we aim to describe and quantify the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah forelimb and compare it to the racing greyhound, an animal of similar mass, but which can only attain a top speed of 17 m s(-1). Measurements were made of muscle mass, fascicle length and moment arms, enabling calculations of muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and estimates of joint torques and rotational velocities. Bone lengths, masses and mid-shaft cross-sectional areas were also measured. Several species differences were observed and have been discussed, such as the long fibred serratus ventralis muscle in the cheetah, which we theorise may translate the scapula along the rib cage (as has been observed in domestic cats), thereby increasing the cheetah's effective limb length. The cheetah's proximal limb contained many large PCSA muscles with long moment arms, suggesting that this limb is resisting large ground reaction force joint torques and therefore is not functioning as a simple strut. Its structure may also reflect a need for control and stabilisation during the high-speed manoeuvring in hunting. The large digital flexors and extensors observed in the cheetah forelimb may be used to dig the digits into the ground, aiding with traction when galloping and manoeuvring.

  10. The endocranial anatomy of therizinosauria and its implications for sensory and cognitive function.

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    Stephan Lautenschlager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therizinosauria is one of the most enigmatic and peculiar clades among theropod dinosaurs, exhibiting an unusual suite of characters, such as lanceolate teeth, a rostral rhamphotheca, long manual claws, and a wide, opisthopubic pelvis. This specialized anatomy has been associated with a shift in dietary preferences and an adaptation to herbivory. Despite a large number of discoveries in recent years, the fossil record for Therizinosauria is still relatively poor, and cranial remains are particularly rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on computed tomographic (CT scanning of the nearly complete and articulated skull of Erlikosaurus andrewsi, as well as partial braincases of two other therizinosaurian taxa, the endocranial anatomy is reconstructed and described. The wider phylogenetic range of the described specimens permits the evaluation of sensory and cognitive capabilities of Therizinosauria in an evolutionary context. The endocranial anatomy reveals a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in therizinosaurians. The anatomy of the olfactory apparatus and the endosseous labyrinth suggests that olfaction, hearing, and equilibrium were well-developed in therizinosaurians and might have affected or benefited from an enlarged telencephalon. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents the first appraisal of the evolution of endocranial anatomy and sensory adaptations in Therizinosauria. Despite their phylogenetically basal position among maniraptoran dinosaurs, therizinosaurians had developed the neural pathways for a well developed sensory repertoire. In particular olfaction and hearing may have played an important role in foraging, predator evasion, and/or social complexity.

  11. Cervical Spine Functional Anatomy and the Biomechanics of Injury Due to Compressive Loading


    Swartz, Erik E; Floyd, R. T; Cendoma, Mike


    Objective: To provide a foundation of knowledge concerning the functional anatomy, kinematic response, and mechanisms involved in axial-compression cervical spine injury as they relate to sport injury.

  12. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.


    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  13. A functional and clinical reinterpretation of human perineal neuromuscular anatomy: Application to sexual function and continence. (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jose R; Adrian, Brent; Ruiz, Saul A; Hall, Margaret I


    Modern anatomical and surgical references illustrate perineal muscles all innervated by branches of the pudendal nerve but still organized into anatomically distinct urogenital and anal triangles with muscles inserting onto a central perineal body. However, these conflict with the anatomy commonly encountered during dissection. We used dissections of 43 human cadavers to characterize the anatomical organization of the human perineum and compare our findings to standard references. We found bulbospongiosus and the superficial portion of the external anal sphincter (EAS) were continuous anatomically with a common innervation in 92.3% of specimens. The superficial transverse perineal muscle inserted anterior and lateral to the midline, interdigitating with bulbospongiosus. The three EAS subdivisions were anatomically discontinuous. Additionally, in 89.2% of our sample the inferior rectal nerve emerged as a branch of S3 and S4 distinct from the pudendal nerve and innervated only the subcutaneous EAS. Branches of the perineal nerve innervated bulbospongiosus and the superficial EAS and nerve to levator ani innervated the deep EAS. In conclusion, we empirically demonstrate important and clinically relevant differences with perineal anatomy commonly described in standard texts. First, independent innervation to the three portions of EAS suggests the potential for functional independence. Second, neuromuscular continuity between bulbospongiosus and superficial EAS suggests the possibility of shared or overlapping function of the urogenital and anal triangles. Clin. Anat. 29:1053-1058, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Trophic apparatus in cyprinodontiform fishes: functional specializations for picking and scraping behaviors. (United States)

    Hernandez, L Patricia; Gibb, Alice C; Ferry-Graham, Lara


    Cyprinodontiforms are a diverse and speciose order that includes topminnows, pupfishes, swordtails, mosquitofishes, guppies, and mollies. Sister group to the Beloniformes and Atheriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes contains approximately twice the number of species of these other two orders combined. Recent studies suggest that this group is well suited to capturing prey by "picking" small items from the water surface, water column, and the substrate. Because picking places unusual performance demands on the feeding apparatus, this mode of prey capture may rely upon novel morphological modifications not found in more widespread ram- or suction-based feeding mechanisms. To assess this evolutionary hypothesis, we describe the trophic anatomy of 16 cyprinodontiform species, selected to broadly represent the order as well as capture intrageneric variation. The group appears to have undergone gradual morphological changes to become increasingly specialized for picking and scraping behaviors. We also identify a suite of functional characters related to the acquisition of a novel and previously undescribed mechanism of premaxillary protrusion and retraction, including: modification of the "premaxillomandibular" ligament (which connects each side of the premaxilla to the ipsilateral mandible, or lower jaw), a novel architecture of the ligaments and bony elements that unite the premaxillae, maxillae and palatine bones, and novel insertions of the adductor muscles onto the jaws. These morphological changes to both the upper and lower jaws suggest an evolutionary trend within this group toward increased reliance on picking individual prey from the water column/substrate or for scraping encrusting material from the substrate. We propose that the suite of morphological characters described here enable a functional innovation, "picking," which leads to novel trophic habits.

  15. Functional anatomy of the equine temporomandibular joint: Collagen fiber texture of the articular surfaces


    Adams, K.; Schulz-Kornas, E; Arzi, B.; Failing, K.; Vogelsberg, J; Staszyk, C


    In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal ty...

  16. The Integrated Clinical Anatomy Program at Alfaisal University: an innovative model of teaching clinically applied functional anatomy in a hybrid curriculum. (United States)

    Yaqinuddin, Ahmed; Ikram, Muhammad Faisal; Zafar, Muhammad; Eldin, Nivin Sharaf; Mazhar, Muhammad Atif; Qazi, Sadia; Shaikh, Aftab Ahmed; Obeidat, Akef; Al-Kattan, Khaled; Ganguly, Paul


    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of specialty. It is essential for physicians to be able to perform a variety of tasks, including performing invasive procedures, examining radiological images, performing a physical examination of a patient, etc. Medical students have to be prepared for such tasks, and we can assist this by changing the way that we educate students in medical schools. Thus, newer medical curricula need to be designed according to needs of future physicians. In this report, we describe a unique program called the Integrated Clinical Anatomy Program (ICAP). The ICAP was developed at the College of Medicine of Alfaisal University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Here, we describe the unique features of this program, including the structure and facilities of the Anatomy Resource Center. The Anatomy Resource Center plays a pivotal role in engaging the students for faculty-directed structured laboratory sessions as well as peer-assisted uniform student-centered learning. The ICAP has shown great promise, as reflected by early results from a nationwide progress test. Students from all years of the Alfaisal University medical school scored significantly higher than the national average on the anatomy and physiology component of the nationwide progress test examination, with P values of 0.0179 and 0.0015, respectively. We believe that the ICAP can be used as a model for teaching clinically applied functional anatomy to medical students in a hybrid curriculum around the world.

  17. Functional Anatomy in Low Back Rehabilitation: Balance in the Biopsychosocial Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. van Wingerden (Jean-Paul)


    textabstractThe work presented in this thesis examines whether a more prominent role of functional anatomy within multidisciplinary treatment of non-specific chronic low back pain (NCLBP) will increase its therapeutic effect. The multidisciplinary treatment of NCLBP is based on the biopsychosocial (

  18. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb. (United States)

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M


    The cheetah is capable of a top speed of 29 ms(-1) compared to the maximum speed of 17 ms(-1) achieved by the racing greyhound. In this study of the hindlimb and in the accompanying paper on the forelimb we have quantified the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah and greyhound and compared them to identify any differences that may account for this variation in their locomotor abilities. Specifically, bone length, mass and mid-shaft diameter were measured, along with muscle mass, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms to enable estimates of maximal isometric force, joint torques and joint rotational velocities to be calculated. Surprisingly the cheetahs had a smaller volume of hip extensor musculature than the greyhounds, and we therefore propose that the cheetah powers acceleration using its extensive back musculature. The cheetahs also had an extremely powerful psoas muscle which could help to resist the pitching moments around the hip associated with fast accelerations. The hindlimb bones were proportionally longer and heavier, enabling the cheetah to take longer strides and potentially resist higher peak limb forces. The cheetah therefore possesses several unique adaptations for high-speed locomotion and fast accelerations, when compared to the racing greyhound.

  19. Facial anatomy. (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman


    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  20. The sacroiliac joint: an overview of its anatomy, function and potential clinical implications. (United States)

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Masi, A T; Carreiro, J E; Danneels, L; Willard, F H


    This article focuses on the (functional) anatomy and biomechanics of the pelvic girdle and specifically the sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The SIJs are essential for effective load transfer between the spine and legs. The sacrum, pelvis and spine, and the connections to the arms, legs and head, are functionally interrelated through muscular, fascial and ligamentous interconnections. A historical overview is presented on pelvic and especially SIJ research, followed by a general functional anatomical overview of the pelvis. In specific sections, the development and maturation of the SIJ is discussed, and a description of the bony anatomy and sexual morphism of the pelvis and SIJ is debated. The literature on the SIJ ligaments and innervation is discussed, followed by a section on the pathology of the SIJ. Pelvic movement studies are investigated and biomechanical models for SIJ stability analyzed, including examples of insufficient versus excessive sacroiliac force closure.

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring dynamic cardiovascular function using n-dimensional representatives of critical functions (United States)

    Westinskow, Dwayne (Inventor); Agutter, James (Inventor); Syroid, Noah (Inventor); Strayer, David (Inventor); Albert, Robert (Inventor); Wachter, S. Blake (Inventor); Drews, Frank (Inventor)


    A method, system, apparatus and device for the monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation of the state of a dynamic pulmonary system is disclosed. This method and system provides the processing means for receiving sensed and/or simulated data, converting such data into a displayable object format and displaying such objects in a manner such that the interrelationships between the respective variables can be correlated and identified by a user. This invention provides for the rapid cognitive grasp of the overall state of a pulmonary critical function with respect to a dynamic system.

  2. Functional Anatomy of Listening and Reading Comprehension during Development (United States)

    Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis


    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task…

  3. Differential representation of arm movement direction in relation to cortical anatomy and function (United States)

    Ball, Tonio; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Mehring, Carsten


    Information about arm movement direction in neuronal activity of the cerebral cortex can be used for movement control mediated by a brain-machine interface (BMI). Here we provide a topographic analysis of the information related to arm movement direction that can be extracted from single trials of electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals recorded from the human frontal and parietal cortex based on a precise assignment of ECoG recording channels to the subjects' individual cortical anatomy and function. To this aim, each electrode contact was identified on structural MRI scans acquired while the electrodes were implanted and was thus related to the brain anatomy of each patient. Cortical function was assessed by direct cortical electrical stimulation. We show that activity from the primary motor cortex, in particular from the region showing hand and arm motor responses upon electrical stimulation, carries most directional information. The premotor, posterior parietal and lateral prefrontal cortex contributed gradually less, but still significant information. This gradient was observed for decoding from movement-related potentials, and from spectral amplitude modulations in low frequencies and in the high gamma band. Our findings thus demonstrate a close topographic correlation between cortical functional anatomy and direction-related information in humans that might be used for brain-machine interfacing.

  4. Anatomy of quantum critical wave functions in dissipative impurity problems (United States)

    Blunden-Codd, Zach; Bera, Soumya; Bruognolo, Benedikt; Linden, Nils-Oliver; Chin, Alex W.; von Delft, Jan; Nazir, Ahsan; Florens, Serge


    Quantum phase transitions reflect singular changes taking place in a many-body ground state; however, computing and analyzing large-scale critical wave functions constitutes a formidable challenge. Physical insights into the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model are provided by the coherent-state expansion (CSE), which represents the wave function by a linear combination of classically displaced configurations. We find that the distribution of low-energy displacements displays an emergent symmetry in the absence of spontaneous symmetry breaking while experiencing strong fluctuations of the order parameter near the quantum critical point. Quantum criticality provides two strong fingerprints in critical low-energy modes: an algebraic decay of the average displacement and a constant universal average squeezing amplitude. These observations, confirmed by extensive variational matrix-product-state (VMPS) simulations and field theory arguments, offer precious clues into the microscopics of critical many-body states in quantum impurity models.

  5. Functional Anatomy of Writing with the Dominant Hand


    Horovitz, Silvina G.; Gallea, Cecile; Najee-ullah, Muslimah ‘Ali; Hallett, Mark


    While writing performed by any body part is similar in style, indicating a common program, writing with the dominant hand is particularly skilled. We hypothesized that this skill utilizes a special motor network supplementing the motor equivalence areas. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 13 normal subjects, we studied nine conditions: writing, zigzagging and tapping, each with the right hand, left hand and right foot. We identified brain regions activated with the right (dominant...

  6. Urinary incontinence and its functional anatomy in frontotemporal lobar degenerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perneczky, Robert [Technical University Munich Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Muenchen (Germany); Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Foerstl, Hans; Kurz, Alexander [Technical University Munich Medical School, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Munich (Germany); Drzezga, Alexander [Technical University Munich Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); May, Florian [Technical University Munich Medical School, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany)


    The frontal lobes play a crucial role in micturition control. However, no reports exist on the functional role of distinct frontal brain regions in urinary incontinence (UIC) in patients with a neurodegenerative damage of the frontal lobe. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore if functional brain lesions were associated with UIC in patients suffering from frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD). Forty-four patients, including eight incontinent subjects, underwent cranial positron emission tomography scanning with {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) to assess the relative metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc). Group comparisons of rCMRglc were conducted in SPM2 to identify brain regions where the group of incontinent patients (FTLD+UIC) had significant alterations compared with the group without UIC (FTLD-UIC). At the stringent statistical threshold of p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons according to the family-wise error rate, the statistical analysis revealed two significant right-hemispheric hypometabolic clusters located in the premotor/anterior cingulate cortex and the putamen/claustrum/insula. No hypermetabolic regions were found. The present study is the first to provide evidence for brain functional alterations involved in the occurrence of UIC in FTLD. These results provide an important piece of evidence to the understanding of a particularly distressing autonomic nervous system symptom of dementia. (orig.)

  7. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function. (United States)

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne


    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution, which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped track the fate and function (e.g., cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic, rather than static, nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting-edge area of kidney research.

  8. Congenital heart disease. Evaluation of anatomy and function by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebergen, S.A.; Roos, A. de [Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)


    With the increasing number of patients surviving after therapeutic intervention for congenital heart disease (CHD), accurate and frequent follow-up of their morphologic and functional cardiovascular status is required, preferably with a noninvasive imaging technique. Echocardiography, either transthoracic or transesophageal, has been the first choice for this purpose, and will probably keep that status, at least in a large segment of the CHD spectrum. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established method for high-resolution visualization of cardiovascular morphology. In the past decade, newer MRI techniques have been developed that allow functional evaluation of CHD patients. Particularly the introduction of breath-hold imaging, contrast-enhanced MRA and user-friendly computer software for image analysis may move functional MRI of CHD from the science laboratory to clinical use. It is already evident that MRI is superior to echocardiography in certain areas of limited echocardiographic acces, such as the pulmonary artery branches and the aortic arch in adult patients. But MRI has also a unique potential for accurate volumetric analysis of ventricular function and cardiovascular blood flow, without any geometric assumptions. If supported by increased cooperation between cardiologists and radiologists, MRI will grow into a useful noninvasive imaging tool that, together with echocardiography, will obviate the need for invasive catheter studies for diagnostic purposes. (orig.) [German] Weltweit werden jaehrlich etwa 1,5 Millionen Kinder mit kongenitalen Herzerkrankungen (CHD, congenital heart disease) geboren. Durch Verbesserung der verschiedenen chirurgischen und interventionellen Techniken ist die Ueberlebensrate von CHD-Patienten drastisch gestiegen. Immer mehr Patienten mit postoperativen Residuen, Folgezustaenden und Komplikationen benoetigen eine umfassende Nachsorge. Die Darstellung und Quantifizierung morphologischer und funktioneller kardiovaskulaerer

  9. Functional anatomy of listening and reading comprehension during development. (United States)

    Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis


    Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing.

  10. Breathing and locomotion: comparative anatomy, morphology and function. (United States)

    Klein, Wilfried; Codd, Jonathan R


    Using specialized respiratory structures such as gills, lungs and or a tracheal system, animals take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The efficiency of gas exchange, however, may be constrained by the morphology of the respiratory organ itself as well as by other aspects of an animal's physiology such as feeding, circulation or locomotion. Herein we discuss some aspects of the functional link between the respiratory and locomotor systems, such as gill morphology of sharks as a factor limiting maximum aerobic scope, respiratory constraints among legless lizards, lung morphology of testudines, trade-offs between locomotion and respiration among birds, reconstruction of the respiratory system of sauropods, respiration of mice during locomotion as well as some aspects of gas exchange among insects. Data covering such a broad spectrum of interactions between the locomotor and respiratory systems shall allow us to place breathing and locomotion into a wider context of evolution of oxygen.

  11. Functional anatomy and ultrasound examination of the canine penis. (United States)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hölscher, Catharina; Failing, Klaus; Wehrend, Axel


    The aim of this study was to identify the functional-anatomical structures of the canine penis during and after erection to demonstrate the respective changes to provide a basis for further examinations of pathological conditions like priapism. Additionally, a gray-scale analysis was performed to quantify results from the ultrasound examination. In total, 80 dogs were examined. In group (Gr.) A, 44 intact or castrated dogs were examined, and in Gr. B, 36 dogs were examined during erection and after complete detumescence of the penis. The following parameters were assessed: (1) using physical measurements: length of the Pars longa glandis [Plg] and length of the Bulbus glandis [Bg]; and (2) using ultrasound: total penile diameter, width of the erectile tissue of the Plg, diameter of the Corpus spongiosum [Cs] including the penile bone and urethra, vertical diameter, circumference of the penis, cross-sectional area, and area of the Cs including the urethra. The mentioned parameters could be assessed in all dogs of Gr. A and Gr. B with the only exception being the urethra that could be visualized using ultrasound in some dogs only and predominantly in the erected penis (Gr. B). Concomitantly, the erectile tissue of the Plg and the Cs was more heterogenous and hypo- to anechoic during erection compared with dogs in Gr. A and Gr. B after detumescence. Comparing the results in Gr. B, the length of the Plg and the Bg were decreased approximately 40.6% and 38.0%, the total width of the penis 40.5%, the total width of the erectile tissue of the Plg 48.0%, and the width of the Cs 15.6% during detumescence compared with erection. Comparing the decrease in size at the different locations (apex penis, middle of Plg, middle of Bg) for vertical diameter, total circumference, and cross-section area, it was largest at the Bg. B-mode ultrasound is a suitable tool to investigate not only the morpho-functional structures of the resting canine penis, but also of the erected and

  12. Functional anatomy of the human lateral pterygoid muscle. (United States)

    El Haddioui, A; Laison, F; Zouaoui, A; Bravetti, P; Gaudy, J F


    The authors studied the lateral pterygoid muscle of 179 fresh cadavers by both anatomical dissection and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim was to define the general morphology and the architectural organisation of the lateral pterygoid muscle. Dissection plane by plane, anatomical sections in different planes of space and dissections via multiple approaches on harvested blocks allowed the demonstration that the lateral pterygoid shows an architectural arrangement different from that which is usually described but similar to that, from its typically penniform structure of the masseter and the medial pterygoid. The anatomical situation of this muscle gives rise to numerous differences in opinion much to its morphology as to its functional examination. This study has shown that one part of the muscle has a typical penniform structure made up of alternating musculo-aponeurotic layers and by the absence of individual muscle bellies. In addition the particular shape of this muscle makes it useless to insert intramuscular electrodes in its only accessible portion, which makes the results of electromyographic studies debatable.

  13. Functional anatomy of the pretarsus in whip spiders (Arachnida, Amblypygi). (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Seiter, Michael; Gorb, Stanislav N


    Whip spiders (Amblypygi) are a small, cryptic order of arachnids mainly distributed in the tropics. Some basal lineages (families Charinidae and Charontidae) have adhesive pads on the tips of their six walking legs. The present study describes the macro- and ultrastructure of these pads and investigates their contact mechanics and adhesive strength on smooth and rough substrates. Furthermore, the structure of the pretarsus and its kinematics are compared in Charon cf. grayi (with an adhesive pad) and Phrynus longipes (without an adhesive pad). The adhesive pads exhibit an elaborate structure with a unique combination of structural features of smooth and hairy foot pads including a long transversal contact zone performing lateral detachment, a thick internally-branched cuticle with longitudinal ribs and hexagonal surface microstructures with spatulate keels. The contact area of the pads on smooth glass is discontinuous due to the spatulate microstructures with a discontinuous detachment, which could be observed in vivo by high speed videography at a rate of up to 10,000 fps. Adhesive strength was measured with vertical whole animal pull-off tests, obtaining mean values between 55 and 200 kPa. The occurrence of viscous lipid secretions between microstructures was occasionally observed, which, however, seems not to be a necessity for good foothold. The results are discussed in relation to the whip spider's ecology and evolution. Structure-function relationships of the adhesive pads are compared to those of insects and vertebrates.

  14. Functional anatomy of writing with the dominant hand. (United States)

    Horovitz, Silvina G; Gallea, Cecile; Najee-Ullah, Muslimah 'ali; Hallett, Mark


    While writing performed by any body part is similar in style, indicating a common program, writing with the dominant hand is particularly skilled. We hypothesized that this skill utilizes a special motor network supplementing the motor equivalence areas. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 13 normal subjects, we studied nine conditions: writing, zigzagging and tapping, each with the right hand, left hand and right foot. We identified brain regions activated with the right (dominant) hand writing task, exceeding the activation common to right-hand use and the writing program, both identified without right-hand writing itself. Right-hand writing significantly differed from the other tasks. First, we observed stronger activations in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex, left intraparietal sulcus and right cerebellum. Second, the left anterior putamen was required to initiate all the tested tasks, but only showed sustained activation during the right-hand writing condition. Lastly, an exploratory analysis showed clusters in the left ventral premotor cortex and inferior and superior parietal cortices were only significantly active for right-hand writing. The increased activation with right-hand writing cannot be ascribed to increased effort, since this is a well-practiced task much easier to perform than some of the other tasks studied. Because parietal-premotor connections code for particular skills, it would seem that the parietal and premotor regions, together with basal ganglia-sustained activation likely underlie the special skill of handwriting with the dominant hand.

  15. The temporomandibular joint in video motion--noninvasive image techniques to present the functional anatomy. (United States)

    Kordass, B


    The presentation of the functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is involved with difficulties if dynamic aspects are to be of prime interest, and it should be demonstrated with the highest resolution. Usually noninvasive techniques like MRI and sonography are available for presenting functionality of the temporomandibular joint in video motion. Such images reflect the functional anatomy much better than single pictures of figures could do. In combination with computer aided records of the condyle movements the video motion of MR and sonographical images represent tools for better understanding the relationships between functional or dysfunctional patterns and the morphological or dysmorphological shape and structure of the temporomandibular joint. The possibilities of such tools will be explained and discussed in detail relating, in addition, to loading effects caused by transmitted occlusal pressure onto the joint compartments. If pressure occurs the condyle slides mainly more or less retrocranially whereas the articular disc takes up a more displaced position and a deformed shape. In a few extreme cases the disc prolapses out of the joint space. These video pictures offer new aspects for the diagnosis of the disc-condyle stability and can also be used for explicit educational programs on the complex dysfunction-dysmorphology-relationship of temporomandibular diseases.

  16. Pharmaco fMRI: Determining the functional anatomy of the effects of medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Wandschneider


    Full Text Available Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development. In this review, we discuss recent ph-MRI research in three major neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders and associated network alterations, namely selective serotonin and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors in affective disorders and emotional processing circuits; antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy and cognitive networks; and stimulants in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and networks of attention control. We conclude that ph-MRI studies show consistent and reproducible changes on disease relevant networks, and prove sensitive to early pharmacological effects on functional anatomy associated with disease. Further CNS drug research and development would benefit greatly from improved disease phenotyping, or biomarkers, using advanced imaging techniques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana


    Full Text Available Swallowing is a complex process consisting in transporting food from mouth to the stomach; it involves voluntary and reflex activity of more than 30 nerves and muscles, requiring complex neuromuscular coordination and brainstem and cortical centers for controle. Dysphagia is defined as a alteration in the swallowing process, which cause difficulty in transporting saliva and aliments from the mouth trough the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach . It is a frequent symptom, affecting especially old people, people with neurological diseases, cancers of head and neck or severe reflux . Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus, which could e caused by neurological conditions. Dysphagia carries serious health risks: malnutrition, dehydration, increase risk of infections. Effective dysphagia management requires an interdisciplinary approach; the goal of rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient nutrition. KEY WORDS: swallowing, dysphagia, functional anatomy, rehabilitation, neuroplasticity

  18. Anatomia funcional de Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck (Bivalvia, Veneridae Functional anatomy of Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck (Bivalvia, Veneridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordélia de Oliveira Castro Guerón


    Full Text Available Protothaca (Leukoma pectorina (Lamarck, 1818 lives from the West Indies to Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in soft muddy beaches in quiet waters of protected bays with little amounts of suspended material. A study of the functional anatomy of P. pectorina and its ecological aspects were undertaken. The anatomy and functioning of the stomach and the mechanisms for selection of particles were observed. The siphons, ctenidia, labial palps and stomach were analised and related to the animal's natural environment. The siphons belong to type B (Yonge 1948, the ctenidia to type C (1a (Atkins 1937. The ctenidia are homorhabdic (Ridewood 1903 and the stomach belongs to type V (Purchon 1960.

  19. Articular soft tissue anatomy of the archosaur hip joint: Structural homology and functional implications. (United States)

    Tsai, Henry P; Holliday, Casey M


    Archosaurs evolved a wide diversity of locomotor postures, body sizes, and hip joint morphologies. The two extant archosaurs clades (birds and crocodylians) possess highly divergent hip joint morphologies, and the homologies and functions of their articular soft tissues, such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, are poorly understood. Reconstructing joint anatomy and function of extinct vertebrates is critical to understanding their posture, locomotor behavior, ecology, and evolution. However, the lack of soft tissues in fossil taxa makes accurate inferences of joint function difficult. Here, we describe the soft tissue anatomies and their osteological correlates in the hip joint of archosaurs and their sauropsid outgroups, and infer structural homology across the extant taxa. A comparative sample of 35 species of birds, crocodylians, lepidosaurs, and turtles ranging from hatchling to skeletally mature adult were studied using dissection, imaging, and histology. Birds and crocodylians possess topologically and histologically consistent articular soft tissues in their hip joints. Epiphyseal cartilages, fibrocartilages, and ligaments leave consistent osteological correlates. The archosaur acetabulum possesses distinct labrum and antitrochanter structures on the supraacetabulum. The ligamentum capitis femoris consists of distinct pubic- and ischial attachments, and is homologous with the ventral capsular ligament of lepidosaurs. The proximal femur has a hyaline cartilage core attached to the metaphysis via a fibrocartilaginous sleeve. This study provides new insight into soft tissue structures and their osteological correlates (e.g., the antitrochanter, the fovea capitis, and the metaphyseal collar) in the archosaur hip joint. The topological arrangement of fibro- and hyaline cartilage may provide mechanical support for the chondroepiphysis. The osteological correlates identified here will inform systematic and functional analyses of archosaur hindlimb evolution and

  20. Novel echocardiographic techniques to assess left atrial size, anatomy and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameli Matteo


    Full Text Available Abstract Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE have recently applied as imaging techniques to accurately evaluate left atrial (LA size, anatomy and function. 3DE and off-line quantification softwares, have allowed, in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging, the most time-efficient and accurate method of LA volume quantification. STE provides a non-Doppler, angle-independent and objective quantification of LA myocardial deformation. Data regarding feasibility, accuracy and clinical applications of LA analysis by 3DE and STE are rapidly gathering. This review describes the fundamental concepts of LA 3DE and STE, illustrates how to obtain respective measurements and discuss their recognized and emerging clinical applications.

  1. Molecular anatomy of neuronal interactions with special reference to the dopamine control of striatal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bloch


    Full Text Available Modern neuroanatomy was initiated at the early beginning of the XXth century when Cajal used the so-called silver impregnation technique to study the details of the anatomy of the nervous system. This technique, for the first time, permitted description and visualization of all components of neurons (Cajal, 1909. Thanks to this major methodological advance, Cajal and followers created microscopic neuroanatomy and gave detailed description of the structure of neurons and of neuronal circuitry in brain of animals and humans. During the following decades, numerous informations were obtained on the organization of the neuronal circuitry in all parts of the central and peripheral nervous system, in normal, experimental and pathological conditions. These works considerably helped to establish the modern anatomical basis of brain functions and dysfunctions. In the early sixties, the appearance of electron microscopy gave a new impulse to the understanding of brain and neuronal structures.

  2. Vulva Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  3. Larynx Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  4. Hand Anatomy (United States)

    ... Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is a term used to ... of the parts together. Learn more about the anatomy of the upper extremity using the links in ...

  5. Pharynx Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  6. Functional pulmonary atresia in newborn with normal intracardiac anatomy: Successful treatment with inhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary vasodilators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan Altun


    Full Text Available Functional pulmonary atresia is characterized by a structurally normal pulmonary valve that does not open during right ventricular ejection. It is usually associated with Ebstein′s anomaly, Uhl′s anomaly, neonatal Marfan syndrome and tricuspid valve dysplasia. However, functional pulmonary atresia is rarely reported in newborn with anatomically normal heart. We report a newborn with functional pulmonary atresia who had normal intracardiac anatomy, who responded to treatment with nitric oxide and other vasodilator therapy successfully.

  7. Predicting objective function weights from patient anatomy in prostate IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taewoo, E-mail:; Hammad, Muhannad [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Craig, Tim [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B. [Radiation Medicine Program, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 148-150 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3S2 (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124-100 College Street Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)


    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning typically combines multiple criteria into a single objective function by taking a weighted sum. The authors propose a statistical model that predicts objective function weights from patient anatomy for prostate IMRT treatment planning. This study provides a proof of concept for geometry-driven weight determination. Methods: A previously developed inverse optimization method (IOM) was used to generate optimal objective function weights for 24 patients using their historical treatment plans (i.e., dose distributions). These IOM weights were around 1% for each of the femoral heads, while bladder and rectum weights varied greatly between patients. A regression model was developed to predict a patient's rectum weight using the ratio of the overlap volume of the rectum and bladder with the planning target volume at a 1 cm expansion as the independent variable. The femoral head weights were fixed to 1% each and the bladder weight was calculated as one minus the rectum and femoral head weights. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Objective values and dose distributions generated through inverse planning using the predicted weights were compared to those generated using the original IOM weights, as well as an average of the IOM weights across all patients. Results: The IOM weight vectors were on average six times closer to the predicted weight vectors than to the average weight vector, usingl{sub 2} distance. Likewise, the bladder and rectum objective values achieved by the predicted weights were more similar to the objective values achieved by the IOM weights. The difference in objective value performance between the predicted and average weights was statistically significant according to a one-sided sign test. For all patients, the difference in rectum V54.3 Gy, rectum V70.0 Gy, bladder V54.3 Gy, and bladder V70.0 Gy values between the dose distributions generated by

  8. Anatomy and function relation in the coronary tree: from bifurcations to myocardial flow and mass. (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; Finet, Gerard


    The study of the structure-function relation of coronary bifurcations is necessary not only to understand the design of the vasculature but also to use this understanding to restore structure and hence function. The objective of this review is to provide quantitative relations between bifurcation anatomy or geometry, flow distribution in the bifurcation and degree of perfused myocardial mass in order to establish practical rules to guide optimal treatment of bifurcations including side branches (SB). We use the scaling law between flow and diameter, conservation of mass and the scaling law between myocardial mass and diameter to provide geometric relations between the segment diameters of a bifurcation, flow fraction distribution in the SB, and the percentage of myocardial mass perfused by the SB. We demonstrate that the assessment of the functional significance of an SB for intervention should not only be based on the diameter of the SB but also on the diameter of the mother vessel as well as the diameter of the proximal main artery, as these dictate the flow fraction distribution and perfused myocardial mass, respectively. The geometric and flow rules for a bifurcation are extended to a trifurcation to ensure optimal therapy scaling rules for any branching pattern.

  9. [Structural and functional reorganization of photosynthetic apparatus in cold adaptation of wheat plants]. (United States)

    Venzhik, Ju V; Titov, D F; Talanova, V V; Miroslavov, E D; Koteeva, N K


    The structural and functional characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus (PSA) and the cold resistance of wheat seedlings were studied during low-temperature adaptation. It has been established that large chloroplasts with thylakoid system of "sun type" forme in the mesophyll cells in the early hours of plants hardening. At the same time the functional reorganization of the PSA in the leaves of wheat occurs: content of pigments changes, stabilization of the pigment-protein complexes is observed, non-photochemical quenching of excess energy increases. The stabilization of photosynthesis during cold adaptation occurs due to structural and functional reorganization of the PSA. It is assumed that the reorganization of the PSA is a prerequisite for formation of increased cold resistance of leaf cells, and this, along with other physiological and biochemical changes occurring in cells and tissues of plants, allows the plants to survive in chilling.

  10. Functional anatomy of the equine temporomandibular joint: Collagen fiber texture of the articular surfaces. (United States)

    Adams, K; Schulz-Kornas, E; Arzi, B; Failing, K; Vogelsberg, J; Staszyk, C


    In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal typical morphological features indicating biomechanical adaptions. Therefore, the collagen fiber alignment was visualized using the split-line technique in 16 adult warmblood horses without any history of TMJ disorders. Within the central two-thirds of the articular surfaces of the articular tubercle, the articular disc and the mandibular head, split-lines ran in a correspondent rostrocaudal direction. In the lateral and medial aspects of these articular surfaces, the split-line pattern varied, displaying curved arrangements in the articular disc and punctual split-lines in the bony components. Mediolateral orientated split-lines were found in the rostral and caudal border of the articular disc and in the mandibular fossa. The complex movements during the equine chewing cycle are likely assigned to different areas of the TMJ. The split-line pattern of the equine TMJ is indicative of a relative movement of the joint components in a preferential rostrocaudal direction which is consigned to the central aspects of the TMJ. The lateral and medial aspects of the articular surfaces provide split-line patterns that indicate movements particularly around a dorsoventral axis.

  11. Cytoskeleton and Golgi-apparatus interactions: a two-way road of function and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egea G


    Full Text Available Gustavo Egea,1 Carla Serra-Peinado,1 María P Gavilan,2 Rosa M Rios21Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Immulogia i Neurociències, Facultat de Medicina and Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Departamento de Señalización Celular, CSIC-Centro Andaluz de Biomedicina y Medicina Regenerativa (CABIMER, Seville, SpainAbstract: The Golgi apparatus is the result of a complex and dynamic interaction between a large variety of molecules that determine its architecture, protein and lipid transports, and those that integrate signals from outside and inside the cell. The cytoskeleton facilitates the functional integration of all these processes. Association and coordination between microtubules and actin filaments, as well as their respective binding and regulatory proteins, are clearly necessary for Golgi structure and function. Protein sorting, membrane fission and fusion, and the motion of Golgi-derived transport carriers are all affected by both cytoskeleton elements.Keywords: cytoskeleton, Golgi apparatus, membrane trafficking, secretory pathway, actin, microtubules

  12. Morphology and function of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in Varanus (Varanidae, Lacertilia). (United States)

    Smith, K K


    The morphology and function of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in Varanus were examined by anatomical and experimental techniques. Morphological features unique to Varanus include a highly protrusible tongue that has lost a roughened dorsal surface, an exceptionally strong and mobile hyobranchial apparatus, a well-defined joint between the ceratohyal and anterior process, and a series of distinct muscles inserting at the anterior hyobranchial region. Varanus is also unusual among lizards in a number of feeding behaviors; it ingests prey entirely by inertial feeding, as the tongue does not participate in food transport. Further specializations include an increased reliance on hyobranchial movements in drinking and pharyngeal packing and compression. The long, narrow tongue is most likely related to the mechanics of tongue protrusion; the increased amount, strength, and complexity of hyobranchial movement is related to the fact that the hyobranchium in Varanus replaces the tongue in many functions. Previous hypotheses for the origin of these adaptations are discussed, and the difficulties of attributing these specializations to any specific scenario of adaptation or constraint are emphasized.

  13. Distribution of Calcium and Chitin in the Tardigrade Feeding Apparatus in Relation to its Function and Morphology. (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena


    The cuticular portion of the tardigrade feeding apparatus is a complex structure that can be schematically divided into four parts: a buccal ring, a buccal tube, a stylet system (formed by two piercing stylets, each within a stylet coat, and two stylet supports), and the lining of a myoepithelial sucking pharynx. To better understand the function and evolution of the feeding apparatus, the morpho-functional traits and chemical composition of the structures forming the feeding apparatuses of eight different species of tardigrades were analyzed. These eight species are representative of almost all main phylogenetic lineages of the phylum. The calcium and chitin in the feeding apparatus were examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman microspectroscopy (Raman). In all species, the feeding apparatus had been subjected to biomineralization due to CaCO3 encrustations organized in the crystalline form of aragonite. Aragonite and chitin are present in different concentrations in the feeding apparatus according to the structures and species considered. Generally, where the structures are rigid there is more aragonite than chitin, and vice versa. The buccal tube and piercing stylets are rich in calcium, with the piercing stylets apparently composed exclusively of aragonite. In eutardigrades, chitin is in higher concentration in the structures subject to higher mechanical stresses, such as the crests of the buccal crown and the condyles of the stylet furca.

  14. Medical anatomy segmentation kit: combining 2D and 3D segmentation methods to enhance functionality (United States)

    Tracton, Gregg S.; Chaney, Edward L.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Pizer, Stephen M.


    Image segmentation, in particular, defining normal anatomic structures and diseased or malformed tissue from tomographic images, is common in medical applications. Defining tumors or arterio-venous malformation from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images are typical examples. This paper describes a program, Medical Anatomy Segmentation Kit (MASK), whose design acknowledges that no single segmentation technique has proven to be successful or optimal for all object definition tasks associated with medical images. A practical solution is offered through a suite of complementary user-guided segmentation techniques and extensive manual editing functions to reach the final object definition goal. Manual editing can also be used to define objects which are abstract or otherwise not well represented in the image data and so require direct human definition - e.g., a radiotherapy target volume which requires human knowledge and judgement regarding image interpretation and tumor spread characteristics. Results are either in the form of 2D boundaries or regions of labeled pixels or voxels. MASK currently uses thresholding and edge detection to form contours, and 2D or 3D scale-sensitive fill and region algebra to form regions. In addition to these proven techniques, MASK's architecture anticipates clinically practical automatic 2D and 3D segmentation methods of the future.

  15. Fascial bundles of the infraspinatus fascia: anatomy, function, and clinical considerations. (United States)

    Moccia, David; Nackashi, Andrew A; Schilling, Rebecca; Ward, Peter J


    The infraspinatus fascia is a tough sheet of connective tissue that covers the infraspinatus fossa of the scapula and the muscle within. Muscle fibers originate from the fossa and fascia and then travel laterally to insert on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Frequently the infraspinatus fascia is quickly removed to appreciate the underlying muscle, but the fascia is an interesting and complex structure in its own right. Despite having a characteristic set of fascial bundles, no contemporary anatomy texts or atlases describe the fascia in detail. The infraspinatus fascia was dissected in detail in 11 shoulders, to characterize the fascial bundles and connections that contribute to it. Thereafter, 70 shoulders were dissected to tabulate the variability of the fascial bundles and connections. Six characteristic features of the infraspinatus fascia were noted: a medial band, an inferior-lateral band, and superior-lateral band of fascia, insertion of the posterior deltoid into the infraspinatus fascia, a transverse connection from the posterior deltoid muscle to the infraspinatus fascia, and a retinacular sheet deep to the deltoid and superficial to the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles. Although other structures of the shoulder are more frequently injured, the infraspinatus fascia is involved in compartment syndromes and the fascial bundles of this structure are certain to impact the biomechanical function of the muscles of the posterior shoulder.

  16. Functional anatomy of the explosive defensive system of bombardier beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Brachininae). (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Muzzi, Maurizio; Romani, Roberto


    This paper provides the first comparative anatomical study of the explosive pygidial defensive system of bombardier beetles in species classified in three brachinine subtribes: Brachinus (Brachinina), Pheropsophus (Pheropsophina) and Aptinus (Aptinina). We investigated the morphology and ultrastructure of this system using optical, fluorescence, and focused ion beam (FIB/SEM) microscopy. In doing so, we characterized and comparatively discussed: (1) the ultrastructure of the gland tissues producing hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide (secretory lobes), and those producing catalases and peroxidases (accessory glands); (2) the complex anatomy of the collecting duct; (3) the arrangement of the muscular bundles and the folding of the cuticle of the reservoir, suggesting a functional division of this chamber (dynamic part and storage part); (4) the great structural diversity of sculpticles inside the reaction chamber, where we could recognize six main types of microsculpture located in specific districts of the chamber. Additionally, using fluorescence microscopy, we highlighted the presence of resilin in two structures strongly subjected to mechanical stress during the discharge, the valve and the turrets of the reaction chamber. The results of this paper give a solid anatomic overview of the most popular beetle defensive system, contributing to the debate on its evolution within the Carabidae.

  17. Comparative internal anatomy of Staurozoa (Cnidaria), with functional and evolutionary inferences (United States)

    Collins, Allen G.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Mills, Claudia E.


    Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa. We document rarely-studied structures, such as ostia between radial pockets, intertentacular lobules, gametoducts, pad-like adhesive structures, and white spots of nematocysts (the last four newly proposed putative synapomorphies for Staurozoa). Two different regions of nematogenesis are documented. This work falsifies the view that the peduncle region of stauromedusae only retains polypoid characters; metamorphosis from stauropolyp to stauromedusa occurs both at the apical region (calyx) and basal region (peduncle). Intertentacular lobules, observed previously in only a small number of species, are shown to be widespread. Similarly, gametoducts were documented in all analyzed genera, both in males and females, thereby elucidating gamete release. Finally, ostia connecting adjacent gastric radial pockets appear to be universal for Staurozoa. Detailed histological studies of medusozoan polyps and medusae are necessary to further understand the relationships between staurozoan features and those of other medusozoan cnidarians.

  18. The Right Ventricle: A Comprehensive Review From Anatomy, Physiology, and Mechanics to Hemodynamic, Functional, and Imaging Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The right ventricle (RV is a complex structure with abstruse function that reveals important differences when compared to the left ventricle (LV, so it cannot be described as a simple geometric form and achromatic physiology. As an inference from this fact, in the present review, we aim to describe RV structure including the embryology, anatomy, and physiology and present a functional, hemodynamic, and imaging assessment of the normal and failing RV. So that, we conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design, or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the anatomy, physiology, mechanics, hemodynamic and imaging evaluation of RV.

  19. A case of polymicrogyria in macaque monkey: impact on anatomy and function of the motor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouiller Eric M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymicrogyria is a malformation of the cerebral cortex often resulting in epilepsy or mental retardation. It remains unclear whether this pathology affects the structure and function of the corticospinal (CS system. The anatomy and histology of the brain of one macaque monkey exhibiting a spontaneous polymicrogyria (PMG monkey were examined and compared to the brain of normal monkeys. The CS tract was labelled by injecting a neuronal tracer (BDA unilaterally in a region where low intensity electrical microstimulation elicited contralateral hand movements (presumably the primary motor cortex in the PMG monkey. Results The examination of the brain showed a large number of microgyri at macro- and microscopic levels, covering mainly the frontoparietal regions. The layered cortical organization was locally disrupted and the number of SMI-32 stained pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III of the presumed motor cortex was reduced. We compared the distribution of labelled CS axons in the PMG monkey at spinal cervical level C5. The cumulated length of CS axon arbors in the spinal grey matter was not significantly different in the PMG monkey. In the red nucleus, numerous neurons presented large vesicles. We also assessed its motor performances by comparing its capacity to execute a complex reach and grasp behavioral task. The PMG monkey exhibited an increase of reaction time without any modification of other motor parameters, an observation in line with a normal CS tract organisation. Conclusion In spite of substantial cortical malformations in the frontal and parietal lobes, the PMG monkey exhibits surprisingly normal structure and function of the corticospinal system.

  20. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  1. The thoracic limb of the suricate (Suricata suricatta): osteology, radiologic anatomy, and functional morphologic changes. (United States)

    van Staden, Sheryl L


    The purpose of the study was to identify unique features of the normal osteology and radiologic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the meerkat or suricate (Suricata suricatta), as no comprehensive information has been published. Bone specimens of 19 suricates were studied. Individual bones of the manus of one preserved carcass were studied in situ. Radiographic evaluation was performed in six animals. Comparisons to domestic carnivores were made and functional morphologic changes were identified. A suprahamate process was present on the scapula spine. Both supratrochlear and supracondylar foramina were present in the distal humerus, with a small Fossa coronoidea seen cranially. The medial epicondyle was markedly larger than the lateral epicondyle. The Tuberositas radii was located caudally. The proximal end of the olecranon was prominent medially. The large medial coronoid process had an extensive proximal articulation facet for the humeral trochlea. The ulna styloid process articulated with the ulnar and accessory carpal bones. The manus was similar to that of domestic carnivores; however, Os metacarpalis I was markedly reduced with the absence of the first digit. There were seven carpal bones. Os carpi radiale was the largest, with a large palmaro-medial process and a small sesamoid bone present medially. Ossa metacarpalia II-V and corresponding phalanges were slender, with an elongated Processus unguicularis (third phalanx) present. Radiologic findings demonstrated increased mobility of the scapula and shoulder joint, with ease of abduction. On the cranio-caudal view of the humerus and elbow joint, the distal radius and manus were consistently rotated in a supinated position. Morphologic changes were identified for the enhanced, predominant function of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, and digital flexor muscles associated with superior digging ability, and supination of the antebrachium and manus. Reference values for size parameters of the long bones are reported. The

  2. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function. (United States)

    Huser, Annina; Rohwedder, Astrid; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Maiolo, Elena M; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S


    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  3. Nongenomic STAT5-dependent effects on Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum structure and function. (United States)

    Lee, Jason E; Yang, Yang-Ming; Liang, Feng-Xia; Gough, Daniel J; Levy, David E; Sehgal, Pravin B


    We report unexpected nongenomic functions of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 species in the cytoplasm aimed at preserving the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in vascular cells. Immunoimaging and green fluorescent protein-tagged-STAT5a protein localization studies showed the constitutive association of nonphosphorylated STAT5a, and to a lesser extent STAT5b, with the Golgi apparatus and of STAT5a with centrosomes in human pulmonary arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Acute knockdown of STAT5a/b species using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), including in the presence of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor (5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole), produced a dramatic phenotype within 1 day, consisting of dilatation and fragmentation of Golgi cisternae, a marked tubule-to-cyst change in the ER, increased accumulation of reticulon-4 (RTN4)/Nogo-B and atlastin-3 (ATL3) at cyst-zone boundaries, cystic separation of the outer and inner nuclear membranes, accompanied by scalloped/lunate distortion of the nucleus, with accumulation of RTN4 on convex sides of distorted nuclei. These cells showed inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein glycoprotein trafficking, mitochondrial fragmentation, and reduced mitochondrial function. STAT5a/b(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts also showed altered ER/Golgi dynamics. RTN4 knockdown using siRNA did not affect development of the cystic phenotype; ATL3 siRNA led to effacement of cyst-zone boundaries. In magnetic-bead cross-immunopanning assays, ATL3 bound both STAT5a and STAT5b. Remarkably, this novel cystic ER/lunate nucleus phenotype was characteristic of vascular cells in arterial lesions of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, an unrelentingly fatal human disease. These data provide evidence of a STAT-family protein regulating the structure of a cytoplasmic organelle and implicate this mechanism in the pathogenesis of a human disease.

  4. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  5. Tooth anatomy (United States)

    ... page: // Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  6. Paraganglioma Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  7. Eye Anatomy (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  8. Evolutionary trends and functional anatomy of the human expanded autophagy network. (United States)

    Till, Andreas; Saito, Rintaro; Merkurjev, Daria; Liu, Jing-Jing; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Kolnik, Martin; Siddiqui, Aleem; Glas, Martin; Scheffler, Björn; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh


    All eukaryotic cells utilize autophagy for protein and organelle turnover, thus assuring subcellular quality control, homeostasis, and survival. In order to address recent advances in identification of human autophagy associated genes, and to describe autophagy on a system-wide level, we established an autophagy-centered gene interaction network by merging various primary data sets and by retrieving respective interaction data. The resulting network ('AXAN') was analyzed with respect to subnetworks, e.g. the prime gene subnetwork (including the core machinery, signaling pathways and autophagy receptors) and the transcription subnetwork. To describe aspects of evolution within this network, we assessed the presence of protein orthologs across 99 eukaryotic model organisms. We visualized evolutionary trends for prime gene categories and evolutionary tracks for selected AXAN genes. This analysis confirms the eukaryotic origin of autophagy core genes while it points to a diverse evolutionary history of autophagy receptors. Next, we used module identification to describe the functional anatomy of the network at the level of pathway modules. In addition to obvious pathways (e.g., lysosomal degradation, insulin signaling) our data unveil the existence of context-related modules such as Rho GTPase signaling. Last, we used a tripartite, image-based RNAi - screen to test candidate genes predicted to play a role in regulation of autophagy. We verified the Rho GTPase, CDC42, as a novel regulator of autophagy-related signaling. This study emphasizes the applicability of system-wide approaches to gain novel insights into a complex biological process and to describe the human autophagy pathway at a hitherto unprecedented level of detail.

  9. Relationships between retinal arteriole anatomy and aortic geometry and function and peripheral resistance in hypertensives. (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Koch, Edouard; Paques, Michel; Cluzel, Philippe; Redheuil, Alban; Girerd, Xavier


    Microvascular remodeling and large artery stiffness are key determinants of cardiovascular hemodynamics and can now be studied with new non-invasive methods. Our objective was to study the relationships between retinal arteriole anatomy and aortic geometry and function and peripheral resistance (total peripheral resistance (TPR)) in hypertensives. In 80 subjects (age 52±13 years; 53% males; including 23 normotensives and 57 hypertensives, among which 29 were uncontrolled hypertensives), we used: (1) the new non-invasive RTX1 adaptive optics (AO) camera (Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France) to measure the wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR) on retinal microvasculature; (2) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to assess aortic stiffness, geometry and cardiac output; and (3) the validated SphymoCor Xcel device to measure central blood pressure (BP) and carotido-femoral pulse wave velocity (Cf-PWV). TPR was calculated as the central mean BP/cardiac output ratio. WLR and TPR were significantly higher and aortic distensibility was significantly lower in hypertensives. Aortic dilation and arch elongation were found in uncontrolled hypertensives. In the univariate analysis, WLR was positively correlated with central BP (PTPR (PTPR (P=0.002) independent of age, BMI, gender, antihypertensive treatments, aortic diameter and central SBP. As expected, age was the major correlate of ascending aorta distensibility and Cf-PWV. New non-invasive vascular imaging methods are complementary for the detection of the deleterious effects of aging or high BP on large and small arteries. AO examination could represent a useful tool for the study and follow-up of microvasculature anatomical changes.


    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K


    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast.

  11. Golgijev aparat: Golgi apparatus: organization, function and diseases: zgradba, funkcija in bolezni:


    Erdani-Kreft, Mateja; Višnjar, Tanja


    The Golgi apparatus is a cellular organelIe found in most eukaryotic cells. In addition to its participation in protein and lipid glycosylation, the Golgi apparatus also sorts and directs vesicular transport. The number ofknown diseases related to the Golgi apparatus has significantly increased in last decade because of the developments in genetic analysis and discoveries which showed that glycan structures are not mere decorative elements of proteins and lipids but serve crucial cellular fun...

  12. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models (United States)

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady


    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  13. Anatomy atlases. (United States)

    Rosse, C


    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  14. Anatomical and biomechanical traits of broiler chickens across ontogeny. Part I. Anatomy of the musculoskeletal respiratory apparatus and changes in organ size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Tickle


    Full Text Available Genetic selection for improved meat yields, digestive efficiency and growth rates have transformed the biology of broiler chickens. Modern birds undergo a 50-fold multiplication in body mass in just six weeks, from hatching to slaughter weight. However, this selection for rapid growth and improvements in broiler productivity is also widely thought to be associated with increased welfare problems as many birds suffer from leg, circulatory and respiratory diseases. To understand growth-related changes in musculoskeletal and organ morphology and respiratory skeletal development over the standard six-week rearing period, we present data from post-hatch cadaveric commercial broiler chickens aged 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The heart, lungs and intestines decreased in size for hatch to slaughter weight when considered as a proportion of body mass. Proportional liver size increased in the two weeks after hatch but decreased between 2 and 6 weeks. Breast muscle mass on the other hand displayed strong positive allometry, increasing in mass faster than the increase in body mass. Contrastingly, less rapid isometric growth was found in the external oblique muscle, a major respiratory muscle that moves the sternum dorsally during expiration. Considered together with the relatively slow ossification of elements of the respiratory skeleton, it seems that rapid growth of the breast muscles might compromise the efficacy of the respiratory apparatus. Furthermore, the relative reduction in size of the major organs indicates that selective breeding in meat-producing birds has unintended consequences that may bias these birds toward compromised welfare and could limit further improvements in meat-production and feed efficiency.

  15. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven


    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  16. The Integrated Clinical Anatomy Program at Alfaisal University: An Innovative Model of Teaching Clinically Applied Functional Anatomy in a Hybrid Curriculum (United States)

    Yaqinuddin, Ahmed; Ikram, Muhammad Faisal; Zafar, Muhammad; Eldin, Nivin Sharaf; Mazhar, Muhammad Atif; Qazi, Sadia; Shaikh, Aftab Ahmed; Obeidat, Akef; Al-Kattan, Khaled; Ganguly, Paul


    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of specialty. It is essential for physicians to be able to perform a variety of tasks, including performing invasive procedures, examining radiological images, performing a physical examination of a patient, etc. Medical students have to be prepared for such tasks, and we…

  17. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)


    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  18. Assessment of normal left atrial appendage anatomy and function over gender and ages by dynamic cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucebci, Samy; Velasco, Stephane; Duboe, Pier-Olivier; Tasu, Jean-Pierre [University of Poitiers, University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Poitiers (France); Pambrun, Thomas [University of Poitiers, University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Poitiers (France); Ingrand, Pierre [University of Poitiers, University Institute of Public Health, Poitiers (France)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in anatomy and function according to age and gender using cardiac computed tomography (CT) in a large prospective cohort of healthy patients. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is considered the most frequent site of intracardiac thrombus formation. However, variations in normal in vivo anatomy and function according to age and gender remain largely unknown. Three-dimensional (3D) cardiac reconstructions of the LAA were performed from CT scans of 193 consecutive patients. Parameters measured included LAA number of lobes, anatomical position of the LAA tip, angulation measured between the proximal and distal portions, minimum (iVol{sub min}) and maximum (iVol{sub max}) volumes indexed to body surface area (BSA), and ejection fraction (LAAEF). Relationship with age was assessed for each parameter. We found that men had longer and wider LAAs. The iVol{sub min} and iVol{sub max} increased by 0.23 and 0.19 ml per decade, respectively, while LAAEF decreased by 2 % per decade in both sexes. Although LAA volumes increase, LAAEF decreases with age in both sexes. (orig.)

  19. GPHR-dependent functions of the Golgi apparatus are essential for the formation of lamellar granules and the skin barrier. (United States)

    Tarutani, Masahito; Nakajima, Kimiko; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Takaishi, Mikiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Ikawa, Masahito; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kinoshita, Taroh; Elias, Peter M; Sano, Shigetoshi; Maeda, Yusuke


    The lumen of the Golgi apparatus is regulated to be weakly acidic, which is critical for its functions. The Golgi pH regulator (GPHR) is an anion channel essential for normal acidification of the Golgi apparatus, and is therefore required for its functions. The Golgi apparatus has been thought to be the origin of lamellar granules in the skin. To study the functional role(s) of GPHR in the skin, we established keratinocyte-specific GPHR-knockout mice using the Cre-loxP system. These mutant mice exhibited hypopigmented skin, hair loss, and scaliness. Histological examination of GPHR-knockout mice showed ballooning of the basal cells and follicular dysplasia. In addition, inflammatory cells were seen in the dermis. The expression of trans-Golgi network 46, a marker for lamellar bodies, and kallikrein 7, a protein within lamellar bodies, is diminished in GPHR-knockout mouse skin. Examination by electron microscopy revealed that keratinocytes produced aberrant lamellar bodies. The transepidermal water loss of these knockout mice was increased compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, expression of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in the skin was diminished. These results suggest that GPHR is essential for the homeostasis of the epidermis including the formation of lamellar bodies and for the barrier function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Maria MURAD-REGADAS


    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate anal sphincter anatomy using three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-DAUS in incontinent women with vaginal delivery, correlate anatomical findings with symptoms of fecal incontinence and determine the effect of vaginal delivery on anal canal anatomy and function. Methods Female with fecal incontinence and vaginal delivery were assessed with Wexner’s score, manometry, and 3DAUS. A control group comprising asymptomatic nulliparous was included. Anal pressure, the angle of the defect and length of the external anal sphincter (EAS, the anterior and posterior internal anal sphincter (IAS, the EAS + puborectal and the gap were measured and correlated with score. Results Of the 62, 49 had fecal incontinence and 13 were asymptomatic. Twenty five had EAS defects, 8 had combined EAS+IAS defects, 16 had intact sphincters and continence scores were similar. Subjects with sphincter defects had a shorter anterior EAS, IAS and longer gap than women without defects. Those with a vaginal delivery and intact sphincters had a shorter anterior EAS and longer gap than nulliparous. We found correlations between resting pressure and anterior EAS and IAS length in patients with defects. Conclusions Avaliar a anatomia do esfíncter anal usando ultra-sonografia tridimensional (3D-US em mulheres incontinentes com parto vaginal, correlacionar os achados anatômicos com sintomas de incontinência fecal e, determinar o efeito do parto vaginal sobre a anatomia e função do canal anal.

  1. Function and functional groupings of the complex mouth apparatus of the squat lobsters Munida sarsi Huus and M. tenuimana G.O. Sars (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Høeg, J T


    Like all other decapods, the anomuran squat lobsters Munida sarsi and M. tenuimana have a mouth apparatus composed of six pairs of mouthparts plus labrum and paragnaths (upper and lower lips). To study the functional significance of this complexity, we examined the mouthparts with scanning electron...

  2. Functional specialization and ontogenetic scaling of limb anatomy in Alligator mississippiensis (United States)

    Allen, Vivian; Elsey, Ruth M; Jones, Nicola; Wright, Jordon; Hutchinson, John R


    Crocodylians exhibit a fascinating diversity of terrestrial gaits and limb motions that remain poorly described and are of great importance to understanding their natural history and evolution. Their musculoskeletal anatomy is pivotal to this diversity and yet only qualitative studies of muscle-tendon unit anatomy exist. The relative masses and internal architecture (fascicle lengths and physiological cross-sectional areas) of muscles of the pectoral and pelvic limbs of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis Daudin 1801) were recorded for an ontogenetic series of wild specimens (n = 15, body masses from 0.5 to 60 kg). The data were analysed by reduced major axis regression to determine scaling relationships with body mass. Physiological cross-sectional areas and therefore muscle force-generating capacity were found to be greater in the extensor (anti-gravity) muscles of the pelvic limb than in the pectoral limb, reflecting how crocodylians differ from mammals in having greater loading of the hindlimbs than the forelimbs. Muscle masses and architecture were generally found to scale isometrically with body mass, suggesting an ontogenetic decrease in terrestrial athleticism. This concurs with the findings of previous studies showing ontogenetic decreases in limb bone length and the general scaling principle of a decline of strength : weight ratios with increasing size in animals. Exceptions to isometric scaling found included positive allometry in fascicle length for extensor musculature of both limbs, suggesting an ontogenetic increase in working range interpreted as increasing postural variability – in particular the major hip extensors – the interpretation of which is complicated by previous described ontogenetic increase of moment arms for these muscles. PMID:20148991

  3. The ovipositor apparatus of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta): phylogenetic implications and functional morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Lars


    valvulae, and the fusion of the 2nd valvulae for their entire length. The changes in the ovipositor apparatus of Pamphilioidea are associated with a decrease in the amount of work it has to perform during ovipositing, as the eggs are placed predominantly externally on the substrate. The ovipositor...

  4. Anatomia funcional de Perna perna (Linné (bivalvia, Mytilidae Functional anatomy of Perna perna (Linné (bivalvia, Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Narchi


    Full Text Available Perna perna (Linné, 1758 occurs on the Atlantic littoral from Venezuela to Uruguay. The main organ systems were studied in the living animais, particular attention being paid to the ciliary feeding and cleansing mechanisms in the mantle cavity. The anatomy, functioning of the stomach and the ciliary sorting mechanisms are described. The siphons belong to type A (Yongf. 1948b, the ctenidia to type B( 1 (Atkins 1936c and the stomach is of type III (Purchon 1957 or Section I (Dinamani 1967 with sorting mecanisms of type A and B (Reid 1965. A general comparison was made between the genera of the Mytilidae known and some features of Mytella Soot-Ryen, 1955.

  5. Using stable isotopes and functional wood anatomy to identify underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance in different provenances of lodgepole pine (United States)

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Montwé, David; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich; Cherubini, Paolo; Treydte, Kerstin


    Choosing drought-tolerant seed sources for reforestation may help adapt forests to climate change. By combining dendroecological growth analysis with a long-term provenance trial, we assessed growth and drought tolerance of different populations of a wide-ranging conifer, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This experimental design simulated a climate warming scenario through southward seed transfer, and an exceptional drought also occurred in 2002. We felled over 500 trees, representing 23 seed sources, which were grown for 32 years at three warm, dry sites in southern British Columbia, Canada. Northern populations showed poor growth and drought tolerance. These seed sources therefore appear to be especially at risk under climate change. Before recommending assisted migration of southern seeds towards the north, however, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these responses. We combine functional wood anatomy with a dual-isotope approach to evaluate these mechanisms to drought response.

  6. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  7. Functional anatomy of the mandibular nerve: consequences of nerve injury and entrapment. (United States)

    Piagkou, Maria; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panayiotis; Johnson, Elizabeth O


    Various anatomic structures including bone, muscle, or fibrous bands may entrap and potentially compress branches of the mandibular nerve (MN). The infratemporal fossa is a common location for MN compression and one of the most difficult regions of the skull to access surgically. Other potential sites for entrapment of the MN and its branches include, a totally or partially ossified pterygospinous or pterygoalar ligament, a large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process, the medial fibers of the lower belly of the lateral pterygoid muscle and the inner fibers of the medial pterygoid muscle. The clinical consequences of MN entrapment are dependent upon which branches are compressed. Compression of the MN motor branches can lead to paresis or weakness in the innervated muscles, whereas compression of the sensory branches can provoke neuralgia or paresthesia. Compression of one of the major branches of the MN, the lingual nerve (LN), is associated with numbness, hypoesthesia, or even anesthesia of the tongue, loss of taste in the anterior two thirds of the tongue, anesthesia of the lingual gums, pain, and speech articulation disorders. The aim of this article is to review, the anatomy of the MN and its major branches with relation to their vulnerability to entrapment. Because the LN expresses an increased vulnerability to entrapment neuropathies as a result of its anatomical location, frequent variations, as well as from irregular osseous, fibrous, or muscular irregularities in the region of the infratemporal fossa, particular emphasis is placed on the LN.

  8. The spinning apparatus of webspinners--functional-morphology, morphometrics and spinning behaviour. (United States)

    Büsse, Sebastian; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Hohu, Kyle; McMillan, David; Edgerly, Janice S


    Webspinners (Insecta: Embioptera) have a distinctly unique behaviour with related morphological characteristics. Producing silk with the basitarsomeres of their forelegs plays a crucial role in the lives of these insects--providing shelter and protection. The correlation between body size, morphology and morphometrics of the spinning apparatus and the spinning behaviour of Embioptera was investigated for seven species using state-of-the-art methodology for behavioural as well as for morphological approaches. Independent contrast analysis revealed correlations between morphometric characters and body size. Larger webspinners in this study have glands with greater reservoir volume, but in proportionally smaller tarsi relative to body size than in the smaller species. Furthermore, we present a detailed description and review of the spinning apparatus in Embioptera in comparison to other arthropods and substantiate the possible homology of the embiopteran silk glands to class III dermal silk glands of insects.

  9. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy. (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  10. Anatomy and cranial functional morphology of the small-bodied dinosaur Fruitadens haagarorum from the Upper Jurassic of the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heterodontosaurids are an important but enigmatic and poorly understood early radiation of ornithischian dinosaurs. The late-surviving heterodontosaurid Fruitadens haagarorum from the Late Jurassic (early Tithonian Morrison Formation of the western USA is represented by remains of several small (<1 metre total body length, <1 kg body mass individuals that include well-preserved but incomplete cranial and postcranial material. Fruitadens is hypothesized to represent one of the smallest known ornithischian dinosaurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the cranial and postcranial anatomy of Fruitadens in detail, providing comparisons to all other known heterodontosaurid taxa. High resolution micro-CT data provides new insights into tooth replacement and the internal anatomy of the tooth-bearing bones. Moreover, we provide a preliminary functional analysis of the skull of late-surviving heterodontosaurids, discuss the implications of Fruitadens for current understanding of heterodontosaurid monophyly, and briefly review the evolution and biogeography of heterodontosaurids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The validity of Fruitadens is supported by multiple unique characters of the dentition and hindlimb as well as a distinct character combination. Fruitadens shares highly distinctive appendicular characters with other heterodontosaurids, strengthening monophyly of the clade on the basis of the postcranium. Mandibular morphology and muscle moment arms suggest that the jaws of late-surviving heterodontosaurids, including Fruitadens, were adapted for rapid biting at large gape angles, contrasting with the jaws of the stratigraphically older Heterodontosaurus, which were better suited for strong jaw adduction at small gapes. The lack of wear facets and plesiomorphic dentition suggest that Fruitadens used orthal jaw movements and employed simple puncture-crushing to process food. In combination with its small body size, these results

  11. Anatomy of the Brain (United States)

    ... Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ... form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ...

  12. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  13. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  14. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus


    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  15. Inter-subject alignment of human cortical anatomy using functional connectivity


    Conroy, Bryan R.; Singer, Benjamin D.; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Ramadge, Peter J.; Haxby, James V.


    Inter-subject alignment of functional MRI (fMRI) data is necessary for group analyses. The standard approach to this problem matches anatomical features of the brain, such as major anatomical landmarks or cortical curvature. Precise alignment of functional cortical topographies, however, cannot be derived using only anatomical features.

  16. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna


    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  17. Redescription of the hyoid apparatus and associated musculature in the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: functional implications for feeding. (United States)

    Dutel, Hugo; Herrel, Anthony; Clément, Gaël; Herbin, Marc


    The coelacanth Latimeria is the only extant vertebrate in which the neurocranium is divided into an anterior and a posterior portion which articulate by means of an intracranial joint. This articulation is thought to allow an elevation of the snout up to 20-degree angle, which is supposed to enhance mouth gape and velocity, in turn allowing for a powerful suction. Several functional models have been proposed to explain the skull movement in Latimeria, but they disagree on the mechanisms responsible for mandibular depression and intracranial elevation, and more precisely on the role and mobility of the hyoid apparatus during these processes. We here show that the m. coracomandibularis spans ventrally to the palate-mandible joint, and is likely involved in mandibular depression. The hyoid apparatus is sheathed by several layers of ligaments, rendering extensive movements of the hyoid bones in the anteroposterior direction unlikely. Together with the manipulation of the 3D virtual model of the skull, these observations suggest that the hyoid arch is less mobile than previously proposed, and that the movements proposed in previous models are unlikely. In the light of our new observations, we suggest that the mechanisms proposed for explaining the intracranial elevation are incomplete. Moreover, we suggest that the extensive movements of the hyoid arch elements, which were thought to accompany intracranial elevation, are unlikely. In the absence of intracranial elevation, we propose that the movements of the hyoid mainly take place in the transverse plane, allowing the lateral expansion of the orobranchial chamber.

  18. Functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament complex of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seki, Atsuhito; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Jensen, Steen Lund


    A previous anatomic study has revealed that the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) complex of the elbow has a Y-shaped configuration, which consists of a superior, an anterior, and a posterior band. The LCL complex, including the annular ligament, functions as a 3-dimensional (3D) Y-shaped structure....... The laxity occurring after severance of the anterior band suggests that these fibers play a role in preservation of elbow stability against varus and external rotational torque. These results indicate that the LCL functions as a complex with a Y structure and not as an isolated linear ligament. A concept...... of conjoint point is hypothesized for the function of the LCL complex to restrain posterolateral rotatory instability....

  19. A unique ball-shaped Golgi apparatus in the rat pituitary gonadotrope: its functional implications in relation to the arrangement of the microtubule network. (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Yuko; Koga, Daisuke; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Hira, Yoshiki; Hosaka, Masahiro; Ushiki, Tatsuo


    In polarized exocrine cells, the Golgi apparatus is cup-shaped and its convex and concave surfaces are designated as cis and trans faces, functionally confronting the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the cell surface, respectively. To clarify the morphological characteristics of the Golgi apparatus in non-polarized endocrine cells, the investigators immunocytochemically examined its precise architecture in pituitary gonadotropes, especially in relation to the arrangement of the intracellular microtubule network. The Golgi apparatus in the gonadotropes was not cup-shaped but ball-shaped or spherical, and its outer and inner surfaces were the cis and trans faces, respectively. Centrioles were situated at the center of the Golgi apparatus, from which radiating microtubules isotropically extended to the cell periphery through the gaps in the spherical wall of the Golgi stack. The shape of the Golgi apparatus and the arrangement of microtubules demonstrated in the present study could explain the microtubule-dependent movements of tubulovesicular carriers and granules within the gonadotropes. Furthermore, the spherical shape of the Golgi apparatus possibly reflects the highly symmetrical arrangement of microtubule arrays, as well as the poor polarity in the cell surface of pituitary gonadotropes.

  20. The Anatomy and Function of the Ear of the Bottle-nosed Dolphin Tursiops truncatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purves, P.E.; Utrecht, van W.L.


    3. An account is given of sound conductivity experiments which were carried out on the auditory structures in a very fresh, dead specimen of Tursiops. 4. The probable function of the external auditory meatus is discussed in relationship to the arrangement of the accessory air sinuses of the middle e

  1. Arthroscopy of the elbow joint–video analysis of the anatomy and function


    Hesse, Beatrix; Lampert, C.


    The anatomical structures of the elbow joint were dissected in layers in human cadavers. The surgical dissection was divided into to deep and superficial areas. Each step was documented by digital video and photographs. The functional and anatomical preparation allowed us to establish the limits and scope of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures by arthroscopy.

  2. Development of a compact and general-purpose experimental apparatus with a touch-sensitive screen for use in evaluating cognitive functions in common marmosets. (United States)

    Takemoto, Atsushi; Izumi, Akihiro; Miwa, Miki; Nakamura, Katsuki


    Common marmosets have been used extensively in biomedical research and the recent advent of techniques to generate transgenic marmosets has accelerated the use of this model. New methods that efficiently assess the degree of cognitive function in common marmosets are needed in order to establish their suitability as non-human primate models of higher brain function disorders. Here, we have developed a new apparatus suitable for testing the cognitive functions of common marmosets. Utilizing a mini laptop PC with a touch-sensitive screen as the main component, the apparatus is small and lightweight and can be easily attached to the home cages. The ease of designing and testing new paradigms with the flexible software is another advantage of this system. We have tested visual discrimination and its reversal tasks using this apparatus and confirmed its efficacy.

  3. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting. (United States)

    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B


    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups.

  4. Basal paravian functional anatomy illuminated by high-detail body outline (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Pittman, Michael; Zheng, Xiaoting; Kaye, Thomas G.; Falk, Amanda R.; Hartman, Scott A.; Xu, Xing


    Body shape is a fundamental expression of organismal biology, but its quantitative reconstruction in fossil vertebrates is rare. Due to the absence of fossilized soft tissue evidence, the functional consequences of basal paravian body shape and its implications for the origins of avians and flight are not yet fully understood. Here we reconstruct the quantitative body outline of a fossil paravian Anchiornis based on high-definition images of soft tissues revealed by laser-stimulated fluorescence. This body outline confirms patagia-bearing arms, drumstick-shaped legs and a slender tail, features that were probably widespread among paravians. Finely preserved details also reveal similarities in propatagial and footpad form between basal paravians and modern birds, extending their record to the Late Jurassic. The body outline and soft tissue details suggest significant functional decoupling between the legs and tail in at least some basal paravians. The number of seemingly modern propatagial traits hint that feathering was a significant factor in how basal paravians utilized arm, leg and tail function for aerodynamic benefit. PMID:28248287

  5. Re-evaluation of the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia in normal and Parkinsonian states. (United States)

    Levy, R; Hazrati, L N; Herrero, M T; Vila, M; Hassani, O K; Mouroux, M; Ruberg, M; Asensi, H; Agid, Y; Féger, J; Obeso, J A; Parent, A; Hirsch, E C


    In the late 1980s, a functional and anatomical model of basal ganglia organization was proposed in order to explain the clinical syndrome of Parkinson's disease. According to this model, the pathological overactivity observed in the subthalamic nucleus and the output station of the basal ganglia plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the motor signs of Parkinson's disease. The hyperactivity of subthalamic neurons in Parkinsonism is viewed as a direct consequence of a pathological hypoactivity of the external segment of the pallidum. This article reviews recent data from different experimental approaches that challenge the established model of basal ganglia organization by reinterpreting the functional interaction between the external segment of the pallidum and the subthalamic nucleus in both the normal and pathological state. Indeed, recent neurobiochemical studies have rather unexpectedly shown that the GABAergic and metabolic activities of the external pallidum are not decreased in human and non-human primates with Parkinsonism. This absence of any decrease in activity might be explained by the functionally antagonistic influences of the striatal and subthalamic afferences within the external pallidum, as suggested by several anatomical studies. In addition, there are clues from electrophysiological studies to suggest that the hyperactivity found in the subthalamic neurons in Parkinsonism may not depend solely on the level of activity in the external pallidum. In such a framework, the hyperactivity of the subthalamic neurons would have to be explained, at least in part, by other sources of excitation or disinhibition. However, any explanation for the origin of the subthalamic overactivity in Parkinsonism remains speculative.

  6. The fish tail as a derivation from axial musculoskeletal anatomy: an integrative analysis of functional morphology. (United States)

    Flammang, B E


    The adult morphology of the tail varies greatly among extant fishes despite sharing both ontogenetic similarities and the functional need to propel the body through a fluid medium. Both sharks (Chondrichthyes) and ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) control caudal fin musculature independently of axial body myomere activity to modify the stiffness and shape of their tails. For example, sharks and bony fishes possess different structural elements and muscles and move their tails in different ways, resulting in different locomotory hydrodynamic effects and a range of performance variables including speed and maneuverability. The stiffness of the heterocercal, lobate tail of the shark can be modulated during the tail beat resulting in nearly continuous thrust production. In contrast, the highly flexible tail of ray-finned fishes can be manipulated into many different shape conformations enabling increased maneuverability for these fishes. Consequently, the developmental, morphological, and functional derivation of the tail from the axial trunk has resulted in a diversity of form, the attributes of which may be of ecological and evolutionary significance.

  7. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish. (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Bureau, Charlotte; Colin, Ingrid; Demarque, Michaël; Dufour, Sylvie; Vernier, Philippe; Yamamoto, Kei; Pasqualini, Catherine


    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the preoptico-hypothalamic region of the brain exert a major neuroendocrine control on reproduction, growth, and homeostasis by regulating the secretion of anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) hormones. Here, using a retrograde tract tracing experiment, we identified the neurons playing this role in the zebrafish. The DA cells projecting directly to the anterior pituitary are localized in the most anteroventral part of the preoptic area, and we named them preoptico-hypophyseal DA (POHDA) neurons. During development, these neurons do not appear before 72 hours postfertilization (hpf) and are the last dopaminergic cell group to differentiate. We found that the number of neurons in this cell population continues to increase throughout life proportionally to the growth of the fish. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation analysis suggested that this increase is due to continuous neurogenesis and not due to a phenotypic change in already-existing neurons. Finally, expression profiles of several genes (foxg1a, dlx2a, and nr4a2a/b) were different in the POHDA compared with the adjacent suprachiasmatic DA neurons, suggesting that POHDA neurons develop as a distinct DA cell population in the preoptic area. This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions.

  8. Anatomy and function of an excitatory network in the visual cortex. (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Chung Allen; Bonin, Vincent; Reed, Michael; Graham, Brett J; Hood, Greg; Glattfelder, Katie; Reid, R Clay


    Circuits in the cerebral cortex consist of thousands of neurons connected by millions of synapses. A precise understanding of these local networks requires relating circuit activity with the underlying network structure. For pyramidal cells in superficial mouse visual cortex (V1), a consensus is emerging that neurons with similar visual response properties excite each other, but the anatomical basis of this recurrent synaptic network is unknown. Here we combined physiological imaging and large-scale electron microscopy to study an excitatory network in V1. We found that layer 2/3 neurons organized into subnetworks defined by anatomical connectivity, with more connections within than between groups. More specifically, we found that pyramidal neurons with similar orientation selectivity preferentially formed synapses with each other, despite the fact that axons and dendrites of all orientation selectivities pass near (<5 μm) each other with roughly equal probability. Therefore, we predict that mechanisms of functionally specific connectivity take place at the length scale of spines. Neurons with similar orientation tuning formed larger synapses, potentially enhancing the net effect of synaptic specificity. With the ability to study thousands of connections in a single circuit, functional connectomics is proving a powerful method to uncover the organizational logic of cortical networks.

  9. [Assessment of the right ventricular anatomy and function by advanced echocardiography: pathological and physiological insights]. (United States)

    Lakatos, Bálint; Kovács, Attila; Tokodi, Márton; Doronina, Alexandra; Merkely, Béla


    Accurate assessment of right ventricular geometry and function is of high clinical importance. However, several limitations have to be taken into consideration if using conventional echocardiographic parameters. Advanced echocardiographic techniques, such as speckle-tracking analysis or 3D echocardiography are reliable and simple tools providing a cost-effective and non-invasive alternative of current modalities used to characterize the right ventricle. There is a growing interest in the diagnostic and prognostic value of these methods regarding pathological (right ventricular infarction, pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, follow-up of heart transplantation) and even physiological (athlete's heart) alterations of the right ventricle. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(29), 1139-1146.

  10. Characterization of the arterial anatomy of the murine hindlimb: functional role in the design and understanding of ischemia models.

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    Takashi Kochi

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Appropriate ischemia models are required for successful studies of therapeutic angiogenesis. While collateral routes are known to be present within the innate vasculature, there are no reports describing the detailed vascular anatomy of the murine hindlimb. In addition, differences in the descriptions of anatomical names and locations in the literature impede understanding of the circulation and the design of hindlimb ischemia models. To understand better the collateral circulation in the whole hindlimb, clarification of all the feeding arteries of the hindlimb is required. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to reveal the detailed arterial anatomy and collateral routes in murine hindlimb to enable the appropriate design of therapeutic angiogenesis studies and to facilitate understanding of the circulation in ischemia models. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arterial anatomy in the murine hindlimb was investigated by contrast-enhanced X-ray imaging and surgical dissection. The observed anatomy is shown in photographic images and in a schema. Previously unnoticed but relatively large arteries were observed in deep, cranial and lateral parts of the thigh. The data indicates that there are three collateral routes through the medial thigh, quadriceps femoris, and the biceps femoris muscles. Furthermore, anatomical variations were found at the origins of the three feeding arteries. CONCLUSIONS: The detailed arterial anatomy of murine hindlimb and collateral routes deduced from the anatomy are described. Limitations on designs of ischemia models in view of anatomical variations are proposed. These observations will contribute to the development of animal studies of therapeutic angiogenesis using murine hindlimb ischemia models.

  11. Functional analysis of putative phosphoenolpyruvate transporters localized to the Golgi apparatus in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (United States)

    Yoritsune, Ken-ichi; Higuchi, Yujiro; Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Takegawa, Kaoru


    The cell surface of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is negatively charged due to the presence of pyruvylated oligosaccharides, which is important for cell-cell recognition. However, the mechanism of pyruvate supply to oligosaccharides is not clearly understood. Here, we analyzed three putative phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) transporter genes (pet1(+) , pet2(+) , and pet3(+) ) in S. pombe, identified by sequence homology search against the Arabidopsis thaliana PEP transporter AtPPT1. Schizosaccharomyces pombe strain carrying a disruption in pet1(+) (pet1Δ) or in pet2(+) (pet2Δ), but not the strain carrying a disruption in pet3(+) (pet3Δ), showed reduced pyruvate level on the cell surface. This reduction in pyruvate level was restored to the control level by expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Pet1p and Pet2p in respective disruptants. Fluorescence microscope studies revealed that GFP-tagged Pet1p and Pet2p were localized to the Golgi apparatus. Although expression of neither AtPPT1 nor AtPPT2 suppressed the pet1Δ phenotype, that of chimeric constructs, where the N-terminal regions of AtPPT1 and AtPPT2 were replaced by the N-terminal region of Pet1p, partially suppressed the pet1Δ phenotype. Furthermore, the reduction in cell surface negative charge in pet1Δ cells was restored by incubating these cells with recombinant Pvg1p and PEP. Thus, Pet1p and Pet2p are likely involved in transporting PEP from the cytoplasm into the Golgi.

  12. Functional morphology and comparative anatomy of appendicular musculature in Cuban Anolis lizards with different locomotor habits. (United States)

    Anzai, Wataru; Omura, Ayano; Diaz, Antonio Cadiz; Kawata, Masakado; Endo, Hideki


    We examined the diversity of the musculoskeletal morphology in the limbs of Anolis lizards with different habitats and identified variations in functional and morphological adaptations to different ecologies or behaviors. Dissection and isolation of 40 muscles from the fore- and hindlimbs of five species of Anolis were performed, and the muscle mass and length of the moment arm were compared after body size effects were removed. Ecologically and behaviorally characteristic morphological differences were observed in several muscles. Well-developed hindlimb extensors were observed in ground-dwelling species, A. sagrei and A. bremeri, and were considered advantageous for running, whereas adept climber species possessed expanded femoral retractors for weight-bearing during climbing. Moreover, morphological variations were observed among arboreal species. Wider excursions of the forelimb joint characterized A. porcatus, presumably enabling branch-to-branch locomotion, while A. equestris and A. angusticeps possessed highly developed adductor muscles for grasping thick branches or twigs. These findings suggest divergent evolution of musculoskeletal characteristic in the limbs within the genus Anolis, with correlations observed among morphological traits, locomotor performance, and habitat uses.

  13. The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET Family: Functional Anatomy of BET Paralogous Proteins

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    Yasushi Taniguchi


    Full Text Available The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET family of proteins is characterized by the presence of two tandem bromodomains and an extra-terminal domain. The mammalian BET family of proteins comprises BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT, which are encoded by paralogous genes that may have been generated by repeated duplication of an ancestral gene during evolution. Bromodomains that can specifically bind acetylated lysine residues in histones serve as chromatin-targeting modules that decipher the histone acetylation code. BET proteins play a crucial role in regulating gene transcription through epigenetic interactions between bromodomains and acetylated histones during cellular proliferation and differentiation processes. On the other hand, BET proteins have been reported to mediate latent viral infection in host cells and be involved in oncogenesis. Human BRD4 is involved in multiple processes of the DNA virus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through interaction with viral proteins. Aberrant BRD4 expression contributes to carcinogenesis by mediating hyperacetylation of the chromatin containing the cell proliferation-promoting genes. BET bromodomain blockade using small-molecule inhibitors gives rise to selective repression of the transcriptional network driven by c-MYC These inhibitors are expected to be potential therapeutic drugs for a wide range of cancers. This review presents an overview of the basic roles of BET proteins and highlights the pathological functions of BET and the recent developments in cancer therapy targeting BET proteins in animal models.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals functional anatomy and biomechanics of a living dragon tree. (United States)

    Hesse, Linnea; Masselter, Tom; Leupold, Jochen; Spengler, Nils; Speck, Thomas; Korvink, Jan Gerrit


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to gain in vivo insight into load-induced displacements of inner plant tissues making a non-invasive and non-destructive stress and strain analysis possible. The central aim of this study was the identification of a possible load-adapted orientation of the vascular bundles and their fibre caps as the mechanically relevant tissue in branch-stem-attachments of Dracaena marginata. The complex three-dimensional deformations that occur during mechanical loading can be analysed on the basis of quasi-three-dimensional data representations of the outer surface, the inner tissue arrangement (meristem and vascular system), and the course of single vascular bundles within the branch-stem-attachment region. In addition, deformations of vascular bundles could be quantified manually and by using digital image correlation software. This combination of qualitative and quantitative stress and strain analysis leads to an improved understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of D. marginata, a plant that is used as a model organism for optimizing branched technical fibre-reinforced lightweight trusses in order to increase their load bearing capacity.

  15. The Golgi apparatus is a functionally distinct Ca2+ store regulated by the PKA and Epac branches of the β1-adrenergic signaling pathway. (United States)

    Yang, Zhaokang; Kirton, Hannah M; MacDougall, David A; Boyle, John P; Deuchars, James; Frater, Brenda; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Hardy, Matthew E; White, Edward; Calaghan, Sarah C; Peers, Chris; Steele, Derek S


    Ca(2+) release from the Golgi apparatus regulates key functions of the organelle, including vesicle trafficking. We found that the Golgi apparatus was the source of prolonged Ca(2+) release events that originated near the nuclei of primary cardiomyocytes. Golgi Ca(2+) release was unaffected by depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+), and disruption of the Golgi apparatus abolished Golgi Ca(2+) release without affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum function, suggesting functional and spatial independence of Golgi and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. β1-Adrenoceptor stimulation triggers the production of the second messenger cAMP, which activates the Epac family of Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors and the kinase PKA (protein kinase A). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), including those in the PDE3 and PDE4 families, degrade cAMP. Activation of β1-adrenoceptors stimulated Golgi Ca(2+) release, an effect that required activation of Epac, PKA, and the kinase CaMKII. Inhibition of PDE3s or PDE4s potentiated β1-adrenergic-induced Golgi Ca(2+) release, which is consistent with compartmentalization of cAMP signaling near the Golgi apparatus. Interventions that stimulated Golgi Ca(2+) release appeared to increase the trafficking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) from the Golgi apparatus to the surface membrane of cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes from rats with heart failure, decreases in the abundance of PDE3s and PDE4s were associated with increased Golgi Ca(2+) release events. These data suggest that the Golgi apparatus is a focal point for β1-adrenergic-stimulated Ca(2+) signaling and that the Golgi Ca(2+) store functions independently from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the global Ca(2+) transients that trigger contraction in cardiomyocytes.

  16. Thymus Gland Anatomy (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  17. Normal Pancreas Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  18. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  19. Functional anatomy of the accessory nerve studied through intraoperative electrophysiological mapping. (United States)

    Brînzeu, Andrei; Sindou, Marc


    OBJECTIVE Classically the 11th cranial nerve (CN XI, or accessory nerve) is described as having a cranial and a spinal root, the latter arising from the upper segments of the spinal cord through a number of very fine rootlets. According to classical knowledge, the cranial root gives motor innervation to the vocal cords, whereas the spinal root provides the motor innervation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and of the upper portions of the trapezius muscle (TZ). The specific function of each of the rootlets of the spinal component is not well known. Therefore the authors aimed to map, using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation and electromyographic (EMG) recordings, the innervation territory of these rootlets in relation to their exit level from the CNS. METHODS Forty-nine patients undergoing surgery with intradural exposure at the craniocervical junction were enrolled in the study. The EMG recordings included the sternal and clavicular parts of the SCM (SCM-S and SCM-C), the superior and middle parts of the TZ (TZ-S and TZ-M), and whenever possible the vocal cords. The main trunk of CN XI, its roots (both cranial and spinal), and when possible the fine cervical rootlets, were stimulated at predetermined locations, from the jugular foramen down to the lowest cervical level exposed. The EMG responses were collected, and a map of the responses was drawn up. RESULTS Monitoring and stimulation of the spinal root were performed in all cases, whereas for the cranial root this was possible in only 19 cases. A total of 262 stimulation sites were explored: 70 at the common trunk of the nerve, 19 at the cranial root, 136 at various levels on the spinal root, and 37 at the cervical rootlets. A vocal cord response was obtained by stimulation of the cranial root in 84.2% (16/19); absence of response was considered to have a technical origin. In no case did the vocal cords respond to the stimulation of the spinal root or rootlets. Stimulation of the cervical

  20. The functional anatomy of single-digit arithmetic in children with developmental dyslexia. (United States)

    Evans, Tanya M; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Olulade, Olumide A; Eden, Guinevere F


    Some arithmetic procedures, such as addition of small numbers, rely on fact retrieval mechanisms supported by left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, while others, such as subtraction, rely on procedural-based mechanisms subserved by bilateral parietal cortices. Previous work suggests that developmental dyslexia, a reading disability, is accompanied by subtle deficits in retrieval-based arithmetic, possibly because of compromised left hemisphere function. To test this prediction, we compared brain activity underlying arithmetic problem solving in children with and without dyslexia during addition and subtraction operations using a factorial design. The main effect of arithmetic operation (addition versus subtraction) for both groups combined revealed activity during addition in the left superior temporal gyrus and activity during subtraction in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus, the right supramarginal gyrus and the anterior cingulate, consistent with prior studies. For the main effect of diagnostic group (dyslexics versus controls), we found less activity in dyslexic children in the left supramarginal gyrus. Finally, the interaction analysis revealed that while the control group showed a strong response in the right supramarginal gyrus for subtraction but not for addition, the dyslexic group engaged this region for both operations. This provides physiological evidence in support of the theory that children with dyslexia, because of disruption to left hemisphere language areas, use a less optimal route for retrieval-based arithmetic, engaging right hemisphere parietal regions typically used by good readers for procedural-based arithmetic. Our results highlight the importance of language processing for mathematical processing and illustrate that children with dyslexia have impairments that extend beyond reading.

  1. Function and anatomy of plant siRNA pools derived from hairpin transgenes

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    Lee Kevin AW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference results in specific gene silencing by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Synthetic siRNAs provide a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression but high cost suggests that novel siRNA production methods are desirable. Strong evolutionary conservation of siRNA structure suggested that siRNAs will retain cross-species function and that transgenic plants expressing heterologous siRNAs might serve as useful siRNA bioreactors. Here we report a detailed evaluation of the above proposition and present evidence regarding structural features of siRNAs extracted from plants. Results Testing the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells proved to be very challenging and required partial siRNA purification and design of a highly sensitive assay. Using the above assay we found that plant-derived siRNAs are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Plant-derived siRNAs are almost exclusively double-stranded and most likely comprise a mixture of bona fide siRNAs and aberrant partially complementary duplexes. We also provide indirect evidence that plant-derived siRNAs may contain a hitherto undetected physiological modification, distinct from 3' terminal 2-O-methylation. Conclusion siRNAs produced from plant hairpin transgenes and extracted from plants are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Thus our findings establish that a previous claim that transgenic plants offer a cost-effective, scalable and sustainable source of siRNAs is unwarranted. Our results also indicate that the presence of aberrant siRNA duplexes and possibly a plant-specific siRNA modification, compromises the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells.

  2. Elephant brain. Part I: gross morphology, functions, comparative anatomy, and evolution. (United States)

    Shoshani, Jeheskel; Kupsky, William J; Marchant, Gary H


    We report morphological data on brains of four African, Loxodonta africana, and three Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, and compare findings to literature. Brains exhibit a gyral pattern more complex and with more numerous gyri than in primates, humans included, and in carnivores, but less complex than in cetaceans. Cerebral frontal, parietal, temporal, limbic, and insular lobes are well developed, whereas the occipital lobe is relatively small. The insula is not as opercularized as in man. The temporal lobe is disproportionately large and expands laterally. Humans and elephants have three parallel temporal gyri: superior, middle, and inferior. Hippocampal sizes in elephants and humans are comparable, but proportionally smaller in elephant. A possible carotid rete was observed at the base of the brain. Brain size appears to be related to body size, ecology, sociality, and longevity. Elephant adult brain averages 4783 g, the largest among living and extinct terrestrial mammals; elephant neonate brain averages 50% of its adult brain weight (25% in humans). Cerebellar weight averages 18.6% of brain (1.8 times larger than in humans). During evolution, encephalization quotient has increased by 10-fold (0.2 for extinct Moeritherium, approximately 2.0 for extant elephants). We present 20 figures of the elephant brain, 16 of which contain new material. Similarities between human and elephant brains could be due to convergent evolution; both display mosaic characters and are highly derived mammals. Humans and elephants use and make tools and show a range of complex learning skills and behaviors. In elephants, the large amount of cerebral cortex, especially in the temporal lobe, and the well-developed olfactory system, structures associated with complex learning and behavioral functions in humans, may provide the substrate for such complex skills and behavior.

  3. Functional anatomy of the calcaneum and talus in Cercopithecinae (Mammalia, Primates, Cercopithecidae

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    Pina, M.


    Full Text Available Among the species of the order Primates exist a huge variety of forms and habitats. This heterogeneity has encouraged the evolution and development of a great number of locomotor adaptations to different environments. Thus, nowadays there are both arboreal and terrestrial groups within the order. The subfamily Cercopithecinae present taxa with both kinds of locomotor behaviours, although the most of them are adapted to a ground life-style. This group probably has an arboreal ancestor and its radiation is relatively recent. Consequently, species belonged to this group present mixed features or sometimes not too much derived ones. Likewise, it is important the fact that the evolutionary history and phylogeny of the group could influence in some characteristics. Both the calcaneum and the talus are two of the largest bones of the foot and are good for inferring the kind of locomotion. For this reason, it has been used these two tarsal bones to study the morphology of eight species of cercopithecines and then deduce functional implications of the kind of locomotion.

    Dentro del orden Primates existe una gran variedad de especies distribuidas a lo largo de hábitats muy diversos. Dicha heterogeneidad ha fomentado la evolución y desarrollo de un gran número de adaptaciones locomotoras a los diferentes ambientes en los que habitan. Así, existen en la actualidad tanto grupos arborícolas como terrestres. La subfamilia Cercopithecinae agrupa una serie de taxones que representan ambos comportamientos locomotores, aunque la mayoría de las especies están adaptadas a una vida en el suelo. Se supone que este grupo desciende de un ancestro arborícola y que su radiación es relativamente reciente. En consecuencia, las especies de este grupo presentan características mixtas o poco derivadas en algunas ocasiones. Asimismo, es importante tener en cuenta la influencia que la herencia filogenética puede tener sobre alguno de estos rasgos. El calc

  4. Structural and Functional Organization of the Vestibular Apparatus in Rats Subjected to Weightlessness for 19.5 Days Aboard the Kosmos-782 Satellite (United States)

    Vinnikov, Y. A.; Gazenko, O. G.; Titova, L. K.; Bronshteyn, A. A.; Govardovskiy, V. I.; Pevzner, R. A.; Gribakin, G. G.; Aronova, M. Z.; Kharkeyevich, T. A.; Tsirulis, T. P.


    The vestibular apparatus was investigated in rats subjected to weightlessness for 19.5 days. The vestibular apparatus was removed and its sections were fixed in a glutaraldehyde solution for investigation by light and electron microscopes. Structural and functional charges were noted in the otolith portions of the ear, with the otolith particles clinging to the utricular receptor surface and with the peripheral arrangement of the nucleolus in the nuclei of the receptor cells. It is possible that increased edema of the vestibular tissue resulted in the destruction of some receptor cells and in changes in the form and structure of the otolith. In the horizontal crista, the capula was separated.

  5. Functional cine-MRI of the pelvic floor - normal anatomy and pathologic findings; Funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens: normale Anatomie und pathologische Befunde

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    Sprenger, D.; Lienemann, A.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Anthuber, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Frauenklinik


    Purpose. Functional MRI of the pelvic floor allows mapping and definition of different forms of pelvic floor dysfunction. Methods. We performed functional MRT of the pelvic floor in 39 healthy nulliparas and 324 patients. The diagnosis of a pathological organ descent was made if certain landmarks of the pelvic floor compartments descended below the pubococcygeal reference-line (PC-line). Results. If there was no organ descent below the PC-line on straining and if the pelvic floor muscles hardly changed position, a normal finding was diagnosed. 70% of organ prolapses came in the combined form. The generally gradual development of an organ descent led to a change of the main finding in 21,6%. The masking of a cystocele (48,6%) or of an enterocele (34,3%) by a rectocele was most frequent in these cases. Discussion. The use of functional MRI of the pelvic floor appears to be especially useful in young patients, in cases of divergent clinical and sonographic or radiological findings and if the presence of a predominant hernial sac with or without enterocele/rectocele is supposed. (orig.) [German] Ziel. Die funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens ermoeglicht die Dokumentation und Definition der verschiedenen Manifestationsformen einer Beckenbodeninsuffizienz. Methodik. Es wurde bei 39 gesunden Nulliparen und 324 Patientinnen eine funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens durchgefuehrt. Ein pathologischer Organdeszensus wurde dokumentiert, wenn bestimmte Kennstrukturen der Beckenbodenkompartimente unterhalb der pubokokygealen Referenzlinie (PC-Linie) zu liegen kamen. Ergebnisse. Beim Normalbefund zeigt sich unter Pressen kein Deszensus der Kennstrukturen unterhalb der PC-Linie und die Beckenbodenmuskulatur veraendert ihre Position kaum. In 70% fand sich die kombinierte Form eines Organdeszensus. Die meist stufenweise Entwicklung eines Organvorfalles fuehrte bei 21.6% zu einem Wechsel des Hauptbefundes. Am haeufigsten war hierbei die Maskierung einer Zystozele (48,6%) oder einer

  6. A simplified approach to assess variations in Eustachian tubal ventilatory function by Bortnick-Miller apparatus in chronic otitis media cases (dry before surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Kumar Pandey


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to see the different functional gradings of Eustachian tube ventilatory function as assessed by Bortnick-Miller (B-M apparatus in chronically diseased middle ears (dry cases planned to undergo tympanoplasty and to correlate the results with the past experiences. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 29 cases of chronic suppurative otitis media, inactive stage having central perforation. Tubal function was evaluated by B-M apparatus based on ability of tube assimilating the applied positive and negative pressure. Tubal opening pressure was noted after applying positive pressure while residual intratympanic pressure after 10 swallows was recorded after applying negative pressure. Results: This study revealed that results of tubal manometry in diseased ears cover a wide spectrum of normal function to partial/non-function. 51.72% of cases were able to equalize applied negative pressure, 41.39% partially equalizing, while 6.89% of cases were completely unable to equalize applied negative pressure. Conclusion: Our results of aspiration method with the help of BM apparatus explicitly suggest that tubal function in chronically diseased ears deviates from that of normal ears. It perpetually reflects that varied results of middle ear reconstructive surgeries could be anticipated in accordance with different tubal function gradings.

  7. Mechanical functions of setae from the mouth apparatus of seven species of decapod crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders


    The mouthpart setae of seven species of decapods were examined with macro-video recordings and scanning electron microscopy. The general mechanical (nonsensory) functions of the different mouthparts are described and an account of their setation is given. This offers the possibility to determine...... the mechanical functions of the different types of setae. Pappose setae do not participate in food handling but in general make setal barriers. Plumose setae likewise do not contact food objects but assist in current generation. Papposerrate setae are rare but they were seen to assist in pushing food particles...... into the mouth. Serrulate setae are very common and mainly participate in gentle food handling and grooming. Serrate setae are used for more rough food manipulation and grooming. The roughest shredding, tearing, and manipulation of prey items are handled by the cuspidate setae. Simple setae seem to be divided...

  8. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.


    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  9. Overcoming the detection bandwidth limit in precision spectroscopy: The analytical apparatus function for a stepped frequency scan (United States)

    Rohart, François


    In a previous paper [Rohart et al., Phys Rev A 2014;90(042506)], the influence of detection-bandwidth properties on observed line-shapes in precision spectroscopy was theoretically modeled for the first time using the basic model of a continuous sweeping of the laser frequency. Specific experiments confirmed general theoretical trends but also revealed several insufficiencies of the model in case of stepped frequency scans. As a consequence in as much as up-to-date experiments use step-by-step frequency-swept lasers, a new model of the influence of the detection-bandwidth is developed, including a realistic timing of signal sampling and frequency changes. Using Fourier transform techniques, the resulting time domain apparatus function gets a simple analytical form that can be easily implemented in line-shape fitting codes without any significant increase of computation durations. This new model is then considered in details for detection systems characterized by 1st and 2nd order bandwidths, underlining the importance of the ratio of detection time constant to frequency step duration, namely for the measurement of line frequencies. It also allows a straightforward analysis of corresponding systematic deviations on retrieved line frequencies and broadenings. Finally, a special attention is paid to consequences of a finite detection-bandwidth in Doppler Broadening Thermometry, namely to experimental adjustments required for a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant at the 1-ppm level of accuracy. In this respect, the interest of implementing a Butterworth 2nd order filter is emphasized.


    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.


    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  11. Method, apparatus and system to compensate for drift by physically unclonable function circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason


    Techniques and mechanisms to detect and compensate for drift by a physically uncloneable function (PUF) circuit. In an embodiment, first state information is registered as reference information to be made available for subsequent evaluation of whether drift by PUF circuitry has occurred. The first state information is associated with a first error correction strength. The first state information is generated based on a first PUF value output by the PUF circuitry. In another embodiment, second state information is determined based on a second PUF value that is output by the PUF circuitry. An evaluation of whether drift has occurred is performed based on the first state information and the second state information, the evaluation including determining whether a threshold error correction strength is exceeded concurrent with a magnitude of error being less than the first error correction strength.

  12. Apparatus, system and method for providing cryptographic key information with physically unclonable function circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areno, Matthew


    Techniques and mechanisms for providing a value from physically unclonable function (PUF) circuitry for a cryptographic operation of a security module. In an embodiment, a cryptographic engine receives a value from PUF circuitry and based on the value, outputs a result of a cryptographic operation to a bus of the security module. The bus couples the cryptographic engine to control logic or interface logic of the security module. In another embodiment, the value is provided to the cryptographic engine from the PUF circuitry via a signal line which is distinct from the bus, where any exchange of the value by either of the cryptographic engine and the PUF circuitry is for communication of the first value independent of the bus.

  13. [New findings of clinical anatomy in pelvis]. (United States)

    Muraoka, Kuniyasu; Takenaka, Atsushi


    Surgical anatomy involves clarifying the mutual relationships of each structure in the operative field. Knowledge of new surgical anatomy has arisen via new methods or approaches. Associated with the development and spread of laparoscopic surgery in recent years, adaptation to changes in surgical techniques using knowledge of classical pelvic anatomy has been difficult. Better knowledge of the delicate structures surrounding the prostate is essential in order to provide both cancer control and functional preservation with regard to radical prostatectomy. In this report, we review the progress in knowledge of pelvic anatomy, particularly regarding the endopelvic fascia, prostatic fascia and Denonvilliers' fascia.

  14. [Anatomy of the skull]. (United States)

    Pásztor, Emil


    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits.

  15. Prehensile apparatus (United States)

    Smith, C.M.


    The present invention relates to an apparatus for handling a workpiece comprising a vessel that is longitudinally extensible and pressurizable, and a nonextensible and laterally flexible member on the vessel. The member constrains one side of the vessel to be nonextensible, causing the vessel to bend in the direction of the nonextensible member when pressurized. 8 figures.

  16. Os limites do funcionamento interpretante do aparato psíquico The limits of the interpretative function of the psychic apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Lo Bianco


    Full Text Available De início, o artigo identifica uma função interpretante na conceituação do aparato psíquico realizada por Freud. Esta função encontra-se melhor explicada no desenvolvimento da "Interpretação dos Sonhos", os quais operam, por sua vez, a mesma função interpretante. Em seguida, argumenta que, desde 1900, Freud conceitua um limite e uma exceção no funcionamento da interpretação nos sonhos, localizando-os, no entanto, em duas tópicas diferentes. A visão de Lacan vem introduzir uma nova inteligibilidade à interpretação ao ressituar os seus limites no lugar mesmo do funcionamento do aparato. Esse instante de impossibilidade, presente em toda interpretação, é examinado tendo em vista a sua conseqüência clínica de apontar para a necessidade do ato analítico, como a intervenção que faz advir o sujeito da análise.Firstly the article identifies an interpretative function in the conceptualization of the psychic apparatus, by Freud. This function is best explained in "The Interpretation of Dreams". These are understood to operate in their turn the same interpretative function as the apparatus. Secondly it is argued that since 1900 Freud conceptualizes a limit and an exception in the function of dream-interpretation. However, he localizes these limits in two different explanations of the apparatus. Lacan introduces a new way of understanding the matter by affirming that the limits are comprehended in one and the same explanation of the functioning of the apparatus. A moment of impossibility which is present in all interpretations is examined in view of its clinical consequences, since it points to a necessary analytical act. This is the intervention that makes it possible for the analytical subject to exist.

  17. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy. (United States)

    House, Herbert


    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  18. Results of the study of the vestibular apparatus and the functions of the perception of space in cosmonauts (pre- and post-flight observations) (United States)

    Yakovleva, I. Y.; Kornilova, L. N.; Tarasov, I. K.; Alekseyev, V. N.


    The effect of the set of space flight factors caused a change in the activity of the vestibular apparatus and the spatial perception function. More significant and longer shifts were observed during expeditions of great duration. The detected disorders (increase in reactivity of the otolithic apparatus, decrease in sensitivity of the cupula receptor, deterioration in the perception accuracy, etc.) had a definite tendency to be restored. The primary damage to the otolithic reflex (changes were found in practically all the subjects) is probably caused by the specific effect of zero gravitation, and apparently, may be one of the trigger mechanisms for discrepancy in the activity of the sensory systems, disorders in the correcting function of the cerebellum, and central vestibular formations.

  19. Functional anatomy and adaptation of male gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with comparison to male orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; McFarland, Robin K; Underwood, Carol E


    Great apes diversified during the Miocene in Old World forests. Two lineages, gorillas in Africa and orangutans in Asia, have sexual dimorphisms of super-sized males, though they presumably diverged from a smaller common ancestor. We test the hypothesis that they increased in body mass independently and convergently, and that their many postcranial differences reflect locomotor differences. Whole body dissections of five adult male gorillas and four adult male orangutans allowed quantification of body mass distribution to limb segments, of body composition (muscle, bone, skin, and fat relative to total body mass), and of muscle distribution and proportions. Results demonstrate that gorilla forelimb anatomy accommodates shoulder joint mobility for vertical climbing and reaching while maintaining joint stability during quadrupedal locomotion. The heavily muscled hind limbs are equipped for propulsion and weight-bearing over relatively stable substrates on the forest floor. In contrast, orangutan forelimb length, muscle mass, and joint construction are modified for strength and mobility in climbing, bridging, and traveling over flexible supports through the forest canopy. Muscles of hip, knee, and ankle joints provide rotational and prehensile strength essential for moving on unstable and discontinuous branches. We conclude that anatomical similarities are due to common ancestry and that differences in postcranial anatomy reflect powerful selection for divergent locomotor adaptations. These data further support the evolutionary conclusion that gorillas fall with chimpanzees and humans as part of the African hominoid radiation; orangutans are a specialized outlier.

  20. Functional morphology and adhesive performance of the stick-capture apparatus of the rove beetles Stenus spp. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). (United States)

    Koerner, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N; Betz, Oliver


    The adhesive prey-capture apparatus of the representatives of the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) is an outstanding example of biological adhesive systems. This unique prey-capture device is used for catching elusive prey by combining (i) hierarchically structured adhesive outgrowths, (ii) an adhesive secretion, and (iii) a network of cuticular fibres within the pad. The outgrowths arise from a pad-like cuticle and are completely immersed within the secretion. To date, the forces generated during the predatory strike of these beetles have only been estimated theoretically. In the present study, we used force transducers to measure both the compressive and adhesive forces during the predatory strike of two Stenus species. The experiments revealed that the compressive forces are low, ranging from 0.10 mN (Stenus bimaculatus) to 0.18 mN (Stenus juno), whereas the corresponding adhesive forces attain up to 1.0 mN in S. juno and 1.08 mN in S. bimaculatus. The tenacity or adhesive strength (adhesive force per apparent unit area) amounts to 51.9 kPa (S. bimaculatus) and 69.7 kPa (S. juno). S. juno beetles possess significantly smaller pad surface areas than S. bimaculatus but seem to compensate for this disadvantage by generating higher compressive forces. Consequently, S. juno beetles reach almost identical adhesive properties and an equal prey-capture success in attacks on larger prey. The possible functions of the various parts of the adhesive system during the adhesive prey-capture process are discussed in detail.

  1. Conceito anátomo-fisiológico do lobo occipital Functional anatomy of the occipital lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caetano de Barros


    ção conjunta. Como toda função superior, a função visual não pode ser estritamente localizada e resulta da integração de estruturas funcionando conjugadamente.} Melhor entendimento desta função vem sendo progressivamente favorecido mediante o estudo da patologia, dos resultados da neurocirurgia experimental, dos efeitos de certas ablações neurocirúrgicas no homem e, sobretudo, das atuais referinadas técnicas eletro-neurofisiológicas. Malgrado êstes avanços há ainda muitos aspectos mal definidos aguardando melhores elucidações.Only from a strictly anatomical point of view the occipital lobe can be traced with relative facility. Apparentely it constitues a morphological unit representing the site of structures basically related to visual perception, therein included some other oculo-motor integrative mechanisms which are nothing else but components of this complex perceptive phenomenon. The principal parts of the conventional superficial anatomy of the occipital lobe (striated, peristriaded and para-striated cortical areas and the principal connections (optical radiations, association tracts, projection and commissural libers with different structures of the nervous system are indicated. The vascularization of the occipital lobe is revised by the use of serial and selective anatomic-radiological preparations of the different arterial trunks in which it could be verified wide intercommunications between the terminal sectors of posterior, medial and anterior cerebral arterial systems. Some morphological variations of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles are emphasized. However purely anatomic data are not sufficient enough for the understanding of the psycho-physiological functions of the occipital lobe which has to be considered as a part of a perceptive highly complex system. Very probably this system in the same way of many other cerebral ones is composed by several circuits mutually conjugated acting under the principle of servomechanisms and ruled

  2. Anatomy of the Eye (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  3. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades. (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian


    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  4. Effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cucumis sativus and its protection by exogenous putrescine. (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-Rong; Sun, Jin; Yuan, Ling-Yun


    With the objective to clarify the physiological significance of polyamines (PAs) in the photosynthetic apparatus, the present study investigated the effects of salt stress with and without foliar application of putrescine (Put) on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber. Salt stress at 75 mM NaCl for 7 days resulted in a severe reduction of photosynthesis. The fast chlorophyll afluorescence transient analysis showed that salt stress inhibited the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)), mainly due to damage at the receptor side of PSII. In addition, salt stress decreased the density of active reaction centers and the structure performance. The microscopic analysis revealed that salt stress-induced destruction of the chloroplast envelope and increased the number of plastoglobuli along with aberrations in thylakoid membranes. Besides, salt stress caused a decrease in the content of endogenous PAs, conjugated and bound forms of spermidine and spermine in particular, in thylakoid membranes. However, applications of 8 mM Put alleviated the salt stress-mediated decrease in net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and actual efficiency of PSII(Φ(PSII)). Put increased PAs in thylakoid membranes and overcame the damaging effects of salt stress on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in salt-stressed plant leaves. Put application to control plants neither increased PAs in thylakoid membranes nor affected photosynthesis. These results indicate that PAs in chloroplasts play crucial roles in protecting the thylakoid membranes against the deleterious influences of salt stress. In addition, the present results point to the probability that the salt-induced dysfunction of photosynthesis is largely attributable to the loss of PAs in the photosynthetic apparatus.

  5. Relevant surgical anatomy of the chest wall


    Rajesh, Pala Babu; Naidu, Babu V.


    The chest wall, like other regional anatomy, is a remarkable fusion of form and function. Principal functions are the protection of internal viscera and an expandable cylinder facilitating variable gas flow into the lungs. Knowledge of the anatomy of the whole cylinder (ribs, sternum, vertebra, diaphragm, intercostal spaces, and extrathoracic muscles) is therefore not only important in the local environment of a specific chest wall resection but also in its relation to overall function. An un...

  6. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 52, Evolution of catalytic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document contains 97 papers presented at the symposium. The primary topic was the evolution of the catalytic function. Speakers discussed the evolution of genetic apparatus, the primordial soup, the anatomy of RNA, RNA templates, protein assembly, protein structure, cofactors, ribosomes, exons, and introns. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  7. Metabolic and endocrine modulation of anabolic and catabolic pathways of glucose and fatty acids. I. Chemical anatomy of the major metabolic pathways of the energogenic general function. (United States)

    Belloiu, D D; Belloiu, I


    This study is an attempt to integrate the intermediary metabolism of energogenic substrates--glucose and fatty acids--within the framework of the energogenic general function (EGF), which is active in two distinct phases: anabolic and catabolic. EGF is a component of the metabolic general function (MGF), which together with the reproductive general function and the adaptation general function may be taken to represent three main "general functions of organisms" common to all beings, whether animal or vegetal. This initial paper presents, descriptively and graphically, the main anabolic functions and pathways of glucose and fatty acids and, separately, the main catabolic ones, in other words, the "chemical anatomy" of EGF. The study begins with the anabolic "digestive" function of the digestive tract, concerning the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. Conversion of the non-absorbable macromolecules of ingested carbohydrates into absorbable micromolecules of glucose, is shown to enable the latter, after absorption, to carry out the two characteristic anabolic processes: transmembrane "transport" and "condensation". Absorption and vehiculation of hydrophobic lipids is carried out by means of the major function of intestinal cells: synthesis of chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are hydrophilic special lipoprotein particles which are able to transport fats to the adipose tissue and cholesterol to the liver. In the liver the anabolic aspects of EGF are represented by two main functions: glycogeno-genesis, i.e. "non-reductive" condensation of glucose into glycogen stores, and lipoproteino-genesis, i.e. "reductive" condensation of glucose into lipoproteins or VLDL (very low density lipoproteins). VLDL are hydrophilic (vehiculable) spheric particles (containing triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters in their core, and phospholipids, cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B at their surface), which are to be released into the general circulation. The anabolic phase in

  8. Function of the conserved FHIPEP domain of the flagellar type III export apparatus, protein FlhA. (United States)

    Barker, Clive S; Inoue, Tomoharu; Meshcheryakova, Irina V; Kitanobo, Seiya; Samatey, Fadel A


    The Type III flagellar protein export apparatus of bacteria consists of five or six membrane proteins, notably FlhA, which controls the export of other proteins and is homologous to the large family of FHIPEP export proteins. FHIPEP proteins contain a highly-conserved cytoplasmic domain. We mutagenized the cloned Salmonella flhA gene for the 692 amino acid FlhA, changing a single, conserved amino acid in the 68-amino acid FHIPEP region. Fifty-two mutations at 30 positions mostly led to loss of motility and total disappearance of microscopically visible flagella, also Western blot protein/protein hybridization showed no detectable export of hook protein and flagellin. There were two exceptions: a D199A mutant strain, which produced short-stubby flagella; and a V151L mutant strain, which did not produce flagella and excreted mainly un-polymerized hook protein. The V151L mutant strain also exported a reduced amount of hook-cap protein FlgD, but when grown with exogenous FlgD it produced polyhooks and polyhook-filaments. A suppressor mutant in the cytoplasmic domain of the export apparatus membrane protein FlhB rescued export of hook-length control protein FliK and facilitated growth of full-length flagella. These results suggested that the FHIPEP region is part of the gate regulating substrate entry into the export apparatus pore.

  9. The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome. (United States)

    Fairclough, John; Hayashi, Koji; Toumi, Hechmi; Lyons, Kathleen; Bydder, Graeme; Phillips, Nicola; Best, Thomas M; Benjamin, Mike


    Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome is a common overuse injury in runners and cyclists. It is regarded as a friction syndrome where the ITB rubs against (and 'rolls over') the lateral femoral epicondyle. Here, we re-evaluate the clinical anatomy of the region to challenge the view that the ITB moves antero-posteriorly over the epicondyle. Gross anatomical and microscopical studies were conducted on the distal portion of the ITB in 15 cadavers. This was complemented by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of six asymptomatic volunteers and studies of two athletes with acute ITB syndrome. In all cadavers, the ITB was anchored to the distal femur by fibrous strands, associated with a layer of richly innervated and vascularized fat. In no cadaver, volunteer or patient was a bursa seen. The MR scans showed that the ITB was compressed against the epicondyle at 30 degrees of knee flexion as a consequence of tibial internal rotation, but moved laterally in extension. MR signal changes in the patients with ITB syndrome were present in the region occupied by fat, deep to the ITB. The ITB is prevented from rolling over the epicondyle by its femoral anchorage and because it is a part of the fascia lata. We suggest that it creates the illusion of movement, because of changing tension in its anterior and posterior fibres during knee flexion. Thus, on anatomical grounds, ITB overuse injuries may be more likely to be associated with fat compression beneath the tract, rather than with repetitive friction as the knee flexes and extends.

  10. [Structural and functional organization of the vestibular apparatus in rats maintained under weightless conditions for 19.5 days aboard the satellite "Cosmos-782"]. (United States)

    Vinnikov, Ia A; Gazenko, O G; Titova, L K; Bronshteĭn, A A; Govardovskiĭ, V I


    Vestibular apparatus was investigated in rats subjected to weightlessness for 19.5 days in the satelite "Cosmos-782" and experienced acceleration on launching and landing. Some structural and functional changes were noted. They were seen in otolith clinging to the utricular receptor surface and in the peripheral arrangement of the nucleolus in the nuclei of the receptor cells. It is also possible that increased edema of the vestibular tissue resulted in destruction of some receptor cells, and within the otolith--changes in the form and structure of otoconia. In the horizontal crista the cupula was separated.

  11. Effects of active and passive training apparatus combined with rehabilitation training on lower limb function of stroke patients during recovery period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    BACKGROUND: Stroke patients always spontaneously do some learning and training of motor functions;however, learning and training are not prompt and right, while patients do not have enough activity amounts.Active and passive motor training apparatus is aimed directly at lower limb training so as to stimulate nerve function through stimulating muscular movement. Based on motor mileage, motor time, various power supplies and velocity of active and passive training apparatus, we can understand the training condition and adjust training program.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of grade-III rehabilitation training combining with active and passive training apparatus on lower limb function, muscle strength and activity of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients during recovery period.DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Rehabilitation, Jilin Academic Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 80 patients with stroke-induced hemiplegia after stabilizing vital signs for 2 weeks were selected from Department of Rehabilitation, Jilin Academic Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January to June 2007. There were 47 males and 33 females, and their ages ranged from 41 to 75 years. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting in 1995 and were diagnosed as cerebral hemorrhage or cerebral infarction through CT or MRI examinations in clinic. Patients and their parents provided the confirmed consent. Based on therapeutic orders of hospitalization, patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group with 40 patients in each group.METHODS: Patients in the control group received physical therapy and occupational therapy combining with rehabilitative treatment based on grade-Ⅲ rehabilitative treatment program, which was set by the National Cerebrovascular Disease Topic Group. In addition, patients in the treatment group were trained with active and passive

  12. Insights into the localization and function of the membrane trafficking regulator GNOM ARF-GEF at the Golgi apparatus in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Naramoto, Satoshi; Otegui, Marisa S; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; de Rycke, Riet; Dainobu, Tomoko; Karampelias, Michael; Fujimoto, Masaru; Feraru, Elena; Miki, Daisuke; Fukuda, Hiroo; Nakano, Akihiko; Friml, Jiří


    GNOM is one of the most characterized membrane trafficking regulators in plants, with crucial roles in development. GNOM encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) that activates small GTPases of the ARF (ADP ribosylation factor) class to mediate vesicle budding at endomembranes. The crucial role of GNOM in recycling of PIN auxin transporters and other proteins to the plasma membrane was identified in studies using the ARF-GEF inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). GNOM, the most prominent regulator of recycling in plants, has been proposed to act and localize at so far elusive recycling endosomes. Here, we report the GNOM localization in context of its cellular function in Arabidopsis thaliana. State-of-the-art imaging, pharmacological interference, and ultrastructure analysis show that GNOM predominantly localizes to Golgi apparatus. Super-resolution confocal live imaging microscopy identified GNOM and its closest homolog GNOM-like 1 at distinct subdomains on Golgi cisternae. Short-term BFA treatment stabilizes GNOM at the Golgi apparatus, whereas prolonged exposures results in GNOM translocation to trans-Golgi network (TGN)/early endosomes (EEs). Malformed TGN/EE in gnom mutants suggests a role for GNOM in maintaining TGN/EE function. Our results redefine the subcellular action of GNOM and reevaluate the identity and function of recycling endosomes in plants.

  13. AnatomiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Kristoffersen, Thomas


    AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl.......AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl....

  14. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics. (United States)

    Sherman, Seth L; Plackis, Andreas C; Nuelle, Clayton W


    Patellofemoral disorders are common. There is a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from patellofemoral pain and instability to focal cartilage disease and arthritis. Regardless of the specific condition, abnormal anatomy and biomechanics are often the root cause of patellofemoral dysfunction. A thorough understanding of normal patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics is critical for the treating physician. Recognizing and addressing abnormal anatomy will optimize patellofemoral biomechanics and may ultimately translate into clinical success.

  15. Anatomy of the lymphatics. (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N


    The lymphatic system is perhaps the most complicated system of Homo sapiens. An introduction to the anatomy, embryology, and anomalies of the lymphatics is presented. The overall anatomy and drainage of the lymphatic vessels in outlined. The topographic anatomy, relations, and variations of the principle vessels of the lymphatic system (the right lymphatic duct, the thoracic duct, and the cisterna chyli) are presented in detail.

  16. The Anatomy of Galaxies (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  17. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases (United States)

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron


    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser’s functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license.

  18. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health. (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo


    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health.

  19. Molecular Cloning and Functional Studies of Two Kazal-Type Serine Protease Inhibitors Specifically Expressed by Nasonia vitripennis Venom Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cen Qian


    Full Text Available Two cDNA sequences of Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KSPIs in Nasonia vitripennis, NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2, were characterized and their open reading frames (ORFs were 198 and 264 bp, respectively. Both NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 contained a typical Kazal-type domain. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR results revealed that NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 mRNAs were mostly detected specifically in the venom apparatus, while they were expressed at lower levels in the ovary and much lower levels in other tissues tested. In the venom apparatus, both NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 transcripts were highly expressed on the fourth day post eclosion and then declined gradually. The NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 genes were recombinantly expressed utilizing a pGEX-4T-2 vector, and the recombinant products fused with glutathione S-transferase were purified. Inhibition of recombinant GST-NvKSPI-1 and GST-NvKSPI-2 to three serine protease inhibitors (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and proteinase K were tested and results showed that only NvKSPI-1 could inhibit the activity of trypsin. Meanwhile, we evaluated the influence of the recombinant GST-NvKSPI-1 and GST-NvKSPI-2 on the phenoloxidase (PO activity and prophenoloxidase (PPO activation of hemolymph from a host pupa, Musca domestica. Results showed PPO activation in host hemolymph was inhibited by both recombinant proteins; however, there was no significant inhibition on the PO activity. Our results suggested that NvKSPI-1 and NvKSPI-2 could inhibit PPO activation in host hemolymph and trypsin activity in vitro.

  20. Anatomy Comic Strips (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk


    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  1. Relevant surgical anatomy of the chest wall. (United States)

    Naidu, Babu V; Rajesh, Pala B


    The chest wall, like other regional anatomy, is a remarkable fusion of form and function. Principal functions are the protection of internal viscera and an expandable cylinder facilitating variable gas flow into the lungs. Knowledge of the anatomy of the whole cylinder (ribs, sternum, vertebra, diaphragm, intercostal spaces, and extrathoracic muscles) is therefore not only important in the local environment of a specific chest wall resection but also in its relation to overall function. An understanding of chest wall kinematics might help define the loss of function after resection and the effects of various chest wall substitutes. Therefore, this article is not an exhaustive anatomic description but a focused summary and discussion.

  2. Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the recurrent laryngeal nerves: medical illustration and reintroduction of a physiological demonstration from Galen. (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J


    The purpose of this article is to review the anatomical illustrations and physiological demonstrations of sixteenth-century Flemish-born anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Although Vesalius was primarily an anatomist, he also used vivisection as a pedagogical device to help his students understand the function of structures within the fabric of the body that they had previously studied in anatomical detail. Vesalius's masterwork, De humani corporis fabrica or simply the Fabrica (1543, 1555), was ostensibly an anatomy text, but Vesalius included textual and figural references to his use of vivisection to explicate the function of specific structures. Even as he began to criticize the errors in Galen's anatomical works, Vesalius nevertheless adopted some of Galen's classic physiological demonstrations, in particular the ligation (and subsequent release) of the recurrent laryngeal nerves of a pig to demonstrate their role in generating the pig's squeal. Vesalius's illustrations concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the Fabrica were of two types: elegant anatomical woodcut plates-unsurpassed for their clarity, accuracy, and detail - and the distinctly inelegant historiated initial Q, depicting a throng of putti busily engaged in vivisecting a pig. Vesalius' anatomical plates were heavily plagiarized while the historiated initials, showing the rough work of an anatomist or surgeon, were largely ignored and remain little recognized today. While Vesalius' anatomical illustrations of the recurrent laryngeal nerves contained some errors, they were a dramatic departure from prior meager efforts at medical illustration and indeed far surpassed all contemporary published illustrations by others. Vesalius was also influential in reviving Galen's approach to vivisection, at least for pedagogical purposes, if not really then yet as a full-fledged investigative technique.

  3. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the thoracic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris). (United States)

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Daynes, J; Peckham, K; Payne, R C


    We provide quantitative muscle-tendon architecture and geometry data for the racing greyhound thoracic limb. Muscle mass, belly length, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms were measured, as were tendon masses and lengths. Maximum isometric force and maximum power were estimated for muscles, and maximum stress and strain were estimated for tendons. Results are compared with other fast quadrupedal runners, and to previously published data in mixed-breed dogs. The implications of the functional adaptations of the greyhound thoracic limb for sprinting performance are discussed. The thoracic limb was found to benefit from a similar proportion of locomotor muscle mass to the pelvic limb, suggesting that it may be used to some extent in propulsion, or alternatively that stabilisation is very important in this animal. Extrinsic muscles, especially latissimus dorsi and pectoralis profundus, were predicted to be powerful and important for generating net positive work during accelerations. Proximal biarticular muscles show specialisation toward preventing collapse of the shoulder and elbow joints to enable strut-like limb function, or some form of dynamic control. Distal muscles did not appear specialised for elastic energy storage, a functional difference to pelvic limb muscles, and the equivalents in horse thoracic limbs. The greyhound thoracic limb appears to possess substantial differences from both that of more 'sub-maximal specialist' quadrupeds, and from the greyhound pelvic limb.

  4. Skull Base Anatomy. (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W


    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  5. The Functional Anatomy of the Carpometacarpal Complex in Anthropoids and Its Implications for the Evolution of the Hominoid Hand. (United States)

    Selby, Michael S; Simpson, Scott W; Lovejoy, C Owen


    Previously, we described several features of the carpometacarpal joints in extant large-bodied apes that are likely adaptations to the functional demands of vertical climbing and suspension. We observed that all hominids, including modern humans and the 4.4-million-year-old hominid Ardipithecus ramidus, lacked these features. Here, we assess the uniqueness of these features in a large sample of monkey, ape, and human hands. These new data provide additional insights into the functional adaptations and evolution of the anthropoid hand. Our survey highlights a series of anatomical adaptations that restrict motion between the second and third metacarpals (MC2 and MC3) and their associated carpals in extant apes, achieved via joint reorganization and novel energy dissipation mechanisms. Their hamate-MC4 and -MC5 joint surface morphologies suggest limited mobility, at least in Pan. Gibbons and spider monkeys have several characters (angled MC3, complex capitate-MC3 joint topography, variably present capitate-MC3 ligaments) that suggest functional convergence in response to suspensory locomotion. Baboons have carpometacarpal morphology suggesting flexion/extension at these joints beyond that observed in most other Old World monkeys, probably as an energy dissipating mechanism minimizing collision forces during terrestrial locomotion. All hominids lack these specializations of the extant great apes, suggesting that vertical climbing was never a central feature of our ancestral locomotor repertoire. Furthermore, the reinforced carpometacarpus of vertically climbing African apes was likely appropriated for knuckle-walking in concert with other novel potential energy dissipating mechanisms. The most parsimonious explanation of the structural similarity of these carpometacarpal specializations in great apes is that they evolved independently.

  6. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea and skull shape in Testudines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc E H Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sea turtles (Chelonoidea are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii, for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex.

  7. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee


    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  8. Functional anatomy and ion regulatory mechanisms of the antennal gland in a semi-terrestrial crab, Ocypode stimpsoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuan-Ru Tsai


    Full Text Available Brachyuran crabs from diverse habitats show great differences in their osmoregulatory processes, especially in terms of the structural and physiological characteristics of the osmoregulatory organs. In crustaceans, the antennal glands are known to be important in osmoregulation, and they play a functional role analogous to that of the vertebrate kidney. Nevertheless, the detailed structure and function of the antennal glands in different species have rarely been described. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the antennal gland in ion regulation by examining the ultrastructure of the cells and the distribution of the ion regulatory proteins in each cell type in the antennal gland of a semi-terrestrial crab. The results showed that Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly increased in the antennal gland after a 4-day acclimation in dilute seawater and returned to its original (day 0 level after 7 days. Three major types of cells were identified in the antennal gland, including coelomic cells (COEs, labyrinthine cells (LBRs and end-labyrinthine cells (ELBRs. The proximal tubular region (PT and distal tubular region (DT of the antennal gland consist of LBRs and COEs, whereas the end tubular region (ET consists of all three types of cells, with fewer COEs and more ELBRs. We found a non-uniform distribution of NKA immunoreactivity, with increasing intensity from the proximal to the distal regions of the antennal gland. We summarise our study with a proposed model for the urine reprocessing pathway and the role of each cell type or segment of the antennal gland.

  9. Anatomy of the Heart (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Anatomy of the Heart Your heart is located under your ribcage in the center of your chest between your right and left lungs. Its muscular walls beat, or contract, pumping blood ...

  10. Large Rotor Test Apparatus (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  11. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter. (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki


    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  12. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  13. Expression and secretion of Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 virulence genes in response to acidification exhibit differential requirements of a functional type III secretion apparatus and SsaL. (United States)

    Coombes, Brian K; Brown, Nat F; Valdez, Yanet; Brumell, John H; Finlay, B Brett


    Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 is pivotal to the intracellular survival of Salmonella and for virulence in mammals. SPI-2 encodes virulence factors (called effectors) that are translocated into the host cell, a type III secretion apparatus and a two-component regulatory system that regulates intracellular expression of SPI-2. Salmonella SPI-2 secretion activity appears to be induced in response to acidification of the vacuole in which it replicates. Here we show that the expression of the SPI-2 proteins, SseB and SseD (filament and pore forming components of the secretion apparatus, respectively) in response to acidification requires an intact secretion system and SsaL, a Salmonella homologue of SepL, a regulator required for type III-dependent secretion of translocators but not effectors in attaching and effacing gastrointestinal pathogens. We show that the expression of SPI-2-encoded effectors is acid-regulated but can be uncoupled from the expression of filament and translocon components, thus showing a differential requirement of SsaL for expression. The secretion and translocation of SPI-2-encoded effectors requires SsaL, but SsaL is dispensable for the secretion of SPI-2 effectors encoded in other pathogenicity loci, suggesting a secretion regulation function for SsaL. Further, we demonstrate that the differential expression of adjacent genes within the sseA operon (sseD and sseE) occurs at the transcriptional level. These data indicate that a Salmonella SPI-2 activation state is achieved by an acidregulated response that requires SsaL. These data also suggest the existence of a previously unrecognized regulatory element within SPI-2 for the "effector operon" region downstream of sseD that might demarcate the expression of translocators and effectors.

  14. Biologia e anatomia funcional de Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae do litoral de São Paulo, Brasil Biology and functional anatomy of Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae from the littoral of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Dias Passos


    Full Text Available Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 ocorre em praias arenosas da costa sudeste-sul do Brasil até o Uruguai. Espécimes foram coletados na Praia de Barequeçaba, São Sebastião, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O comportamento do animal foi registrado "in situ" e em aquários e a morfologia funcional a partir de espécimes dissecados sob estereomicroscópio; detalhes da anatomia foram obtidos a partir de cortes histológicos. A concha pequena, lisa, subglobosa, e o pé grande, muscular, provido de um par de músculos elevadores bem desenvolvidos, permitem escavação rápida, vital em praias sujeitas à intensa ação de ondas onde a espécie vive. Aparato bissal vestigial ocorre desde a fase juvenil à adulta e este donacídeo de vida livre, infaunal, não migra acompanhando o ritmo das marés. As margens do manto possuem prega mediana duplicada; além de tentáculos captados, as pregas medianas possuem tentáculos sensoriais filiformes, longos, estes últimos restritos à região posterior do animal. A espécie tem hábito alimentar suspensívoro seletivo, o qual é revelado pela presença de ctenídios grandes, completos e homorhábdicos, palpos labiais pequenos e muito seletivos, intestino curto, fracamente sinuoso, separado do saco do estilete cristalino, e tentáculos ramificados formando um crivo em torno da abertura inalante.Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 is a small bivalve occurring on sandy beaches throughout the Southeastern Brazilian coast to Uruguai. Live specimens were collected from Barequeçaba Beach, São Sebastião, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The animal's behaviour was recorded in situ as well as in aquaria, and its functional morphology registered from specimens dissected under stereomicroscope; details of the anatomy were obtained from histological sections. The minute, smooth subglobose shell, and the large, muscular foot provided with a pair of well-developed elevator muscles allow fast burrowing, vital in the disturbed beach

  15. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as a measure of vestibular function in guinea pigs while in a recompression chamber: apparatus design and effects of nitrogen narcosis. (United States)

    Stevens, D M; Dutka, A J; Snyder, J E


    There are several mechanisms whereby alteration of barometric pressure can produce vertigo in divers or aviators. Development of a reliable measure of vestibular function in an animal model is the first requirement for further study of these mechanisms. This report presents the development of a rotatory table device capable of evoking the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of a guinea pig while in a hyperbaric chamber. To assess the reproducibility of this response, eight animals were monitored by electronystagmography during rotations at three table velocities (62.4, 83.3, and 100 degrees/s). Two test sessions were performed on each animal with a 6-hour interval between sessions. The VOR gain was calculated by dividing the average peak velocity of the slow phase component of the nystagmus by the peak stimulus velocity. At least eight observations per test speed were averaged; calibration of eye movement was performed prior to each session by forced ocular abduction. Multifactorial analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (p > .05) between the differing rotation speeds nor between test sessions for individual animals. However, there was a significant difference in VOR gain between animals (p nitrogen narcosis. Pre- and post-dive VOR gains were significantly greater than those measured at depth (p nitrogen narcosis and the controversial theory that central nervous system depressants decrease the VOR gain. The results also demonstrate the ability of this inexpensive apparatus to provide a sensitive measure of pressure-induced changes of vestibular function in guinea pigs.

  16. Functional anatomy of human speech. (United States)

    Szentágothai, J


    The outlines of an investigation into side differences between the Planum temporale (The Geschwind-Levitzky areas) of ten human brains are given. Volume of this area and cell numbers are clearly asymmetric, the left side being consequently larger by 38-34% over the same area at right. Cell density (cell No/volume) is virtually the same on both sides. Some comments upon the data are being made.

  17. Gross anatomy of network security (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.


    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  18. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.


    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  19. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges. (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga


    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  20. A review of facial nerve anatomy. (United States)

    Myckatyn, Terence M; Mackinnon, Susan E


    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is not limited to its extratemporal anatomy, however, as many clinical deficits originate within its intratemporal and intracranial components. Similarly, the facial nerve cannot be considered an exclusively motor nerve given its contributions to taste, auricular sensation, sympathetic input to the middle meningeal artery, and parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The constellation of deficits resulting from facial nerve injury is correlated with its complex anatomy to help establish the level of injury, predict recovery, and guide surgical management.

  1. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.


    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of me

  2. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.


    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  3. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region. (United States)

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh


    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes.

  4. Radiative Gasification Apparatus (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  5. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.


    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  6. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.


    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  7. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women. (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania


    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  8. Apparatus for Teaching Physics. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.


    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  9. Aerosol distribution apparatus (United States)

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  10. Information Anatomy of Stochastic Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Marzen


    Full Text Available A stochastic nonlinear dynamical system generates information, as measured by its entropy rate. Some—the ephemeral information—is dissipated and some—the bound information—is actively stored and so affects future behavior. We derive analytic expressions for the ephemeral and bound information in the limit of infinitesimal time discretization for two classical systems that exhibit dynamical equilibria: first-order Langevin equations (i where the drift is the gradient of an analytic potential function and the diffusion matrix is invertible and (ii with a linear drift term (Ornstein–Uhlenbeck, but a noninvertible diffusion matrix. In both cases, the bound information is sensitive to the drift and diffusion, while the ephemeral information is sensitive only to the diffusion matrix and not to the drift. Notably, this information anatomy changes discontinuously as any of the diffusion coefficients vanishes, indicating that it is very sensitive to the noise structure. We then calculate the information anatomy of the stochastic cusp catastrophe and of particles diffusing in a heat bath in the overdamped limit, both examples of stochastic gradient descent on a potential landscape. Finally, we use our methods to calculate and compare approximations for the time-local predictive information for adaptive agents.

  11. Development of Multi-function Cervical Vertebra and Lumbar Vertebra Traction Treatment Apparatus%多功能颈腰椎牵引治疗仪的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东亮; 郭艳幸; 冯坤


    Objective To develop a kind of multi-function cervical vertebra and lumbar vertebra treatment apparatus which can realize constant traction in lumbar and cervical spine. Methods The traction force and treatment time got automatic control by using single chip microcomputer technology, through which, continuous traction, intermittent traction and other models can be realized. Results The developed prototype has the advantages of convenient use and small volume. Traction control precision can reach ± 1N. The treatment time can accurate to one second. Conclusion The traction force and the treatment time can be controlled accurately according to the treatment needs, which could make the treatment more effective.%目的:研制一种可以对颈椎和腰椎实现多种模式牵引的多功能治疗仪。方法采用单片机技术对牵引力和治疗时间进行自动控制,实现连续牵引、间歇牵引等多种模式。结果研制出的样机体积小巧、使用方便,牵引力控制精度和间歇治疗时间精确度均达到了设计要求。结论牵引力和治疗时间可根据治疗需求任意精确控制,使得治疗效果更显著。

  12. Authenticity in Anatomy Art. (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica


    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  13. [Anatomy: the bodily order]. (United States)

    Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce


    In this essay I try to show the source of the knowledge that determines a certain view that the healthcare team, particularly the nursing team, has developed on the body, especially the sick body. I understand that this knowledge determines ways of caring for the hospitalized bodies. Based on texts by Foucault I analyze the subject of Anatomy. I present a brief history of its construction as a field of knowledge since Versalius until today, when we find plastinated and digitized bodies. I highlight the cadaver as the student's first contact with a human body and observe that the illustrations contained in Anatomy books privilege male and white bodies. I characterize the body as a radically historical invention and observe that we are culturally trained to perceive it, in an organized way, from given viewpoints and by using certain lenses.

  14. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik


    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  15. Hepatic surgical anatomy. (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros


    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  16. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities; Orbita - Anatomie, Entwicklung und Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Golinski, M. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Schroeder, A.C. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung der Strukturen der menschlichen Orbita ist sehr komplex. Ihre Kenntnis erleichtert jedoch das Verstaendnis von Anatomie und Fehlbildungen. In dieser Uebersicht wird zunaechst auf die embryonale Entwicklung eingegangen, bevor die ''normale'' radiologische Anatomie bei verschiedenen Untersuchungstechniken und die haeufigsten Fehlbildungen thematisiert werden. (orig.)

  17. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy. (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y


    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed.

  18. Functional compartmentation of the Golgi apparatus of plant cells : immunocytochemical analysis of high-pressure frozen- and freeze-substituted sycamore maple suspension culture cells. (United States)

    Zhang, G F; Staehelin, L A


    The Golgi apparatus of plant cells is engaged in both the processing of glycoproteins and the synthesis of complex polysaccharides. To investigate the compartmentalization of these functions within individual Golgi stacks, we have analyzed the ultrastructure and the immunolabeling patterns of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted suspension-cultured sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. As a result of the improved structural preservation, three morphological types of Golgi cisternae, designated cis, medial, and trans, as well as the trans Golgi network, could be identified. The number of cis cisternae per Golgi stack was found to be fairly constant at approximately 1, whereas the number of medial and trans cisternae per stack was variable and accounted for the varying number of cisternae (3-10) among the many Golgi stacks examined. By using a battery of seven antibodies whose specific sugar epitopes on secreted polysaccharides and glycoproteins are known, we have been able to determine in which types of cisternae specific sugars are added to N-linked glycans, and to xyloglucan and polygalacturonic acid/rhamnogalacturonan-I, two complex polysaccharides. The findings are as follows. The beta-1,4-linked d-glucosyl backbone of xyloglucan is synthesized in trans cisternae, and the terminal fucosyl residues on the trisaccharide side chains of xyloglucan are partly added in the trans cisternae, and partly in the trans Golgi network. In contrast, the polygalacturonic/rhamnogalacturonan-I backbone is assembled in cis and medial cisternae, methylesterification of the carboxyl groups of the galacturonic acid residues in the polygalacturonic acid domains occurs mostly in medial cisternae, and arabinose-containing side chains of the polygalacturonic acid domains are added to the nascent polygalacturonic acid/rhamnogalacturonan-I molecules in the trans cisternae. Double labeling experiments demonstrate that xyloglucan and polygalacturonic acid

  19. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers. (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H


    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups.

  20. Surgical anatomy of the larynx. (United States)

    Friedrich, G; Lichtenegger, R


    Modern functionally oriented surgery of the larynx increasingly requires exact knowledge of the anatomy and landmarks of the endolaryngeal structures in relation to the laryngeal skeleton. Review of the literature reveals several opposing statements and controversial anatomical definitions regarding several clinically critical points. In order to obtain basic anatomical data morphological measurements were performed on a total of 50 laryngeal specimens. Measurements were taken on whole organs and on cuts in the horizontal and in the frontal plane, as well. The data were evaluated statistically, which resulted in the determination of average configurations and dimensions of cartilages and soft tissues of the larynx. In particular, the projection of the deeper structures on the surface and the distances and angles between the different structures were taken into consideration. In order to make these data clinically applicable a scale model has been developed that will allow a direct correlation and application for individual surgery.

  1. NMR logging apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter


    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  2. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  3. Spin coating apparatus (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.


    A spin coating apparatus requires less cleanroom air flow than prior spin coating apparatus to minimize cleanroom contamination. A shaped exhaust duct from the spin coater maintains process quality while requiring reduced cleanroom air flow. The exhaust duct can decrease in cross section as it extends from the wafer, minimizing eddy formation. The exhaust duct can conform to entrainment streamlines to minimize eddy formation and reduce interprocess contamination at minimal cleanroom air flow rates.

  4. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.


    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  5. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.


    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  6. The Ventricular System of the Brain: Anatomy and Normal Variations. (United States)

    Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam


    The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.

  7. Dental anatomy portrayed with microscopic volume investigations. (United States)

    Baumann, M A; Schwebel, T; Kriete, A


    The clinical treatment of the root canal of teeth--called endodontics--assumes a precise idea of the spatial arrangement of the anatomy of teeth and their inner structure. By using computer-assisted data acquisition from filmed sequences of histologic serial sections and a special kind of magnetic resonance microscope--the Stray Field Imaging (STRAFI)--volume investigations were carried out using special functions of a newly developed 3D software. Possible applications and future perspectives are discussed.

  8. A Review of Facial Nerve Anatomy



    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is no...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant,


    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy is the base of medical science in India and is taught practically to all disciplines of undergraduate health sciences in the first year. It is an acknowledged fact that a basic knowledge of Anatomy is a prerequisite to learn any other branch of medicine. All medical professionals must have a basic knowledge of Anatomy so as to ensure safe medical practice. Traditionally Anatomy teaching consists of didactic lectures as well as dissections or prosections as per the requirement of the course. Lecture is defined as an oral discourse on a given subject before an audience for purpose of instruction and leaning. In the traditional method lectures were taken via chalk & board, but nowadays power point presentations are increasingly being used. To make Anatomy learning both pleasant and motivating, new methods of teaching gross anatomy are being assessed as medical colleges endeavour to find time in their curricula for new content without fore-going fundamental anatomical knowledge. This paper examines the other teaching methodologies for teaching gross anatomy. Conclusion: Proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to enhanced understanding of gross anatomy and will ultimately improve students’ performance.

  10. The quail anatomy portal. (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J


    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  11. Specific organization of Golgi apparatus in plant cells. (United States)

    Vildanova, M S; Wang, W; Smirnova, E A


    Microtubules, actin filaments, and Golgi apparatus are connected both directly and indirectly, but it is manifested differently depending on the cell organization and specialization, and these connections are considered in many original studies and reviews. In this review we would like to discuss what underlies differences in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells: specific features of the microtubule cytoskeleton organization, the use of different cytoskeleton components for Golgi apparatus movement and maintenance of its integrity, or specific features of synthetic and secretory processes. We suppose that a dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in higher plant cells cannot be explained only by specific features of the microtubule system organization and by the absence of centrosome as an active center of their organization because the Golgi apparatus is organized similarly in the cells of other organisms that possess the centrosome and centrosomal microtubules. One of the key factors determining the Golgi apparatus state in plant cells is the functional uniformity or functional specialization of stacks. The functional specialization does not suggest the joining of the stacks to form a ribbon; therefore, the disperse state of the Golgi apparatus needs to be supported, but it also can exist "by default". We believe that the dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in plants is supported, on one hand, by dynamic connections of the Golgi apparatus stacks with the actin filament system and, on the other hand, with the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum.

  12. Anatomy and histology of the male reproductive tract and spermatogenesis fine structure in the lesser anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla, Myrmecophagidae, Xenarthra): morphological evidences of reproductive functions. (United States)

    Rossi, L F; Luaces, J P; Aldana Marcos, H J; Cetica, P D; Perez Jimeno, G; Merani, M S


    The anatomy and histology of the male genital tract of the lesser anteater were studied. Fine details of spermatozoa regarding their genesis and morphology were also studied in six adult specimens. The testes lie in the pelvic cavity. The deferent duct emerges from the epididymis and opens into the ejaculatory duct, which drains into the membranous urethra. Accessory glands (prostate, seminal vesicle and bulbourethral gland) are histologically similar to those described in other mammals. The short penis presents an urethral orifice, while the corpus spongiosum becomes thinner at the end indicating the absence of a histologically defined glans. The seminiferous epithelium shows: (1) Sertoli cells with deep nuclear indentations, (2) spermatogonia with crusty-like chromatin, (3) spermatocytes at different stages of maturation and (4) three morphologically distinct stages of spermatid differentiation according to nuclear shape, acrosome development and chromatin condensation. Sperm heads appear oval. The length of the spermatozoa averages 67.33 ± 1.60 μm. Two specimens with inactive spermatogenesis were azoospermic. Their testes and epididymis presented sizes smaller than those with active spermatogenesis. These studies together with others in anteaters may contribute to successful breeding in conservation programmes.

  13. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  14. Current measurement apparatus (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.


    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  15. Anatomy of trisomy 18. (United States)

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios


    Trisomy 18 is the second most common aneuploidy after trisomy 21. Due to its multi-systemic defects, it has a poor prognosis with a 50% chance of survival beyond one week and a trisomy 18. As a result, a review of the anatomy associated with this defect is imperative. While any of the systems can be affected by trisomy 18, the following areas are the most likely to be affected: craniofacial, musculoskeletal system, cardiac system, abdominal, and nervous system. More specifically, the following features are considered characteristic of trisomy 18: low-set ears, rocker bottom feet, clenched fists, and ventricular septal defect. Of particular interest is the associated cardiac defect, as surgical repairs of these defects have shown an improved survivability. In this article, the anatomical defects associated with each system are reviewed. Clin. Anat. 29:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie


    The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students...... behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...

  17. Effect of Balance Apparatus Training on the Balance Function and Walking Ability of Stroke Patients%平衡仪训练对脑卒中患者平衡功能和步行能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 吴伊敏; 林昔和; 饶晓辉; 邵龙辉; 黄哲


    Objective:To investigate the effect in visual feedback training of balance apparatus on lower limb function, balance function and walking ability of hemiplegia patients. Methods:40 cases of hemiplegia after stroke were divided into balance group and control group with each of 20 cases, both received routine rehabilitation treatment, balance group added visual feedback training of balance apparatus, lower limb motor function, balance function and walking ability of affected side were compared before and after the treatment between the two groups. Results:The lower extremity mo-tor function (FMA), balance function (PST, LOS) and walking ability (pace, step) of two groups after treatment were all significantly higher than those before treatment (P<0.01), and balance group was significantly better than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Visual feedback training of bal-ance apparatus on stroke hemiplegia patients can effectively improve the lower limb function, balance function and walking ability.%目的:探讨平衡仪视觉反馈训练对偏瘫患者下肢功能、平衡功能和步行能力的影响。方法:40例脑卒中后偏瘫患者分为平衡仪组和对照组各20例,两组患者均采用常规康复治疗,平衡仪组加用平衡仪视觉反馈训练法,治疗前后比较两组患侧下肢运动功能、平衡功能及步行能力。结果:两组患者治疗后下肢运动功能(FMA)、平衡功能(PST值、LOS值)和步行能力(步速、步长)均明显优于治疗前(P<0.01),且平衡仪组显著优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:平衡仪视觉反馈训练法可有效改善脑卒中偏瘫患者下肢功能、平衡功能及步行能力。

  18. The anatomy of teaching and the teaching of anatomy. (United States)

    Peck, David; Skandalakis, John E


    Professional education is one of the greatest problems currently confronting the healing professions. The incorporation of basic science departments into colleges of medicine has affected curriculum design, research, admissions criteria, and licensure. Those who are not practicing members of a particular health care profession wield undue influence in medical schools. Ideally, gross anatomy teachers should be health care professionals who use anatomy in their practices. Reorganization of medical education will heal the rift between research and clinical medicine.

  19. Mobile lighting apparatus (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl


    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  20. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  1. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Yoder

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts, 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental

  2. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera. (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R


    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  3. The Compartmental Organization of the Golgi Apparatus. (United States)

    Rothman, James E.


    Relations between structure and function of the Golgi apparatus are emerging from recent laboratory work on this cellular organelle which modifies proteins, sorts them, and packages them for delivery. The structure's three specialized compartments are explained through discussions of the glycosylation pathway, density-gradient experiments,…

  4. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan


    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  5. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir


    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  6. [Dental anatomy of dogs]. (United States)

    Sarkisian, E G


    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  7. The yeast Golgi apparatus. (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko


    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  8. The radon EDM apparatus (United States)

    Tardiff, E. R.; Rand, E. T.; Ball, G. C.; Chupp, T. E.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Garrett, P.; Hayden, M. E.; Kierans, C. A.; Lorenzon, W.; Pearson, M. R.; Schaub, C.; Svensson, C. E.


    The observation of a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) at current experimentally accessible levels would provide clear evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model. EDMs violate CP symmetry, making them a possible route to explaining the size of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe. The Radon EDM Experiment aims to search for an EDM in radon isotopes whose sensitivity to CP-odd interactions is enhanced by octupole-deformed nuclei. A prototype apparatus currently installed in the ISAC hall at TRIUMF includes a gas handling system to move radon from a collection foil to a measurement cell and auxiliary equipment for polarization diagnostics and validation. The features and capabilities of the apparatus are described and an overview of the experimental design for a gamma-ray-anisotropy based EDM measurement is provided.

  9. Pyrolysis process and apparatus (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Kuei


    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  10. Heat exchange apparatus (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.


    A heat exchange apparatus comprising a coolant conduit or heat sink having attached to its surface a first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles and a second radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles thermally coupled to a body to be cooled and meshed with, but not contacting the first radial array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins or needles.

  11. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks. (United States)

    Azer, Samy A


    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy.

  12. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy. (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D


    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. [History of anatomy in Lyon]. (United States)

    Bouchet, A


    1. We know very little concerning the teaching of anatomy during the Middle Ages. Only two authors, who both came to live in Lyon, Lanfranc and Guy de Chauliac, wrote on the subject. On the other hand, the important development of printing in Lyon from the sixteenth century onwards, made it possible to spread the translations of classic works and most of the books on Anatomy of the Renaissance. 2. However, Lyonese Anatomy developed very slowly because hospital training was more often badly organized. The only true supporter of Anatomy has been Marc Antoine Petit, chief surgeon of the Hôtel-Dieu before the French Revolution. 3. Apart from the parallel but only transient teaching of the Royal College of Surgery, one will have to wait for the creation of an official teaching first assumed by "schools" (secondary school and preparatory school) and finally by the Faculty of Medicine created in 1877. The names of Testut and of Latarjet contributed to the reknown of the Faculty of Medicine by their anatomical studies of great value for several generations of students. 4. Recently the Faculty of Medicine has been divided into four "universities". The new buildings are larger. The "gift of corpses" has brought a remedy to the shortage of the last twenty years. Anatomical research can be pursued thanks to micro-anatomy and bio-mechanics while conventional teaching is completed by dissection.

  14. Anal anatomy and normal histology. (United States)

    Pandey, Priti


    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  15. Comprehensive cardiac assessment with multislice computed tomography: evaluation of left ventricular function and perfusion in addition to coronary anatomy in patients with previous myocardial infarction (United States)

    Henneman, M M; Schuijf, J D; Jukema, J W; Lamb, H J; de Roos, A; Dibbets, P; Stokkel, M P; van der Wall, E E; Bax, J J


    Objective To evaluate a comprehensive multislice computed tomography (MSCT) protocol in patients with previous infarction, including assessment of coronary artery stenoses, left ventricular (LV) function and perfusion. Patients and methods 16‐slice MSCT was performed in 21 patients with previous infarction; from the MSCT data, coronary artery stenoses, (regional and global) LV function and perfusion were assessed. Invasive coronary angiography and gated single‐photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) served as the reference standards for coronary artery stenoses and LV function/perfusion, respectively. Results 236 of 241 (98%) coronary artery segments were interpretable on MSCT. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of stenoses were 91% and 97%. Pearson's correlation showed excellent agreement for assessment of LV ejection fraction between MSCT and SPECT (49 (13)% v 53 (12)%, respectively, r  =  0.85). Agreement for assessment of regional wall motion was excellent (92%, κ  =  0.77). In 68 of 73 (93%) segments, MSCT correctly identified a perfusion defect as compared with SPECT, whereas the absence of perfusion defects was correctly detected in 277 of 284 (98%) segments. Conclusions MSCT permits accurate, non‐invasive assessment of coronary artery stenoses, LV function and perfusion in patients with previous infarction. All parameters can be assessed from a single dataset. PMID:16740917

  16. Papilian’s anatomy - celebrating six decades – (United States)



    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers’ Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra. PMID:28246506

  17. Thermal stir welding apparatus (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)


    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  18. Sifat Anatomi dan Fisis Kelapa Hibrida


    Hutabarat, Marihot Hamonangan


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi sifat anatomis dan fisis batang kelapa hibrida. Ciri anatomi diamati langsung pada sampel dan menggunakan mikroskop untuk pengamatan dimensi seratnya, dan pengujian sifat fisis menggunakan British Standard. Sifat anatomis dan fisis batang kelapa hibrida bervariasi menurut ketinggian dan kedalaman. Struktur anatomis batang kelapa hibrida didominasi oleh vascular bundle dan parenkim. Serat kayu dapat ditemukan didalam vascular bundle dengan rata-r...

  19. Anatomy of the ward round. (United States)

    O'Hare, James A


    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient's narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient's right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  20. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A


    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  1. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.


    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  2. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish


    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  3. ABC of the cardiac magnetic resonance. Part 1: anatomy and function; ABC da ressonancia magnetica cardiaca. Part 1: anatomia e funcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Ricardo; Rached, Heron; Castro, Claudio C.; Cerri, Giovanni G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Favaro, Daniele; Baptista, Luciana; Andrade, Joalbo; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Parga Filho, Jose; Avila, Luiz F.; Piva, Rosa M.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Secao de Ressonancia Magnetica


    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the fundamental concepts, the basic sequences and the clinical and potential applications of cardiac magnetic resonance as a diagnostic technique in updated radiology and cardiology practices. In this first part, we present the basic planning of the cardiac image acquisition, the nomenclature and standardized myocardial segmentation, image synchronization principles for electrocardiogram and the heart functional and anatomical evaluation by cardiac magnetic resonance. (author)

  4. Anatomy and Selected Biomechanical Aspects of the Shoulder. (United States)

    Keene, James S.

    This paper focuses on the anatomy and functions of the shoulder that are relevant to the evaluation and treatment of athletic injuries. A discussion is presented on the four basic components of the shoulder mechanism: (1) super structure--bony components; (2) moving parts--joints involved; (3) motor power--musculature; and (4) communications…

  5. Teaching the Anatomy of a Scientific Journal Article (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Clayman, Karen; Busch, Allison K.; Tanner, Kimberly D.


    To promote inquiry-based learning, the authors integrate the anatomy of a scientific journal article into their secondary science curriculum. In this article, they present three classroom activities used to teach students about the function and format of scientific journal articles. The first focuses on journal article figures, the second on…

  6. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.


    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  7. The anatomy, physics, and physiology of gas exchange surfaces: is there a universal function for pulmonary surfactant in animal respiratory structures? (United States)

    Orgeig, Sandra; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Biswas, Samares C; Daniels, Christopher B; Hall, Stephen B; Hetz, Stefan K; Lang, Carol J; Maina, John N; Panda, Amiya K; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Possmayer, Fred; Veldhuizen, Ruud A; Yan, Wenfei


    (Orgeig and Daniels) This surfactant symposium reflects the integrative and multidisciplinary aims of the 1st ICRB, by encompassing in vitro and in vivo research, studies of vertebrates and invertebrates, and research across multiple disciplines. We explore the physical and structural challenges that face gas exchange surfaces in vertebrates and insects, by focusing on the role of the surfactant system. Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that lines the air-liquid interface of the lungs of all air-breathing vertebrates, where it functions to vary surface tension with changing lung volume. We begin with a discussion of the extraordinary conservation of the blood-gas barrier among vertebrate respiratory organs, which has evolved to be extremely thin, thereby maximizing gas exchange, but simultaneously strong enough to withstand significant distension forces. The principal components of pulmonary surfactant are highly conserved, with a mixed phospholipid and neutral lipid interfacial film that is established, maintained and dynamically regulated by surfactant proteins (SP). A wide variation in the concentrations of individual components exists, however, and highlights lipidomic as well as proteomic adaptations to different physiological needs. As SP-B deficiency in mammals is lethal, oxidative stress to SP-B is detrimental to the biophysical function of pulmonary surfactant and SP-B is evolutionarily conserved across the vertebrates. It is likely that SP-B was essential for the evolutionary origin of pulmonary surfactant. We discuss three specific issues of the surfactant system to illustrate the diversity of function in animal respiratory structures. (1) Temperature: In vitro analyses of the behavior of different model surfactant films under dynamic conditions of surface tension and temperature suggest that, contrary to previous beliefs, the alveolar film may not have to be substantially enriched in the disaturated phospholipid

  8. The anatomy of E-Learning tools: Does software usability influence learning outcomes? (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A


    Reductions in laboratory hours have increased the popularity of commercial anatomy e-learning tools. It is critical to understand how the functionality of such tools can influence the mental effort required during the learning process, also known as cognitive load. Using dual-task methodology, two anatomical e-learning tools were examined to determine the effect of their design on cognitive load during two joint learning exercises. A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy is a simplistic, two-dimensional tool that presents like a textbook, whereas Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy has a more complex three-dimensional usability that allows structures to be rotated. It was hypothesized that longer reaction times on an observation task would be associated with the more complex anatomical software (Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy), indicating a higher cognitive load imposed by the anatomy software, which would result in lower post-test scores. Undergraduate anatomy students from Western University, Canada (n = 70) were assessed using a baseline knowledge test, Stroop observation task response times (a measure of cognitive load), mental rotation test scores, and an anatomy post-test. Results showed that reaction times and post-test outcomes were similar for both tools, whereas mental rotation test scores were positively correlated with post-test values when students used Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy (P = 0.007), but not when they used A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. This suggests that a simple e-learning tool, such as A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy, is as effective as more complicated tools, such as Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy, and does not academically disadvantage those with poor spatial ability. Anat Sci Educ 9: 378-390. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Anatomy of the thymus gland. (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf


    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  10. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi


    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  11. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.


    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  12. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H


    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  13. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.


    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  14. Functional-adaptive anatomy of the axial skeleton of some extant marsupials and the paleobiology of the paleocene marsupials Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus. (United States)

    Argot, Christine


    In this study, the axial skeletons of two Early Paleocene marsupials, Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus, were analyzed functionally and compared to that of six South American and three Australian species of extant marsupials. In the case of the South American opossums, myological data of the epaxial musculature were collected and analyzed and osteological-myological associations were related to locomotor behavior. Various features of the vertebral column that relate to diet or to locomotor or postural patterns were pointed out. These features include: the craniocaudal development of the neural process of the axis; the position of the anticlinal vertebra; the morphology of the neural processes of the thoracolumbar vertebrae (orientation, length, and craniocaudal width); the length, orientation, and curvature of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae; and the length and robustness of the caudal vertebrae. In both fossil forms the vertebral column is mobile and allows a great range of flexion and extension of the spine, more so than in most of the living didelphids. It is emphasized here that the analysis of the axial skeleton complements and improves the conclusions provided by the forelimb and hindlimb analyses. It is proposed that Mayulestes and Pucadelphys represent an ancestral morphotype suggesting that the generalized type of locomotion of Paleocene marsupials was partly terrestrial with some climbing ability.

  15. The future of gross anatomy teaching. (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D


    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  16. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)


    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  17. Specifications for gas treatment apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)


    A surface reaction analysis apparatus was installed as an experimental end-station for the study of surface chemistry at the JAERI soft x-ray beamline in the SPring-8. The surface reaction analysis apparatus is devoted to the study of reaction mechanisms on solid surfaces with incident gas molecules. It is necessary to supply reagent gases to the apparatus. Chlorine and metal organic molecules will be used in the apparatus as well as oxygen molecules. Since the chlorine is corrosive and virulent, the metal organic molecules are flammable, the satiety treatments and the removal of virulence from the exhaust gas are needed. This gas supply and exhaust system is mainly composed of a cylinder cabinet, a gas mixer, a virulence removal cell and an urgent virulence removal apparatus. The former three devices are considered to take a countermeasure against virulent gas leak. The detail specifications concerning the gas supply and exhaust system are described in this report. (author)

  18. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.


    Full Text Available The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  19. Archimedes force on Casimir apparatus (United States)

    Shevchenko, V.; Shevrin, E.


    The talk addresses a problem of Casimir apparatus in weak gravitational field, surrounded by a dense medium. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, taking into account proper contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general ex pression for the corresponding force in terms of the effective action. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.


    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.


    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  1. Spine immobilization apparatus (United States)

    Lambson, K. H.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)


    The apparatus makes use of a normally flat, flexible bladder filled with beads or micro-balloons that form a rigid mass when the pressure within the bladder is decreased below ambient through the use of a suction pump so that the bladder can be conformed to the torso of the victim and provide the desired restraint. The bladder is strapped to the victim prior to being rigidified by an arrangement of straps which avoid the stomach area. The bladder is adapted to be secured to a rigid support, i.e., a rescue chair, so as to enable removal of a victim after the bladder has been made rigid. A double sealing connector is used to connect the bladder to the suction pump and a control valve is employed to vary the pressure within the bladder so as to soften and harden the bladder as desired.

  2. Functional anatomy of the cardiovascular system: professional development for PreK-3 teachers using a "train and equip" method results in learning opportunities for students. (United States)

    Burns, E Robert


    Preadolescent students are interested in learning the structure and function of the human body. However, their teachers are not trained in this content. The purpose of this project was to expand a successful outreach effort in the health sciences for grade 7-12 teachers to include PreK-3 teachers. A "Healthy Hearts" workshop was offered to train the teachers in relevant content and also to give them a resource kit of supplies and equipment to facilitate the transference of the training into educational opportunities for their students. The workshop included many role-playing activities and use of all items in the resource kit. A total of 25 workshops were conducted in 14 different community locations with 716 PreK-3 teachers attending from 169 communities representing 59 (79%) of the state's 75 counties. African American (AA) teacher participation was 35%, twice the state AA population rate and 3.5x the AA public school teacher rate. Pre to Posttest scores increased an average of 15%. The results of the evaluation measures regarding the workshop and the transference of the training and use of resource kit items into learning opportunities for students were excellent. Universities have the capability, perhaps the responsibility, to provide the much-needed professional development training to PreK-12 teachers. Anatomists in medical and nonmedical school settings are well positioned to participate in this process and help close the gap between the interest young children have in learning about the human body and the lack of teacher training in this content.

  3. Functional anatomy of the postcranial skeleton of Styriofelis lorteti (Carnivora, Felidae, Felinae from the Middle Miocene (MN 6 locality of Sansan (Gers, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peigné, S.


    Full Text Available The postcranial skeleton of the European Middle Miocene feline Styriofelis lorteti has been traditionally known on the basis of fragmentary fossils mainly from the French locality of Sansan. The discovery of an almost complete skeleton in the same site in the excavations of 1990 opened the possibility of unprecedented assessment of the morphology and function of this early felid. In this paper we describe this material, and compare it with a sample of modern and fossil felids, finding a combination of a generally modern morphology, with moderate adaptations to terrestrial locomotion, besides a set of primitive characters linking S. lorteti with earlier felids like Proailurus lemanensis.El esqueleto post-craneal del felino Styriofelis lorteti, del Mioceno medio de Europa, ha sido tradicionalmente conocido en base a fósiles fragmentarios, procedentes principalmente del yacimiento francés de Sansan. El descubrimiento en este yacimiento de un esqueleto casi completo, durante la campaña de 1990, abrió la posibilidad de llevar a cabo un análisis sin precedentes de la morfología y función de este félido primitivo. En este trabajo se describe este material, comparándose con una muestra de felinos fósiles y actuales, hallándose una combinación entre una morfología general moderna, con adaptaciones moderadas para la locomoción terrestre, junto con una serie de caracteres primitivos que relacionan a S. lorteti con los félidos más antiguos como Proailurus lemanensis.

  4. Frontal Eye Field, Where Art Thou? Anatomy, function and non-invasive manipulation of frontal regions involved in eye movements and associated cognitive operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eVernet


    Full Text Available The planning, control and execution of eye movements in 3D space relies on a distributed system of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Within this network, the Eye Fields have been described in animals as cortical regions in which electrical stimulation is able to trigger eye movements and influence their latency or accuracy. This review will focus on the Frontal Eye Field (FEF a hub region located in Humans in the vicinity of the pre-central sulcus and the dorsal-most portion of the superior frontal sulcus. The straightforward localization of the FEF through electrical stimulation in animals is difficult to translate to the healthy human brain, particularly with non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Hence, in the first part of this review, we will describe attempts made to characterize the anatomical localization of this area in the human brain. The outcome of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, Magneto-encephalography (MEG and particularly, non-invasive mapping methods such a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS will be described and the variability of FEF localization across individuals and mapping techniques will be discussed. In the second part of this review, we will address the role of the FEF. We will explore its involvement both in the physiology of fixation, saccade, pursuit and vergence movements and in associated cognitive processes such as attentional orienting, visual awareness and perceptual modulation. Finally in the third part, we will review recent evidence suggesting the high level of malleability and plasticity of these regions and associated networks to non-invasive stimulation. The exploratory, diagnostic and therapeutic interest of such interventions for the modulation and improvement of perception in 3D space will be discussed.

  5. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  6. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy. (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor


    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  7. Anatomy of a Bird (United States)


    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  8. Anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism. (United States)

    Perry, Jamie L


    Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism is the first step in providing appropriate diagnosis and treatment for children born with cleft lip and palate. The velopharyngeal mechanism consists of a muscular valve that extends from the posterior surface of the hard palate (roof of mouth) to the posterior pharyngeal wall and includes the velum (soft palate), lateral pharyngeal walls (sides of the throat), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat). The function of the velopharyngeal mechanism is to create a tight seal between the velum and pharyngeal walls to separate the oral and nasal cavities for various purposes, including speech. Velopharyngeal closure is accomplished through the contraction of several velopharyngeal muscles including the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, and salpingopharyngeus. The tensor veli palatini is thought to be responsible for eustachian tube function.

  9. Students as teachers in an anatomy dissection course. (United States)

    Salomäki, Tiina; Laakkonen, Juha; Ruohoniemi, Mirja


    One way to improve students' learning outcomes and well-being is to change teaching practices to allow students to become more active participants. We used an anatomy dissection course to test a cooperative group work method in which first-year veterinary students took turns leading their peer group and were each responsible for teaching the anatomy of a particular topographic region. The important blood vessels, lymphatic system, and nerves of each region of the body were covered. Students felt that exploration of the entire topographic region helped them to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the respiratory apparatus and the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Assigning individual tasks to each group member resulted in sharing the workload equally. Open-ended comments revealed that support from other group members was important for the students' learning experience, but the results also offered insight into a lack of constructive criticism. While teaching was considered challenging, and even a stress factor that hindered learning for some students, group work was generally held to be supportive of learning. The results suggest that more thorough instruction of students in their group work and in their individual tasks is required. Some students experienced difficulty in expressing their concerns openly and in seeking guidance from teachers, demonstrating the need for further investigation regarding students' self-regulation skills. Comments from the open-ended responses suggest that use of a cooperative learning method in anatomy dissection courses not only deepens student understanding of a subject but also offers first-year students an opportunity to practice the generic skills that will be needed in their future profession.

  10. Apparatus for measuring particle properties (United States)

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.


    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  11. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  12. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina


    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  14. Hip: Anatomy and US technique



    Ultrasound (US) has always had a relatively limited role in the evaluation of the hip due to the deep location of this joint. However, many hip diseases are well detectable at US, but before approaching such a study it is necessary to be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy and related US images. The study technique is particularly important as optimization of various parameters is required, such as probe frequency, focalization, positioning of the probe, etc. Also the patient’s positi...

  15. [Surgical anatomy of the nose]. (United States)

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G


    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  16. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iype Cherian; Giovanni Grasso; Antonio Bernardo; Sunil Munakomi


    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure.This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon.We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works.This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  17. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy. (United States)

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu


    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed.

  18. [Functional anatomy of the pelvic floor]. (United States)

    Yiou, René; Delmas, Vincent


    The pelvic floor is the support of the pelvic viscera. The levator ani muscle (LA) with its two bundles (pubo- and iliococcygeus) is the major component of this pelvic floor. LA is formed essentially by type I fibers (slow twitch, with high oxidative capability and presence of slow myosin) as in postural muscles. The aerobic metabolism makes LA fragile to excentric contraction and to mitochondrial dysfunction. The innervation of the pelvic floor comes from the 2nd, 3rd, 4th anterior sacral roots; denervation affects pelvic dynamism. Perineum includes the musculofascial structures under the LA: ventrally the striated sphincter of urethra and the ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus, caudally the fatty tissue filling the ischioanal fossa. Pelvic fascia covers the muscles ; it presents reinforcements : the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments, the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP) and the arcus tendineus levator ani (ATLA). The pelvis statics is supported by the combined action of all this anatomical structures anteriorly forming the perineal "hammock," medially the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments, posteriorly the rectovaginal fascia and the perineal body. The angles formed by the pelvic viscera with their evacuation ducts participate to the pelvic statics. During the pelvic dynamics the modification of these angles expresses the action of the musculofascial structures.

  19. Formation and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells. (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko


    The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in intracellular trafficking, protein and lipid modification, and polysaccharide synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is well known for its unique stacked structure, which is conserved among most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of biogenesis and maintenance of the structure, which are deeply related to ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport systems, have long been mysterious. Now having extremely powerful microscopic technologies developed for live-cell imaging, the plant Golgi apparatus provides an ideal system to resolve the question. The plant Golgi apparatus has unique features that are not conserved in other kingdoms, which will also give new insights into the Golgi functions in plant life. In this review, we will summarize the features of the plant Golgi apparatus and transport mechanisms around it, with a focus on recent advances in Golgi biogenesis by live imaging of plants cells.

  20. Trachea: anatomy and physiology. (United States)

    Brand-Saberi, Beate E M; Schäfer, Thorsten


    The windpipe (trachea) is a tube of 12 cm length connecting the larynx to the principal bronchi that lead to the lungs. The main functions of the trachea comprise air flow into the lungs, mucociliary clearance, and humidification and warming of air. Mucociliary clearance is achieved by kinocilia and goblet cells in the mucosa, and by tracheal glands. The trachea develops from the endodermal lining of the foregut in interaction with the visceral mesoderm. During adult life, different types of stem cells reside in the mucosal epithelium and glandular ducts. Recently, cholinergic chemosensory cells have been described in the trachea.

  1. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.


    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  2. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon


    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  3. Continuous steel production and apparatus (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng


    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  4. Apparatus for photon excited catalysis (United States)

    Saffren, M. M. (Inventor)


    An apparatus is described for increasing the yield of photonically excited gas phase reactions by extracting excess energy from unstable, excited species by contacting the species with the surface of a finely divided solid.

  5. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract. (United States)

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark


    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed.

  6. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank


    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  7. Anatomy of Nanoscale Propulsion. (United States)

    Yadav, Vinita; Duan, Wentao; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman


    Nature supports multifaceted forms of life. Despite the variety and complexity of these forms, motility remains the epicenter of life. The applicable laws of physics change upon going from macroscales to microscales and nanoscales, which are characterized by low Reynolds number (Re). We discuss motion at low Re in natural and synthetic systems, along with various propulsion mechanisms, including electrophoresis, electrolyte diffusiophoresis, and nonelectrolyte diffusiophoresis. We also describe the newly uncovered phenomena of motility in non-ATP-driven self-powered enzymes and the directional movement of these enzymes in response to substrate gradients. These enzymes can also be immobilized to function as fluid pumps in response to the presence of their substrates. Finally, we review emergent collective behavior arising from interacting motile species, and we discuss the possible biomedical applications of the synthetic nanobots and microbots.

  8. Ca(2+) signalling in the Golgi apparatus. (United States)

    Pizzo, Paola; Lissandron, Valentina; Capitanio, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio


    The Golgi apparatus plays a central role in lipid and protein post-translational modification and sorting. Morphologically the organelle is heterogeneous and it is possible to distinguish stacks of flat cysternae (cis- and medial Golgi), tubular-reticular networks and vesicles (trans-Golgi). These morphological differences parallel a distinct functionality with a selective distribution and complementary roles of the enzymes found in the different compartments. The Golgi apparatus has been also shown to be involved in Ca(2+) signalling: it is indeed endowed with Ca(2+) pumps, Ca(2+) release channels and Ca(2+) binding proteins and is thought to participate in determining the spatio-temporal complexity of the Ca(2+) signal within the cell, though this role is still poorly understood. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the organelle is heterogeneous in terms of Ca(2+) handling and selective reduction of Ca(2+) concentration, both in vitro and in a genetic human disease, within one of its sub-compartment results in alterations of protein trafficking within the secretory pathway and of the entire Golgi morphology. In this paper we review the available information on the Ca(2+) toolkit within the Golgi, its heterogeneous distribution in the organelle sub-compartments and discuss the implications of these characteristics for the physiopathology of the Golgi apparatus.

  9. The Prototype of GAMMA-400 Apparatus (United States)

    Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Kheymits, M. D.; Runtso, M. F.; Suchkov, S. I.; Topchiev, N. P.; Yurkin, Yu. T.

    Scientific project GAMMA-400 (Gamma-Astronomy Multifunction Modules Apparatus) relates to the new generation of space observatories for investigation of cosmic γ-emission in the energy band from ∼20 MeV up to several TeV, electron/positron fluxes from ∼1 GeV up to ∼10 TeV and cosmic-ray nuclei fluxes with energies up to ∼1015 eV by means of GAMMA-400 gamma-telescope represents the core of the scientific complex. The investigation of gamma ray bursts in the energy band of 10 keV-15 MeV are possible too by means of KONUS-FG apparatus included in the complex. For γ-rays in the energy region from 10 to 100 GeV expected energy resolution changes from ∼3% to ∼1% and angular resolution from ∼0.1% to ∼ 0.01% respectively, γ/protons rejection factor is ∼5·105. The GAMMA-400 satellite will be launched at the beginning of the next decade on the high apogee orbit with following initial parameters: apogee altitude ∼300000 km, perigee altitude ∼500 km, rotation period ∼7 days, inclination to the equator plane 51.4°. The active functioning interval will be 7-10 years. The scientific complex will have next main technical parameters: total weight ∼4100 kg, power consumption ∼2000 W, information quote 100 GByte/day. During the project development, the prototype of apparatus was created for working-off of the main apparatus construction units in laboratory conditions. The main distinctive features of the prototype are presented.

  10. The journey of discovering skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt and the special influence of Alexandria. (United States)

    Elhadi, Ali M; Kalb, Samuel; Perez-Orribo, Luis; Little, Andrew S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C


    The field of anatomy, one of the most ancient sciences, first evolved in Egypt. From the Early Dynastic Period (3100 BC) until the time of Galen at the end of the 2nd century ad, Egypt was the center of anatomical knowledge, including neuroanatomy. Knowledge of neuroanatomy first became important so that sacred rituals could be performed by ancient Egyptian embalmers during mummification procedures. Later, neuroanatomy became a science to be studied by wise men at the ancient temple of Memphis. As religious conflicts developed, the study of the human body became restricted. Myths started to replace scientific research, squelching further exploration of the human body until Alexander the Great founded the city of Alexandria. This period witnessed a revolution in the study of anatomy and functional anatomy. Herophilus of Chalcedon, Erasistratus of Chios, Rufus of Ephesus, and Galen of Pergamon were prominent physicians who studied at the medical school of Alexandria and contributed greatly to knowledge about the anatomy of the skull base. After the Royal Library of Alexandria was burned and laws were passed prohibiting human dissections based on religious and cultural factors, knowledge of human skull base anatomy plateaued for almost 1500 years. In this article the authors consider the beginning of this journey, from the earliest descriptions of skull base anatomy to the establishment of basic skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt.

  11. Surgical anatomy of oropharynx and supraglottic larynx for transoral robotic surgery. (United States)

    Gun, Ramazan; Ozer, Enver


    Traditional external surgical approaches have been used for the surgical management of the oropharyngeal and laryngeal tumors. Trans-oral robotic surgery allows surgeon to operate oropharyngeal and supraglottic tumors through the mouth with preservation of functions. The surgeons must be knowledgeable about the anatomy of the oral cavity and oropharynx medial to lateral perspective. In this article, we will describe the relevant inside out surgical anatomy and its clinical implications for trans-oral robotic surgery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dlugunovich


    Full Text Available During photometric measurements involving the use of photometric lamps it is necessary that the filament of lamp takes a strictly predetermined position with respect to the photodetector and the optical axis of the photometric setup. The errors in positioning of alignment filament with respect to the optical axis of the measuring system lead to increase the uncertainty of measurement of the photometric characteristics of the light sources. A typical method for alignment of filament of photometric lamps is based on the use a diopter tubes (telescopes. Using this method, the mounting of filament to the required position is carried out by successive approximations, which requires special concentration and a lot of time. The aim of this work is to develop an apparatus for alignment which allows simultaneous alignment of the filament of lamps in two mutually perpendicular planes. The method and apparatus for alignment of the photometric lamp filament during measurements of the photometric characteristics of light sources based on two digital video cameras is described in this paper. The apparatus allows to simultaneously displaying the image of lamps filament on the computer screen in two mutually perpendicular planes. The apparatus eliminates a large number of functional units requiring elementwise alignment and reduces the time required to carry out the alignment. The apparatus also provides the imaging of lamps filament with opaque coated on the bulb. The apparatus is used at the National standard of light intensity and illuminance units of the Republic of Belarus. 

  13. An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Hao; MENG; Yonggang; SU; Caijun; WEN; Shizhu


    An apparatus for measuring mechanical properties of microstructures in tensile mode is described. The apparatus consists of 4 functional parts: piezoelectric actuator, capacitive displacement sensor, specimen gripping mechanism and optical microscope. The configurations and specifications of these parts are elucidated in detail.Specimens used for the tensile mechanical testing are fabricated with the photolithography process. By using this apparatus, the fatigue property of polysilicon films has been measured successfully.

  14. Soliton dynamics in computational anatomy. (United States)

    Holm, Darryl D; Ratnanather, J Tilak; Trouvé, Alain; Younes, Laurent


    Computational anatomy (CA) has introduced the idea of anatomical structures being transformed by geodesic deformations on groups of diffeomorphisms. Among these geometric structures, landmarks and image outlines in CA are shown to be singular solutions of a partial differential equation that is called the geodesic EPDiff equation. A recently discovered momentum map for singular solutions of EPDiff yields their canonical Hamiltonian formulation, which in turn provides a complete parameterization of the landmarks by their canonical positions and momenta. The momentum map provides an isomorphism between landmarks (and outlines) for images and singular soliton solutions of the EPDiff equation. This isomorphism suggests a new dynamical paradigm for CA, as well as new data representation.

  15. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L [Wayland, MA


    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath


    Full Text Available Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that emphasised on special features of the museum with special emphasis on sectional variety. Observations: The various techniques of specimen preparation, preservation, mounting and display were observed and photographed. The sectional variety was noted. Moreover the various methods of maintaining specimen related information in pictorial and computerised catalogues was observed. Results and Conclusion: A design of a contemporary anatomy museum can now be conceived that incorporates all aspects of anatomy from history, evolution, embryology, cross-sectional anatomy, comparative anatomy, teratology, genetics and clinical anatomy to sections with modern techniques like plastination. Such a museum will certainly have a more holistic approach to anatomy and will be more educative and scientific.

  17. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... On" In Your Community December 13, 2016 Avoiding a Yo-yo Financing Scam December 13, 2016 Media ...

  18. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.


    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  19. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael


    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  20. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.


    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  1. Wood anatomy of the Neotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter Ben J.H.; Koek-Noorman, Jifke


    The wood anatomy of 47 genera of the neotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail. The wood anatomy of the neotropical part of this pantropical family supports the subdivision into two groups: the subfamily Memecyloideae (the genus Mouriri) and the subfamily Melastomatoideae (all other genera)

  2. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction (United States)

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.


    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  3. Oil recovery apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J.G.


    An oil recovery apparatus and method, particularly for removing oil and grease from the discharge of dishwashing machines or the like, provides a small size assembly employing the same principle as in U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,024. This apparatus and method employs single rotating discs of plastic or plastic coated material and each disk has a pair of scraper blades arranged to scrape opposite sides of the rotating blade. Exterior of the container for the oil recovery apparatus is at least one filter basket adapted to receive the flow into the strainer container of large particles of food and other waste such as cigarette butts and the like. Each filter is disposed for the ready cleaning of accumulated matter from the basket. There is shown plural filters, valve controls, auxiliary heating and disc support means to be more fully described.

  4. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Mathematical Foundations of Computational Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computational anatomy is an emerging discipline at the interface of geometry, statistics and image analysis which aims at modeling and analyzing the biological shape of tissues and organs. The goal is to estimate representative organ anatomies across diseases, populations, species or ages, to model...... the organ development across time (growth or aging), to establish their variability, and to correlate this variability information with other functional, genetic or structural information. The Mathematical Foundations of Computational Anatomy (MFCA) workshop aims at fostering the interactions between...... the mathematical community around shapes and the MICCAI community in view of computational anatomy applications. It targets more particularly researchers investigating the combination of statistical and geometrical aspects in the modeling of the variability of biological shapes. The workshop is a forum...

  5. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre


    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  7. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism. (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L


    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric

  8. Anatomy of thyroid and parathyroid glands and neurovascular relations. (United States)

    Mohebati, A; Shaha, A R


    Historically, thyroid surgery has been fraught with complications. Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, or the parathyroid glands may result in profound life-long consequences for the patient. To minimize the morbidity of the operation, a surgeon must have an in-depth understanding of the anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and be able to apply this information to perform a safe and effective operation. This article will review the pertinent anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the critical structures that lie in their proximity. This information should aid the surgeon in appropriate identification and preservation of the function of these structures and to avoid the pitfalls of the operation.

  9. Comparative Anatomy of the Bony Labyrinth (Inner Ear of Placental Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G Ekdale

    Full Text Available Variation is a naturally occurring phenomenon that is observable at all levels of morphology, from anatomical variations of DNA molecules to gross variations between whole organisms. The structure of the otic region is no exception. The present paper documents the broad morphological diversity exhibited by the inner ear region of placental mammals using digital endocasts constructed from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT. Descriptions cover the major placental clades, and linear, angular, and volumetric dimensions are reported.The size of the labyrinth is correlated to the overall body mass of individuals, such that large bodied mammals have absolutely larger labyrinths. The ratio between the average arc radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals and body mass of aquatic species is substantially lower than the ratios of related terrestrial taxa, and the volume percentage of the vestibular apparatus of aquatic mammals tends to be less than that calculated for terrestrial species. Aspects of the bony labyrinth are phylogenetically informative, including vestibular reduction in Cetacea, a tall cochlear spiral in caviomorph rodents, a low position of the plane of the lateral semicircular canal compared to the posterior canal in Cetacea and Carnivora, and a low cochlear aspect ratio in Primatomorpha.The morphological descriptions that are presented add a broad baseline of anatomy of the inner ear across many placental mammal clades, for many of which the structure of the bony labyrinth is largely unknown. The data included here complement the growing body of literature on the physiological and phylogenetic significance of bony labyrinth structures in mammals, and they serve as a source of data for future studies on the evolution and function of the vertebrate ear.

  10. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)


    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  11. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  12. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow (United States)

    Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.

  13. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others


    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  14. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus. (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  15. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.


    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  17. Extended range chemical sensing apparatus (United States)

    Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent


    An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.

  18. Clinical aspects of rodent dental anatomy. (United States)

    Crossley, D A


    The order Rodentia is vast, encompassing a large number of species with significant anatomical variations developed during natural adaptation to differing habitats. Many veterinarians have little knowledge of the anatomy of species other than the commoner domestic large herbivores and small carnivores. Clinicians require a basic knowledge of the relevant anatomy of species they are likely to be asked to treat. This article provides sufficient working knowledge of the oral and dental anatomy of those rodents commonly kept as pets to enable veterinarians to interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating suspected dental disease.

  19. Evaluation of free i-applications for tertiary level gross anatomy education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pollard


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of electronic resources in education, including i-applications used on portable handheld devices, is increasing. Apple® handheld devices are popular, with free applications the most prevalent download form. Many gross anatomy i-applications are available, however no information on the quality of free anatomy products is available. Rating such products could therefore guide product recommendations.AimTo evaluate the quality and range of free iPod® applications that are applicable for tertiary level gross anatomy education.MethodsA search of the iTunes® Application Store with keywords anatomy, free, medical, functional, clinical, gross, and human was performed, with inclusion based on free applications containing human gross anatomy usable for tertiary education purposes. Application specification was noted; each was trialled independently and rated for usability, specification, academic level, and quality (image and programme.ResultsSixty-three applications were identified and eleven met inclusion criteria. Two provided gross anatomy of the entire body, nine examined specific regions or systems. Five were judged introductory in academic level, five intermediate, and one advanced. One application was rated low quality, and four excellent. None were considered difficult to use (six easy, five medium. Application size ranged between 1.2MB and 229MB (mean 27MB.ConclusionsThere are few free i-applications for learning gross anatomy and most concentrate on individual body systems, with the academic level and usability of all products well rated. Results suggest some free I-applications could be suitable adjuncts for gross anatomy education at both an undergraduate and graduate level.

  20. Possible applications for fascial anatomy and fasciaology in traditional Chinese medicine. (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Yuan, Lin; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Huang, Yong; Wang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jin-Peng; Dai, Jing-Xing; Palhalmi, Janos; Sha, Ou; Yew, David Tai Wai


    Research using medical imaging instruments such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has led to the proposal that the fascial network distributed over the human body is the anatomical basis for the acupoints and meridians of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, we put forward a new theory of anatomy called fascial anatomy. In fascial anatomy, a human body is divided into two major systems. One is the supporting-storing system of unspecialized connective tissues. The other is a functional system. An undifferentiated non-specific connective tissue network, with the participation of the nervous and the immune systems, constitutes the supporting-storing system of the human body. The various differentiated functional cells in the body that are supported and surrounded by the supporting-storing system constitute the functional system. The discipline that studies the supporting-storing system and the mutual relationship between this system and the functional system in a living human body is called fasciaology. The establishment of fascial anatomy and fasciaology opens a new research field in anatomy; consequently, fasciaology will play a significant role in biological medicine and traditional Chinese medical research, as well as future clinical practice.

  1. Recognition and tethering of transport vesicles at the Golgi apparatus. (United States)

    Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin


    The Golgi apparatus occupies a central position within the secretory pathway where it is a hub for vesicle trafficking. Distinct classes of transport vesicles traffic diverse cargoes into and out of this organelle, as well as between the different Golgi subcompartments. A key feature of Golgi trafficking is the specific recognition of transport vesicles at the different regions of the Golgi apparatus, required for the correct cargo delivery. Specificity is ensured by coiled-coil golgins and multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs), which act together to capture vesicles and promote their subsequent fusion with the Golgi membrane. In this review we discuss our current understanding of how golgins and MTCs function together to mediate the specific recognition of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus.

  2. Apparatus and method for the electrolysis of water (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias


    An apparatus for the electrolytic splitting of water into hydrogen and/or oxygen, the apparatus comprising: (i) at least one lithographically-patternable substrate having a surface; (ii) a plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes embedded in said surface; (iii) at least one counter electrode in proximity to but not on said surface; (iv) means for collecting evolved hydrogen and/or oxygen gas; (v) electrical powering means for applying a voltage across said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode; and (vi) a container for holding an aqueous electrolyte and housing said plurality of microscaled catalytic electrodes and said at least one counter electrode. Electrolytic processes using the above electrolytic apparatus or functional mimics thereof are also described.

  3. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li


    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  4. Normal anatomy of the skull base. (United States)

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S


    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  6. Obturator hernia. Embryology, anatomy, and surgical applications. (United States)

    Skandalakis, L J; Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, J E


    Obturator hernia is a rare clinical entity. In most cases, it produces small bowel obstruction with high morbidity and mortality. The embryology, anatomy, clinical picture, diagnosis, and surgery are presented in detail.

  7. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  8. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy. (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey


    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice.

  9. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy. (United States)

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James


    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  10. Anatomy and Aesthetics of the Labia Minora: The Ideal Vulva? (United States)

    Clerico, C; Larry, A; Mojallal, A; Boucher, F


    Female genital cosmetic surgery is becoming more and more widespread both in the field of plastic and gynaecological surgery. The increased demand for vulvar surgery is spurred by the belief that the vulva is abnormal in appearance. What is normal in terms of labial anatomy? Labia minora enlargement or hypertrophy remains a clinical diagnosis which is poorly defined as it could be considered a variation of the normal anatomy. Enlarged labia minora can cause functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In reality, given the wide variety of vulvar morphology among people, it is a very subjective issue to define the "normal" vulva. The spread of nudity in the general media plays a major role in creating an artificial image and standards with regard to the ideal form. Physicians should be aware that the patient's self-perception of the normal or ideal vulva is highly influenced by the arguably distorted image related to our socio-psychological environment, as presented to us by the general media and internet. As physicians, we have to educate our patients on the variation of vulvar anatomy and the potential risks of these surgeries. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  11. Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome. (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M; Daly, Eileen; Kumari, Veena; Critchley, Hugo D; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Suckling, John; Simmons, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Greenwood, Kathyrn; Russell, Ailsa; Schmitz, Nicole; Happe, Francesca; Howlin, Patricia; Murphy, Declan G M


    Asperger's syndrome (an autistic disorder) is characterized by stereotyped and obsessional behaviours, and pervasive abnormalities in socio-emotional and communicative behaviour. These symptoms lead to social exclusion and a significant healthcare burden; however, their neurobiological basis is poorly understood. There are few studies on brain anatomy of Asperger's syndrome, and no focal anatomical abnormality has been reliably reported from brain imaging studies of autism, although there is increasing evidence for differences in limbic circuits. These brain regions are important in sensorimotor gating, and impaired 'gating' may partly explain the failure of people with autistic disorders to inhibit repetitive thoughts and actions. Thus, we compared brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in healthy people with Asperger's syndrome and controls. We included 21 adults with Asperger's syndrome and 24 controls. All had normal IQ and were aged 18-49 years. We studied brain anatomy using quantitative MRI, and sensorimotor gating using prepulse inhibition of startle in a subset of 12 individuals with Asperger's syndrome and 14 controls. We found significant age-related differences in volume of cerebral hemispheres and caudate nuclei (controls, but not people with Asperger's syndrome, had age-related reductions in volume). Also, people with Asperger's syndrome had significantly less grey matter in fronto-striatal and cerebellar regions than controls, and widespread differences in white matter. Moreover, sensorimotor gating was significantly impaired in Asperger's syndrome. People with Asperger's syndrome most likely have generalized alterations in brain development, but this is associated with significant differences from controls in the anatomy and function of specific brain regions implicated in behaviours characterizing the disorder. We hypothesize that Asperger's syndrome is associated with abnormalities in fronto-striatal pathways resulting in defective sensorimotor

  12. [Cervical vertebral column--anatomy, fractures, treatment]. (United States)

    Kłosiński, Michał; Sienkiewicz-Zawilińska, Justyna; Lipski, Marcin; Zawiliński, Jarosław; Matyja, Andrzej; Walocha, Jerzy


    The paper deals with anatomy of human cervical spine. It shows close relation between knowledge on the normal structure and methods of treatment of different kinds of spine injuries. It describes detailed anatomy and mechanical features of cervical vertebral column, including the structure of distinct vertebrae, their joints and arrangement of muscles. It reviews also historical methods of treatment of fractures in this region considering current methods.

  13. Comparative wood anatomy of Rhodothamnus species


    SERDAR, Bedri


    In this study, the comparative wood anatomy of the European [Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Reichb.] and Anatolian (Rhodothamnus sessilifolius P.H.Davis) species of Rhodothamnus were studied. The wood anatomy of the taxa shows evidence of adaptation to growing in alpine habitats. The woods of the species exhibit primitive wood anatomical characteristics and share similar qualitative anatomical features. However, some of the quantitative anatomical characteristics of the taxa show significant ...

  14. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette (United States)

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E


    Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.

  15. In-situ sputtering apparatus (United States)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady


    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  16. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)


    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.


    Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.


    An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

  18. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles


    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  19. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics (United States)

    Ratajska, A.; Gula, G.; Flaht-Zabost, A.; Czarnowska, E.; Ciszek, B.; Jankowska-Steifer, E.; Niderla-Bielinska, J.; Radomska-Lesniewska, D.


    The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting) vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. PMID:24592145

  20. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska


    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  1. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms. (United States)

    Hill, Robert V


    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  2. Electromechanical Apparatus Measures Residual Stress (United States)

    Chern, Engmin J.; Flom, Yury


    Nondestructive test exploits relationship between stress and eddy-current-probe resistance. Yields data on residual stress or strain in metal tension/compression specimen (stress or strain remaining in specimen when no stress applied from without). Apparatus is assembly of commercial equipment: tension-or-compression testing machine, eddy-current probe, impedance gain-and-phase analyzer measuring impedance of probe coil, and desktop computer, which controls other equipment and processes data received from impedance gain-and-phase analyzer.

  3. Microwave sterilization method and apparatus


    V. N. Vasilenko; Minuhin, V. V.; Podorozhnyak, A. A.; Trubaev, S. I.


    Experience of industrially developed countries in utilization of microwave radiation has been analyzed. Apparatus for realization of microwave method of sterilization has been designed. A number of experiments for the estimation of bactericidal, sporacidal, and virusidal properties of microwave radiation action has been carried out in 3 to 13 cm wavelength band. B. Lycheniform shtumm G., B. Subtilis ATTC 6633, E. Coli ATTC 25922 and bacterial virus FX 174 were used as test microbes. Effect of...

  4. Thermoplastic welding apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsen, Marc R.; Negley, Mark A.; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James


    A thermoplastic welding apparatus includes a thermoplastic welding tool, at least one tooling surface in the thermoplastic welding tool, a magnetic induction coil in the thermoplastic welding tool and generally encircling the at least one tooling surface and at least one smart susceptor in the thermoplastic welding tool at the at least one tooling surface. The magnetic induction coil is adapted to generate a magnetic flux field oriented generally parallel to a plane of the at least one smart susceptor.

  5. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology. (United States)

    Pickles, James O


    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  6. Endoscopic anatomy of sellar region. (United States)

    Perondi, Gerson Evandro; Isolan, Gustavo Rassier; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires; Stefani, Marco Antônio; Falcetta, E Frederico


    The transsphenoidal approach is the preferred access used in surgical treatment of most sellar region pathologies. The use of endoscopy is advantageous, and it is considered a good alternative to the traditional microsurgical technique. The purpose of this study is to recognize and describe anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus and the sellar region, mainly describing the anatomy of the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus and analyzing intercarotid distances in 3 regions. Thirty sphenoid blocks treated with formaldehyde were injected and dissected. Using endoscopy, anatomical variations were studied and the intercarotid distances were measured at the tuberculum sellae, sellar floor and clivus. The types of sphenoid sinus found were: conchal in 1 (4.76 %), pré-sellar in 2 (9.52 %) and sellar in 19 (85.7 %) specimens. The mean distance found from the sphenoid sinus ostium to the sella turcica was 19 mm (±6.5) mm. The mean intercarotid distances found at the tuberculum sellae, sellar floor and clivus were respectively 13.32, 18.00 and 18.90 mm. Endoscopy, with its magnification and lighting provide a panoramic view of deep fields. The anatomical variations described in this study support the need for a careful evaluation of preoperative images in each case.

  7. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines. (United States)

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco


    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers, and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars, and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological challenges to handle when aiming at producing (large) data sets of xylem anatomical data. Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 and 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors-if not avoided or corrected-may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful source for many

  8. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease. (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H


    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way.

  9. Introduction to sinus disease: I. Anatomy and physiology. (United States)

    Krouse, J H


    Chronic rhinosinusitis is the most common chronic illness in the United States. An understanding of the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, their functioning in health and in disease, and the contributing factors that are critical to the pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis is essential for nurses caring for patients with this prevalent disease. This paper will provide the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) nurse with an overview of the scientific principles important in rhinosinusitis, as well as presenting a framework for the understanding of rhinosinusitis and its treatment. (This paper is the first in a series of two articles. The second part will review the diagnosis and treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.)

  10. Revisiting the Anatomy of the Living Heart. (United States)

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E; Anderson, Robert H


    An understanding of the complexity of cardiac anatomy is required by all who seek, in the setting of cardiac disease, to interpret the images confronting them. Although the mysteries of cardiac structure have been extensively addressed, significant gaps continue to exist between the descriptions provided by morphologists and by those working in the clinical setting. In part, this reflects the limitations in providing 3D visualization of such a complicated organ. Current 3D imaging technology now permits visualization of the cardiac components using datasets obtained in the living individual. These advances, furthermore, demonstrate the anatomy in the setting of the heart as imaged within the thorax. It has been failure to describe the heart as it lies within the thorax that remains a major deficiency of many morphologists relying on the dissecting room to provide the gold standard. Describing the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion, a basic rule of clinical anatomy, creates the necessary bridges between anatomists and clinicians. The rapid progression of cardiac interventional techniques, furthermore, emphasizes the need to revisit cardiac anatomy using a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, therefore, we illustrate the advantages of an attitudinally correct approach to cardiac anatomy. We then focus on the morphology of the arterial roots, revealing the accuracy that can now be achieved by clinicians using datasets obtained during life.

  11. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.


    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  12. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir


    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  13. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  14. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC


    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  15. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints. (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe


    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  16. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan


    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  17. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy. (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael


    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed.

  18. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control]. (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo


    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  19. Anatomy of a Busted Comet (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1) NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet. Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions. Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1. The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped. The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris that travels along with the

  20. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires


    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  1. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.


    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  2. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus (United States)

    Lagasse, P.R.


    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  3. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)


    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  4. Master-slave micromanipulator apparatus (United States)

    Morimoto, Alan K.; Kozlowski, David M.; Charles, Steven T.; Spalding, James A.


    An apparatus based on precision X-Y stages that are stacked. Attached to arms projecting from each X-Y stage are a set of two axis gimbals. Attached to the gimbals is a rod, which provides motion along the axis of the rod and rotation around its axis. A dual-planar apparatus that provides six degrees of freedom of motion precise to within microns of motion. Precision linear stages along with precision linear motors, encoders, and controls provide a robotics system. The motors can be positioned in a remote location by incorporating a set of bellows on the motors and can be connected through a computer controller that will allow one to be a master and the other one to be a slave. Position information from the master can be used to control the slave. Forces of interaction of the slave with its environment can be reflected back to the motor control of the master to provide a sense of force sensed by the slave. Forces import onto the master by the operator can be fed back into the control of the slave to reduce the forces required to move it.

  5. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.


    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  6. Role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. (United States)

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F


    Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.

  7. Anatomy and biomechanics of the craniovertebral junction. (United States)

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Leibl, Kayla E; Smith, Zachary A; Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S


    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) has unique anatomical structures that separate it from the subaxial cervical spine. In addition to housing vital neural and vascular structures, the majority of cranial flexion, extension, and axial rotation is accomplished at the CVJ. A complex combination of osseous and ligamentous supports allow for stability despite a large degree of motion. An understanding of anatomy and biomechanics is essential to effectively evaluate and address the various pathological processes that may affect this region. Therefore, the authors present an up-to-date narrative review of CVJ anatomy, normal and pathological biomechanics, and fixation techniques.

  8. Management of Elbow Trauma: Anatomy and Exposures. (United States)

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A


    The elbow is a complex joint from the anatomic and biomechanical point of view. A thorough understanding of elbow anatomy greatly aids the surgeon in dealing with elbow trauma. The close vicinity of neurovascular structures should always be kept in mind when selecting a surgical approach. Any approach to the elbow needs to be safe and versatile. Knowledge of the attachment and orientation of elbow ligaments reduces the risk of inadvertent intraoperative injury and/or postoperative instability. Surgeons dealing with elbow trauma should have a good working understanding of elbow anatomy and the available approaches to effectively and efficiently conduct the surgical procedure to maximize outcomes and minimize complications.

  9. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent. (United States)

    Alyn, I B; Baker, L K


    Practicing cardiovascular nurses are aware that significant differences exist in the cardiac anatomy and physiology of children and adults. Generally, the younger the child the greater these differences are. The cellular anatomy and physiology are markedly different in the fetus, neonate, and infant. As development progresses, cardiac function begins to more closely approximate that of an adult. This article describes the anatomical and physiologic development of the fetus, neonate, infant, child, and adolescent. The developmental differences in preload, afterload, contractility, and heart rate are summarized.

  10. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis


    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  11. A change in paradigm: giving back identity to donors in the anatomy laboratory. (United States)

    Talarico, Ernest F


    This article describes a paradigm of teaching in the anatomy laboratory where students interact with the families of the deceased persons whom they are dissecting. This approach focuses learning anatomy and medicine on the patient via the implementation of five guiding principles: the First Patient; Knowledge; Reflection and Reflective Practice; Treating the Total Patient; and Professionalism. Physician training typically begins with cadaveric dissection (i.e., dissection of the first patient), and therefore the medical school gross anatomy course provides an ideal environment for multifaceted educational experiences where cadaveric dissection is used to teach structure and function as well as the skills and competencies critical to patient care. Here, these principles are described, and the impact on student doctors and outcomes discussed. The results suggest that mastery of basic science knowledge and competencies, including professionalism, compassion, and leadership skill is enhanced by this protocol.

  12. The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices. (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne H; Quill, Jason L; Bateman, Michael G; Eggen, Michael D; Howard, Stephen A; Goff, Ryan P; Howard, Brian T; Quallich, Stephen G; Iaizzo, Paul A


    This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families.

  13. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan


    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  14. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon


    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  15. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland


    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  16. Teaching dental anatomy with light-activated resins. (United States)

    Chalkley, Y; Denehy, G E; Schulein, T M


    A method has been described in which light-activated resins are incorporated into the dental anatomy laboratory. This procedure is a valuable addition to the anatomy course because students (1) work with a restorative material appropriate for anterior teeth, (2) learn the unique properties of the light-activated resins, and (3) apply the principles of dental anatomy to a clinically relevant task.

  17. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Kuppeveld, S. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.


    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and se

  18. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images (United States)

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick


    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  19. Design and application of radiation apparatus for sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang; Zhang Yuai


    Based on the special requirement for radiation apparatus of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system, a radiation apparatus including two-level shutter, working container, storing container and electromagnetism are designed. The makeup, working mode and functional realization of the radiation apparatus are introduced. The system is used in Manzhouli customs cargo train on-line inspection system. The practice shows that the radiation apparatus is reliable to work steadily and the operating speed of the main shutter can reach 0.1 s open and 0.15 s close

  20. Intraoperative vascular anatomy, arterial blood flow velocity, and microcirculation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, A.A.; Schumann, D.; Reddy, R.R.; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K.; Mueller-Gerbl, M.; Zeilhofer, H.F.; Sailer, H.F.; Reddy, S.G.


    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip repair aims to normalize the disturbed anatomy and function. The authors determined whether normalization of blood circulation is achieved. METHODS: The authors measured the microcirculatory flow, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin level in the lip and nose of controls (n = 22)

  1. Simple multipurpose apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant Ramkrishna; Christensen, Lars Porskjær


    , solubility measurement of solid solutes in different solvents or solvent mixtures as a function of temperature can be of great significance to the university students and researchers. In this article, comparatively inexpensive apparatus for solubility measurement of solid solutes in pure or mixture......-hexane-ethyl acetate mixtures of varying composition at different temperatures to demonstrate the suitability and reliability of the proposed solubility measurement apparatus. The proposed apparatus has been used to conduct laboratory exercises in the course “Industrial Separation Technology” offered to undergraduate...

  2. How Does Leaf Anatomy Influence Water Transport outside the Xylem? (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; John, Grace P; Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren


    Leaves are arguably the most complex and important physicobiological systems in the ecosphere. Yet, water transport outside the leaf xylem remains poorly understood, despite its impacts on stomatal function and photosynthesis. We applied anatomical measurements from 14 diverse species to a novel model of water flow in an areole (the smallest region bounded by minor veins) to predict the impact of anatomical variation across species on outside-xylem hydraulic conductance (Kox). Several predictions verified previous correlational studies: (1) vein length per unit area is the strongest anatomical determinant of Kox, due to effects on hydraulic pathlength and bundle sheath (BS) surface area; (2) palisade mesophyll remains well hydrated in hypostomatous species, which may benefit photosynthesis, (3) BS extensions enhance Kox; and (4) the upper and lower epidermis are hydraulically sequestered from one another despite their proximity. Our findings also provided novel insights: (5) the BS contributes a minority of outside-xylem resistance; (6) vapor transport contributes up to two-thirds of Kox; (7) Kox is strongly enhanced by the proximity of veins to lower epidermis; and (8) Kox is strongly influenced by spongy mesophyll anatomy, decreasing with protoplast size and increasing with airspace fraction and cell wall thickness. Correlations between anatomy and Kox across species sometimes diverged from predicted causal effects, demonstrating the need for integrative models to resolve causation. For example, (9) Kox was enhanced far more in heterobaric species than predicted by their having BS extensions. Our approach provides detailed insights into the role of anatomical variation in leaf function.

  3. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.


    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  4. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.


    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  5. On an Actual Apparatus for Conceptual Change. (United States)

    Macbeth, Douglas


    Organizes a reading of the conceptual change literature that brings into view a collection of design specifications for a conceptual change apparatus. Analyzes one such apparatus in the particulars of a science education demonstration program produced by the Harvard-Smithsonian Private Universe Project. (Contains 114 references.) (Author/WRM)

  6. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.


    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  7. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy. (United States)

    Gooderham, David


    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  8. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.


    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  9. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey


    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  10. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  11. [The importance of bronchoscopic anatomy for anesthesiologists]. (United States)

    Hoşten, Tülay; Topçu, Salih


    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is a sine qua non of thoracic surgery and requires knowledge and talent. Close familiarity with equipments used for OLV as well as bronchoscopy and respiratory tract anatomy is important for successful OLV. We aim to outline the bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and OLV equipment for anesthetists and thoracic surgeons in this review. The recorded preoperative and intraoperative bronchoscopic applications of the patients hospitalized in our Thoracic Surgery clinic for diagnosis and treatment have been evaluated from an anesthetist's perspective. Anatomic landmarks were identified in the bronchoscopic evaluation. Optimal and misplacement images of double-lumen tubes (DLT) and bronchial blockers (BB) used for OLV in our clinic were obtained via fiber optic bronchoscopy. While left lung isolation can be made more safely due to the anatomy of the left main bronchus, placement of both DLTs and BBs to the right main bronchus requires greater care. Success in OLV procedures would increase with anesthetists being well informed about the fiber optic bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and in close cooperation with the surgical team.

  12. Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer. (United States)

    Radius, R L; de Bruin, J


    Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in rabbit eyes is studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that retinal striations noted ophthalmoscopically in these eyes represent individual fiber bundles, Axon bundles are compartmentalized within tissue tunnels comprised of elongated processes of glial cell origin.

  13. Junior doctors' knowledge of applied clinical anatomy. (United States)

    Gupta, Yuri; Morgan, Mia; Singh, Annika; Ellis, Harold


    This study examines the level of knowledge of applied clinical anatomy among junior doctors. A multiple-choice questionnaire was designed, which covered 15 areas of anatomical knowledge essential to clinical practice, for example, important surface landmarks and interpretation of radiographs. The questionnaire was completed by 128 individuals. They comprised anatomy demonstrators, preregistration house officers (PRHOs), senior house officers (SHOs) and specialist registrars (SpRs) across the range of medical and surgical specialities. Answers were scored and analyzed by group, allowing comparison not only between newly qualified PRHOs and more senior doctors, but also with anatomy demonstrators who had undergone more traditional anatomical training. The results reveal a wide variation of knowledge among junior doctors, with PRHOs scoring an average of 72.1%, SHOs 77.1%, SpRs 82.4%, and demonstrators 82.9%. This progression in knowledge up the clinical hierarchy may reflect clinical experience building upon the foundations laid in medical school, although with demonstrators topping the league table, it seems that intensive academic training is the most beneficial. With junior doctors' training in the UK currently in flux, these results highlight the need for training in clinical anatomy to hold an important place in the development of tomorrow's clinicians.

  14. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.


    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  15. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching (United States)

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison


    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  16. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry (United States)

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil


    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  17. Anatomy Live : Performance and the Operating Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In de bundel Anatomy Live gaan verschillende wetenschappers in op de relatie tussen de geschiedenis van het anatomische lichaam en het theater. In de openbare ontledingen in het historische anatomische theater van de vroege renaissance werd de basis gelegd voor wat in de daaropvolgende eeuwen het we

  18. Comparative leaf anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, J.; Baas, P.


    The leaf anatomy of c. 60 species of the four Asiatic genera of the Myristicaceae (Gymnacranthera, Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica) is described in detail. Myristicaceae have characteristic, uniseriate hairs, the cells of which have arms. The number of arms per cell and the relative length of the a

  19. What shapes the anatomy of inventors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna


    which they themselves believe have formed their inventive capacities. The main findings of the article are that the sociocultural milieus of early childhood, especially the educational backgrounds or skills of parents and grandparents, play an important role in shaping the anatomy of inventors. Further...

  20. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review. (United States)

    Gavaghan, M


    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  1. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray


    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  2. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.


    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the taxon

  3. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin


    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  4. A Simple Mercury-Free Laboratory Apparatus to Study the Relationship between Pressure, Volume, and Temperature in a Gas (United States)

    McGregor, Donna; Sweeney, William V.; Mills, Pamela


    A simple and inexpensive mercury-free apparatus to measure the change in volume of a gas as a function of pressure at different temperatures is described. The apparatus is simpler than many found in the literature and can be used to study variations in pressure, volume, and temperature. (Contains 1 table and 7 figures.)

  5. [The isolation and assessment of Golgi apparatus from gastric cancer cells SGC7901]. (United States)

    He, Tingting; Yi, Yongfen; Li, Yanqing; Xiao, Zhong


    The Golgi complex is the central organelle of the secretory pathway and has many complicate functions. The endeavours to isolate and purify the Golgi apparatus from cultured cells will benefit further investigation of Golgi. A large number of gastric cancer cells SGC7901 were cultivated in vitro, then Golgi apparatus were isolated from the cells by differential centrifugation combined with sucrose density gradient ultra-centrifugation. Its purity was characterized biochemically by enzymatic assays, morphologically by electron microscopy (EM) and neutral red supravital staining. Finally the Golgi complex was successfully fractionated from gastric cancer cells SGC7901. The first successful isolation of Golgi apparatus from gastric cancer cells SGC7901 by using ultra-centrifugation will lead to research into the function of Golgi apparatus.

  6. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya


    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.


    Hicks, T.R.; Lehman, H.R.; Rubin, B.


    operation is described. It comprises a tubular colunm having upper and lower enlarged terminal portions, and a constricted central section containing fluid dispersal packing. Pulsing means are coupled to the upper portion of the column. The inlet for the less dense phase is located above the inlet for the denser phase and both are positioned so that liquids enter the constricted packingfilled central section. The apparatos also includes an interfacing level control, and means fer sensing the level of the interface actuate apparatus for controlling the rate of flow of input or discharge. The outlet for the less dense phase is located in the upper packing free portion of the colunm and that of the denser phase in the lower portion.

  8. "No interest in human anatomy as such": Frederic Wood Jones dissects anatomical investigation in the United States in the 1920s. (United States)

    Jones, Ross L


    In 1926, Frederic Wood Jones, professor of Anatomy at the University of Adelaide and a leading figure in the British anatomical world, took a Rockefeller Foundation funded trip to the United States in order to inspect anatomy programmes and medical museums and to meet leading figures in the anatomical and anthropological world. His later reflections paint a picture of a discipline in transition. Physical anthropology and gross anatomy were coming to a crisis point in the United States, increasingly displaced by research in histology, embryology and radiological anatomy. Meanwhile, in Britain and its colonial outposts, anatomists such as Wood Jones were attempting to re-invigorate the discipline in the field, studying biological specimens as functional and active agents in their particular milieus, but with human dissection at the core. Thus, an examination of this trip allows us to see how the interaction between two traditions in anatomy informed the process of the development of human biology in this critical period.

  9. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.R.


    An apparatus is described for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item, the apparatus comprising: a. a base; b. a first support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the first support member having a sufficiently small circumference that the tube can be slid over the first support member; c. a spherical element, the spherical element being connected to the second end of the first support member. The spherical element has a sufficiently small circumference at its equator that the tube can be slid over the spherical element, the spherical element having at its equator a larger circumference than the first support member; d. a second support member having first and second ends, the first end being connected to the base, the second support member being spaced apart form the first support member; e. a positioning element connected to and moveable relative to the second support member; and f. an indicator connected to the positioning element and being moveable thereby to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element, the contact ball contacting the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item, the rotatable needle being operatively connected to and responsive to the position of the contact ball.

  10. Total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This was a retrospective case-control study on total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee, aimed to compare patella fractures with tendinous ruptures. METHODS: The sample included 190 patients and 198 total ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus. All patients were evaluated by the same examiner after a minimum one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Tendinous ruptures occurred most frequently in men, in younger patients, and had better clinical and functional outcomes when compared with patella fractures; however, the former presented higher levels of thigh atrophy. Patella fractures occurred most frequently in women and in older patients and caused most frequently caused residual pain, muscle weakness, and limitations in daily activities. Comminuted fractures were related to high-energy trauma, lower clinical and functional outcomes, and higher levels of residual pain and osteosynthesis failure. Early removal of osteosynthesis material was related to better outcomes. Regarding the tendinous ruptures, over half of the patients presented risk conditions for tendinous degeneration; a longer delay until surgery was related to lower Kujala scores. CONCLUSION: The surgical repair of bilateral ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes, which were better for tendinous ruptures when compared with patella fractures. However, these lesions are associated with non-negligible levels of residual pain, muscle weakness, atrophy, and other complications.

  11. The Anatomy of Moral Intelligence. (United States)

    Boss, Judith A.


    Argues that moral intelligence is one of the separate, autonomous multiple intelligences. The essay discusses moral development as a function of cognitive/analytical development, the relationship between moral reasoning and moral conduct, the biological basis of moral intelligence, moral intelligence as a function of social intelligence, and…

  12. The centrosome-Golgi apparatus nexus. (United States)

    Rios, Rosa M


    A shared feature among all microtubule (MT)-dependent processes is the requirement for MTs to be organized in arrays of defined geometry. At a fundamental level, this is achieved by precisely controlling the timing and localization of the nucleation events that give rise to new MTs. To this end, MT nucleation is restricted to specific subcellular sites called MT-organizing centres. The primary MT-organizing centre in proliferating animal cells is the centrosome. However, the discovery of MT nucleation capacity of the Golgi apparatus (GA) has substantially changed our understanding of MT network organization in interphase cells. Interestingly, MT nucleation at the Golgi apparently relies on multiprotein complexes, similar to those present at the centrosome, that assemble at the cis-face of the organelle. In this process, AKAP450 plays a central role, acting as a scaffold to recruit other centrosomal proteins important for MT generation. MT arrays derived from either the centrosome or the GA differ in their geometry, probably reflecting their different, yet complementary, functions. Here, I review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MT nucleation at the GA and how Golgi- and centrosome-based MT arrays work in concert to ensure the formation of a pericentrosomal polarized continuous Golgi ribbon structure, a critical feature for cell polarity in mammalian cells. In addition, I comment on the important role of the Golgi-nucleated MTs in organizing specialized MT arrays that serve specific functions in terminally differentiated cells.

  13. Surgical anatomy of hand allotransplantation. (United States)

    Carlsen, Brian T; Al-Mufarrej, Faisal; Moran, Steven L


    The hand is the most refined anatomical terminal device known and the leading edge of the sensorium. Further, the hand is second only to the face in terms of visibility and is a vitally important aspect aesthetic and body image. Hand amputation represents a devastating loss of function and independence. Restoring function after limb loss is a challenge and traditionally includes autologous methods and prosthetics. In the last 15 years, hand transplantation has become a viable option for select patients.

  14. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract. (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H


    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  15. Long head of biceps: from anatomy to treatment. (United States)

    Sarmento, M


    The long head of the biceps (LHB), tendinous structure of the proximal brachial biceps, has its well-known anatomy, which contrasts with its current functional characterization. Various forms of proximal anchor and intra-articular route, important for the correct interpretation of its contribution to the pathology of the shoulder as well as the treatment methodology, are described. Knowledge of its biomechanics results mainly from cadaveric studies that contradict each other. Already the few studies in vivo indicate a depressant and stabilizing action, anterior, for the humeral head. Its pathology is rarely isolated because it is almost always correlated with rotator cuff or labrum pathology. It can be divided into 3 major groups (inflammatory, instability and traumatic) and subdivided according to its location. The anterior shoulder pain is the initial symptom of pathology of LHB Its perfect characterization is dependent on the associated injuries. Clinical tests are multiple and only their combination allows better sensitivity and specificity for LHB pathology. The arthro-MRI and dynamic ultrasound are able to increase proper diagnostic of the pathology of LHB. Treatment ranges from conservative and surgical. The latter includes the repair, tenotomy and tenodesis of LHB which can be performed by open or arthroscopic methodology. The author intends to review existing literature on all aspects related to the long head of the biceps from anatomy to treatment, presenting the latest results.

  16. Intracellular zinc distribution in mitochondria, ER and the Golgi apparatus. (United States)

    Lu, Qiping; Haragopal, Hariprakash; Slepchenko, Kira G; Stork, Christian; Li, Yang V


    Zinc (Zn(2+)) is required for numerous cellular functions. As such, the homeostasis and distribution of intracellular zinc can influence cellular metabolism and signaling. However, the exact distribution of free zinc within live cells remains elusive. Previously we showed the release of zinc from thapsigargin/IP3-sensitive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) storage in cortical neurons. In the present study, we investigated if other cellular organelles also contain free chelatable zinc and function as organelle storage for zinc. To identify free zinc within the organelles, live cells were co-stained with Zinpyr-1, a zinc fluorescent dye, and organelle-specific fluorescent dyes (MitoFluor Red 589: mitochondria; ER Tracker Red: endoplasmic reticulum; BODIPY TR ceramide: Golgi apparatus; Syto Red 64: nucleus). We examined organelles that represent potential storing sites for intracellular zinc. We showed that zinc fluorescence staining was co-localized with MitoFluor Red 589, ER Tracker Red, and BODIPY TR ceramide respectively, suggesting the presence of free zinc in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus. On the other hand, cytosol and nucleus had nearly no detectable zinc fluorescence. It is known that nucleus contains high amount of zinc binding proteins that have high zinc binding affinity. The absence of zinc fluorescence suggests that there is little free zinc in these two regions. It also indicates that the zinc fluorescence detected in mitochondria, ER and Golgi apparatus represents free chelatable zinc. Taken together, our results support that these organelles are potential zinc storing organelles during cellular zinc homeostasis.

  17. The history of anatomy in Persia. (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane


    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  18. Versatile apparatus for thermoelectric characterization of oxides at high temperatures. (United States)

    Schrade, Matthias; Fjeld, Harald; Norby, Truls; Finstad, Terje G


    An apparatus for measuring the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity is presented and characterized. The device can be used in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 1050 °C and in all common atmospheres, including oxidizing, reducing, humid, and inert. The apparatus is suitable for samples with different geometries (disk-, bar-shaped), allowing a complete thermoelectric characterization (including thermal conductivity) on a single sample. The Seebeck coefficient α can be measured in both sample directions (in-plane and cross-plane) simultaneously. Electrical conductivity is measured via the van der Pauw method. Perovskite-type CaMnO3 and the misfit cobalt oxide (Ca2CoO3)q(CoO2) are studied to demonstrate the temperature range and to investigate the variation of the electrical properties as a function of the measurement atmosphere.

  19. Implications of the Golgi apparatus in prostate cancer. (United States)

    Migita, Toshiro; Inoue, Satoshi


    The classical view of the Golgi apparatus is of a small membranous organelle involved in protein transport and secretion. Recent descriptions of the molecular network connecting the Golgi to other organelles demonstrate the essential roles of the Golgi in cellular activities as a stress sensor, apoptosis trigger, lipid/protein modifier, mitotic checkpoint, and a mediator of malignant transformation. Thus, the Golgi function should have a fundamental impact on cancer cell survival. Prostate cancer is initially responsive to androgenic hormones; however, it almost invariably progresses to a castration-refractory or hormone-insensitive state. Nevertheless, androgen signaling remains active at this stage and is important as a therapeutic target. Certain Golgi-associated molecules have recently been demonstrated to be regulated by androgen action, and the Golgi is emerging as a new therapeutic target in prostate cancer. The key Golgi-associated molecules essential for prostate cancer development and the potential therapeutic options targeting the Golgi apparatus are discussed.

  20. Regularized Statistical Analysis of Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl


    This thesis presents the application and development of regularized methods for the statistical analysis of anatomical structures. Focus is on structure-function relationships in the human brain, such as the connection between early onset of Alzheimer’s disease and shape changes of the corpus cal...

  1. Synchronous intra-Golgi transport induces the release of Ca2+ from the Golgi apparatus. (United States)

    Micaroni, Massimo; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Di Giandomenico, Daniele; Bianchi, Katiuscia; Spaar, Alexander; Mironov, Alexander A


    The mechanisms of secretory transport through the Golgi apparatus remain an issue of debate. The precise functional importance of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) for intra-Golgi transport has also been poorly studied. Here, using different approaches to measure free Ca(2+) concentrations in the cell cytosol ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) and inside the lumen of the Golgi apparatus ([Ca(2+)](GA)), we have revealed transient increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) during the late phase of intra-Golgi transport that are concomitant with a decline in the maximal [Ca(2+)](GA) restoration ability. Thus, this redistribution of Ca(2+) from the Golgi apparatus into the cytosol during the movement of cargo through the Golgi apparatus appears to have a role in intra-Golgi transport, and mainly in the late Ca(2+)-dependent phase of SNARE-regulated fusion of Golgi compartments.

  2. Personal cooling apparatus and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)


    A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

  3. Pulse measurement apparatus and method (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.


    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  4. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy. (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray


    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology.

  5. Otitis: anatomy every practitioner should know. (United States)

    Griffin, Craig


    Chronic otitis externa is a difficult, frustrating problem. Four etiologic components must be considered: primary and secondary causes and perpetuating and predisposing factors.1 Usually, these cases are complex and involve more than one component. Perpetuating factors are changes in the anatomy and physiology of the ear that occur in response to inflammation in the ear canal and the perpetuating factors already present. They are self-perpetuating, are not disease specific, and include failure of self-cleaning mechanisms and proliferative changes that create folds and stenosis of the lumen of the ear canal. Elimination of perpetuating factors often requires aggressive cleaning of the ear and long-term therapy. It is important to avoid damaging key structures while aggressively cleaning the ear. Therefore, to adequately diagnose and manage perpetuating factors, veterinarians must recognize normal ear anatomy and physiology.

  6. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy. (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy


    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  7. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy. (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko


    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary.

  8. Floral anatomy and systematics of Bretschneidera (Bretschneideraceae)



    External morphology and anatomy of the flower and pollen of Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl. are described to clarify the position of the family Bretschneideraceae relative to the Sapindales and the glucosinolate-producing families. Anatomical and micromorphological characters are investigated and sections are used to understand the structure of the flower. Observation of buds and sections reveal that the flower is obliquely monosymmetric, with the symmetry line running from one petal to a sepa...

  9. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution. (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian


    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors.

  10. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae


    Zhang, Shu-Yin


    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification, 12 groups are recognised and compared with Hutchinson’s tribes. Groups I-V accommodate a mixture of representatives from Spiraeoideae and Rosoideae genera (or tribes); Groups VI-VII comprise the M...

  11. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  12. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S


    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  13. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy (United States)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.


    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  14. Functional mapping of thalamic nuclei and their integration into cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops via ultra-high resolution imaging- From animal anatomy to in vivo imaging in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline D. Metzger


    Full Text Available The thalamus, a crucial node in the well-described cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, has been the focus of functional and structural imaging studies investigating human emotion, cognition and memory. Invasive work in animals and post-mortem investigations have revealed the rich cytoarchitectonics and functional specificity of the thalamus. Given current restrictions in the spatial resolution of non-invasive imaging modalities, there is, however, a translational gap between functional and structural information on these circuits in humans and animals as well as between histological and cellular evidence and their relationship to psychological functioning.With the advance of higher field strengths for MR approaches, better spatial resolution is now available promising to overcome this conceptual problem.We here review these two levels, which exist for both neuroscientific and clinical investigations, and then focus on current attempts to overcome conceptual boundaries of these observations with the help of high-resolution imaging.

  15. Functional mapping of thalamic nuclei and their integration into cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops via ultra-high resolution imaging—from animal anatomy to in vivo imaging in humans (United States)

    Metzger, Coraline D.; van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Walter, Martin


    The thalamus, a crucial node in the well-described cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, has been the focus of functional and structural imaging studies investigating human emotion, cognition and memory. Invasive work in animals and post-mortem investigations have revealed the rich cytoarchitectonics and functional specificity of the thalamus. Given current restrictions in the spatial resolution of non-invasive imaging modalities, there is, however, a translational gap between functional and structural information on these circuits in humans and animals as well as between histological and cellular evidence and their relationship to psychological functioning. With the advance of higher field strengths for MR approaches, better spatial resolution is now available promising to overcome this conceptual problem. We here review these two levels, which exist for both neuroscientific and clinical investigations, and then focus on current attempts to overcome conceptual boundaries of these observations with the help of ultra-high resolution imaging. PMID:23658535

  16. The Golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Pantazopoulou, Areti


    Cargo passage through the Golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. Although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the Golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. During the past decade the Golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly Aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. Here an overview of the most important findings in the field is provided. Golgi architecture and dynamics, as well as the novel cell biology tools that were developed in filamentous fungi in these studies, are addressed. An emphasis is placed on the central role the Golgi has as a crossroads in the endocytic and secretory-traffic pathways in hyphae. Finally the major advances that the A. nidulans Golgi biology has yielded so far regarding our understanding of key Golgi regulators, such as the Rab GTPases RabC(Rab6) and RabE(Rab11), the oligomeric transport protein particle, TRAPPII, and the Golgi guanine nucleotide exchange factors of Arf1, GeaA(GBF1/Gea1) and HypB(BIG/Sec7), are highlighted.

  17. Methods and apparatus for cooling electronics (United States)

    Hall, Shawn Anthony; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent


    Methods and apparatus are provided for choosing an energy-efficient coolant temperature for electronics by considering the temperature dependence of the electronics' power dissipation. This dependence is explicitly considered in selecting the coolant temperature T.sub.0 that is sent to the equipment. To minimize power consumption P.sub.Total for the entire system, where P.sub.Total=P.sub.0+P.sub.Cool is the sum of the electronic equipment's power consumption P.sub.0 plus the cooling equipment's power consumption P.sub.Cool, P.sub.Total is obtained experimentally, by measuring P.sub.0 and P.sub.Cool, as a function of three parameters: coolant temperature T.sub.0; weather-related temperature T.sub.3 that affects the performance of free-cooling equipment; and computational state C of the electronic equipment, which affects the temperature dependence of its power consumption. This experiment provides, for each possible combination of T.sub.3 and C, the value T.sub.0* of T.sub.0 that minimizes P.sub.Total. During operation, for any combination of T.sub.3 and C that occurs, the corresponding optimal coolant temperature T.sub.0* is selected, and the cooling equipment is commanded to produce it.

  18. Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass (United States)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.


    Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

  19. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.


    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  20. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education. (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R


    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P structures (2.97 ±0.86 versus 4.03 ±0.59), demonstrating the success of the ACUS curriculum in students with limited prior experience. Views on the value of US to anatomy education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements. (1) This section covers all types and... apparatus located in basements. All mechanical power transmission apparatus located in basements,...

  2. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment. (United States)

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R


    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  3. Anatomy of the Eustachian Tube. (United States)

    Leuwer, Rudolf


    The eustachian tube consists of 2 compartments: the Rüdinger's safety canal and the auxiliary gap. It is surrounded by a cartilaginous wall on the craniomedial side and a membranous wall on the inferolateral side. The eustachian tube cartilage is firmly attached to the skull base by the lateral and the medial suspensory ligaments, which are separated by the medial Ostmann fat pad. The function of the isometric tensor veli palatini muscle is modulated by hypomochlia, which have an influence on the muscular force vectors.

  4. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences. (United States)

    Olson, Michael J


    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences.

  5. History of cardiac anatomy: a comprehensive review from the Egyptians to today. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Youssef, Pamela; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane


    The nature, function, and anatomy of the heart have been extensively studied since 3500 B.C. Greek and Egyptian science developed a basic understanding of the heart, although this was primarily related to religious beliefs. During the Hippocratic era, Hippocrates and his colleagues developed a more scientific and less religious understanding of the cardiovascular system. The post-Hippocratic era was characterized by more advanced descriptions of the location, structure, and function of the heart. The Alexandrian, Roman, Medieval Islamic, and European eras included turning points in the history of cardiac anatomy. Subsequently, after the structure and function of the heart were established, its connection with the lungs was investigated. Description of the pulmonary circulation was followed by the discovery of the conductive system and innervation of the heart.

  6. Improvements to the APEX apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others


    A number of technical issues led us to rework extensively the APEX apparatus in summer 1994. During the earlier runs, a significant fraction of the 432 silicon detector elements showed degraded resolution such that they had to be excluded from the final analysis in software. The effect of this is to reduce the efficiency of APEX and possibly also to introduce holes in the acceptance which, for some perhaps exotic scenarios, might reduce the acceptance to an unacceptably low level. Also, the energy thresholds below which it is not possible to generate timing information from the silicon detectors, were high enough that the low-energy acceptance of APEX was compromised to a significant extent. The origins of these difficulties were in part due to degraded performance of the silicon detectors themselves, problems with the silicon cooling systems and electronics problems. Both silicon arrays were disassembled and sub-standard detectors replaced, all detectors were also cleaned with the result that all detectors now performed at the specified values of leakage current. The silicon cooling systems were disassembled and rebuilt with the result that many small leaks were fixed. Defective electronics channels were repaired or replaced. The rotating target wheel was also improved with the installation of new bearings and a computer-controlled rotation and readout system. The rebuilt wheel can now run at speeds up to 900 rpm for weeks on end without breakdown. The target wheel and associated beam sweeping now work extremely well so that low-melting-point targets such as Pb and In can be used in quite intense beams without melting.

  7. Lecture Classes in Human Anatomy: The Students’ Perceptions


    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar


    Introduction: The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of...

  8. Method and Apparatus for Determining Operational Parameters of Thermoelectric Modules (United States)

    Zybała, Rafał; Schmidt, Maksymilian; Kaszyca, Kamil; Ciupiński, Łukasz; Kruszewski, Mirosław J.; Pietrzak, Katarzyna


    The main aim of this work was to construct and test an apparatus for characterization of high temperature thermoelectric modules to be used in thermoelectric generator (TEGs) applications. The idea of this apparatus is based on very precise measurements of heat fluxes passing through the thermoelectric (TE) module, at both its hot and cold sides. The electrical properties of the module, under different temperature and load conditions, were used to estimate efficiency of energy conversion based on electrical and thermal energy conservation analysis. The temperature of the cold side, T c, was stabilized by a precise circulating thermostat (≤0.1°C) in a temperature range from 5°C to 90°C. The amount of heat absorbed by a coolant flowing through the heat sink was measured by the calibrated and certified heat flow meter with an accuracy better than 1%. The temperature of the hot side, T h, was forced to assumed temperature ( T max = 450°C) by an electric heater with known power ( P h = 0-600 W) with ample thermal insulation. The electrical power was used in calculations. The TE module, heaters and cooling plate were placed in an adiabatic vacuum chamber. The load characteristics of the module were evaluated using an electronically controlled current source as a load. The apparatus may be used to determine the essential parameters of TE modules (open circuit voltage, U oc, short circuit current, I sc, internal electrical resistance, R int, thermal resistance, R th, power density, and efficiency, η, as a function of T c and T h ). Several commercially available TE modules based on Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 alloys were tested. The measurements confirmed that the constructed apparatus was highly accurate, stable and yielded reproducible results; therefore, it is a reliable tool for the development of thermoelectric generators.

  9. Anatomy and physiology of urinary elimination. Part 1. (United States)

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Elimination of urine is an essential bodily function, but independence in this activity may be affected by physical and mental disability. Part 1 of this article discusses the anatomy and physiology of the renal and urinary tract and the production of urine. Urinalysis is a vital nursing assessment and the collection of specimens and the range of tests undertaken are outlined. Assisting patients to use the toilet, commode or bedpan is an essential nursing skill. The importance of sensitivity, empathy and moving and handling risk assessment is discussed, and the assessment and management of urinary tract infection and urinary tract stones are addressed. The importance of prevention of cross infection for nurses and patients is highlighted throughout the article.

  10. The anatomy and physiology of the ocular motor system. (United States)

    Horn, Anja K E; Leigh, R John


    Accurate diagnosis of abnormal eye movements depends upon knowledge of the purpose, properties, and neural substrate of distinct functional classes of eye movement. Here, we summarize current concepts of the anatomy of eye movement control. Our approach is bottom-up, starting with the extraocular muscles and their innervation by the cranial nerves. Second, we summarize the neural circuits in the pons underlying horizontal gaze control, and the midbrain connections that coordinate vertical and torsional movements. Third, the role of the cerebellum in governing and optimizing eye movements is presented. Fourth, each area of cerebral cortex contributing to eye movements is discussed. Last, descending projections from cerebral cortex, including basal ganglionic circuits that govern different components of gaze, and the superior colliculus, are summarized. At each stage of this review, the anatomical scheme is used to predict the effects of lesions on the control of eye movements, providing clinical-anatomical correlation.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LUO Zhi-yong; PU Yu-feng; HONG Hong; ZUO Zhi-xiong


    Mastering anatomic structures of acupoints is of active significance for avoiding blindly needling and preventing accidents of acupuncture and moxibustion. This multimedia animation system of acupoint anatomy adopts Flash software as developing tool and can dynamically display anatomic layers of needle insertion, with objectivity, convenient operation and English-Chinese control, higher reliability, easy to study and master anatomic knowledge of acupoint anatomy, increase teaching efficiency, and richen teaching ways. This system can be used as a teaching tool of acupuncture and moxibustion, a software of studying anatomy of acupoints and an adjuvant tool of medical workers in studying anatomy.

  12. Neuromuscular anatomy and evolution of the cetacean forelimb. (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Dawson, Susan D; Reidenberg, Joy S; Berta, Annalisa


    The forelimb of cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) has been radically modified during the limb-to-flipper transition. Extant cetaceans have a soft tissue flipper encasing the manus and acting as a hydrofoil to generate lift. The neuromuscular anatomy that controls flipper movement, however, is poorly understood. This study documents flipper neuromuscular anatomy and tests the hypothesis that antebrachial muscle robustness is related to body size. Data were gathered during dissections of 22 flippers, representing 15 species (7 odontocetes, 15 mysticetes). Results were compared with published descriptions of both artiodactyls and secondarily aquatic vertebrates. Results indicate muscle robustness is best predicted by taxonomic distribution and is not a function of body size. All cetaceans have atrophied triceps muscles, an immobile cubital joint, and lack most connective tissue structures and manus muscles. Forelimbs retain only three muscle groups: triceps (only the scapular head is functional as the humeral heads are vestigal), and antebrachial extensors and flexors. Well-developed flexor and extensor muscles were found in mysticetes and basal odontocetes (i.e., physeterids, kogiids, and ziphiids), whereas later diverging odontocetes (i.e., monodontids, phocoenids, and delphinids) lack or reduce these muscles. Balaenopterid mysticetes (e.g., fin and minke whales) may actively change flipper curvature, while basal odontocetes (e.g., sperm and beaked whales) probably stiffen the flipper through isometric contraction. Later diverging odontocetes lack musculature supporting digital movements and are unable to manipulate flipper curvature. Cetacean forelimbs are unique in that they have lost agility and several soft tissue structures, but retain sensory innervations.

  13. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy. (United States)

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean


    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular.

  14. The computational anatomy of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A Adams


    Full Text Available This paper considers psychotic symptoms in terms of false inferences or beliefs. It is based on the notion that the brain is an inference machine that actively constructs hypotheses to explain or predict its sensations. This perspective provides a normative (Bayes optimal account of action and perception that emphasises probabilistic representations; in particular, the confidence or precision of beliefs about the world. We will consider hallucinosis, abnormal eye movements, sensory attenuation deficits, catatonia and delusions as various expressions of the same core pathology: namely, an aberrant encoding of precision. From a cognitive perspective, this represents a pernicious failure of metacognition (beliefs about beliefs that can confound perceptual inference. In the embodied setting of active (Bayesian inference, it can lead to behaviours that are paradoxically more accurate than Bayes optimal behaviour. Crucially, this normative account is accompanied by a neuronally plausible process theory based upon hierarchical predictive coding. In predictive coding, precision is thought to be encoded by the postsynaptic gain of neurons reporting prediction error. This suggests that both pervasive trait abnormalities and florid failures of inference in the psychotic state can be linked to factors controlling postsynaptic gain – such as NMDA receptor function and (dopaminergic neuromodulation. We illustrate these points using biologically plausible simulations of perceptual synthesis, smooth pursuit eye movements and attribution of agency – that all use the same predictive coding scheme and pathology: namely, a reduction in the precision of prior beliefs, relative to sensory evidence.

  15. Morphology of platelet Golgi apparatus and their significance after acute cerebral infarction. (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Xu, Dong; Tu, Ranran; Hu, Zhiping


    Blood samples were harvested from the antecubital vein of 20 fasting patients with acute cerebral infarction at 1, 7 and 15 days after onset to prepare blood platelet suspension. Fasting antecubital vein blood was collected from an additional 20 normal adults as controls. Under transmission tron microscope, platelet Golgi tubules and vesicles became significantly thickened, enlarged, and irregular after acute cerebral infarction. Alpha granules in platelets significantly reduced in number, especially 1 day after cerebral infarction. Under immunoelectron microscopy, a few alpha granules aggregated around Golgi tubules and vesicles after infarction. These results suggested that platelet Golgi apparatus displayed significant morphological changes, which were possibly associated with enhanced synthetic and secretory functions of activated platelets after acute cerebral infarction. This study used Golgi apparatus blocking agent Brefeldin A to block Golgi apparatus in an aim to study the effects of Golgi apparatus on CD40L expression on the surface of activated platelets. Flow cytometry revealed that CD40L expression on activated platelet surfaces decreased significantly when Golgi apparatus was blocked, which indicated that Golgi apparatus participated in the synthesis and transport of CD40L to the platelet surface.

  16. Morphology of platelet Golgi apparatus and their significance after acute cerebral infarction***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Lu; Dong Xu; Ranran Tu; Zhiping Hu


    Blood samples were harvested from the antecubital vein of 20 fasting patients with acute cerebral infarction at 1, 7 and 15 days after onset to prepare blood platelet suspension. Fasting antecubital vein blood was col ected from an additional 20 normal adults as controls. Under transmission tron microscope, platelet Golgi tubules and vesicles became significantly thickened, enlarged, and irregular after acute cerebral infarction. Alpha granules in platelets significantly reduced in number, especial y 1 day after cerebral infarction. Under immunoelectron microscopy, a few alpha granules aggregated around Golgi tubules and vesicles after infarction. These results suggested that platelet Golgi apparatus displayed significant morphological changes, which were possibly associated with enhanced synthetic and secretory functions of activated platelets after acute cerebral infarction. This study used Golgi apparatus blocking agent Brefeldin A to block Golgi apparatus in an aim to study the effects of Golgi apparatus on CD40L expression on the surface of activated platelets. Flow cytometry revealed that CD40L expression on activated platelet surfaces decreased significantly when Golgi apparatus was blocked, which indicated that Golgi apparatus participated in the syn-thesis and transport of CD40L to the platelet surface.

  17. RNAi screening reveals a large signaling network controlling the Golgi apparatus in human cells. (United States)

    Chia, Joanne; Goh, Germaine; Racine, Victor; Ng, Susanne; Kumar, Pankaj; Bard, Frederic


    The Golgi apparatus has many important physiological functions, including sorting of secretory cargo and biosynthesis of complex glycans. These functions depend on the intricate and compartmentalized organization of the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate Golgi architecture, we developed a quantitative morphological assay using three different Golgi compartment markers and quantitative image analysis, and performed a kinome- and phosphatome-wide RNAi screen in HeLa cells. Depletion of 159 signaling genes, nearly 20% of genes assayed, induced strong and varied perturbations in Golgi morphology. Using bioinformatics data, a large regulatory network could be constructed. Specific subnetworks are involved in phosphoinositides regulation, acto-myosin dynamics and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Most gene depletion also affected Golgi functions, in particular glycan biosynthesis, suggesting that signaling cascades can control glycosylation directly at the Golgi level. Our results provide a genetic overview of the signaling pathways that control the Golgi apparatus in human cells.

  18. Decoupling polarization of the Golgi apparatus and GM1 in the plasma membrane. (United States)

    Bisel, Blaine; Calamai, Martino; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco Saverio


    Cell polarization is a process of coordinated cellular rearrangements that prepare the cell for migration. GM1 is synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and localized in membrane microdomains that appear at the leading edge of polarized cells, but the mechanism by which GM1 accumulates asymmetrically is unknown. The Golgi apparatus itself becomes oriented toward the leading edge during cell polarization, which is thought to contribute to plasma membrane asymmetry. Using quantitative image analysis techniques, we measure the extent of polarization of the Golgi apparatus and GM1 in the plasma membrane simultaneously in individual cells subject to a wound assay. We find that GM1 polarization starts just 10 min after stimulation with growth factors, while Golgi apparatus polarization takes 30 min. Drugs that block Golgi polarization or function have no effect on GM1 polarization, and, conversely, inhibiting GM1 polarization does not affect Golgi apparatus polarization. Evaluation of Golgi apparatus and GM1 polarization in single cells reveals no correlation between the two events. Our results indicate that Golgi apparatus and GM1 polarization are controlled by distinct intracellular cascades involving the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, respectively. Analysis of cell migration and invasion suggest that MEK/ERK activation is crucial for two dimensional migration, while PI3K activation drives three dimensional invasion, and no cumulative effect is observed from blocking both simultaneously. The independent biochemical control of GM1 polarity by PI3K and Golgi apparatus polarity by MEK/ERK may act synergistically to regulate and reinforce directional selection in cell migration.

  19. Anatomy of the python heart. (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nyengaard, Jens R; Pedersen, Michael; Wang, Tobias


    The hearts of all snakes and lizards consist of two atria and a single incompletely divided ventricle. In general, the squamate ventricle is subdivided into three chambers: cavum arteriosum (left), cavum venosum (medial) and cavum pulmonale (right). Although a similar division also applies to the heart of pythons, this family of snakes is unique amongst snakes in having intracardiac pressure separation. Here we provide a detailed anatomical description of the cardiac structures that confer this functional division. We measured the masses and volumes of the ventricular chambers, and we describe the gross morphology based on dissections of the heart from 13 ball pythons (Python regius) and one Burmese python (P. molurus). The cavum venosum is much reduced in pythons and constitutes approximately 10% of the cavum arteriosum. We suggest that shunts will always be less than 20%, while other studies conclude up to 50%. The high-pressure cavum arteriosum accounted for approximately 75% of the total ventricular mass, and was twice as dense as the low-pressure cavum pulmonale. The reptile ventricle has a core of spongious myocardium, but the three ventricular septa that separate the pulmonary and systemic chambers--the muscular ridge, the bulbuslamelle and the vertical septum--all had layers of compact myocardium. Pythons, however, have unique pads of connective tissue on the site of pressure separation. Because the hearts of varanid lizards, which also are endowed with pressure separation, share many of these morphological specializations, we propose that intraventricular compact myocardium is an indicator of high-pressure systems and possibly pressure separation.

  20. Design of neutral particle incident heating apparatus for large scale helical apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)


    In the Institute of Nuclear Fusion Science, construction of the large scale helical apparatus has been progressed favorably, and constructions of the heating apparatus as well as of electron resonance apparatus were begun in their orders under predetermined manner since 1994 fiscal year. And, on 1995 fiscal year, construction of neutral particle incident heating apparatus, leading heat apparatus, was begun under 3 years planning. The plasma heating study system adopted the study results developed in this institute through the large scale hydrogen negative ion source and also adopted thereafter development on nuclear fusion study by modifying the original specification set at the beginning of the research plan before 7 years. As a result, system design was changed from initial 125 KeV to 180 KeV in the beam energy and to execute 15 MW incidence using two sets beam lines, to begin its manufacturing. Here is described on its new design with reason of its modifications. (G.K.)

  1. Structure and function of the major ampullate spinning duct of the golden orb weaver, Nephila edulis. (United States)

    Davies, G J G; Knight, D P; Vollrath, F


    Silks are fibres produced by spiders, some insects and even a crustacean, and are formed from protein solution by a pulltrusion process that is not well understood. Here we describe three aspects of the functional anatomy of the spinning apparatus in a spider: (i) changes in the diameter of the duct of the silk gland along its length for individuals at different stages of development, (ii) the correlation between the morphology of the duct and size and (iii) changes in the thickness of the wall of the duct. We conclude that in the distal part of the duct both the lumen's geometry and change in diameter with distance remains remarkably constant as the duct increases in length from moult to moult as the spider grows. This suggests constancy in the region where the nascent silk filament is drawn down within the lumen of the duct, which is likely to be fundamental for forming strong and tough fibres.

  2. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su


    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice…

  3. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education (United States)

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.


    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  4. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others


    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  5. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy. (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D


    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  6. Development of a spatial filtering apparatus (United States)

    Wilson, Nicolle

    This thesis contains a discussion of the theoretical background for Fourier spatial filtering and a description of the design and construction of a portable in-class spatial filtering apparatus. A portable, in-class spatial filtering demonstration apparatus was designed and built. This apparatus uses liquid crystal display (LCD) panels from two projectors as the object and filter masks. The blue LCD panel from the first projector serves as the object mask, and the red panel from the second projector serves as the filter mask. The panels were extracted from their projectors and mounted onto aluminum blocks which are held in place by optical component mounts. Images are written to the LCD panels via custom open source software developed for this apparatus which writes independent monochromatic images to the video signal. The software has two monochromatic image windows, basic image manipulation tools, and two video feed input display windows. Two complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors are positioned to record the reconstructed image of the object mask and the diffraction pattern created by the object mask. The object and filter mask can be digitally changed and the effects on the filtered image and diffraction pattern can be observed in real-time. The entire apparatus is assembled onto a rolling cart which allows it to be easily taken into classrooms.

  7. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Kinkhabwala, M.; Wengrover, S.I.


    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. 27 references.

  8. A brief history of topographical anatomy. (United States)

    Standring, Susan


    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal.

  9. Thomas Batholin, teologisk anatomi i 1600-tallet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster-Kjær, Inge


    It is commonly accepted that the reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europs. But in many historical accounts this effect is presented as a fundamental break in the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In the view scientists turned their back...... as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for for scientists all over Europe from its gradual evovlement as a field from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sactity, a tool...

  10. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics. (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S


    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot.

  11. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  12. A suggestion based on the OPERA experimental apparatus (United States)

    Xiao-Bai (Hsiao-bai Ai, Ai


    To temporarily lay aside the debate about the neutrino being a bradyon or a tachyon, based on the existing apparatus and the existing technique in OPERA the best way to promote the OPERA experiment is to test the energy-velocity relation of muon neutrinos and their oscillating yields rather than only one energy point, although the energy-velocity relation is deduced for tachyons according to the inner product of a space-like momentum four-vector being a Lorentz invariant. The tendency of the curve, i.e. as a monotonic decreasing or increasing function of increasing energy, would determine whether muon neutrinos are tachyons or bradyons.

  13. Aspects of the history, anatomy, taxonomy and palaeobiology of sauropod dinosaurs


    Taylor, Michael P.


    Although the sauropod dinosaurs have been recognised for more than a hundred and sixty years, much remains to be discovered and understood about their functional anatomy and palaeobiology. Older taxa require revision and new taxa await description. The characteristic long necks of sauropods are mechanically perplexing and their evolution is obscure. All these issues are addressed herein. The genus Brachiosaurus is represented by the American type species B. altithorax and the better known Afr...

  14. Apparatus for the compact cooling of modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.


    An apparatus for the compact cooling of modules. The apparatus includes a clip, a first cover plate coupled to a first side of the clip, a second cover plate coupled to a second side of the clip opposite to the first side of the clip, a first frame thermally coupled to the first cover plate, and a second frame thermally coupled to the second cover plate. Each of the first frame and the second frame may include a plurality of channels for passing coolant through the first frame and the second frame, respectively. Additionally, the apparatus may further include a filler for directing coolant through the plurality of channels, and for blocking coolant from flowing along the first side of the clip and the second side of the clip.

  15. Apparatus for processing electromagnetic radiation and method (United States)

    Gatewood, George D. (Inventor)


    Measuring apparatus including a ruled member having alternate transparent and opaque zones. An optical coupler connecting the ruled member with electromagnetic radiation-conversion apparatus. The conversion apparatus may include a photomultiplier and a discriminator. Radiation impinging on the ruled member will, in part, be converted to electrical pulses which correspond to the intensity of the radiation. A method of processing electromagnetic radiation includes providing a member having alternating dark and light zones, establishing movement of the member through the beam of electromagnetic radiation with the dark zones interrupting passage of radiation through the rule, providing an optical coupler to connect a portion of the radiation with a conversion station where the radiation portion is converted into an electrical pulse which is related to the intensity of the radiation received at the conversion station. The electrical pulses may be counted and the digitized signals stored or permanently recorded to produce positional information.

  16. An inexpensive apparatus for toxicity screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Pinto, R.W.; Santelli, J. [Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Teaneck, NJ (United States)


    An inexpensive apparatus was fabricated to monitor and record changes in the motility patterns of small aquatic invertebrates, such as Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, during acute toxicity tests. Within hours of exposure to a range toxicant concentrations the motility patterns change in a way that predicts the EC50. The work to date suggests there is a correlation between the EC50 following a 60 hour exposure, and motility data collected within the first 40 minutes of the test. The apparatus may be useful to speed range finding tests and for shortening the duration of acute toxicity tests of an effluent or receiving water. The apparatus may also be used to quantify erratic swimming in surviving organisms when a test is terminated.

  17. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century. (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco


    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  18. Øvelse i sammenlignende anatomi og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer


    I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid.......I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid....

  19. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy (United States)

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur


    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  20. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood


    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…