Sample records for appalachian women southwestern

  1. Risk perception for diabetes in Appalachian women.

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet


    The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.

  2. Prevalence of Infertility in Women in a Southwestern Nigerian ...

    The prevalence and common causes of infertility in women aged between 15 and 55 years was assessed in four hospital centers in Osun State, located in the SouthWestern part of Nigeria. A survey of a consecutive sample of 200 cases of infertility were carried out in four hospital centers with a total of 50 cases of infertility ...

  3. Cardiovascular risk in minority and underserved women in Appalachian Tennessee: a descriptive study.

    Pearson, Tamera Lea


    The purposes of this study were to translate current knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors, screening, and prevention to a disparate population of women and to ascertain the cardiovascular health status and risk factors in a sample of minority and underserved Appalachian women. Demographic data were collected from a voluntary sample of women from a disparate population living in Appalachian Tennessee. A coronary risk profile recorded family health history, personal health history, and lifestyle habits affecting risk for cardiovascular disease. Physiologic measurements included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol levels, ankle brachial index, and carotid artery stenosis. Women in Appalachia Tennessee from a disparate population have high risks for heart disease and stroke. This is a critical time to address any modifiable risk factors and aggressively treat underlying cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide primary care to women who may not be aware of their cardiovascular risks or actual disease. NPs can ensure that their practice incorporates primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention through screening, individual health education, and aggressive evidence-based treatment plans for women.

  4. Prediction of domestic violence against married women in southwestern Turkey.

    Izmirli, Gulsen O; Sonmez, Yonca; Sezik, Mekin


    To determine the prevalence of, and independent risk factors for various domestic violence categories among married women of reproductive age in southwestern Turkey. The present cross-sectional study included 260 randomly selected women registered to a family physician in the district of Gönen, Isparta. During home visits between October 1 and December 31, 2012, the women completed a questionnaire that included between four and eight questions for each violence category (physical, verbal, economic, emotional, and sexual) to assess the lifetime presence of domestic violence. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were constructed to define independent risk factors for domestic violence. In total, 176 (67.7%) women reported any type of domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. Verbal/psychological abuse was the most frequent type (reported by 121 [46.5%] women). Living in a village, young age (19-29 years) of the husband, adolescent age (violence. Attention should be given to area of residence, age of both partners at marriage, adolescent marriage, and husband characteristics during screening for domestic violence. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression, Smoking, and Ego-Centric Social Network Characteristics in Ohio Appalachian Women.

    Lam, Jeffrey; Lu, Bo; Doogan, Nate; Thomson, Tiffany; Ferketich, Amy; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary Ellen


    Depression is a serious, costly, and debilitating disorder that is understudied in rural women. Studies show that depression is associated with low social integration and support, but few studies investigate the relationship between depression and social network characteristics. This study examined the associations among women from three Ohio Appalachian counties enrolled in a health study, which aimed to collect information for a future social network smoking cessation intervention. An address-based sampling method was used to randomly select and recruit 404 women. A cross-sectional survey and interview were used to collect information about demographic, psychosocial, behavioral factors, and ego-centric social network characteristics, which are variables derived from an individual (ego) and her first degree contacts (alters). The CES-D scale assessed depressive symptoms. A multivariable logistic regression analysis described the association between these factors and participants with depression (defined as CES-D≥16). Higher network density, or greater number of relationships among alters divided by the total amount of alters, reduced the risk for depression (OR = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.95). Additionally, women with a high percentage of smoking alters were at greater risk for depression (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.02-1.39). Other factors associated with risk for depression included perceived stress score (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24-1.45), loneliness score (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.80), and days with poor physical health (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). Findings suggest that psychosocial factors and social networks should be considered when addressing depression in clinical practice.

  6. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.


    A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian basin and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From west to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag basin, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-west normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies

  7. Parkia biglobosa as an economic resource for rural women in south-western Burkina Faso

    Andersen, Mette-Helene Kronborg; Lykke, Anne Mette; Ilboudo, Jean-Baptiste


    An approach for commercialising a product from Parkia biglobosa in order to improve the economic situation of rural women in south-western Burkina Faso was explored. Income is generated from sales of a derivative from the fermented seeds called soumbala. About one fifth of the women (18%) were...... involved in the sale of soumbala, and 34% of those not participating in soumbala sales were interested in getting involved, suggesting that there is a basis for expanding the soumbala trade. Possible factors that could motivate more women to participate in soumbala sales were sustainability, sowing...... of seeds and amount of seeds harvested per year. In addition, 90% of the informants managed Parkia sustainably, suggesting that enhanced exploitation of Parkia for commercial purposes can be ecologically sustainable if present management techniques are maintained. The results suggest that Parkia have...

  8. Pregnant Women Diet Quality and Its Sociodemographic Determinants in Southwestern Bangladesh.

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Ferdous, Tarana; Tegenfeldt, Kathrin; Roy, Sumitro; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Rashid, Iftekhar; Haque, Raisul; Rahman, Zakia; Hossen, Kabir; Siddiquee, Saydur Rahman; Rahman, Mosiqure; Sanghvi, Tina G; Shaheen, Nazma


    Diet diversity of pregnant women is associated with nutrition sufficiency, micronutrient adequacy, and pregnancy outcomes. However, the sociodemographic determinants of diet diversity among pregnant women in low-income countries are not well studied. The analysis was undertaken to study the determinants of high dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods by pregnant women from rural Bangladesh. Pregnant women (508) were randomly selected from southwestern Bangladesh and interviewed to collect data about diet and sociodemographic characteristics. A 24-hour recall was used to collect information about diet. Diet diversity score was calculated for 9 major food groups. All analyses were conducted using STATA SE 12. The overall mean diet diversity score was low at 4.28 and was significantly high among pregnant women who have higher educational achievement, whose husbands' occupation was business, who live in households of 4 or more family members, and who were dwelling in a house with more than 1 room. Highest gap on knowledge and consumption was reported for 3 food groups including dairy foods, eggs, and dark green leafy vegetables. Consumption of dairy and eggs was lower among women from low socioeconomic status, but no significant association was found between sociodemographic characteristics and consumption of leafy vegetables. Our analysis has shown that diet quality of pregnant women was poor and intake of micronutrient-rich foods was low despite having knowledge about the importance of these foods, underscoring the need for promoting the diet quality in developing countries through behavior change communication programs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Childhood vaccination in rural southwestern Ethiopia: the nexus with demographic factors and women's autonomy.

    Wado, Yohannes Dibaba; Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Hindin, Michelle J


    Vaccination can reduce child mortality significantly and is a cost effective way to improve child health.Worldwide, more than 22 million children do not receive the basic recommended vaccinations.Vaccination coverage in Ethiopia remains low. Research on child health has focused on socio-economic factors such as maternal education and access to health care, but little attention has been given to demographic factors and women's autonomy within the household. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of demographic factors and women's autonomy on the completion of childhood vaccination in rural Ethiopia. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a Health and Demographic Survelliance System (HDSS) in southwestern Ethiopia. Data were drawn from a random sample of women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 889). Information on maternal socio-demographic characteristics and household variables were collected using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards or mother's recall. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of independent variables with completion of childhood vaccination. Of 889 children aged 12-24 months, 690 (78%) had received at least one vaccination. Only 37% (95% CI, 33.5-39.9) were fully vaccinated. Women's decision making autonomy, number of under-five children in the household, mother's education, use of antenatal care services and proximity to health facility were the main factors associated with full vaccination status. Completion of basic vaccination series is very low in the study area. Initiatives that enhance women's autonomy within the household and that promote healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies may help in improving child health through vaccination.

  10. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo


    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.

  11. Detection of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI Among Pregnant Women in Oluyoro Catholic Hospital, Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    Okonko, I. O.


    Full Text Available This study reports the detection of urinary tract infections among 80 pregnant women in Oluyoro Catholic Hospital Ibadan, South-Western, Nigeria for a period of 6 months. It was carried out to detect the presence of urinary tract infection in pregnant women, and to isolate and to identify the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were collected from pregnant women between the ages of 21-40 years. The results showed 38 bacterial isolates with an incidence of 47.5% in this population. The isolates were identified based on colonial morphology, microscopic characteristics, and biochemical tests using Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Escherichia coli 16(42.1% was the most predominant organism. This was followed by Staphylococcus aureus 11(28.9%, Klebsiella aerogenes 7(18.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2(5.3%, and a mixed culture of Klebisella aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus 2(5.3%. Urine microscopy revealed the presence of Pus cells in the urine samples collected. Two samples, representing 2.5% of the samples contained yeast cells, suggesting that Candidiasis was also predominant. The high incidence rate of 47.5% reported in this study should be of great concern, as not only do UTIs pose a threat to health, but they also impose an economic and social burden due to the stigma associated with these infections.

  12. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain.

    Prados Madrona, Dalmiro; Fernández Herrera, María Dolores; Prados Jiménez, Dalmiro; Gómez Giraldo, Sonsoles; Robles Campos, Rita


    Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia.

  13. Use of traditional and modern contraceptives among childbearing women: findings from a mixed methods study in two southwestern Nigerian states.

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Akpan, Wilson


    Contraceptive use has numerous health benefits such as preventing unplanned pregnancies, ensuring optimum spacing between births, reducing maternal and child mortality, and improving the lives of women and children in general. This study examines the level of contraceptive use, its determinants, reasons for non-use of contraception among women in the reproductive age group (18-49 years) in two southwestern Nigerian states. The study adopted an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data from 809 participants selected using a 3-stage cluster random sampling technique. We also conducted 46 in-depth interviews. In order to investigate the association between the socio-demographic variables and use of contraceptive methods, we estimated the binary logistic regression models. The findings indicated that knowledge of any methods of contraception was almost universal among the participants. The rates of ever use and current use of contraception was 80 and 66.6%, respectively. However, only 43.9% of the participants had ever used any modern contraceptive methods, considered to be more reliable. The fear of side effects of modern contraceptive methods drove women to rely on less effective traditional methods (withdrawal and rhythm methods). Some women employed crude and unproven contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancies. Our findings show that the rate of contraceptive use was high in the study setting. However, many women chose less effective traditional contraceptive methods over more effective modern contraceptive methods due to fear of side effects of the latter. Patient education on the various options of modern contraceptives, their side effects and management would be crucial towards expanding the family planning services in the study setting.

  14. Serodiscordance and disclosure among HIV-positive pregnant women in the Southwestern United States.

    Nacius, Lori A; Levison, Judy; Minard, Charles G; Fasser, Carl; Davila, Jessica A


    The prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women in relationships with HIV-negative men in the United States is unclear. The purpose of this study was to calculate the prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women with a serodiscordant (HIV-negative) partner within a single clinic population, assess disclosure of their HIV status, and examine factors associated with disclosure. All HIV-positive pregnant women who received prenatal care at the Harris County Hospital District Women's Program at Northwest Health Center in Houston TX between 1/1/2006 and 4/1/2011 were identified. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure was calculated, and predictors of disclosure were evaluated. We identified 212 HIV-positive pregnant women. About 40% had a serodiscordant partner, and 34% had a partner with an unknown HIV status. Disclosure occurred in over 90% of women with a serodiscordant partner and in 68% of women with partners whose HIV status was unknown. Among pregnant women who knew their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and had a serodiscordant partner, 92% reported disclosing their status prior to conception. Our data indicated that serodiscordant relationships are common in our clinic population. Suboptimal disclosure rates were observed, especially among women who have a partner with an unknown HIV status. Further research is needed to evaluate the prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure in other United States populations.

  15. Pregnant women and children's exposure to tobacco and solid fuel smoke in southwestern India.

    Kelly, Patricia J; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Moore, Janet; Derman, Richard; Kodkany, Bhala; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya; Naik, Vijjaya A; Angolkar, Mubashir; Bloch, Michele


    To examine factors associated with smoke exposure among pregnant women in rural India. We conducted a survey of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and solid fuel smoke (SFS) among 736 pregnant women. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models to assess the relationship between demographic variables and exposure to SHS and to SFS. While few respondents smoked cigarettes, 19.9% of women and 27.8% of children were frequently or always exposed to SHS, and 43.5% were at high and 46.7% at medium risk for SFE. Low educational levels and illiteracy were associated with exposure. Smoke exposure is a serious health risk for many poor women and children in India.

  16. Inadequate knowledge of neonatal danger signs among recently delivered women in southwestern rural Uganda: a community survey.

    Jacob Sandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. Every year an estimated 3.07 million children die during their first month of life and about one-third of these deaths occur during the first 24 hours. Ninety-eight percent of all neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries like Uganda. Inadequate progress has been made globally to reduce the amount of neonatal deaths that would be required to meet Millennium Development Goal 4. Poor knowledge of newborn danger signs delays care seeking. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge of key newborn danger signs among mothers in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: Results from a community survey of 765 recently delivered women were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Six key danger signs were identified, and spontaneous responses were categorized, tabulated, and analyzed. RESULTS: Knowledge of at least one key danger sign was significantly associated with being birth prepared (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3. Birth preparedness consisted of saving money, identifying transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant and buying a delivery kit or materials. Overall, respondents had a poor knowledge of key newborn danger signs: 58.2% could identify one and 14.8% could identify two. We found no association between women attending the recommended number of antenatal care visits and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.4, or between women using a skilled birth attendant at delivery and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate the need to enhance education of mothers in antenatal care as well as those discharged from health facilities after delivery. Further promotion of birth preparedness is encouraged as part of the continuum of maternal care.

  17. Comparison of breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among rural and urban Hispanic and American Indian women in the Southwestern United States.

    Nuño, Tomas; Gerald, Joe K; Harris, Robin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco


    Rural Hispanic and American Indian (AI) women are at risk of non-participation in cancer screening programs. The objective of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States to their urban counterparts and to assess characteristics that influence cancer screening. This study utilizes Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2006 to 2008 for Arizona and New Mexico. The BRFSS is a federally funded telephone survey to collect data on risk factors contributing to the leading causes of death and chronic diseases. Rural Hispanic and AI populations reported some differences in screening rates compared with their urban counterparts. Among Hispanic women, 58 % of rural residents reported having had a mammogram within the past year, compared with 66 % of urban residents. Among AI women, 81 % of rural residents had ever had a mammogram, compared with 89 % of urban residents. Rural AI women were less likely to have ever had a mammogram (OR = 0.5; 95 % CI = 0.3-0.9) compared with urban AI women. Rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a mammogram within 1 year (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.5-0.9) compared with urban Hispanic women. Results suggest that rural Hispanic women were less likely to have had a Pap smear within 3 years (OR = 0.7; 95 % CI = 0.4-1.3) compared with urban Hispanic women. Our results provide some evidence that Hispanic and AI women that reside in rural areas of the Southwestern United States have lower rates of breast and cervical cancer screening use compared with their urban counterparts. Special efforts are needed to identify ways to overcome barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening for rural Hispanic and AI women.

  18. Non-medical factors affecting antenatal preferences for delivery route and actual delivery mode of women in southwestern Iran.

    Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Lankarani, Kamran B; Gholami, Ali


    Assessment of the contribution of non-medical factors to mode of delivery and birth preference in Iranian pregnant women in southwestern Iran. This cohort study used data from a structured questionnaire completed in early pregnancy and information about the subsequent delivery obtained through personal contact. Women were recruited by random sampling from antenatal clinics when scheduling visits over the course of 5 weeks from December 2012 to February 2013 and were followed-up 1 month after birth. Of the 2199 women recruited, 99.63% were eligible for the study. Of the 748 women who expressed a desire to deliver their babies by cesarean section (CS) in early pregnancy, 87% had an elective cesarean section. The logistic regression analyses showed that normative beliefs (odds ratio [OR] 1.792, 95% confidence interval (1) 1.073-2.993), control beliefs (OR: 0.272, 95% CI: 0.162-0.459), and evaluation of outcomes (OR: 0.431, 95% CI: 0.268-0.692) favored the preference for cesarean section. The desire for delivery by elective cesarean section was associated with normative beliefs (OR: 1.138; 95% CI: 1.001-1.294), control beliefs (OR: 0.804; 95% CI: 0.698-0.927), and expectations about maternity care (OR: 0.772; 95% CI: 0.683-0.873), medical influences (OR: 1.150; 95% CI: 1.023-1.291), evaluation of outcome (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.696-0.894), age, preference for cesarean section (OR: 5.445; 95% CI: 3.928-7.546), spouse educational level, and number of live births. A woman's preference for delivery by cesarean section influenced their subsequent mode of delivery. Asking women in early pregnancy about their preferred mode of delivery provides the opportunity to extend their supports which might reduce the rate of elective cesarean section. This decision is affected by age, spouse educational level, number of live births, and preconceived maternal attitudes about delivery.

  19. Genotyping of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates from women in Shahrekord city (Southwestern Iran

    Khalili Bahman


    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a causative agent of vaginitis in female and urethritis in men. It is primarily transmitted by sexually route. It is known that each geographical area has its own set of Trichomonas vaginalis strain. Parasite strains in each region have its specific characterizations and different strains of the parasite are able to cause various diseases with the acuity and severity. The aim of this study was to determine the genotyping of Trichomonas vaginalis strains in the Shahrekord city (Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province, southwest Iran. A total of 1725 vaginal samples were taken from clinically suspected women for Trichomonas vaginalis infection and 21 specimens were diagnosed as positive by direct smear wet mount and culture repeated passage of the parasite in the modified TYI-S-33 medium. The genomic DNA was extracted from each sample and the nested polymerase chain reaction was applied using specific oligonucleotide primers for actin gene amplification. Finally, the restriction fragment length polymorphism using RsaI, MseI, and HindII restriction enzymes were done on PCR products for genotyping. PCR-RFLP analysis of 21 positive cases (1.22% was showing the most frequent genotype was H (8 cases, followed by G (4 cases, E (3 cases, and P (2 cases. N and I genotypes were detected in each 1 case. Also, there was 2 cases mix (E and H genotype. The findings of the present work were showed 7 different genetic strains in isolated Trichomonas vaginalis from symptomatic and asymptomatic women in Shahrekord city. In this study high level of H genotype in referred women in Shahrekord city was observed and H, G, E, and I genotypes were may be related to burning and itching as well as H, P, and mix genotypes were associated with malodorous discharge with pelvic pain in this region of Iran. For a suggestion, it would be better in further studies the accurate determination of genetic diversity of this parasite done in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari

  20. Public invited to Appalachian Studies Film Series

    Elliott, Jean


    The Appalachian Studies Program at Virginia Tech is hosting a series of notable artistic and documentary films. The films deal with themes or issues covered in Appalachian Studies courses and are organized historically, touching upon issues common to all Appalachians.

  1. The effect of caesarean section on self-esteem amongst primiparous women in South-Western Nigeria: a case-control study.

    Loto, Olabisi M; Adewuya, Abiodun O; Ajenifuja, Olusegun K; Orji, Ernest O; Owolabi, Alexander T; Ogunniyi, Solomon O


    This study aims to assess the level of self-esteem of newly delivered mothers who had caesarean section (CS) and evaluate the sociodemographic and obstetrics correlates of low self-esteem in them. Newly delivered mothers who had CS (n = 109) and who had spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (n = 97) completed questionnaires on sociodemographic and obstetrics variables within 1 week of delivery. They also completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. RESULTS. Women with CS had statistically significant lower scores on the self-esteem scale than women with SVD (p = 0.006). Thirty (27.5%) of the CS group were classified as having low self-esteem compared with 11 (11.3%) of the SVD group (p = 004). The correlates of low self-esteem in the CS group included polygamy (odd ratio (OR) 4.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.62-15.33) and emergency CS (OR 4.66, 95% CI 1.55-16.75). CS in South-Western Nigerian women is associated with lowered self-esteem in the mothers.

  2. [Evaluation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain among urban and rural women from southwestern China].

    Dai, Zhengyan; Li, Ming; Rui, Li; Sun, Xiaohong; Pang, Xuehong; Zhou, Lan; Zeng, Guo


    To evaluate the situation of pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) of women in the urban and rural areas of southwest of China. Total 3391 women whose infants and young children aged 6 - 24 months were selected from urban and rural areas of Kunming, Guiyang and Chengdu cities by stratified cluster random sampling. Data of pre-pregnancy height and weight, prenatal weight and pregnancy age for subjects was obtained using a questionnaire. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were calculated. According to the BMI standard for adults from WHO and GWG Guidelines from IOM (2009), the status of pre-pregnancy weight and GWG were assessed. Average BMI of pre-pregnancy for them is (20.3 +/- 2.4). Percentage of normal weight, underweight, and overweight/obesity of pre-pregnancy were 72.7%, 24.1% and 3.2% respectively. The average GWG was (14.9 +/- 6.0) kg, and there was a significant difference between urban and rural group (P lower (P women aged below 23 years old (P women aged 24 - 34 years old (P pay more attention to improve the underweight of pre-pregnancy and abnormal GWG among women in the southwest of China.

  3. Associations between mass media exposure and birth preparedness among women in southwestern Uganda: a community-based survey.

    Asp, Gustav; Odberg Pettersson, Karen; Sandberg, Jacob; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette


    Exposure to mass media provides increased awareness and knowledge, as well as changes in attitudes, social norms and behaviors that may lead to positive public health outcomes. Birth preparedness (i.e. the preparations for childbirth made by pregnant women, their families, and communities) increases the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and hence reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore the association between media exposure and birth preparedness in rural Uganda. A total of 765 recently delivered women from 120 villages in the Mbarara District of southwest Uganda were selected for a community-based survey using two-stage cluster sampling. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed with generalized linear mixed models using SPSS 21. We found that 88.6% of the women surveyed listened to the radio and 33.9% read newspapers. Birth preparedness actions included were money saved (87.8%), identified SBA (64.3%), identified transport (60.1%), and purchased childbirth materials (20.7%). Women who had taken three or more actions were coded as well birth prepared (53.9%). Women who read newspapers were more likely to be birth prepared (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.2). High media exposure, i.e. regular exposure to radio, newspaper, or television, showed no significant association with birth preparedness (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-2.0). Our results indicate that increased reading of newspapers can enhance birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance. Apart from general literacy skills, this requires newspapers to be accessible in terms of language, dissemination, and cost.

  4. Implementation of the Southwestern Oncology Group Committee on Women’s Health Research Agenda: A Special Sabbatical for the Chairperson.


    the kickoff event in Chicago on: "Debunking the Myths of Clinical Trials" and the SWOG CWH members will serve as consultants to this project. The goal...sensitive perspective about the protocol and the factors which played a role in their decision to go on a protocol. They will be trained to address myths ...evaluation of the treatment. Definitions: Vaginal Dryness: Some women experience a sense of dryness, irritation, or itchiness in their vagina ; this

  5. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  6. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  7. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  8. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.


    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  9. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan


    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  10. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  11. Chapter 1: The Appalachian regional reforestation initiative

    Patrick Angel; Vic Davis; Jim Burger; Don Graves; Carl. Zipper


    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian region with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) to encourage restoration of high-quality forests on reclaimed coal mines in the eastern United States. The goals of ARRI are to communicate...

  12. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1982 Annual Report.

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Fiscal year 1982 was transitional for the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), as it was the last year of the broad economic development program and a year of reduced funding and new limits on programs. In 1981, Congress had requested that ARC prepare a plan for completion of the Appalachian highway system and for a 3 to 5 year ARC finish-up…

  13. Geology of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian Basin

    Roen, J.B.


    Black shales of Devonian age in the Appalachian Basin are a unique rock sequence. The high content of organic matter, which imparts the characteristic lithology, has for years attracted considerable interest in the shales as a possible source of energy. The recent energy shortage prompted the U.S. Department of Energy through the Eastern Gas Shales Project of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center to underwrite a research program to determine the geologic, geochemical, and structural characteristics of the Devonian black shales in order to enhance the recovery of gas from the shales. Geologic studies by Federal and State agencies and academic institutions produced a regional stratigraphic network that correlates the 15 ft black shale sequence in Tennessee with 3000 ft of interbedded black and gray shales in central New York. These studies correlate the classic Devonian black shale sequence in New York with the Ohio Shale of Ohio and Kentucky and the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic markers in conjunction with gamma-ray logs facilitated long-range correlations within the Appalachian Basin. Basinwide correlations, including the subsurface rocks, provided a basis for determining the areal distribution and thickness of the important black shale units. The organic carbon content of the dark shales generally increases from east to west across the basin and is sufficient to qualify as a hydrocarbon source rock. Significant structural features that involve the black shale and their hydrocarbon potential are the Rome trough, Kentucky River and Irvine-Paint Creek fault zone, and regional decollements and ramp zones. ?? 1984.

  14. Environmental Management Audit: Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern)


    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Audit completed for the Southwestern Power Administration. During this Audit, activities and records were reviewed and personnel interviewed. The onsite portion of the Southwestern Audit was conducted from November 30 through December 11, 1992, by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and activities as part of the Assistant Secretary's Environmental Audit Program. This program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities/activities regarding compliance with laws, regulations, DOE Orders, formal written procedures, compliance agreements, and Best Management Practices (BMPs). This internal oversight function plays an important role in improving the compliance status of DOE operations. The Environmental Management Audit stresses DOE's policy that it is the responsibility of line management to conduct operations in an environmentally sound and safe manner. The Environmental Management Audit focuses on management systems and programs, whereas the Environmental Baseline Audit conducted in March 1991 focused on specific compliance issues. The scope of the Southwestern Environmental Management Audit included a review of all systems and functions necessary for effective environmental management. Specific areas of review included: Organizational Structure; Environmental Commitment; Environmental Protection Programs; Formality of Environmental Programs; Internal and External Communication; Staff Resources, Training, and Development; and Program Evaluation, Reporting, and Corrective Action

  15. Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal.

    Dahl, V; Mellhammar, L; Bajunirwe, F; Björkman, P


    A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundred-eighty women were included in the study, 323 (85%) of whom accepted HIV testing. In multivariate analysis, testing site (Site A: OR = 1.0; Site B: OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.12-8.46; Site C: OR = 5.93; 95%CI: 2.94-11.98), age between 30 and 34 years (refusal. Testing sites operating for longer durations had higher rates of acceptance. The most common reasons claimed for test refusal were: lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected women (88%; n=57), a need to discuss with partner before decision (82%; n=57) and fear of partner's reaction (54%; n=57). Comparison with previous periods showed that the acceptance rate increased with the duration of the program. Our study identified risk factors for HIV test refusal among pregnant women in Uganda and common reasons for not accepting testing. These findings may suggest modifications and improvements in the performance of HIV testing in this and similar populations.

  16. Examining substance use among rural Appalachian and urban non-Appalachian individuals participating in drug court.

    Shannon, Lisa M; Perkins, Elizabeth B; Neal, Connie


    The study purpose was to examine differences in substance use among individuals in drug court (N = 583) in rural Appalachian (n = 301) and urban non-Appalachian areas (n = 282). A series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of cocaine, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report methamphetamine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Regarding past 30-day use, a series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to use marijuana, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report crack cocaine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Identifying differences which exist in substance use is the first step in generating evidence-based structural changes in treatment drug court programs. Future research should focus on better understanding context in terms of demographic, geographic, and economic conditions, which may be of critical influence on substance use and treatment planning.

  17. Perception on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT of HIV among women of reproductive age group in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria

    Olugbenga-Bello AI


    Full Text Available AI Olugbenga-Bello,1 WO Adebimpe,2 FF Osundina,3 ST Abdulsalam3 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigera; 3Department of Community Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Introduction: The fastest growing group of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, is women. As more women contract the virus, the number of children infected in utero, intra-partum, and during breastfeeding has been growing. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age towards the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT of HIV. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional survey of 420 women of the reproductive age group (15–49 years selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software version 15. Results: A high level of awareness about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS was observed among the respondents (99.8%. The knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV was high, 92.1% and 91.4%, respectively. However, a significant portion (71.27% of the study population had poor attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion: Despite the high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, and good knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the respondents, the attitude towards PMTCT is poor. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and attitude of prevention of MTCT of HIV among women. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, PMTCT, women, perception, knowledge, attitude

  18. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn


    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  19. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang


    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  20. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry

    James L. Chamberlain


    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  1. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G


    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  2. Oak Regeneration Guidelines for the Central Appalachians

    Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Peter J. Gould; Songlin Fei; Marc McDill


    This article presents the first explicit guidelines for regenerating oaks in the central Appalachians. The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the research foundation on which the guidelines are based and (2) to provide users with the instructions, data collection forms, supplementary tables, and decision charts needed to apply the guidelines in the field. The...

  3. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1979 Annual Report.

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Narrative text, tables, maps, and photographs present an overview of the Appalachian Regional Commission's (ARC) activities in fiscal year 1979, past achievements, and future goals. Major accomplishments of 1979 include: utilization of the $233 million appropriation for highway construction; approval of over $143 million in ARC funds for 985…

  4. Gendered Dimensions of Mobile Phone Usage: The Case of a Group of Romani Women from Southwestern Bulgaria and Their Informal Learning

    Hristova, Adelina


    This participatory and grounded theory ethnography focuses on mobile learning practices of a group of adult Romani women and their families. Framed through the lens of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and technofeminism, these practices challenge existing integration programs with their binary approach as insufficient to analyze informal…

  5. Wings: Women Entrepreneurs Take Flight.

    Baldwin, Fred D.


    Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…

  6. Fungal Communities and Functional Guilds Shift Along an Elevational Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Veach, Allison M; Stokes, C Elizabeth; Knoepp, Jennifer; Jumpponen, Ari; Baird, Richard


    Nitrogen deposition alters forest ecosystems particularly in high elevation, montane habitats where nitrogen deposition is greatest and continues to increase. We collected soils across an elevational (788-1940 m) gradient, encompassing both abiotic (soil chemistry) and biotic (vegetation community) gradients, at eight locations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of southwestern North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. We measured soil chemistry (total N, C, extractable PO 4 , soil pH, cation exchange capacity [ECEC], percent base saturation [% BS]) and dissected soil fungal communities using ITS2 metabarcode Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Total soil N, C, PO 4 , % BS, and pH increased with elevation and plateaued at approximately 1400 m, whereas ECEC linearly increased and C/N decreased with elevation. Fungal communities differed among locations and were correlated with all chemical variables, except PO 4 , whereas OTU richness increased with total N. Several ecological guilds (i.e., ectomycorrhizae, saprotrophs, plant pathogens) differed in abundance among locations; specifically, saprotroph abundance, primarily attributable to genus Mortierella, was positively correlated with elevation. Ectomycorrhizae declined with total N and soil pH and increased with total C and PO 4 where plant pathogens increased with total N and decreased with total C. Our results demonstrate significant turnover in taxonomic and functional fungal groups across elevational gradients which facilitate future predictions on forest ecosystem change in the southern Appalachians as nitrogen deposition rates increase and regional temperature and precipitation regimes shift.

  7. GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx dataset was collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  8. Polymorphisms in the LPL and CETP Genes and Haplotype in the ESR1 Gene Are Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Women from Southwestern Mexico

    José Ángel Cahua-Pablo


    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a combination of metabolic disorders associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Studies in women reported associations between polymorphisms in ESR1, LPL and CETP genes and MetS. Our aim was to evaluate the association between variants in ESR1, LPL and CETP genes with MetS and its components. Four hundred and eighty women were analyzed, anthropometric features and biochemical profiles were evaluated, and genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. We found an association with elevated glucose levels (odds ratio (OR = 2.9; p = 0.013 in carrying the AA genotype of rs1884051 in the ESR1 gene compared with the GG genotype, and the CC genotype of rs328 in the LPL gene was associated with MetS compared to the CG or GG genotype (OR = 2.8; p = 0.04. Moreover, the GA genotype of rs708272 in the CETP gene is associated with MetS compared to the GG or AA genotype (OR = 1.8; p = 0.006. In addition the ACTCCG haplotype in the ESR1 gene is associated with a decrease in the risk of MetS (OR = 0.02; p < 0.001. In conclusion, our results show the involvement of the variants of ESR1, LPL and CETP genes in metabolic events related to MetS or some of its features.

  9. Conversion Disorder in an Appalachian Community.

    Slocum, Sarah; Holroyd, Suzanne


    Conversion disorder (CD) is believed to be the manifestation of physical and/or neurological symptoms for primary gain without an identifiable organic cause. Although it is believed to be more common in rural areas, the literature examining this claim is sparse. To our knowledge, no study has been published evaluating the prevalence of CD in a rural Appalachian population. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the prevalence of CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria in a rural Appalachian psychiatric consultation service and to compare this population with control patients from the same service. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed as having CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria on a psychiatric consultation service at a rural Appalachian academic medical center during a 13-month time period. For each case, two consecutive control patients were selected from the same service and time span. There were 21 cases and 42 controls in this study, with a CD prevalence rate of 6.0% (N = 21/351). Sociodemographic, comorbidity, and recent symptomatology data were obtained. Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse, seizure disorder, antiepileptic use, neurologic referral, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and history of CD. We found it interesting that fewer cases reported alcohol and drug use. The observed prevalence of 6.0% does not support the historical theory that CD is more prevalent in rural or lower socioeconomic populations. Our data add to the characterization of the Appalachian CD population.

  10. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents.

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana


    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  11. 7 CFR 1005.2 - Appalachian marketing area.


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appalachian marketing area. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  12. Use and users of the Appalachian Trail: a geographic study

    Robert E. Manning; William Valliere; Jim Bacon; Alan Graefe; Gerard Kyle; Rita Hennessy


    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) is a public footpath that spans 2,160 miles of Appalachian Mountain ridgelines from Maine to Georgia. This paper describes the first comprehensive study of recreational use and users of the AT. The primary study method was a survey of visitors to the AT. The Trail was divided into 22 relatively homogeneous sections within four...

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons


    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  14. Predicting the regeneration of Appalachian hardwoods: adapting the REGEN model for the Appalachian Plateau

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani


    The difficulty of achieving reliable oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration is well documented. Application of silvicultural techniques to facilitate oak regeneration largely depends on current regeneration potential. A computer model to assess regeneration potential based on existing advanced reproduction in Appalachian hardwoods was developed by David...



    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  16. Dropout and Functional Illiteracy Rates in Central Appalachia. Appalachian Data Bank Report #1.

    Crew, B. Keith; And Others

    Computerized analysis of 1980 Census data documented educational deficiencies in 85 Central Appalachian counties of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Dropout rates among youth ages 16-19 were found to be higher in Central Appalachian counties than in non-Central Appalachian counties, the poorest counties had the highest dropout…

  17. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions.

    Hendryx, Michael; Zullig, Keith J


    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N=235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.14-1.30), angina or CHD (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  18. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine


    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  19. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004



    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  20. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5



    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  1. Examining smoking and cessation during pregnancy among an Appalachian sample: a preliminary view

    Berry Traci


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several transitions that a woman experiences prenatally may influence her desire or ability to discontinue smoking. This study explores the role of smoking for young, Appalachian, nulliparous pregnant women and their plans for smoking during their pregnancies. Results The reports of women and their male partners were taken from baseline interviews conducted during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cigarette smoking appeared to be more than an isolated addictive activity; rather, smoking was interwoven in women's social and personal realms, often changing as their perceptions of self changed. Women and their partners who continued to smoke appeared to be depressed, reject authority, and perceived little control over issues related to being pregnant. Conclusion These findings support the argument that standard substance use treatments and polices based on stages-of-change theories may not be effective for all individuals particularly those experiencing significant developmental changes in their lives. Greater success might be obtained from treatment programs designed to recognize the impact of these transitions as it relates to the substance use. The changing experiences of pregnant women in terms of their identity development, views of others, and their relationships have not been adequately addressed in existing cessation programs. Empirically-based interventions targeting these lifestyle characteristics may lead to increased cessation success among pregnant women.

  2. Study seeks to boost Appalachian gas recovery

    Land, R.


    Ashland Exploration Inc. and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are trying to find ways to increase gas recovery in the Appalachian basin. They are working together to investigate Mississippian Berea sandstone and Devonian shale in a program designed to achieve better understanding and improved performance of tight natural gas formations in the area. This paper reports that three wells on Ashland Exploration acreage in Pike County, Ky., are involved in the research program. Findings from the first two wells will be used to optimize evaluation and completion of the third well. The first two wells have been drilled. Drilling of the third well was under way at last report. Ashland Exploration has been involved with GRI's Devonian shale research since 1988. GRI's initial focus was on well stimulation because Devonian shale wells it reviewed had much lower recoveries than could be expected, based on estimated gas in place. Research during the past few years was designed to improve the execution and quality control of well stimulation

  3. Complex contaminant mixtures in multistressor Appalachian riverscapes.

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P; Maxwell, Aaron E; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F


    Runoff from watersheds altered by mountaintop mining in the Appalachian region (USA) is known to pollute headwater streams, yet regional-scale assessments of water quality have focused on salinization and selenium. The authors conducted a comprehensive survey of inorganic contaminants found in 170 stream segments distributed across a spectrum of historic and contemporary human land use. Principal component analysis identified 3 important dimensions of variation in water chemistry that were significantly correlated with contemporary surface mining (principal component 1: elevated dominant ions, sulfate, alkalinity, and selenium), coal geology and legacy mines (principal component 2: elevated trace metals), and residential development (principal component 3: elevated sodium and chloride). The combination of these 3 dominant sources of pollutants produced a complex stream-to-stream patchwork of contaminant mixtures. Seventy-five percent of headwater streams (catchments  5 km(2) ) were classified as having reference chemistries, and chemistries indicative of combined mining and development contaminants accounted for 47% of larger streams (compared with 26% of headwater streams). Extreme degradation of larger streams can be attributed to accumulation of contaminants from multiple human land use activities that include contemporary mountaintop mining, underground mining, abandoned mines, and untreated domestic wastewater. Consequently, water quality improvements in this region will require a multicontaminant remediation approach. © 2015 SETAC.

  4. Community strategies to address cancer disparities in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Fields, Nell


    Central Appalachian residents suffer disproportionate health disparities, including an all-cancer mortality rate 17% higher than the general population. During 10 focus groups and 19 key informant interviews, 91 Appalachian residents identified cancer screening challenges and strategies. Challenges included (1) inadequate awareness of screening need, (2) insufficient access to screening, and (3) lack of privacy. Strategies included (1) witnessing/storytelling, (2) capitalizing on family history, (3) improving publicity about screening resources, (4) relying on lay health advisors, and (5) bundling preventive services. These insights shaped our community-based participatory research intervention and offered strategies to others working in Appalachia, rural locales, and other traditionally underserved communities.

  5. Sawlog sizes: a comparison in two Appalachian areas

    Curtis D. Goho; A. Jeff Martin


    Frequency distributions of log diameter and length were prepared for eight Appalachian hardwood species. Data obtained in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, were compared with information collected previously from West Virginia and New England. With the exception of red oak, significant regional differences were found.

  6. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    A. Jeff Martin


    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  7. Taper and volume equations for selected Appalachian hardwood species

    A. Jeff Martin


    Coefficients for five taper/volume models are developed for 18 Appalachian hardwood species. Each model can be used to estimate diameter at any point on the bole, height to any preselected diameter, and cubic-foot volume between any two points on the bole. The resulting equations were tested on six sets of independent data and an evaluation of these tests is included,...

  8. Fuels management in the southern Appalachian Mountains, hot continental division

    Matthew J. Reilly; Thomas A. Waldrop; Joseph J. O’Brien


    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Hot Continental Mountains Division, M220 (McNab and others 2007) are a topographically and biologically complex area with over 10 million ha of forested land, where complex environmental gradients have resulted in a great diversity of forest types. Abundant moisture and a long, warm growing season support high levels of productivity...

  9. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods

    Shortridge, Barbara G.


    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  10. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma


    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  11. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller


    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  12. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.


    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  13. Seismological Constraints on Lithospheric Evolution in the Appalachian Orogen

    Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.; Hawman, R. B.; Wagner, L. S.


    Crust and mantle structures beneath the Appalachian orogen, recently resolved by seismic data from the EarthScope SESAME Flexible Array and Transportable Array, provide new constraints on the scale and style of the Appalachian collision and subsequent lithospheric evolution. In the southern Appalachians, imaging with Sp and Ps phases reveals the final (Alleghanian) suture between the crusts of Laurentia and the Gondwanan Suwannee terrane as a low angle (Kellogg, 2017) isostatic arguments indicate crustal thicknesses were 15-25 km larger at the end of the orogeny, indicating a thick crustal root across the region. The present-day residual crustal root beneath the Blue Ridge mountains is estimated to have a density contrast with the mantle of only 104±20 kg/m3. This value is comparable to other old orogens but lower than values typical of young or active orogens, indicating a loss of lower crustal buoyancy over time. At mantle depths, the negative shear velocity gradient that marks the transition from lithosphere to asthenosphere, as illuminated by Sp phases, varies across the Appalachian orogen. This boundary is shallow beneath the northeastern U.S. and in the zone of Eocene volcanism in Virginia, where low velocity anomalies occur in the upper mantle. These correlations suggest recent active lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction.

  14. Population characteristics of a central Appalachian white tailed deer herd

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller


    Reliable estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population parameters are needed for effective population management. We used radiotelemetrv to compare survival and cause-specific mortality rates between male and female white-tailed deer and present reproductive data for a high-density deer herd in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during...

  15. Seed bank response to prescribed fire in the central Appalachians.

    Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas Van-Gundy; Mary B. Adams; W. Mark. Ford


    Pre- and post-treatment seed-bank characteristics of woody species were compared after two prescribed fires in a mesic mixed-oak forest in the central Appalachians. Nineteen woody species were identified from soil samples. Mean species richness declined but evenness did not after prescribed burning. The...

  16. Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians

    John M. Giuliano Tirpak; C. Allan Miller; Thomas J. Allen; Steve Bittner; David A. Buehler; John W. Edwards; Craig A. Harper; William K. Igo; Gary W. Norman; M. Seamster; Dean F. Stauffer


    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa urnbellus; hereafter grouse) populations in the central and southern Appalachians are in decline. However, limited information on the dynamics of these populations prevents the development of effective management strategies to reverse these trends. We used radiotelemetry data collected on grouse to parameterize 6 models of...

  17. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a rural Appalachian food desert.

    Hardin-Fanning, F


    with higher incomes. Participants with lower educational levels were more likely to report family members would be hesitant to try a Mediterranean diet. Women were more likely than men to report an understanding of the health impact of certain foods as motivation to adopt and adhere to a Mediterranean diet. Multiple factors were reported as influencing dietary habits in this sample of rural Appalachian residents. Several of the factors reported are amenable to behavioral interventions. Although Appalachia has more residents per square kilometer than the rest of the country, the population density is not uniform across the region. Because many Appalachians live in sparsely populated counties, rurality plays a significant role in factors that affect dietary choice. Interventions that address barriers related to limited knowledge of nutrition, ease of preparation and changing personal habits as well as promote locally available foods, while considering issues specific to a rural population, may lead to sustained dietary changes.

  18. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Andrew Evans


    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  19. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy supplies over much of the last three centuries. Appalachian coal and petroleum resources are still available in sufficient quantities to contribute significantly to fulfilling the Nation’s energy needs. Although both conventional oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  20. The prevalence and risk factors for Trichomonas vaginalis infection amongst human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of a university teaching hospital in Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Ijasan, Olaolopin; Okunade, Kehinde Sharafadeen; Oluwole, Ayodeji Ayotunde


    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Interactions between this infection and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labour, premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, low birth weight and post-abortal sepsis. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of T. vaginalis infection amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal care at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. This was an analytical cross-sectional study in which 320 eligible participants which included 160 HIV-positive (case group) and 160 HIV-negative (control group) pregnant women were recruited at the antenatal clinic of LUTH. A structured pro forma was used to collect data from consenting participants after which high vaginal swabs were collected, processed and examined for T. vaginalis. The association between categorical variables was tested using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test where applicable. All significances were reported at P women were 10% and 8.1%, respectively (P = 0.559). Significant risk factors for T. vaginalis infection in the HIV-positive pregnant women were early coitarche (P women for T. vaginalis infection as a tool of reducing HIV acquisition, especially in pregnancy, campaign to create better sexual health awareness should be commenced as a way to contributing to the reduction in T. vaginalis infection during pregnancy and perinatal transmission of HIV.

  1. Women

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan


    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  2. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012



    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  3. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010



    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  4. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011



    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  5. Summertime elevation of radon in southern Appalachian homes

    Gammage, R.B.; Wilson, D.L.


    For houses in particular countries of the southern Appalachians, the atypical situation arises of higher indoor levels of radon during summertime rather than wintertime. Where such conditions prevail, it is recommended that houses be screened for elevated radon during warmer rather than colder seasons of the year. This paper discusses the materials and methods used for the screening, the results and conclusions, and presents some recommendations. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Correlation of Crustal Structures and Seismicity Patterns in Northern Appalachians

    Yang, X.; Gao, H.


    The earthquake distributions in northern Appalachians are bounded by major geologically-defined terrane boundaries. There is a distinct seismic gap within Taconic Belt between the Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) to the west and the seismically active Ganderia terrane to the east. It is not clear, however, what crustal structures control the characteristics of earthquake clustering in this region. Here we present a newly constructed crustal shear velocity model for the northern Appalachians using Rayleigh wave data extracted from ambient noises. Our tomographic model reveals strongly heterogeneous seismic structures in the crust. We observe multiple NW-dipping patches of high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the southeastern WQSZ. The upper crust shear velocities in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are generally lower than those beneath the WQSZ. The middle crust has relatively lower velocities in the study area. The earthquakes in the study area are constrained within the upper crust. Most of the earthquake hypocenters within the WQSZ are concentrated along the NW-dipping boundaries separating the high-velocity anomalies. In contrast, most of the earthquake hypocenters in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are diffusely distributed without clear vertical lineaments. The orientations of maximum compressive stresses change from W-E in the Ganderia and Avalonia region to SW-NE in the WQSZ. The contrasts in seismicity, velocity, and stress field across the Taconic Belt indicate that the Taconic Belt terrane may act as a seismically inactive buffer zone in northern Appalachians.

  7. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor


    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  8. 75 FR 82146 - Appalachian Community Bank, FSB, McCaysville, GA, Notice of Appointment of Receiver


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Appalachian Community Bank, FSB... contained in section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Appalachian Community Bank, FSB...

  9. The Role of Language in Interactions with Others on Campus for Rural Appalachian College Students

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.


    Dialects of English spoken in rural, Southern Appalachia are heavily stigmatized in mainstream American culture, and speakers of Appalachian dialects are often subject to prejudice and stereotypes which can be detrimental in educational settings. We explored the experiences of rural, Southern Appalachian college students and the role speaking a…

  10. Chapter 11: Reforestation to enhance Appalachian mined lands as habitat for terrestrial wildlife

    Petra Wood; Jeff Larkin; Jeremy Mizel; Carl Zipper; Patrick Angel


    Surface mining is widespread throughout the Appalachian coalfields, a region with extensive forests that are rich in wildlife. Game species for hunting, nongame wildlife species, and other organisms are important contributors to sustainable and productive ecosystems. Although small breaks in the forest canopy are important to wildlife diversity, most native Appalachian...

  11. Conservation and Environmental Education in Southern Appalachian Schools. A Report of a Needs Assessment.

    Bousquet, Woodward S.; Jarvis, Ralph W.

    An assessment of conservation and environmental education needs in southern Appalachian schools is provided in this survey. Superintendents of school districts and teachers within the southern Appalachian region responded to a questionnaire which was designed to determine: (1) the current status of conservation and environmental education; (2)…

  12. State Appalachian Development Plans and Investment Programs for Fiscal Year 1980. ABSTRACTS.

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), established by Congress in 1965 as a means of relieving the chronic economic and social distresses of the Appalachian region, is composed of the governors of the 13 states that comprise Appalachia. Local development plans, based upon needs and priorities, are presented to ARC every year by the governor of…

  13. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  14. Casuses of deforestation in southwestern Madagascar

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Ranaivoson, Socrate


    Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products......Causes of deforestation are discussed in the case of southwestern Madagascar. Distinction is made between direct and indirect causes. The article ends up with an estimation of the value of agricultural land vs. an estimation of benefits from utilisation of non-timber forest products...

  15. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson


    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  16. Factors influencing woodlands of southwestern North Dakota

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad


    Literature pertaining to woodlands of southwestern North Dakota is reviewed. Woodland species composition and distribution, and factors influencing woodland ecosystems such as climate, logging, fire, and grazing are described. Potential management and improvement techniques using vegetation and livestock manipulation have been suggested.

  17. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report (2000)


    The research results and engineering progress of SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics) during the year of 2000 was summarized in this annual report. The contents divided into five parts: 1. tokamak experimental diagnoses and tokamak engineering; 2. fusion reactor and fusion reactor materials; 3. plasma theory and calculation; 4. technique development and application; 5. appendix 31 theses and presented in this report

  18. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997


    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration's (Southwestern's) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern's Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern's written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects

  19. Southwestern Power Administration site environmental report for calendar year 1993


    During CY 93, Southwestern was not involved in any programs that had a direct effect on the environment, involving endangered species, protection of wetlands, or increased electromagnetic radiation. Southwestern continued to function throughout the year in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects. Southwestern received an environmental management audit by the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), during CY 1992. The purpose of the audit was to give Southwestern, DOE headquarters, and the Secretary an indication of the status of Southwestern management's effectiveness in discharging its duties in an environmentally responsible manner. The audit identified 17 findings. An action plan was developed and remediation of the findings has been accomplished. Several strengths were identified during the audit with regard to the environmental programs at Southwestern. Most importantly, senior management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization which is evidenced by the creation of the Environmental, Safety, Health, and Security Office

  20. Predicting logging residues: an interim equation for Appalachian oak sawtimber

    A. Jeff Martin


    An equation, using dbh, dbh², bole length, and sawlog height to predict the cubic-foot volume of logging residue per tree, was developed from data collected on 36 mixed oaks in southwestern Virginia. The equation produced reliable results for small sawtimber trees, but additional research is needed for other species, sites, and utilization practices.

  1. Dynamics of mid-Appalachian red spruce-hardwood ecotones

    Adam W. Rollins; Harold S. Adams; Steven L. Stephenson


    Ten belt transects, each consisting of a series of contiguous 10 x 10 m (100 m2) quadrats were established between 1992 and 1994 at seven study sites in the mountains of southwestern Virginia and eastern central West Virginia. All of the study sites occurred in areas where a relatively distinct and narrow ecotone existed between a forest...

  2. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Dulong, Frank T.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  3. Comparisons of Spatial Predictions of Conductivity on a Stream Network in an Appalachian Watershed

    We made spatial predictions of specific conductance based on spatial stream network (SSN) modeling to compare conductivity measurements of components of the network, such as headwaters, tributaries, and mainstem, which have different spatial extents in a study Appalachian watersh...

  4. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate g...

  5. Two countries, one forest: Working beyond political boundaries in the Northern Appalachian/Acadian Forest

    James Sullivan


    Two Countries, One Forest (2C1Forest) is a collaboration of conservation organizations and researchers committed to the long-term ecological health of the Northern Appalachian/ Acadian ecoregion of the United States and Canada.

  6. An Appalachian portrait : black and white in Montgomery County, Virginia, before the Civil War

    Grant, Charles L.


    Montgomery County, Virginia, is a southern Appalachian county founded in 1776. Throughout the county's antebellum history, as with most other regions of the South, four major population groups were visibly present. There were slaves, free blacks, white slaveowners, and white non-slaveowners. Little research has previously been conducted on the antebellum people of the Appalachian South. This work is a social history consisting of cross tabulations of data found in the county...

  7. Timing of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization: Relation to Appalachian orogenic events

    Kesler, S.E.; van der Pluijm, B.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))


    Although Mississippi Valley-type deposits in Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks of the Appalachian orogen are commonly interpreted to have been precipitated by basinal brines, the timing of brine migration remains poorly known. Late Paleozoic K-Ar isotopic ages on authigenic K-feldspar, which is widespread in Appalachian carbonate rocks, as well as evidence of paleomagnetic overprints of similar age, have focused attention on the possibility that these Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed as a result of late Paleozoic deformation. Geologic and geochemical similarities among most of these deposits, from Georgia to Newfoundland, including unusually high sphalerite/galena ratios, isotopically heavy sulfur, and relatively nonradiogenic lead, suggest that they are coeval. Sphalerite sand that parallels host-rock layering in many of the deposits indicates that mineralization occurred before regional deformation. Although the late Paleozoic age of deformation in the southern Appalachians provides little constraint on the age of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, deformation of these deposits in the Newfoundland Appalachians is early to middle Paleozoic in age. Thus, if Ordovician-hosted, Appalachian Mississippi Valley-type deposits are coeval, they must have formed by middle Paleozoic time and cannot be the product of a late Paleozoic fluid-expulsion event. This hypothesis has important implications for basin evolution, fluid events, and remagnetization in the Appalachians.

  8. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008



    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  9. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report 2001


    In the year 2001, significant progresses in the engineering construction of the HL-2A tokamak were made at the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP). At the same time, the research projects from Nuclear Energy Development Foundation, the National Defense Basic Research Foundation and the National Science Foundation of China were completely fulfilled. In addition 283 papers and reports were contributed, among them, 67 are included in the Annual Report

  10. Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes

    Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.


    The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i

  11. Social isolation and cognitive function in Appalachian older adults.

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest


    Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Acid deposition and water use efficiency in Appalachian forests

    Malcomb, J.


    Multiple studies have reported increases in forest water use efficiency in recent decades, but the drivers of these trends remain uncertain. While acid deposition has profoundly altered the biogeochemistry of Appalachian forests in the past century, its impacts on forest water use efficiency have been largely overlooked. Plant ecophysiology literature suggests that plants up-regulate transpiration in response to soil nutrient limitation in order to maintain sufficient mass flow of nutrients. To test the impacts of acid deposition on forest eco-hydrology in central Appalachia, we integrated dendrochronological techniques, including tree ring δ13C analysis, with catchment water balance data from the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. Tree cores from four species were collected in Fernow Watershed 3, which has received experimental ammonium sulfate additions since 1989, and Watershed 7, an adjacent control catchment. Initial results suggest that acidification treatments have not significantly influenced tree productivity compared to a control watershed, but the effect varies by species, with tulip poplar showing greatest sensitivity to acidification. Climatic water balance, defined as the difference between growing season precipitation and evapotranspiration, is significantly related to annual tree ring growth, suggesting that climate may be driving tree growth trends in chronically acidified Appalachian forests. Tree ring 13C analysis from Fernow cores is underway and these data will be integrated with catchment hydrology data from five other sites in central Appalachia and the U.S. Northeast, representing a range of forest types, soil base saturations, and acid deposition histories. This work will advance understanding of how climate and acid deposition interact to influence forest productivity and water use efficiency, and improve our ability to model carbon and water cycling in forested ecosystems impacted by acid deposition.

  13. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007



    “Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy

  14. Characteristics of Intracrater Thermal Anomalies in Southwestern Margaritifer Terra

    McDowell, M. L.; Hamilton, V. E.


    We use thermophysical properties, albedo, short wavelength emissivity, composition, and geomorphology to understand the formation of anomalously warm intracrater deposits in southwestern Margaritifer Terra.

  15. Daughters of the mountain: women coal miners in central Appalachia

    Tallichet, S.E. [Morehead State University in Kentucky, KY (United States). Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology


    The book introduces us to a cohort of women miners at a large underground coal mine in southern West Virginia, where women entered the workforce in the late 1970s after mining jobs began opening up for women throughout the Appalachian coalfields. The work goes beyond anecdotal evidence to provide complex and penetrating analyses of qualitative data. Based on in-depth interviews with including social relations among men and women, professional advancement, and union participation. She also explores the ways in which women adapt to mining culture, developing strategies for both resistance and accommodation to an overwhelmingly male-dominated world. 1 app.

  16. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan


    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  17. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Bonomi, Amy E.; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G.; Wewers, Mary Ellen


    Background: Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association...

  18. White Infant Mortality in Appalachian States, 1976-1980 and 1996-2000: Changing Patterns and Persistent Disparities

    Yao, Nengliang; Matthews, Stephen A.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.


    Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian…

  19. Transformational Leadership and Teacher Motivation in Southwestern Arizona High Schools

    Reynolds, Catherine L.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and teacher motivation in Southwestern Arizona high schools. Teachers in a school district in Southwestern Arizona comprised of high schools were surveyed using two instruments, Leithwood and Jantzi's (1998) The Leadership and Management of Schools in…

  20. Some lessons in artificial regeneration from southwestern Oregon.

    William I. Stein


    Natural reproduction has often proved undependable for restocking cutovers and burns in the mixed-conifer forest types of southwestern Oregon. These types, covering 6,000 square miles of productive forest land in the five southwestern Oregon counties, are composed of many species--principally Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco;...

  1. Cultural perspectives concerning adolescent use of tobacco and alcohol in the Appalachian mountain region.

    Meyer, Michael G; Toborg, Mary A; Denham, Sharon A; Mande, Mary J


    Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence.

  2. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers.

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura


    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught.

  3. Unraveling the origin of the Appalachian gametophyte, Vittaria appalachiana.

    Pinson, Jerald B; Schuettpelz, Eric


    Ferns and lycophytes are distinct among plants in producing two free-living life stages: a long-lived sporophyte phase and a (usually) short-lived gametophyte phase. Notably, however, some species have perennial, vegetatively reproducing gametophytes. Vittaria appalachiana is one of just three species in which mature sporophytes are unknown. It has a wide range throughout the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau, where it reproduces asexually via gemmae. The origin of V. appalachiana, however, has long been a mystery, with most previous studies suggesting it may have resulted from hybridization of two closely related Vittaria species (V. graminifolia and V. lineata). A four-gene plastid data set including 32 samples of six Vittaria species, plus samples of five outgroup species, was analyzed to uncover phylogenetic relationships. Additional analyses of nuclear DET1 gene sequences allowed for the examination of hypotheses involving a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana. In the plastid phylogeny, V. appalachiana is well supported as monophyletic, but is embedded within V. graminifolia. With the exception of a single aberrant allele, this result is mirrored in the nuclear tree. Through analyses of plastid and nuclear data sets, this study demonstrates that a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana is unlikely. Instead, it appears that this species emerged from within the V. graminifolia lineage. Further work is needed to fully elucidate the genetic structure within this group. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  4. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    Dennison, J.M.


    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  5. A Müllerian mimicry ring in Appalachian millipedes

    Marek, Paul E.; Bond, Jason E.


    Few biological phenomena provide such an elegant and straightforward example of evolution by natural selection as color mimicry among unrelated organisms. By mimicking the appearance of a heavily defended aposematic species, members of a second species gain protection from predators and, potentially, enhanced fitness. Mimicking a preexisting warning advertisement is economical because a potentially costly novel one can be avoided; simultaneously, the addition of more aposematic individuals enhances the overall warning effect. The better-known mimetic systems comprise tropical taxa, but here, we show a remarkable example of color mimicry in 7 species of blind, cyanide-generating millipedes endemic to the Appalachian Mountains of temperate North America. Because these millipedes lack eyes, there is no sexual selection or intraspecific signaling for coloration, providing an ideal system for mimicry studies. We document a Müllerian symbiosis where unrelated species vary in color and pattern over geographical space but appear identical where they co-occur. By using spectral color data, estimations of evolutionary history, and detailed field observations of species abundance, we test 4 predictions of Müllerian mimicry theory and begin to unravel the story of an elaborate mimetic diversification in the forests of Appalachia. PMID:19487663

  6. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.


    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. IYA Outreach Plans for Appalachian State University's Observatories

    Caton, Daniel B.; Pollock, J. T.; Saken, J. M.


    Appalachian State University will provide a variety of observing opportunities for the public during the International Year of Astronomy. These will be focused at both the campus GoTo Telescope Facility used by Introductory Astronomy students and the research facilities at our Dark Sky Observatory. The campus facility is composed of a rooftop deck with a roll-off roof housing fifteen Celestron C11 telescopes. During astronomy lab class meetings these telescopes are used either in situ or remotely by computer control from the adjacent classroom. For the IYA we will host the public for regular observing sessions at these telescopes. The research facility features a 32-inch DFM Engineering telescope with its dome attached to the Cline Visitor Center. The Visitor Center is still under construction and we anticipate its completion for a spring opening during IYA. The CVC will provide areas for educational outreach displays and a view of the telescope control room. Visitors will view celestial objects directly at the eyepiece. We are grateful for the support of the National Science Foundation, through grant number DUE-0536287, which provided instrumentation for the GoTO facility, and to J. Donald Cline for support of the Visitor Center.

  8. Hydrologic budget and conditions of Permian, Pennsylvanian, and Mississippian aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Yager, Richard M.; Nelms, David L.; Ladd, David E.; Monti,, Jack; Kozar, Mark D.


    In response to challenges to groundwater availability posed by historic land-use practices, expanding development of hydrocarbon resources, and drought, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers in 2013 that incorporated a hydrologic landscape approach to estimate all components of the hydrologic system: surface runoff, base flow from groundwater, and interaction with atmospheric water (precipitation and evapotranspiration). This assessment was intended to complement other Federal and State investigations and provide foundational groundwater-related datasets in the Appalachian Plateaus.

  9. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.


    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  10. Southwestern Institute of Physics: Annual Report 1998


    The main achievements of controlled nuclear fusion research are presented for Southwestern Institute of Physics in 1998 year. With the establishment and operation of two auxiliary heating systems (NBI, ICRH), the HL-1M Tokamak is equipped with main auxiliary heating and current driving systems such as NBI, ECRH, ICRH and LHCD etc. . In addition, a variety of advanced fueling system, i.e. , multi-shot pellet and supersonic molecular beam injection, the first wall processing technologies of boronization, siliconization and lithiumization as well as more than 20 diagnostic facilities with partial space-time resolution capability have been established on the device. The construction of a larger Tokamak with divertors, the HL-2A, and its complementary systems are being carried out

  11. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia


    . Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding......Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...... and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci...

  12. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration


    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  13. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration


    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  14. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  15. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Li, Zongxing


    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  16. Study on climate change in Southwestern China

    Li, Zongxing


    Nominated by Chinese Academy of Sciences as an outstanding Ph.D. thesis. Offers a needed exploration of the temporal and spatial pattern of climate change in southwestern China. Explores the action mechanism among the large-scale atmospheric circulation system, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. Analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change from the aspects of morphology of the glacier, glacial mass balance and the process of hydrology. This thesis confirms many changes, including sharp temperature rise, interannual variability of precipitation, extreme climate events and significant decreases of sunshine duration and wind speed in southwestern China, and systemically explores the action mechanism between large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, the complicated topography, human activities and regional climate changes. This study also analyzes the response of glaciers to climate change so that on the one hand it clearly reflects the relationship between glacier morphologic changes and climate change; on the other, it reveals the mechanism of action of climate warming as a balance between energy and matter. The achievements of this study reflect a significant contribution to the body of research on the response of climate in cold regions, glaciers and human activities to a global change against the background of the typical monsoon climate, and have provided scientific basis for predictions, countermeasures against disasters from extreme weather, utilization of water and the establishment of counterplans to slow and adapt to climate change. Zongxing Li works at the Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

  17. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller


    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  18. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.


    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  19. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  20. 77 FR 39733 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [WASO-NRSS-10750; 2490-STC] Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey AGENCY: National Park Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a currently approved information collection (1024-0259...

  1. Using hyperdocuments to manage scientific knowledge: the prototype Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor


    Despite the overwhelming body of research available on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian forests, a gap exists between what scientists know and what the management community is able to apply on the ground. Most research knowledge still resides in highly technical, narrowly focused research publications housed in libraries. The internet, combined with...

  2. Fuels and predicted fire behavior in the southern Appalachian Mountains and fire and fire surrogate treatments

    Thomas Waldrop; Ross J. Phillips; Dean A. Simon


    This study tested the success of fuel reduction treatments for mitigating wildfire behavior in an area that has had little previous research on fire, the southern Appalachian Mountains. A secondary objective of treatments was to restore the community to an open woodland condition. Three blocks of four treatments were installed in a mature hardwood forest in western...

  3. Plant succession and community restoration following felling and burning in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose


    Recent declines in the yellow pine component of pine-hardwood stands in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has prompted managers to increase the use of fire as a silvicultural tool. The fell and burn treatment is designed to remove competing vegetation (hardwoods and mountain laurel...

  4. Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation 20 years after clear-cutting a southern Appalachian watershed

    Katherine J. Elliott; Lindsay R. Boring; Wayne T. Swank


    In 1975, we initiated a long-term interdisciplinary study of forest watershed ecosystem response to clear- cutting and cable logging in watershed 7 at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. This paper describes ~20 years of change in species composition, aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI),...

  5. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major


    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  6. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye


    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  7. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton


    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  8. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton


    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The...

  9. Imidacloprid movement in soils and impacts on soil microarthropods in southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Jerry L. Michael; Barbara C. Reynolds


    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide effective in controlling the exotic pest Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees. Concerns over imidacloprid impacts on nontarget species have limited its application in southern Appalachian ecosystems. We quantified the movement and adsorption of imidacloprid in forest soils after soil...

  10. Vegetation response to large scale disturbance in a southern Appalachian forest: Hurricane Opal and salvage logging

    Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie L. Hitchcock; Lisa Krueger


    Disturbance such as catastrophic windthrow can play a major role in the structure and composition of southern Appalachian forests. We report effects of Hurricane Opal followed by salvage logging on vegetation dynamics (regeneration, composition, and diversity) the first three years after disturbance at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. The...

  11. Why Individuals Hike the Appalachian Trail: A Qualitative Approach to Benefits

    Goldenberg, Marni; Hill, Eddie; Freidt, Barbara


    The Appalachian Trail (AT) is a 2,175 mile-long National Scenic Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Since its inception in the early 1920s, individuals, families, schools, and other organizations, just to name a few, have used the AT. Approximately 3 to 4 million visitors hike a portion of the AT each year (ATC, 2006). Throughout its 80-year…

  12. Modeling and simulating two cut-to-length harvesting systems in central Appalachian hardwoods

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Yaoxiang Li


    The production rates and costs of two cut-to-length harvesting systems was simulated using a modular ground-based simulation model and stand yield data from fully stocked, second growth even aged central Appalachian hardwood forests. The two harvesters simulated were a modified John Deere 988 tracked excavator with a model RP 1600 single grip sawhead and an excavator...

  13. Productivity and cost of manual felling and cable skidding in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Jingxin Wang; Charlie Long; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras


    A field production study was conducted for a manual harvesting system using a chainsaw and cable skidder in a central Appalachian hardwood forest site. A partial cut was performed on a 50-acre tract with an average slope of 25 percent. Felling time pre tree was most affected by diameter at breast height and the distance between harvested trees while skidding cycle time...

  14. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Yaoxiang Li; Chris B. LeDoux; Jingxin Wang


    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand...

  15. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations.

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe


    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  16. Effects of prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand

    G.W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    A prescribed fire in a central Appalachian mixed hardwood stand caused considerable damage to the butt logs of many overstory trees. Although there were increases in the abundance and distribution of several species of hardwoods, advanced red and chestnut oaks were poorly distributed 5-years after burning. An abundance of striped maple and other shrubs in the...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA.

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph


    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  18. 78 FR 57373 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water...


    ... License Article 202 and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, Protests, and Recommendations Take..., protests, comments, or recommendations using the Commission's eFiling system at pursuant to article 202. b. Project No: 2376-048. c. Date Filed: July 31, 2013. d. Applicant: Appalachian...

  19. The Impact of International Students on American Students and Faculty at an Appalachian University

    Jourdini, My Mustapha


    This study examined the effects of exposure to international students on American student and faculty perceptions at a regional Appalachian University. A revised and improved version of Jaleh Shabahang's (1993) "International Education Opinionnaire" was used to survey American students and faculty regarding their perceptions of the…

  20. Denitrification potential in sediments of headwater streams in the southern appalachian mountains, USA

    Lara A. Martin; Patrick J. Mulholland; Jackson R. Webster; H. Maurice Vallett


    We investigated variations in resource availability (NOa-N and labile organic C [LOCJ] as determinants of potential denitrification in stream sediments in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. stream-water and sediments were sampled seasonally in 2 streams of contrasting NO3,-N availability, Noland Creek (high NO

  1. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene


    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  2. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.


    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  3. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell


    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  4. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    Oswalt, Ch.M.; Oswalt, S.N.


    Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood hereafter dogwood) populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees) across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1) quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian eco region, (2) quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3) identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian eco region. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (ρ<.05) were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent) sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  5. Nitrogen deposition and cycling across an elevation and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian forests

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank


    We studied nitrogen (N) cycling pools and processes across vegetation and elevation gradients in. the southern Appalachian Mountains in SE USA. Measurements included bulk deposition input, watershed export, throughfall fluxes, litterfall, soil N pools and processes, and soil solution N. N deposition increased with elevation and ranged from 9.5 to 12.4 kg ha-...

  6. Using hyperdocuments for knowledge management: an encyclopedia of southern appalachian forest ecosystems

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe; J.B. Jordin; W.G. Hubbard; M.C. Covington; N. Rushton


    Land managers increasingly need improved access to research knowledge that is thoroughly organized, condensed, and presented in a form that is useful for problem solving. In this paper, we describe the application of hyperdocuments for knowledge management, using an example of a newly developed hypertext encyclopedia on the southern Appalachians. The Encyclopedia of...

  7. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    Christopher M. Oswalt


    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  8. New methods for estimating non-timber forest product output: an Appalachian case study

    Steve Kruger; James. Chamberlain


    Assessing the size and structure of non-timber forest product (NTFP) markets is difficult due to a lack of knowledge about NTFP supply chains. Harvesting ginseng and other wild medicinal plants has long provided a source of income and cultural identity in Appalachian communities in the eastern United States. With the exception of ginseng, the extent of the harvest of...

  9. Adaptation and validation of the REGEN expert system for the Central Appalachians

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani


    REGEN is an expert system that predicts future species composition at the onset of stem exclusion using preharvest stand conditions. To extend coverage into hardwood stands of the Central Appalachians, we developed REGEN knowledge bases for four site qualities (xeric, subxeric, submesic, mesic) based on relevant literature and expert opinion. Data were collected from...

  10. Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area

    Katherine Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson


    Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...

  11. Evaluating relationships between natural resource management, land use changes, and flooding in the Appalachian region

    Nicolas P. Zegre; Samuel J. Lamont


    Th e Appalachian Region has a long history of natural resource management and recurrent history of frequent and large-scale floods. Land use activities such as urbanization, mining, forest harvesting, and agriculture can have a noticeable effect on the volume, magnitude, timing, and frequency of floods. Determining the effects of land use on flooding is difficult for...

  12. Tailoring Retention Theories to Meet the Needs of Rural Appalachian Community College Students

    Hlinka, Karen R.


    Objective: Traditional-age students attending a rural community college in Kentucky's Appalachian region were interviewed, along with faculty members and administrators, to identify phenomena serving as sources of encouragement or as barriers to retention from the point of entry to the point of transfer. Method: Students' perspectives were…

  13. Establishing perennial seed-based energy crops on reclaimed surface mine soils in the central Appalachians

    Jamie L. Schuler; Shawn Grushecky; Jingxin. Wang


    Renewable energy has been at the forefront of the United States' energy policies. Cellulosic feedstocks have received considerable interest in the Appalachian region because of their abundance and availability, but cost competition from other energy sectors has limited their use in the region. Some other bioenergy feedstocks, such as corn and soybeans, are not a...

  14. Evolutionary history of two endemic Appalachian conifers revealed using microsatellite markers

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) and intermediate fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill. var. phanerolepis Fern.) exist in small populations in the Appalachian highlands of the southeastern United States. We used ten nuclear microsatellite markers to quantify genetic variation within Fraser fir and intermediate...

  15. Proceedings: Wildland Fire in the Appalachians: Discussions Among Managers and Scientists

    Thomas A. Waldrop


    Many challenges face fire managers and scientists in the Appalachian Mountains because of the region’s diverse topography and limited research supporting prescribed burning. This conference was designed to promote communication among managers, researchers, and other interested parties. These proceedings contain 30 papers and abstracts that describe ongoing research,...

  16. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose


    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  17. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  18. Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species

    Steven T. Brantley; Chelcy Ford Miniat; Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie H. Laseter; James M. Vose


    Few studies have examined how insect outbreaks affect landscape-level hydrologic processes. We report the hydrologic effects of the invasive, exotic hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) in a headwater catchment in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The study watershed experienced complete mortality of an evergreen tree species, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (...

  19. Fish Habitat and Fish Populations in a Southern Appalachian Watershed before and after Hurricane Hugo

    C. Andrew Dolloff; Patricia A. Flebbe; Michael D. Owen


    Habitat features and relative abundance of all fish species were estimated in 8.4 km of a small mountain stream system before and 11 months after Hurricane Hugo crossed the southern Appalachians in September 1989. There was no change in the total amount (area) of each habitat type but the total number of habitat units decreased and average size and depth of habitat...

  20. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Patricia A. Flebbe


    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  1. Managing Appalachian hardwood stands using four regeneration practices--34 year results

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller


    Adjacent Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia established on excellent growing sites were managed for a 34-year period using four regeneration practices. These practices included a commercial clearcut, 15.5-in diameter-limit, and two single-tree selection practices. An uncut area was maintained as a control. Stand development, growth response, and some stumpage...

  2. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet


    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  3. Silvicultural and integrated pest management strategies for restoring eastern hemlock to degraded southern Appalachian mountain ecosystems.

    W.A. Whittier; A.E. Mayfield III; R.M. Jetton


    The ecologically foundational species eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, is being functionally eliminated from southern Appalachian forests by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae). The management of HWA has focused on chemical and biological control, conservation of hemlock genetic resources, and host resistance...

  4. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems

    Chelcy R. Ford; James M. Vose


    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers...

  5. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Mac. A. Callaham; Paul F. Hendrix; Ross J. Phillips


    This study documents the occurrence of an aggressive invasive earthworm species in undisturbed forest soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia, USA. Earthworms were sorted from samples collected in pitfall traps that had been set in mature, mesic oak-hickory forests in remote, high elevation, locations across northern Georgia. Specimens were...

  6. Successional dynamics and restoration implications of a montane coniferous forest in the central Appalachians, USA

    Thomas M. Schuler; Rachel J. Collins


    Central Appalachian montane red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) communities have been greatly reduced in extent and functional quality over the past century. This community decline has put several plant and animal species, such as the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus Shaw), at risk from habitat...

  7. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins


    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  8. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.


    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  9. Appalachian Piedmont landscapes from the Permian to the Holocene

    Cleaves, E.T.


    Between the Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers and from the Blue Ridge to the Fall Zone, landscapes of the Piedmont are illustrated for times in the Holocene, Late Wisconsin, Early Miocene, Early Cretaceous, Late Triassic, and Permian. Landscape evolution took place in tectonic settings marked by major plate collisions (Permian), arching and rifting (Late Triassic) and development of the Atlantic passive margin by sea floor spreading (Early Cretaceous). Erosion proceeded concurrently with tectonic uplift and continued after cessation of major tectonic activity. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf sediments record three major erosional periods: (1) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic; (2) Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous; and (3) Middle Miocene-Holocene. The Middle Miocene-Holocene pulse is related to neotectonic activity and major climatic fluctuations. In the Piedmont upland the Holocene landscape is interpreted as an upland surface of low relief undergoing dissection. Major rivers and streams are incised into a landscape on which the landforms show a delicate adjustment to rock lithologies. The Fall Zone has apparently evolved from a combination of warping, faulting, and differential erosion since Late Miocene. The periglacial environment of the Late Wisconsin (and earlier glacial epochs) resulted in increased physical erosion and reduced chemical weathering. Even with lowered saprolitization rates, geochemical modeling suggests that 80 m or more of saprolite may have formed since Late Miocene. This volume of saprolite suggests major erosion of upland surfaces and seemingly contradicts available field evidence. Greatly subdued relief characterized the Early Miocene time, near the end of a prolonged interval of tropical morphogenesis. The ancestral Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers occupied approximately their present locations. In Early Cretaceous time local relief may have been as much as 900 m, and a major axial river draining both the Piedmont and Appalachians flowed southeast

  10. Executive summary: Chapter A.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy needs over much of the last three centuries. Early records indicate that Appalachian coal was first mined in the middle 1700s (Virginia and Pennsylvania) and was used sparingly to fuel colonial settlements and, later, a fledgling industrial-based economy along the eastern seaboard of the United States (de Witt and Milici, 1989). In 2011, central Appalachian basin coal production accounted for approximately 77 percent of all U.S. metallurgical (or coking) coal and 29 percent of total U.S. production (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013). Following initial discoveries and commercial use in western New York (1821) and Ohio and West Virginia (mid-1830s), the Appalachian petroleum (oil and gas) industry began in earnest in 1859 with the discovery of oil at the Drake well in northwestern Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1989, the Appalachian basin produced more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) from more than 500,000 wells (de Witt and Milici, 1989). Although both oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  11. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  12. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in southwestern Kenya: progress and missed opportunities.

    Rogers, Anna J; Akama, Eliud; Weke, Elly; Blackburn, Justin; Owino, George; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Kwena, Zachary A; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M


    Repeat HIV testing during the late antenatal period is crucial to identify and initiate treatment for pregnant women with incident HIV infection to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and keep mothers alive. In 2012, the Kenya Ministry of Health adopted international guidelines suggesting that pregnant women be offered retesting three months after an initial negative HIV test. Our objectives were to determine the current rate of antenatal repeat HIV testing; identify successes, missed opportunities and factors associated with retesting; and estimate the incidence of HIV during pregnancy. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal data was conducted for a cohort of 2145 women attending antenatal care clinic at a large district hospital in southwestern Kenya. Data were abstracted from registers for all women who attended the clinic from the years 2011 to 2014. Although 90.2% of women first came to clinic prior to their third trimester and 27.5% had at least four clinic visits, 58.0% of all women went to delivery without a retest. Missed opportunities for retesting included not returning to clinic at all, not returning when eligible, or late gestational age (>28 weeks) at first clinic visit making them ineligible for retesting (accounting for 14.2%, 26.8% and 9.6% of all clinic attendees respectively); and failure to be retested even when eligible at one or more visits (accounting for 73.2% of eligible returnees). Being unmarried and aged 20 or younger was associated with an increase in mean gestational age of first visit by 2.52 weeks (95% CI: 1.56, 3.48) and a 2.59 increased odds (95% CI: 1.90, 3.54) of failing to return to clinic, compared to those who were married and over 20 years of age. On retest, two women tested HIV positive, suggesting an incidence rate of 4.4 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, only later year of last menstrual period (2013 vs. 2012 and 2011) was associated with retesting. Adoption of retesting guidelines in 2012

  13. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G; Wewers, Mary Ellen


    Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association between GBV and smoking among women in the region. A two-phase address-based random sampling approach was used in three purposefully selected Ohio Appalachian counties to identify women to complete an interviewer administered cross-sectional survey (n = 398). The primary exposure variable was GBV Index Score, a 4 level indices representing increasing exposure to eight abuse types. Correlation analysis and logistic regression were used to examine smoking correlations and risk. Almost 57% of women in the three selected Ohio Appalachian counties experienced GBV, with rate increasing to 77.5% among current smokers. The distribution of the GBV Exposure Index Score was significantly different across smoking status (p role GBV plays in health behavior and behavioral change interventions, including smoking and smoking cessation.

  14. Identifying Communication Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Appalachian Kentuckians.

    Bachman, Audrey Smith; Cohen, Elisia L; Collins, Tom; Hatcher, Jennifer; Crosby, Richard; Vanderpool, Robin C


    Utilizing data from 40 in-depth interviews, this article identifies both barriers and facilitators to colorectal screening guideline adherence among Appalachian Kentucky adults recruited through a community-based research network. Key findings identify (a) varying levels of knowledge about screening guidelines, (b) reticence to engage in screening processes, and (c) nuanced communication with healthcare providers and family members regarding screening adherence. What participants knew about the screening process was often derived from personal stories or recalled stories from family members about their screening experiences. Reticence to engage in screening processes reflected reports of cumbersome preparation, privacy issues, embarrassment, medical mistrust, fear of receiving a cancer diagnosis, and lack of symptoms. Participants cited many ways to enhance patient-centered communication, and the findings from this study have implications for health communication message design and communication strategies for healthcare practices in Appalachian Kentucky clinics.

  15. Appalachian States Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste management survey, 1987

    Singh, K.N.


    Since the enactment of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act in February 1988, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has undertaken major steps to develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility within its borders for the exclusive use of radioactive material licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. In order to adequately plan for the design and development of that facility, it is essential to obtain accurate data on LLRW being generated in the Compact. To that end, the Division of Nuclear Safety of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) conducted a survey to determine volume and activity of LLRW shipped and stored in 1987 by the licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. The 1986 LLRW survey included licensees in Pennsylvania and Maryland, while surveys conducted prior to 1986 involved only Pennsylvania licensees. So this is the first survey conducted by BRP that has included all four states of the Compact

  16. Bat activity following restoration prescribed burning in the central Appalachian Upland and riparian habitats

    Austin, Lauren V.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Muthersbaugh, Michael; Powers, Karen E.


    After decades of fire suppression in eastern North America, land managers now are prioritizing prescribed fire as a management tool to restore or maintain fire-adapted vegetation communities. However, in long—fire-suppressed landscapes, such as the central and southern Appalachians, it is unknown how bats will respond to prescribed fire in both riparian and upland forest habitats. To address these concerns, we conducted zero-crossing acoustic surveys of bat activity in burned, unburned, riparian, and non-riparian areas in the central Appalachians, Virginia, USA. Burn and riparian variables had model support (ΔAICc fire differently between upland and riparian forest habitats, but overall, large landscape-level prescribed fire has a slightly positive to neutral impact on all bats species identified at our study site post—fire application.

  17. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth.

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R


    Rates of overweight among US children have been rising over the past three decades. Changes in lifestyle behaviors, including dietary and physical activity habits, have been examined thoroughly to identify correlates of weight status in children. Youth in rural US Appalachia are at a disproportionately greater risk for obesity and related health complications. Inadequate physical activity and poor dietary habits are two primary causes of obesity that have been noted in West Virginia adolescents. Few existing data describes the decisional balance in performing lifestyle behaviors, nor the perceptions of these youth regarding their beliefs about weight. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of a healthy weight in rural Appalachian adolescents. Ninth grade students were recruited from classroom presentations in four high schools throughout West Virginia. Interested parent-caregiver pairs returned forms to indicate interest in participation. Separate focus group interviews were conducted concurrently with adolescent and parents or caregivers to identify the cultural perceptions of a healthy weight. Questions were developed using grounded theory to explore how a healthy weight was defined, what factors dictate body weight, the perceived severity of the obesity issue, and the social or health ramifications of the condition. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify dominant themes, and content analysis provided text segments to describe the themes. This article describes the data obtained from the adolescent focus groups. When asked what defined a healthy weight, the adolescents who participated in the focus groups placed great value on physical appearance and social acceptability. Students believed there was a particular number, either an absolute weight or body mass index value that determined a healthy weight. These numbers were usually conveyed by a physician; however, there was also a general acceptance of being 'thick' or a reliance on

  18. Who benefits from free institutional delivery? evidence from a cross sectional survey of North Central and Southwestern Nigeria.

    Ajayi, Anthony I; Akpan, Wilson


    The reasons for low utilisation of maternal health services in settings where the user-fee removal policy has been implemented continue to generate scholarly debates. Evidence of whether user-fee removal benefits the poor women in underserved settings is scanty and inconsistent. This article examines use of maternal health care services in the context of free maternal healthcare and profiles the beneficiaries of user-fee removal. The study adopted a descriptive design. A three-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of 1227 women who gave birth between 2011 and 2015. Questionnaires were administered using a face-to-face interview approach and data generated were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis shows that the use of maternal healthcare services has improved considerably in North Central and Southwestern Nigeria. While socioeconomic and geographical inequality in the use of maternal healthcare services appear to be disappearing in Southwestern Nigeria, it appears to be widening in North Central Nigeria. The findings indicate that 33.6% of women reported to have benefitted from the free child-delivery programme; however, substantial variation exists across the two regions. The proportion of beneficiaries of user-fee removal policy was highest in urban areas (35.9%), among women belonging to the middle income category (38.3%), among women who gave birth in primary health centres (63.1%) and among women who resided in communities where there was availability of health facilities (37.2%). The study concludes that low coverage of the free maternal health programme, especially among women of low socioeconomic status residing in underserved settings is among the reasons for persistent poor maternal health outcomes in the context of free maternal healthcare. A model towards improving maternal health in underserved settings, especially in North Central Nigeria, would entail provisioning of health facilities

  19. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble


    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  20. Adult tooth loss for residents of US coal mining and Appalachian counties.

    Hendryx, Michael; Ducatman, Alan M; Zullig, Keith J; Ahern, Melissa M; Crout, Richard


    The authors compared rates of tooth loss between adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas and other areas of the nation before and after control for covariate risks. The authors conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis that merged 2006 national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (BRFSS) (N = 242 184) with county coal-mining data and other county characteristics. The hypothesis tested was that adult tooth loss would be greater in Appalachian mining areas after control for other risks. Primary independent variables included main effects for coal-mining present (yes/no) residence in Appalachia (yes/no), and their interaction. Data were weighted using the BRFSS final weights and analyzed using SUDAAN Proc Multilog to account for the multilevel complex sampling structure. The odds of two measures of tooth loss were examined controlling for age, race\\ethnicity, drinking, smoking, income, education, supply of dentists, receipt of dental care, fluoridation rate, and other variables. After covariate adjustment, the interaction variable for the residents of Appalachian coal-mining counties showed a significantly elevated odds for any tooth loss [odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.38], and greater tooth loss measured by a 4-level edentulism scale (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.36). The main effect for Appalachia was also significant for both measures, but the main effect for coal mining was not. Greater risk of tooth loss among adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas is present and is not explained by differences in reported receipt of dental care, fluoridation rates, supply of dentists or other behavioral or socioeconomic risks. Possible contributing factors include mining-specific disparities related to access, behavior or environmental exposures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Predicting climate change extirpation risk for central and southern Appalachian forest tree species

    Kevin M. Potter; William W. Hargrove; Frank H. Koch


    Climate change will likely pose a severe threat to the viability of certain forest tree species, which will be forced either to adapt to new conditions or to shift to more favorable environments if they are to survive. Several forest tree species of the central and southern Appalachians may be at particular risk, since they occur in limited high-elevation ranges and/or...

  2. Constraints on seismic anisotropy beneath the Appalachian Mountains from Love-to-Rayleigh wave scattering

    Servali, A.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M.


    The eastern margin of North America has been affected by a series of mountain building and rifting events that have likely shaped the deep structure of the lithosphere. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insight into lithospheric deformation associated with these past tectonic events, as well as into present-day patterns of mantle flow beneath the passive margin. Previous work on SKS splitting beneath eastern North America has revealed fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian orogen in the central and southern Appalachians. A major challenge to the interpretation of SKS splitting measurements, however, is the lack of vertical resolution; isolating anisotropic structures at different depths is therefore difficult. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves. In this study, we analyze the scattering of Love wave energy to Rayleigh waves, which is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the ray path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depend on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the angle between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. We analyze data collected by the dense MAGIC seismic array across the central Appalachians. We examine teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and greater over a range of backazimuths, and isolate surface waves at periods between 100 and 500 seconds. We compare the data to synthetic seismograms generated by the Princeton Global ShakeMovie initiative to identify anomalous QL arrivals. We find evidence significant QL arrivals at MAGIC stations, with amplitudes depending on propagation azimuth and station location. Preliminary results are consistent with a sharp lateral gradient in seismic anisotropy across the Appalachian Mountains in the depth range between 100-200 km.

  3. Production and cost analysis of a feller-buncher in central Appalachian hardwood forest

    Charlie Long; Jingxin Wang; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras


    A time study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and cost of a feller-buncher operating in a Central Appalachian hardwood forest. The sites harvested during observation consisted of primarily red maple and black cherry. Trees felled in the study had an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 16.1 in. and a total merchantable height of 16 ft. A Timbco 445C...

  4. Prescribed Burning For Laurel and Rhodendron Control in the Southern appalachians

    Ralph M. Hooper


    Prescribed fire shows promise as a tool for the control of laurel and rhododendron in the Southern Appalachian mountains. A recent prescribed fire killed the tops of 70 percent of ail laurel under 0.5 inch d.b.h. and 70 percent of the rhododendron under 1 inch d.b.h. Seventeen months after the bum, almost all of the top-killed laurel and rhododendron have...

  5. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  6. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan


    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  7. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration



    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  8. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    H. A. Walker


    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  9. The energy behind the power. Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report



    This is the Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report. The topics of the report include a letter to the secretary; an overview including the mission statement, a description of the Southwestern Federal Power System, financial statement, performance measurements, national performance review; year in review, summary of results, financial and statistical data and the Southwestern Power Administration Organization.

  10. Floods of December 1966 in southwestern Utah

    Butler, Elmer; Mundorff, J.C.


    Severe floods occurred in parts of southwestern Utah on December 5-6, 1966, as a result of precipitation of about 1 inch to more than 12 inches during December 3-6. The flood on the Virgin River was the greatest since the first settlers arrived in 1860.The peak discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin, Utah, was 22,830 cubic feet per second on December 6; this exceeded the previous maximum discharge of 13,500 cubic feet per second on March 3, 1938, and September 17, 1961, and probably has a recurrence interval of 100 years. At eight other gage sites in the flood area, the peak discharge in December 1966 was the highest of record; the recurrence intervals of some of the peak discharges may be 100 years. The flood peaks were generally of short duration and most streams receded to near base flow within 24 hours.The dissolved-solids content was significantly lower in the Virgin River at Virgin than at St. George, about 25 miles downstream; the water was of the calcium sulfate type at both sites. Data for the Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam and the Santa Clara River near Santa Clara show a significant increase in dissolved solids between the two sites. The water above Winsor Dam was of the calcium bicarbonate type, and the water near Santa Clara was of the calcium bicarbonate sulfate type.The suspended-sediment discharge, during the period December 5-8, 1966, at Santa Clara River above Winsor Dam, near Santa Clara was about foyer times greater than all the suspended-sediment discharge during the preceding 3 years ; the suspended-sediment discharge of the Virgin River at Virgin was greater during the 4-day period than during any one of the preceding 3 years.Nearly all the flood damage in the area occurred in the Virgin River basin. According to the Soil Conservation Service, total damage in the Dixie Soil Conservation District in Washington County was about $835,000; 60 percent of the damage was caused by floodwater and 40 percent by deposited sediment.

  11. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson


    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  12. Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians

    Ford, W. Mark; Silvis, Alexander; Johnson, Joshua B.; Edwards, John W.; Karp, Milu


    The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trovessart) is a cavity-roosting species that forages in cluttered upland and riparian forests throughout the oak-dominated Appalachian and Central Hardwoods regions. Common prior to white-nose syndrome, the population of this bat species has declined to functional extirpation in some regions in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, including portions of the central Appalachians. Our long-term research in the central Appalachians has shown that maternity colonies of this species form non-random assorting networks in patches of suitable trees that result from long- and short-term forest disturbance processes, and that roost loss can occur with these disturbances. Following two consecutive prescribed burns on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA, in 2007 to 2008, post-fire counts of suitable black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.; the most selected species for roosting) slightly decreased by 2012. Conversely, post-fire numbers of suitable maple (Acer spp. L.), primarily red maple (Acer rubrum L.), increased by a factor of three, thereby ameliorating black locust reduction. Maternity colony network metrics such as roost degree (use) and network density for two networks in the burned compartment were similar to the single network observed in unburned forest. However, roost clustering and degree of roost centralization was greater for the networks in the burned forest area. Accordingly, the short-term effects of prescribed fire are slightly or moderately positive in impact to day-roost habitat for the northern long-eared bat in the central Appalachians from a social dynamic perspective. Listing of northern long-eared bats as federally threatened will bring increased scrutiny of immediate fire impacts from direct take as well as indirect impacts from long-term changes to roosting and foraging habitat in stands being returned to historic fire-return conditions. Unfortunately, definitive

  13. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. (Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)


    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  14. Application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. Progress report no. 3

    Kutina, J.


    This report is concerned with the application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the U.S. It reviews analyses presented in previous reports which suggest that the basement of the Central and Eastern U.S. consists of large crustal blocks separated by major zones of tectonic weakness. The curvature of the Appalachian Fold Belt appears to be related to the east-west boundaries caused by subsiding and uplifting at these zones. A plot of epigenetic uranium occurrences reveals that they tend to cluster along the greater curvatures of the Appalachian orogeny. These findings have led to a systematic study of the regularities in the distribution of ore deposits in the Appalachians presented in this report. They include a description of geologic and geographic base maps, preparation of maps showing distribution of individual minerals, and regularities in the distribution of uranium in the Appalachians. Comments on the segmentation of the Appalachian orogeny by transverse lineaments are presented. The report contains seventeen maps of the eastern half of the U.S. showing specific mineral deposits in relation to geologic formations

  15. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

    Matthew L. Niemiller


    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  16. What drives low-severity fire in the southwestern USA?

    Sean A. Parks; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Matthew H. Panunto


    Many dry conifer forests in the southwestern USA and elsewhere historically (prior to the late 1800’s) experienced fairly frequent surface fire at intervals ranging from roughly five to 30 years. Due to more than 100 years of successful fire exclusion, however, many of these forests are now denser and more homogenous, and therefore they have a greater probability of...

  17. Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda ...

    Strategic nutrient management of field pea in southwestern Uganda. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Strategic nutrient management requires that the most limiting nutrient is known in order to provide a foundation for designing effective and sustainable soil fertility management ...

  18. Morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in southwestern Nigeria

    Background: Endometrium remains the most sensitive indicator of ovarian function and endometrial biopsy is one of the diagnostic procedures in endometrial pathology. The current study was carried out to examine the morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria and compare the results ...

  19. Fire and birds in the southwestern United States

    Carl E. Bock; William M. Block


    Fire is an important ecological force in many southwestern ecosystems, but frequencies, sizes, and intensities of fire have been altered historically by grazing, logging, exotic vegetation, and suppression. Prescribed burning should be applied widely, but under experimental conditions that facilitate studying its impacts on birds and other components of biodiversity....

  20. A plan for landscape fire restoration in the Southwestern Borderlands

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Larry S. Allen


    Fires were prevalent in the Southwestern Borderlands of Arizona and New Mexico prior to the arrival of European-American settlers in the 1880s. The almost total exclusion of fires for more than 100 years has been linked to declines in biological diversity and a loss of productivity associated with the encroachment of woody vegetation into the grasslands and open...

  1. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary


    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  2. Silviculture of southwestern ponderosa pine: The status of our knowledge

    Gilbert H. Schubert


    Describes the status of our knowledge of ponderosa pine silviculture in the southwestern States of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Economic value, impact on other uses, and the timber resource are discussed first, followed by ecological background, site quality, growth and yield, and silviculture and management. Relevant literature is discussed along with...

  3. A review of maternal mortality at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern ...

    A retrospective review of hospital maternal deaths at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia, covering the period from September 1990 to May 1999 was conducted with the objectives of determining the overall maternal mortality rate, observing trend of maternal mortality during the period, and identifying major causes of ...

  4. Silvics and silviculture in the southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Gerald J. Gottfried


    Southwestern pinyon-juniper and juniper woodlands cover large areas of the western United States. The woodlands have been viewed as places of beauty and sources of valuable resource products or as weed-dominated landscapes that hinder the production of forage for livestock. They are special places because of the emotions and controversies that encircle their management...

  5. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria ...

    Introduction: Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods: in order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes ...

  6. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in southwestern ponderosa fine forests

    Stephen C. Hart; Paul C. Selmants; Sarah I. Boyle; Steven T. Overby


    Ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States were historically characterized by relatively open, parklike stands with a bunchgrass-dominated understory. This forest structure was maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires. Heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, and favorable weather conditions following Euro-American settlement in the late 19th...

  7. Upland hardwood habitat types in southwestern North Dakota

    Michele M. Girard; Harold Goetz; Ardell J. Bjugstad


    The Daubenmire habitat type method was used to classify the upland hardwood draws of southwestern North Dakota. Preliminary data analysis indicates there are four upland habitat types: Fraxinus pennsylvanica/Prunus virginiana; F. pnnseanica-Ulmus americana/P. virginiana; Populus...

  8. Recent emissions research in southwestern shrub and grassland fuels

    David R. Weise; Wayne Miller; David R. Cocker; Heejung Jung; Seyedehsan Hosseini; Marko Princevac; Robert J. Yokelson; Ian Burling; Sheryl Akagi; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao


    While it is currently challenging to use prescribed burning in chaparral and other southwestern shrub fuel types due to many constraints, any such activities require smoke management planning. Information on fuels and emissions from chaparral were limited and based on older sampling systems. The DoD SERDP program funded a project to measure fuels and smoke emissions in...

  9. Simulating the productivity of desert woody shrubs in southwestern Texas

    In the southwestern U.S., many rangelands have converted from native grasslands to woody shrublands dominated by creosotebush (Larrea tridentate) and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), threatening ecosystem health. Both creosotebush and mesquite have well-developed long root systems that allow t...

  10. Cancer distribution pattern in south-western Nigeria | Awodele ...

    The burden of cancer in Nigeria is appreciable with about 100,000 new cancer cases been reported in the country each year. This study aimed to determine the level of occurrence and pattern of distribution of different cancer types in two major functional cancer registries in south-western Nigeria. A desk review of the level ...

  11. Estimation of the lion ( Panthera leo ) population in the southwestern ...

    A previous estimate of the lion (Panthera leo) population in the southwestern Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP) was made over 20 years ago. This together with increased fears regarding the viability of the population as a result of recent killings of roaming animals, an observed increase in non-violent mortalities during ...

  12. 2014 annual site environmental report, Southwestern Power Administration



    Southwestern Power Administration’s Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) serves as the chief reporting mechanism for site environmental performance information within the Department of Energy and as a valuable resource for shared and collaborative environmental protection and performance information to Agency stakeholders and members of the public living near Southwestern Power Administration’s (Southwestern) facilities and transmission line rights-of-ways. This ASER meets the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.B. Southwestern’s key environmental involvement includes an emphasis on the protection of ecological resources which is effectively accomplished through environmental program elements such as protecting water resources, generation of clean hydropower energy, oil spill prevention practices, elimination of green-house gas emissions, and comprehensive project reviews to ensure the protection of living organisms, migratory birds, Federally threatened or endangered species, and historic or cultural resources. Southwestern continues to actively minimize effects to natural resources and strive for continual improvement in the area of environmental compliance and sustainability while achieving the agency mission to market and deliver Federal hydroelectric power.

  13. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.


    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands...... patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands....

  14. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  15. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Patrick Valkenburg


    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  16. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2004-2006



    Confidence Commitment Cooperation These are words that spring to mind regarding Southwestern Power Administration’s performance during fiscal years (FY) 2004-2006 By offering innovative, customer-oriented service, working to improve system reliability and efficiency, and partnering with customers and other Federal power stakeholders, Southwestern has certainly exhibited all three of these qualities during these challenging yet productive years In fact, our cooperative working relationships were critical to our success during the severe and widespread drought conditions which prevailed throughout Southwestern’s marketing area for much of 2005-2006 When we proposed a temporary energy deferral program, our customers came on board by voluntarily taking less Federal hydropower than they were entitled to, enabling us to preserve system storage and fulfill our contract obligations during the crucial summer months of 2006 The U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also helped improve our drought situation by allowing Southwestern more operational flexibility on a regional level Despite the challenges this critical drought period presented, Southwestern remained committed to fulfilling our mission and strategic goals From FY 2004 through FY 2006, we marketed and delivered all available Federal hydropower while meeting and even exceeding the reliability standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Our Power Operations Training Center in Springfield, Missouri, was cited as an “Example of Excellence” during a NERC readiness audit in October 2006; and as we have every year since NERC began measuring, Southwestern far exceeded the accepted NERC compliance ratings for power system operations reliability Our commitment to excellence and accountability has kept our repayment goals on target as well Revenues were sufficient to repay all annual expenses and the required principal investment in the Federal hydropower facilities Furthermore, the original

  17. Gender and health analysis of sexual behaviour in south-western Nigeria.

    Jegede, A S; Odumosu, O


    This paper reports the main results of a series of interviews conducted among the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria. Fifty men and fifty women differing in socio-demographic backgrounds were studied. The study revealed that during their first sexual experience, Yoruba girls are at risk of contacting sexually transmitted diseases and of having unplanned pregnancies because of the traditional control measures and lack of adequate sex education even among those from non-traditional backgrounds. Choice of marriage partner is influenced by the kin, which encourages early marriage and multiple sexual relationships through polygyny. Yoruba men do not like contraceptives and the women suffer more of the consequences of sexual relationships than men. Sexual decision-making in Yoruba culture is characterised by certain specific problems of structural and cultural origins such as separate lifestyle of men and women, seeing the discussion of sexuality as a taboo, male dominance, and the perceived side effects of contraceptives. There is need for expanded sexual and reproductive health education strategies targeted at both males and females in this community especially among the adolescent group.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Health Care Needs among Children with Special Health Care Needs in Ohio's Metropolitan and Appalachian Counties.

    Earley, Elizabeth; Asti, Lindsey; Chisolm, Deena


    The study assessed whether children with special health care needs (CSHCN) living in Appalachian Ohio have differential health care utilization, unmet needs, and health outcomes compared with CSHCN in Ohio's metropolitan counties using a statewide Ohio survey. Based on this survey, an estimated 28% of children in Appalachian Ohio counties have special health care needs compared with 25% of children in metropolitan counties. In Appalachia, CSHCN are poorer and more likely to have Medicaid than their metropolitan counterparts, but had no reported significant differences in health outcomes or unmet needs. Data suggested a trend toward higher use of emergency department care and inpatient services and lower use of well-child visits but these differences did not reach significance. We conclude that CSHCN in Appalachian and metropolitan areas face similar levels of health status and unmet needs but results suggest a need for additional research on access to primary care services.

  19. Southwestern Power Administration Combined Financial Statements, 2006-2009



    We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of the Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS), as of September 30, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006, and the related combined statements of revenues and expenses, changes in capitalization, and cash flows for the years then ended. As described in note 1(a), the combined financial statement presentation includes the hydroelectric generation functions of another Federal agency (hereinafter referred to as the generating agency), for which Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) markets and transmits power. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Southwestern and the generating agency. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Southwestern and the generating agency’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the combined financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall combined financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the respective financial position of the Southwestern Federal Power

  20. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Moran, Anthony R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan


    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  1. Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains

    Kniowski, Andrew B.; Ford, W. Mark


    In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer

  2. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Anthony R. Moran


    Full Text Available Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  3. Individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda

    Turyakira Eleanor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and of adverse outcome for newborns in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of individual and health facility factors and the risk for obstructed labour and its adverse outcomes in south-western Uganda. Methods A review was performed on 12,463 obstetric records for the year 2006 from six hospitals located in south-western Uganda and 11,180 women records were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to control for probable confounders. Results Prevalence of obstructed labour for the six hospitals was 10.5% and the main causes were cephalopelvic disproportion (63.3%, malpresentation or malposition (36.4% and hydrocephalus (0.3%. The risk of obstructed labour was statistically significantly associated with being resident of a particular district [Isingiro] (AOR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04-1.86, with nulliparous status (AOR 1.47, 95% CI: 1.22-1.78, having delivered once before (AOR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.30-1.91 and age group 15-19 years (AOR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.45. The risk for perinatal death as an adverse outcome was statistically significantly associated with districts other than five comprising the study area (AOR 2.85, 95% CI: 1.60-5.08 and grand multiparous status (AOR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.11-3.22. Women who lacked paid employment were at increased risk of obstructed labour. Perinatal mortality rate was 142/1000 total births in women with obstructed labour compared to 65/1000 total births in women without the condition. The odds of having maternal complications in women with obstructed labour were 8 times those without the condition. The case fatality rate for obstructed labour was 1.2%. Conclusions Individual socio-demographic and health system factors are strongly associated with obstructed labour and its adverse outcome in south-western Uganda. Our study provides baseline information which may be used by

  4. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    None available


    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  5. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.


    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  6. The role of catastrophic geomorphic events in central Appalachian landscape evolution

    Jacobson, R.B.; Miller, A.J.; Smith, J.A.


    Catastrophic geomorphic events are taken as those that are large, sudden, and rare on human timescales. In the nonglaciated, low-seismicity central Appalachians, these are dominantly floods and landslides. Evaluation of the role of catastrophic events in landscape evolution includes assessment of their contributions to denudation and formation of prominent landscape features, and how they vary through space and time. Tropical storm paths and topographic barriers at the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Front create significant climatic variability across the Appalachians. For moderate floods, the influence of basin geology is apparent in modifying severity of flooding, but for the most extreme events, flood discharges relate mainly to rainfall characteristics such as intensity, duration, storm size, and location. Landslide susceptibility relates more directly to geologic controls that determine what intensity and duration of rainfall will trigger slope instability. Large floods and landslides are not necessarily effective in producing prominent geomorphic features. Large historic floods in the Piedmont have been minimally effective in producing prominent and persistent geomorphic features. In contrast, smaller floods in the Valley and Ridge produced erosional and depositional features that probably will require thousands of years to efface. Scars and deposits of debris slide-avalanches triggered on sandstone ridges recover slowly and persist much longer than scars and deposits of smaller landslides triggered on finer-grained regolith, even though the smaller landslides may have eroded greater aggregate volume. The surficial stratigraphic record can be used to extend the spatial and temporal limits of our knowledge of catastrophic events. Many prominent alluvial and colluvial landforms in the central Appalachians are composed of sediments that were deposited by processes similar to those observed in historic catastrophic events. Available stratigraphic evidence shows two

  7. Detrital Zircon Geo- and Thermochronologic Constraints on Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Sediment Transport and Tectonics, Southwestern Kansas and Northwestern Arkansas

    Bidgoli, T. S.; Wang, W.; Moeller, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Watney, L.


    The Late Mississippian to Early Pennsylvanian is a critical time interval across the globe, with major changes in tectonics, climate, and eustacy. Transcontinental sediment transport in North America, from the Appalachians to Great Canyon, has been proposed to initiate at this time (Gehrels et al., 2011). In the midcontinent, clastic influx to the Hugoton Embayment and Arkoma Shelf, during widespread carbonate platform deposition, may record evidence for this model, but the limited number of provenance studies has hindered interpretations. To test this model and further constrain sediment dispersal and source-to-sink systems in the midcontinent, we evaluate the provenance of upper Mississippian to middle Pennsylvanian siliciclastic intervals, in two areas, using sandstone component analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb and (U-Th)/He double dating. (1) For the Hugoton Embayment in southwestern Kansas, we focus on sandstones deposited in two valley-filling intervals, the Chester and Morrow. A total of 1100 zircon U-Pb ages have been acquired from samples from 10 boreholes, 6 from Chester and 4 from Morrow. Preliminary analysis suggests that the Chester is characterized by two major zircon U-Pb age clusters of 900-1295 Ma (Grenville) and 390-475 Ma, consistent with sediment delivery from the Appalachian orogen. Morrow strata record a change in provenance, with the presence of two additional age groups, 1300-1500 Ma (24.5%) and 1600-1800 Ma (17.9%), that correspond well with the age of basement rocks in the Granite-Rhyolite and Yavapai-Maztzal provinces, respectively. We ascribe changes in the zircon age spectra and introduction of these grains to the development of local uplifts, like the Nemaha Ridge, in the early Pennsylvanian. Double dating of zircons from these peaks may reveal additional information about these basement sources and the timing of denudation of these uplifts. (2) For the Arkoma shelf, we are analyzing 11 samples, collected from outcrops in northwestern

  8. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in a rural population in South-Western Uganda: a community based survey.

    Gershim Asiki

    Full Text Available The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa.In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC ≥ 5.2 mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C 6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27. The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher education or high BMI.Low HDL-C prevalence in this relatively young rural population is high whereas high TC prevalence is low. The consequences of dyslipidaemia in African populations remain unclear and prospective follow-up is required.

  9. Greetings and Politeness in Doctor-Client Encounters in Southwestern

    Akin Odebunmi


    Full Text Available Doctors and clients sometimes experience interactiveclashes during hospital meetings in South-western Nigerianhospitals because of their divergent culture-constrainedorientation to politeness cues. The goal of this paper is tounpack the discursive elements that characterize interactiveconfluence and divergence in selected consultativeencounters in the hospitals. The findings indicate thatinstitutional and cultural (disalignments occur in respect ofadjacency and non-adjacency pair greetings. In bothgreeting types, face support, threat and stasis are conjointlyco-constituted by doctors and Yoruba clients within theaffordances of the cultural, institutional and situationalcontext of the Southwestern Nigerian hospital setting.Adjacency pair greetings attract mutual interpretingsbetween the parties; interactive disalignments aredifferentially pragmatically accommodated by doctors andclients. In non-adjacency pair greeting, doctors’ threats areco-constituted as appropriate by both parties, theinstitutional power of doctor and shared Western culturalorientation playing significant roles.

  10. Entomologic Inoculation Rates of Anopheles arabiensis in Southwestern Ethiopia

    Ulesido, Fekadu Massebo; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt


    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of ...

  11. Comparative Assessment of Women Farmers' Status in Japan and ...

    The research compared the status of Japanese and Nigerian women farmers. The study was conducted in Sera Chuo, Hiroshima and Ohnan Chuo, Shimane prefecture, Chugoku region of Japan and Southwestern part of Nigeria covering three locations (Omi-Adio, Ijaye and Kila) within the suburban area of Ibadan ...

  12. Leadership Behaviors of School Administrators: Do Men and Women Differ?

    Johnson, Shirley; Busch, Steve; Slate, John R.


    In this study, the reasons why men and women behave differently in leadership roles in schools were investigated because of recent research on the indirect nature of the school principal's impact on learning and on gender differences in leadership behaviors. Practicing principals (109 males, 172 females) from two Southwestern states were surveyed…

  13. Genetic variation in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Busch, Joseph; Miller, Mark P.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; Keim, Paul


    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in isolated remnants of dense riparian habitat in the southwestern United States. We estimated genetic variation at 20 breeding sites of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (290 individuals) using 38 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our results suggest that considerable genetic diversity exists within the subspecies and within local breeding sites. Statistical analyses of genetic variation revealed only slight, although significant, differentiation among breeding sites (Mantel's r = 0.0705, P UPGMA cluster analysis of the AFLP markers indicates that extensive gene flow has occurred among breeding sites. No one site stood out as being genetically unique or isolated. Therefore, the small level of genetic structure that we detected may not be biologically significant. Ongoing field studies are consistent with this conclusion. Of the banded birds that were resighted or recaptured in Arizona during the 1996 to 1998 breeding seasons, one-third moved between breeding sites and two-thirds were philopatric. Low differentiation may be the result of historically high rangewide diversity followed by recent geographic isolation of breeding sites, although observational data indicate that gene flow is a current phenomenon. Our data suggest that breeding groups of E. t. extimus act as a metapopulation.

  14. Population isolation results in low genetic variation and high differentiation in Carolina hemlock (tsuga caroliniana), an imperiled southern Appalachian conifer

    Kevin M. Potter; Lia Campbell; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson; Robert M. Jetton


    Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a rare conifer species that grows in small, isolated populations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. The species is additionally imperiled by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an invasive insect that can...

  15. T-H-A-T-S: timber-harvesting-and-transport-simulator: with subroutines for Appalachian logging

    A. Jeff Martin


    A computer program for simulating harvesting operations is presented. Written in FORTRAN IV, the program contains subroutines that were developed for Appalachian logging conditions. However, with appropriate modifications, the simulator would be applicable for most logging operations and locations. The details of model development and its methodology are presented,...

  16. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates


    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  17. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre


    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  18. Origin, development, and impact of mountain laurel thickets on the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Patrick H. Brose


    Throughout forests of the northern hemisphere, some species of ericaceous shrubs can form persistent understories that interfere with forest regeneration processes. In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) may interfere in the regeneration of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests. To...

  19. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...


    ..., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202... recognizes the importance of this guidance to its Federal and state partners, to the regulated community, and... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental...

  20. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  1. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett


    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  2. Ecophysiology of seedling establishment in contrasting spruce-fir forests of southern Appalachian and Rocky Mountain ecotones, USA

    William K. Smith; Keith N.C. Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poiret) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) occur as codominant trees in six relic, mountain-top populations that make up the high-elevation forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (SA). These two relic species of the former boreal forest have experienced a significant decline over the past...

  3. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang


    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  4. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  5. Regeneration response to midstory control following long-term single tree selection management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods

    Jason R. Lewis; John W. Groninger; David L. Loftis


    Sustainability of the single tree selection system in the mixed hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians is compromised by insufficient recruitment of oak species. In 1986, portions of a stand at Bent Creek Experimental Forest that have been under single tree selection management since 1945 were subjected to a midstory herbicide treatment in an effort to improve...

  6. Effects of prescribed fire on the buried seed bank in mixed-hardwood forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Tara L. Keyser; Tracy L. Roof; Jacquelyne L. Adams; Dean Simon; Gordon Warburton


    This study characterizes the seed bank prior to and immediately following dormant-season prescribed fire in mature, mixed-Quercus spp. (oak) forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Thirty samples from the litter/duff (LD) and the top 5 cm of the mineral soil (MS) were collected from five 5-ha burn units (6 plots per experimental unit) before...

  7. Two-age silviculture: an innovative tool for enhancing species diversity and vertical structure in Appalachian hardwoods

    Gary W. Miller; Petra B. Wood; Jeffrey V. Nichols; Jeffrey V. Nichols


    Silvicultural practices that promote a two-age stand structure provide an opportunity to maintain diversity of woody species and vertical structure for extended periods of time in Appalachian hardwoods. Data from four two-age stands initiated by deferment cutting in West Virginia are summarized for the first 10 to 15 years after treatment. Results indicated that 15...

  8. Cost of and soil loss on "minimum-standard" forest truck roads constructed in the central Appalachians

    J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith


    A "minimum-standard" forest truck road that provides efficient and environmentally acceptable access for several forest activities is described. Cost data are presented for eight of these roads constructed in the central Appalachians. The average cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,119. The range was $5,048 to $14,424. Soil loss was measured from several...

  9. Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae:Digenea) Infection in pleurocerid snails and Desmognathus quadramaculatus salamander larvae in southern Appalachian streams

    Lisa K. Belden; William E. Peterman; Stephen A. Smith; Lauren R. Brooks; E.F. Benfield; Wesley P. Black; Zhaomin Yang; Jeremy M. Wojdak


    Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae) is a little-known digenetic trematode that uses raccoons and possibly mink as definitive hosts, and stream snails and amphibians as intermediate hosts. Some variation in the life cycle and adult morphology in western and eastern populations has been previously noted. In the southern Appalachians, Pleurocera snails and stream...

  10. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank


    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  11. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia

    Patricia A. Flebbe


    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  12. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis


    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  13. Science delivery is a two-way street – development of the Consortium Of Appalachian Fire Managers and Scientists (CAFMS)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Zoe Hoyle


    The Appalachian region stretches along the Blue Ridge Mountains from Pennsylvania south into Georgia and Alabama. The region’s lands shelter some of the greatest biological diversity in the United States. The heavily forested public lands are in great need of science-based fire management after decades of fire suppression. Fire-related research is relatively new to the...

  14. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    W. Mark Ford; Andrew M. Evans; Richard H. Odom; Jane L. Rodrigue; Christine A. Kelly; Nicole Abaid; Corinne A. Diggins; Douglas Newcomb


    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy...

  15. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Wang, Ping


    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  16. Overview of Appalachian Basin high-angle and horizontal air and mud drilling

    Yost, A.B. III; Javins, B.H.


    The United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center has been investigating the potential of using high angle and horizontal drilling technology to improve gas production from low permeability reservoirs for more than 20 years. A chronology of 45 high angle and horizontal wells have been identified to show the date, type well, type build curve, location, formation and the type of application. The historical well drilling events that have taken place since the first well are discussed to evaluate the progress in developing the technology. Detailed discussion about how the drilling technology developed in the Appalachian Basin for directional drilling and completion was provided. A discussion of the types of applications for high and horizontal drilling in the Appalachian Basin were identified. A summary of four jointly funded DOE/Industry horizontal wells were discussed to illustrate how the air horizontal drilling technology developed and learning curves for drilling cost and feet per day were provided to illustrate the improvement in the technology and equipment reliability

  17. Heat flow at the proposed Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) Site: Tectonic implications

    Costain, John K.; Decker, Edward R.

    The heat flow in northwestern South Carolina at the Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) site area is approximately 55 mW/m². This data supplements other data to the east in the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain provinces where heat flows > 55 mW/m² are characteristic of post- and late-synmetamorphic granitoids. Piedmont heat flow and heat generation data for granites, metagranites, and one Slate Belt site, in a zone approximately parallel to major structural Appalachian trends, define a linear relation. Tectonic truncation of heat-producing crust at a depth of about 8 km (a depth equal to the slope of the heat flow-heat production line) is proposed to explain the linear relation. Using the value of reduced heat flow estimated from this empirical relation, and assuming thicknesses of heat-producing crust defined by new ADCOH seismic data, the heat flow and heat production at the ADCOH site are consistent with a depth to the base of the Inner Piedmont crystalline allochthon of about 5.5 km. Seismic data at the ADCOH site confirm that the Inner Piedmont is tectonically truncated at about 5.5 km by the Blue Ridge master decollement. Temperatures at 10 km at the ADCOH site are predicted to be less than 200 °C.

  18. Chronic cardiovascular disease mortality in mountaintop mining areas of central Appalachian states.

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael


    To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for counties in 4 Appalachian states where MTM occurs (N = 404) were linked with county coal mining data. Three groups of counties were compared: MTM, coal mining but not MTM, and nonmining. Covariates included smoking rate, rural-urban status, percent male population, primary care physician supply, obesity rate, diabetes rate, poverty rate, race/ethnicity rates, high school and college education rates, and Appalachian county. Linear regression analyses examined the association of mortality rates with mining in MTM areas and non-MTM areas and the association of mortality with quantity of surface coal mined in MTM areas. Prior to covariate adjustment, chronic CVD mortality rates were significantly higher in both mining areas compared to nonmining areas and significantly highest in MTM areas. After adjustment, mortality rates in MTM areas remained significantly higher and increased as a function of greater levels of surface mining. Higher obesity and poverty rates and lower college education rates also significantly predicted CVD mortality overall and in rural counties. MTM activity is significantly associated with elevated chronic CVD mortality rates. Future research is necessary to examine the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of MTM on health to reduce health disparities in rural coal mining areas. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Effects of exurban development and temperature on bird species in the southern Appalachians.

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M


    Land-use dynamics and climatic gradients have large effects on many terrestrial systems. Exurban development, one of the fastest growing forms of land use in the United States, may affect wildlife through habitat fragmentation and building presence may alter habitat quality. We studied the effects of residential development and temperature gradients on bird species occurrence at 140 study sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina, U.S.A.) that varied with respect to building density and elevation. We used occupancy models to determine 36 bird species' associations with building density, forest canopy cover, average daily mean temperature, and an interaction between building density and mean temperature. Responses varied with habitat requirement, breeding range, and migration distance. Building density and mean temperature were both included in the top occupancy models for 19 of 36 species and a building density by temperature interaction was included in models for 8 bird species. As exurban development expands in the southern Appalachians, interior forest species and Neotropical migrants are likely to decline, but shrubland or edge species are not likely to benefit. Overall, effects of building density were greater than those of forest canopy cover. Exurban development had a greater effect on birds at high elevations due to a greater abundance of sensitive forest-interior species and Neotropical migrants. A warming climate may exacerbate these negative effects. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Opportunity, community, and teen pregnancy in an Appalachian state.

    Bickel, R; Weaver, S; Williams, T; Lange, L


    This study examines female adolescents' responses to opportunities, costs, and community in West Virginia. It is posited that adolescent women's responses to structurally determined contextual factors will be the most important determinant of the teen birth rate. It is posited that girls avoid becoming pregnant and work to stay in school as a wise investment in their future. The variation in males' participation in contributing to teen pregnancy is not considered due to data limitations. West Virginia is a state with low teen abortion rates and limited teen mobility out of state. Community is construed as having a positive sense of affiliation and value for adolescents. Community is measured by school size and a range of 7 measures of community social organization: percentage of urban population in the district, percentage Black, percentage neither Black nor White, level of educational attainment, percentage of college preparatory students, percentage of college students, and percentage of service employees. The 7 factors were reduced with principal component analysis to a measure of modernity. Findings indicate that the birth rate increased by 8% for every increase of 100 students in average school size. The modern variable, which indicates departures from traditional patterns of community organization, was positively, statistically significantly related to the teenage birth rate. The college degree variable was related to increased teen pregnancy as a departure from traditional norms and decreased teen pregnancy as a measure of opportunity. Findings contrast with traditional interpretations of teen pregnancy. Findings indicate that teen pregnancy reflects a lack of opportunity, a decline in traditional community patterns, and the replacement of traditional social relations by shifting labor market relations. Teen births are consequences of disadvantage and disruption as context-driven factors.

  1. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  2. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  3. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  4. Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs

    Schmoker, J.W.


    The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing the natural-gas resources of these rocks, and patterns of organic-matter distribution convey information on sedimentary processes and depositional environment. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs using the equation: phi 0 = (γ/sub B/ - γ)/1.378A, where phi 0 is the organic-matter content of the shale (fractional volume), γ the gamma-ray intensity (API units), γ/sub B/ the gamma-ray intensity if no organic matter is present (API units), and A the slope of the crossplot of gamma-ray intensity and formation density (API units/(g/cm 3 )). Organic-matter contents estimated using this equation are compared with organic-matter contents determined from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The organic-matter content of these intervals ranges from near zero to about 20% by volume. The gamma-ray intensity of the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale and the lower part of the Olentangy Shale is anomalously low compared to other Devonian shales of similar richness, so that organic-matter content computed for each of these units from gamma-ray logs is likely to be too low. Wire-line methods for estimating organic-matter content have the advantages of economy, readily available sources of data, and continuous sampling of the vertically heterogenous shale section. The gamma-ray log, in particular, is commonly run in the Devonian shale, its response characteristics are well known, and the cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs forms a large and geographically broad data base. The quantitative computation of organic-matter content from gamma-ray logs should be of practical value in studies of the Appalachian Devonian shale. 16 figures

  5. Disposal and reclamation of southwestern coal and uranium wastes

    Wewerka, E.M.


    The types of solid wastes and effluents produced by the southwestern coal and uranium mining and milling industries are considered, and the current methods for the disposal and reclamation of these materials discussed. The major means of disposing of the solid wastes from both industries is by land fill or in some instances ponding. Sludges or aqueous wastes are normally discharged into settling and evaporative ponds. Basic reclamation measures for nearly all coal and uranium waste disposal sites include solids stabilization, compacting, grading, soil preparation, and revegetation. Impermeable liners and caps are beginning to be applied to disposal sites for some of the more harmful coal and uranium waste materials

  6. Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    El-Beheiry, M.A.H


    The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

  7. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren


    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  8. The Role of Remote Sensing in Assessing Forest Biomass in Appalachian South Carolina

    Shain, W.; Nix, L.


    Information is presented on the use of color infrared aerial photographs and ground sampling methods to quantify standing forest biomass in Appalachian South Carolina. Local tree biomass equations are given and subsequent evaluation of stand density and size classes using remote sensing methods is presented. Methods of terrain analysis, environmental hazard rating, and subsequent determination of accessibility of forest biomass are discussed. Computer-based statistical analyses are used to expand individual cover-type specific ground sample data to area-wide cover type inventory figures based on aerial photographic interpretation and area measurement. Forest biomass data are presented for the study area in terms of discriminant size classes, merchantability limits, accessibility (as related to terrain and yield/harvest constraints), and potential environmental impact of harvest.

  9. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners.

    Friedl, J


    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  10. Modelling streambank erosion potential using maximum entropy in a central Appalachian watershed

    J. Pitchford


    Full Text Available We used maximum entropy to model streambank erosion potential (SEP in a central Appalachian watershed to help prioritize sites for management. Model development included measuring erosion rates, application of a quantitative approach to locate Target Eroding Areas (TEAs, and creation of maps of boundary conditions. We successfully constructed a probability distribution of TEAs using the program Maxent. All model evaluation procedures indicated that the model was an excellent predictor, and that the major environmental variables controlling these processes were streambank slope, soil characteristics, bank position, and underlying geology. A classification scheme with low, moderate, and high levels of SEP derived from logistic model output was able to differentiate sites with low erosion potential from sites with moderate and high erosion potential. A major application of this type of modelling framework is to address uncertainty in stream restoration planning, ultimately helping to bridge the gap between restoration science and practice.

  11. Visitor evaluations of management actions at a highly impacted Appalachian Trail camping area.

    Daniels, Melissa L; Marion, Jeffrey L


    Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors' reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area's natural resources and improving social conditions.

  12. 78 FR 65703 - Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use...


    ...] Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for managing Greater Sage- Grouse (GRSG) in the Idaho and Southwestern... Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the following methods: Email...

  13. Depositional facies mosaics and their time lines in Lower Ordovician carbonates of central Appalachians

    Nguyen, C.T.; Goldhammer, R.K.; Hardie, L.A.


    A comparative sedimentology and facies stratigraphy study of the Lower Ordovician carbonate of the central Appalachians (Beekmantown Group and equivalents) has been carried out. Our approach used subfacies (rock record of subenvironments) as the basin units of section measurement. The authors differentiated related sets of subfacies into larger facies units (rock record of environments). Facies were then correlated from section to section using fossils and lithostratigraphy to make a 3-dimensional facies mosaic. Within this mosaic, time lines were constructed using onlap-offlap tongues and cyclic sequences. These time lines cut across facies boundaries. Using this approach, the authors have established that the lower 600 m of the Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence is made up of 4 main facies: (1) cyclic laminite facies composed of a package of shoaling-upward shelf lagoon-peritidal cycles, (2) thin-bedded grainstone facies deposited in a shelf lagoon, (3) Renalcis bioherm facies recording a shelf lagoon patch-reef environment, and (4) Epiphyton bioherm facies recording a shelf-edge reef system. The distribution of these facies along time lines across the strike of the central Appalachians is markedly zoned. Epiphyton bioherm facies dominate the eastern margin while cyclic laminite facies dominate the western margin, with thin-bedded grainstone and Renalcis bioherm facies making up the central belt. This zonation of facies is a typical shallow carbonate shelf system with fringing reefs along the eastern, seaward margin and tidal flats along the western, landward margin. Vertical distribution of these facies across strike records 3 major sea level changes during deposition of the lower 600 m of this extensive Lower Ordovician carbonate shelf.

  14. Appalachian mine soil morphology and properties: Effects of weathering and mining method

    Haering, K.C.; Daniels, W.L.; Galbraith, J.M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    Surface coal mining and reclamation methods in the Appalachians have changed dramatically since the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 and subsequent improvements in mining and reclamation technology. In this study, 30 pre-SMCRA mine soil profiles (4-20 yr old) were examined and sampled in 1980 and compared with 20 mine soil profiles (8-13 yr old) described in the same area in 2002 after it had been completely remined by modern deep cut methods. Mine soils in both sampling years had high rock fragment content (42-81%), relatively well-developed A horizons, and generally exhibited A-C or A-AC-C horizonation. Although six Bw horizons were described in 1980, only two met all requirements for cambic horizons. The 1980 mine soils developed in overburden dominated by oxidized, preweathered material due to relatively shallow mining cuts. The 1980 mine soils had lower rock fragment content, finer textures, lower pH, and tended to be more heterogeneous in horizonation, morphology, and texture than soils observed in 2002, which had formed primarily in unweathered overburden from deeper cuts. Half the pedons sampled in both years had densic materials within 70 cm of the surface. Four poorly to very poorly drained soil profiles were described in each sampling year containing distinct hydric soil indicators in surface horizons. While older pre-SMCRA mine soils do have many properties in common with newer mine soils, their properties are highly influenced by the fact that they generally have formed in more weathered overburden from higher in the geologic column. Overall, Appalachian mine soils are much more complex in subsoil morphology than commonly assumed, and differential compaction greatly complicates their internal drainage and limits their overall productivity potential.

  15. Multiple drivers, scales, and interactions influence southern Appalachian stream salamander occupancy

    Cecala, Kristen K.; Maerz, John C.; Halstead, Brian J.; Frisch, John R.; Gragson, Ted L.; Hepinstall-Cymerman, Jeffrey; Leigh, David S.; Jackson, C. Rhett; Peterson, James T.; Pringle, Catherine M.


    Understanding how factors that vary in spatial scale relate to population abundance is vital to forecasting species responses to environmental change. Stream and river ecosystems are inherently hierarchical, potentially resulting in organismal responses to fine‐scale changes in patch characteristics that are conditional on the watershed context. Here, we address how populations of two salamander species are affected by interactions among hierarchical processes operating at different scales within a rapidly changing landscape of the southern Appalachian Mountains. We modeled reach‐level occupancy of larval and adult black‐bellied salamanders (Desmognathus quadramaculatus) and larval Blue Ridge two‐lined salamanders (Eurycea wilderae) as a function of 17 different terrestrial and aquatic predictor variables that varied in spatial extent. We found that salamander occurrence varied widely among streams within fully forested catchments, but also exhibited species‐specific responses to changes in local conditions. While D. quadramaculatus declined predictably in relation to losses in forest cover, larval occupancy exhibited the strongest negative response to forest loss as well as decreases in elevation. Conversely, occupancy of E. wilderae was unassociated with watershed conditions, only responding negatively to higher proportions of fast‐flowing stream habitat types. Evaluation of hierarchical relationships demonstrated that most fine‐scale variables were closely correlated with broad watershed‐scale variables, suggesting that local reach‐scale factors have relatively smaller effects within the context of the larger landscape. Our results imply that effective management of southern Appalachian stream salamanders must first focus on the larger scale condition of watersheds before management of local‐scale conditions should proceed. Our findings confirm the results of some studies while refuting the results of others, which may indicate that

  16. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.


    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  17. Survey of blindness and low vision in Egbedore, South-Western Nigeria.

    Kolawole, O U; Ashaye, A O; Adeoti, C O; Mahmoud, A O


    Developing efficient and cost-effective eye care programmes for communities in Nigeria has been hampered by inadequate and inaccurate data on blindness and low vision. To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision among adults 50 years and older in South-Western Nigeria in order to develop viable eye care programme for the community. Twenty clusters of 60 subjects of age 50 years and older were selected by systematic random cluster sampling. Information was collected and ocular examinations were conducted on each consenting subject. Data were recorded in specially designed questionnaire and analysed using descriptive statistical methods. Out of the 1200 subjects enrolled for the study, 1183(98.6%) were interviewed and examined. Seventy five (6.3%)) of the 1183 subjects were bilaterally blind and 223(18.9%) had bilateral low vision according to WHO definition of blindness and low vision. Blindness was about 1.6 times commoner in men than women. Cataract, glaucoma and posterior segment disorders were major causes of bilateral blindness. Bilateral low vision was mainly due to cataract, refractive errors and posterior segment disorders. The prevalence of blindness and low vision in this study population was high. The main causes are avoidable. Elimination of avoidable blindness and low vision calls for attention and commitment from government and eye care workers in South Western Nigeria.

  18. A presence-only model of suitable roosting habitat for the endangered Indiana bat in the southern Appalachians

    K.R. Hammond; J.M. O’Keefe; S.P. Aldrich; Susan Loeb


    We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA...

  19. Repeated application of fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA: implications for achieving management goals

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Donald L. Hagan; Dean M. Simon


    Fire and resource managers of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, have many questions about the use of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to meet various land management objectives. Three common objectives include restoration to an open woodland, oak regeneration, and fuel reduction. This paper provides information about reaching each of these three...

  20. Biostratigraphic analysis of core samples from wells drilled in the Devonian shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins

    Martin, S.J.; Zielinski, R.E.


    A palynological investigation was performed on 55 samples of core material from four wells drilled in the Devonian Shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins. Using a combination of spores and acritarchs, it was possible to divide the Middle Devonian from the Upper Devonian and to make subdivisions within the Middle and Upper Devonian. The age of the palynomorphs encountered in this study is Upper Devonian.

  1. Time perspective and the theory of planned behavior: moderate predictors of physical activity among central Appalachian adolescents.

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta


    The purpose of this study was to determine how well time perspective and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicted physical activity among adolescents residing in the central Appalachian region of the United States. A descriptive, correlational design was used. The setting was a rural high school in central Appalachia. The sample included 185 students in grades 9 through 12. Data were collected in school. Variables included components of the TPB, time perspective, and various levels of exercise. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The TPB was a moderate predictor of exercise frequency among central Appalachian adolescents, accounting for 42% of the variance. Time perspective did not add to the predictive ability of the TPB to predict exercise frequency in this sample. This study provides support for the TPB for predicting frequency of exercise among central Appalachian adolescents. By understanding the role of the TPB in predicting physical activity among adolescents, nurse practitioners will be able to adapt intervention strategies to improve the physical activity behaviors of this population. Copyright © 2014 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    Allen, Craig D.; Savage, Melissa; Falk, Donald A.; Suckling, Kieran F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Schulke, Todd; Stacey, Peter B.; Morgan, Penelope; Hoffman, Martos; Klingel, Jon T.


    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emerged that it is urgent to restore more natural conditions to these forests. Efforts to restore Southwestern forests will require extensive projects employing varying combinations of young-tree thinning and reintroduction of low-intensity fires. Treatments must be flexible enough to recognize and accommodate: high levels of natural heterogeneity; dynamic ecosystems; wildlife and other biodiversity considerations; scientific uncertainty; and the challenges of on-the-ground implementation. Ecological restoration should reset ecosystem trends toward an envelope of “natural variability,” including the reestablishment of natural processes. Reconstructed historic reference conditions are best used as general guides rather than rigid restoration prescriptions. In the long term, the best way to align forest conditions to track ongoing climate changes is to restore fire, which naturally correlates with current climate. Some stands need substantial structural manipulation (thinning) before fire can safely be reintroduced. In other areas, such as large wilderness and roadless areas, fire alone may suffice as the main tool of ecological restoration, recreating the natural interaction of structure and process. Impatience, overreaction to crown fire risks, extractive economics, or hubris could lead to widespread application of highly intrusive treatments that may further damage forest ecosystems. Investments in research and monitoring of restoration treatments are essential to refine

  3. Holocene RSL variation on southwestern Disko Island (Greenland)

    Emerich Souza, Priscila; Nielsen, Lars; Kroon, Aart

    We investigate RSL variations during the Holocene in Lakse Bugt by assessing topography, internal structure, and luminescence ages of fossil beach ridges and the modern beach. Lakse Bugt (Bay) lies on the southwestern coast of Disko Island in a mesotidal regime and a mild wave climate. Beach ridges...... are widespread over the marine terrace, extending from ~40 above sea level (m asl). The most recent ridges terminate either at the beach or at the coastal sandy cliffs ~8 m asl immediately behind the modern beach. These ridges are covered mainly by rounded boulders; the terrain surfaces of the swales have...... clearly been deformed by freezing and thawing processes, in contrast to those of the ridge crests, which are relatively smooth. High-resolution reflection GPR data and high resolution topographical data were collected along cross-shore transects using a shielded 250 MHz antennae system and a DGPS system...

  4. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.


    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  5. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

    A. A. Greeshma


    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  6. Uranium favorability of southwestern Oklahoma and north-central Texas

    Stanton, G.D.; Brogdon, L.D.; Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Martin, T.S.


    Results are presented of a project to identify and delineate units and (or) facies that are favorable for uranium in the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of north-central Texas and southwestern Oklahoma. To aid in this evaluation, an assessment of the probable uranium rocks (Wichita and Arbuckle Mountains) was necessary. Surface samples were collected from igneous and sedimentary rocks. Stream-sediment samples were also collected. However, the main emphasis of the investigation of the sedimentary units was on the identification of sedimentary facies trends in the subsurface and an evaluation of the uranium favorability within units studied. The area investigated centers along the Red River, the boundary between Texas and Oklahoma. The project area encompasses approximately 17,000 sq. mi. It includes all or parts of Cooke, Montague, Clay, Wichita, Wilbarger, Hardeman, Baylor, Knox, and Archer Counties in Texas and Love, Jefferson, Cotton, Tillman, Jackson, Stephens, Carter, Comanche, Harmon, and Greer Counties in Oklahoma

  7. Lithospheric Strength Beneath the Zagros Mountains of Southwestern Iran

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.


    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is among the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Early seismic studies of this area found that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains follows the "jelly sandwich" model, having a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. More recent studies, which analyzed earthquakes originating within the Zagros Mountains that were recorded at teleseismic distances, however, found that these earthquakes occurred only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere lies only within the upper crust, in accordance with the "creme brulee" lithospheric model. Preliminary analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes that originated within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Using earthquakes recorded at regional distances will allow the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous studies. Preliminary results show earthquakes occurring throughout the crust and possibly extending into the upper mantle.

  8. Surficial geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle, southwestern Alaska

    Wilson, Frederic H.


    The geologic map of the Dillingham quadrangle in southwestern Alaska shows surficial unconsolidated deposits, many of which are alluvial or glacial in nature. The map area, part of Alaska that was largely not glaciated during the late Wisconsin glaciation, has a long history reflecting local and more distant glaciations. Late Wisconsin glacial deposits have limited extent in the eastern part of the quadrangle, but are quite extensive in the western part of the quadrangle. This map and accompanying digital files are the result of the interpretation of black and white aerial photographs from the 1950s as well as more modern imagery. Limited new field mapping in the area was conducted as part of a bedrock mapping project in the northeastern part of the quadrangle; however, extensive aerial photographic interpretation represents the bulk of the mapping effort.

  9. Guanophilic fungi in three caves of southwestern Puerto Rico

    Nieves-Rivera Angel M.


    Full Text Available Fifty species of guanophilic (bat guano-loving fungi were isolated from field-collected samples within three caves in southwesternPuerto Rico; most were mitosporic fungi (23 species. The caves studied were Cueva La Tuna (Cabo Rojo, Cueva de Malano(Sistema de Los Chorros, San Germán, and Cueva Viento (El Convento Cave-Spring System, Guayanilla-Peñuelas. The mostconspicuous fungus by far was the zygomycete Circinella umbellata (Mucorales. Circinella umbellata dominated the bat guanoincubation chambers (Petri dishes lined with sterile filter paper moistened with sterile water at ambient laboratory conditions.Nineteen species of basidiomycetes (e.g., Ganoderma cf. resinaceum, Geastrum cf. minimum, Lepiota sp., Polyporus sp., Ramariasp. and three species of ascomycetes (Hypoxylon sp., Xylaria anisopleura, and X. kegeliana were also recorded. They were foundon soil, rotting leaves, bark and rotting wood, buried in bat guano located below natural skylights or sinkholes.


    Vasyl Greshchuk


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of compiling the Southwestern dialect dictionaries. A survey of the history of the dialect dictionaries from the mid-nineteenth century to the present is given. The scientific background and principles of compiling the dictionaries in question are analyzed. Special attention is given to dictionary register, dictionary entry structure, description of semantic properties of registered words, illustrative material, word passport. It has been established that many aspects of the Hutsul dialects are reflected in different lexicographical works, though a big academic dictionary still needs to be written. There exist big differential dictionaries of the Boyko, Bukovynian, Upper Dniestrian dialects. The Transcarpathian and Lemko dialects are less closely studied in this respect. There have been carried out some lexicographical studies of the Podillian, Pokuttian, Southern Volynian dialects and the dialects of the Sian river basin; further research is certainly needed to provide a firm basis for compiling dictionaries of these dialects.

  11. Paleozoic stratigraphy of two areas in southwestern Indiana

    Droste, J.B.


    Two areas recommended for evaluation as solid waste disposal sites lie along the strike of Paleozoic rocks in southwestern Indiana. Thin Pennsylvanian rocks and rocks of the upper Mississippian are at the bedrock surface in maturely dissected uplands in both areas. The gross subsurface stratigraphy beneath both areas is the same, but facies and thickness variation in some of the subsurface Paleozoic units provide for some minor differences between the areas. Thick middle Mississippi carbonates grade downward into clastics of lower Mississippian (Borden Group) and upper Devonian (New Albany Shale) rocks. Middle Devonian and Silurian rocks are dominated by carbonate lithologies. Upper Ordovician (Maquoketa Group) overly carbonates of middle Ordovician age. Thick siltstone and shale of the Borden Group-New Albany Shale zone and Maquoketa Group rocks should be suitable for repository development

  12. Feasibility study of wind-generated electricity for rural applications in southwestern Ohio

    Kohring, G. W.

    The parameters associated with domestic production of wind generated electricity for direct use by small farms and rural homes in the southwestern Ohio region are discussed. The project involves direct utility interfaced electricity generation from a horizontal axis, down-wind, fixed pitch, wind powered induction generator system. Goals of the project are to determine: the ability to produce useful amounts of domestic wind generated electricity in the southwestern Ohio region; economic justification for domestic wind generated electrical production; and the potential of domestic wind generated electricity for reducing dependence on non-renewable energy resources in the southwestern Ohio region.

  13. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Marja H. Bakermans


    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  14. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Southwestern Greenland Lakes

    Osburn, C. L.; Giles, M. E.; Underwood, G. J. C.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important property of Arctic lake ecosystems, originating from allochthonous inputs from catchments and autochthonous production by plankton in the water column. Little is known about the quality of DOM in Arctic lakes that lack substantial inputs from catchments and such lakes are abundant in southwestern Greenland. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the fraction that absorbs ultraviolet (UV) and visible light, is the controlling factor for the optical properties of many surface waters and as well informs on the quality of DOM. We examined the quality of CDOM in 21 lakes in southwestern Greenland, from the ice sheet to the coast, as part of a larger study examining the role of DOM in regulating microbial communities in these lakes. DOM was size fractioned and absorbance and fluorescence was measured on each size fraction, as well as on bulk DOM. The specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) at 254 nm (SUVA254), computed by normalizing absorption (a254) to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, provided an estimate of the aromatic carbon content of DOM. SUVA values were generally CDOM fluorescence was used to determine the relative abundance of allochthonous and autochthonous DOM in all size fractions. Younger lakes near the ice sheet and lakes near the coast had lower amounts of CDOM and appeared more microbial in quality. However, lakes centrally located between the ice sheet and the coast had the highest CDOM concentrations and exhibited strong humic fluorescence. Overall distinct differences in CDOM quality were observed between lake locations and among DOM size fractions.

  15. [Giant-cell arteritis: a descriptive study in southwestern Spain].

    Calvo Romero, J M; Magro Ledesma, D; Ramos Salado, J L; Bureo Dacal, J C; de Dios Arrebola García, J; Bureo Dacal, P; Pérez Miranda, M


    To study the clinical and laboratory features of a series of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) or temporal arteritis in south-western Spain (Extremadura). Retrospective study of 25 patients with GCA diagnosed by temporal artery biopsy between 1990 and 1998. Nine patients were males and 16 (64%) females. Sixteen cases (64%) presented polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Other clinical findings were: fever/febricula (64%), constitutional syndrome (64%), new headache (96%), visual symptoms (48%), jaw claudication (17%) and abnormal temporal arteries (17%). All patients had an ESR of more than 50 mm/hour and a raised C-reactive protein. Thirteen patients (52%) had anemia (hemoglobin level < 12 g/dl). Eleven cases (44%) presented a platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3. Four patients (16%) had an elevated AST and/or ALT levels and 8 patients (32%) had an elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase levels. In patients with PMR, there was a higher frequency of constitutional syndrome (81 vs 33%, p = 0.02). In females, there was a higher frequency of anemia (75 vs 11%, p < 0.01), platelet count higher than 400,000/mm3 (75 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated AST and/or ALT (25 vs 0%, p < 0.01) and elevated GGT and/or alkaline phosphatase (50 vs 0%, p < 0.01) levels. The clinical and laboratory features of GCA in our series of patients in south-western Spain are similar to that described in other spanish populations, with the exception of a slightly higher frequency of PMR and a lower frequency of jaw claudication and abnormal temporal arteries. In our study, the clinical picture of GCA was more severe in patients with PMR and in females.

  16. Towards a delimitation of southwestern Nigeria into hydrological regions

    Ogunkoya, O. O.


    Fifteen third-order drainage basins (1:50,000) on the Basement Complex rocks of southwestern Nigeria are classified into hydrological regions using hydrologic response parameters of average daily mean specific discharge ( QA); daily mean specific discharges equalled or exceeded 90% ( Q90), 50% ( Q50) and 10% ( Q10) of the study period; variability index of flow ( VI); recession constant ( K) of flow from peak discharge at the end of the rainy season to minimum discharge in the dry season; total annual runoff ( RO); total runoff within the dry season ( DSRO); dry season runoff as a percentage of total annual runoff (% DSRO); runoff coefficient ( ROC); and, number of days during the study period when there was no flow ( NFD). An ordination technique and a classification algorithm derived from cluster analysis technique and incorporating the analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests to determine the level of significance of the homogeneity of derived classes, were used to classify the fifteen basins into five hydrologically homogeneous regions. The constituent basins of each region were observed to share common basin geology. It was observed that those drainage basins having at least 50% of their basin area underlain by quartzitic rocks form two groups and have the most desirable or optimal hydrologic response patterns, desirability or optimality being in terms of ability to potentially meet water resource development requirements (i.e. high perennial discharge, low variability and large groundwater contribution to stream flow). The basins predominantly underlain by granite-gneisses and amphibolitic rocks have much poorer hydrologic response patterns. Hydrological regionalization in southwestern Nigeria appears to be influenced by drainage basin geology while percentage area of the basin underlain by massive quartzites could be used as an index of occurrence of desirable hydrologic response pattern.

  17. Structure and petroleum plays of the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachians in southern Quebec : insights from interpretation of MRNQ seismic reflection data

    Castonguay, S.; Lavoie, D. [Natural Resources Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Quebec Division; Dietrich, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Laliberte, J.Y. [Ministere des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Quebec, Charlesbourg, QC (Canada). Direction generale des hydrocarbures et des biocarburants


    This paper presented the results of a study in which 3 regional seismic reflection lines originally acquired in 1978 were reprocessed and reinterpreted using current techniques and methodologies. The profiles cross the Chambly-Fortierville syncline and provide images of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including one that spans the entire width of the southern Quebec Appalachians. Post-stack seismic data processing and time migration were used to improve the quality of the original seismic sections, allowing interpretations that provide new information on subsurface geology, such as the recognition of complex structural patterns in platform and foreland units, the presence of a triangle zone at the structural front, and the geometry of thrust slices of platform units and Appalachian thrust beds, as well as images of the internal Humber Zone, including back-thrust faults and mega thrust wedges. The Saint-Flavien natural gas-field and other potential targets in the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachian Foreland are imaged in the seismic profiles. The study provided new insights into the structure, geological evolution, and petroleum potential of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachian foreland thrust belt of southern Quebec, including a potential, previously unrecognized Ordovician hydrothermal dolomite play. The new subsurface interpretations give a clearer view of the major structure affecting the Utica Shale, providing new insights into the limits of the unconventional shale gas play in the St. Lawrence Platform. 53 refs., 8 figs.


    Douglas G. Patchen; James Drahovzal; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Chris Laughery; Katharine Lee Avary


    Private- and public-sector stakeholders formed the new ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' and began a two-year research effort that will lead to a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration throughout the Appalachian basin. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 gas exploration companies and 6 research team members, including the state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks are being conducted by basin-wide research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. More than 3400 miles of Appalachian basin digital seismic data have been quality checked. In addition, inquiries have been made regarding the availability of additional seismic data from government and industry partners in the consortium. Interpretations of the seismic data have begun. Error checking is being performed by mapping the time to various prominent reflecting horizons, and analyzing for any anomalies. A regional geological velocity model is being created to make time-to-depth conversions. Members of the stratigraphy task team compiled a generalized, basin-wide correlation chart, began the process of scanning geophysical logs and laid out lines for 16 regional cross sections. Two preliminary cross sections were constructed, a database of all available Trenton-Black River cores was created, and a basin-wide map showing these core locations was produced. Two cores were examined, described and photographed in detail, and were correlated to the network of geophysical logs. Members of the petrology team began the process of determining the original distribution of porous and permeable facies within a sequence stratigraphic framework. A detailed sedimentologic and petrographic study of the Union Furnace road cut in central Pennsylvania was completed. This effort will facilitate the calibration

  19. Field trip guidebook for the post-meeting field trip: The Central Appalachians

    Taylor, John F.; Loch, James D.; Ganis, G. Robert; Repetski, John E.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Blackmer, Gale C.; Brezinski, David K.; Goldman, Daniel; Orndorff, Randall C.; Sell, Bryan K.


    The lower Paleozoic rocks to be examined on this trip through the central Appalachians represent an extreme range of depositional environments. The lithofacies we will examine range from pelagic radiolarian chert and interbedded mudstone that originated on the deep floor of the Iapetus Ocean, through mud cracked supratidal dolomitic laminites that formed during episodes of emergence of the long-lived Laurentian carbonate platform, to meandering fluvial conglomerate and interstratified overbank mudstone packages deposited in the latest stages of infilling of the Taconic foredeep. In many ways this field trip is about contrasts. The Upper Cambrian (Furongian) and Lower Ordovician deposits of the Sauk megasequence record deposition controlled primarily by eustatic sea level sea level fluctuations that influenced deposition along the passive, southern (Appalachian) margin of the paleocontinent of Laurentia. The only tectonic influence apparent in these passive margin deposits is the expected thickening of the carbonate stack toward the platform margin as compared to the thinner (and typically shallower) facies that formed farther in toward the paleoshoreline. Carbonates overwhelmingly dominate the passive margin succession. Clastic influx was minimal and consisted largely of eastward transport of clean cratonic sands across the platform from the adjacent inner detrital belt to the west during higher order (2nd and 3rd order) regressions.In contrast, Middle and Upper Ordovician deposits of the Tippecanoe megasequence record the strong influence of tectonics, specifically Iapetus closure. The first signal of this tectonic transformation was the arrival of arc-related ash beds that abound in the active margin carbonates. Subsequent intensification of Taconic orogenesis resulted in the foundering of the carbonate platform under the onslaught of fine siliciclastics arriving from offshore tectonic sources to the east, creating a deep marine flysch basin where graptolitic

  20. Sexually Related Behaviors as Predictors of HPV Vaccination Among Young Rural Women

    Mills, Laurel A.; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Crosby, Richard A.


    Purpose To explore whether sexually related behaviors predict refusal of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among a sample of women aged 18–26 in Appalachian Kentucky. Methods Using a convenience sample, young women attending health clinics and a community college in southeastern Kentucky were recruited to participate in a Women’s Health Study. After completing a questionnaire, women received a free voucher for the three-dose HPV vaccine series. Completion of dose one served as the outcome variable. Results Women with a history of an abnormal Pap test were almost two times more likely to decline the HPV vaccine (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–3.20, p = 0.015), and women who reported they had never had a Pap test were four times more likely to decline the vaccine (AOR 4.02, 95% CI 1.13–14.32, p = 0.032). Women engaging in mutual masturbation were nearly two times more likely to decline the free vaccine (AOR 1.91, 95% CI 1.17–3.10, p = 0.009). Use of hormonal birth control showed a protective effect against refusal of the free HPV vaccine (AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.44–0.80, p = 0.001). Conclusions Among this sample of Appalachian women, those engaging in behaviors that increase their risk for HPV infection were more likely to refuse the vaccine. Conversely, those women engaging in protective health behaviors were more likely to accept the vaccine. These findings suggest that those women not being vaccinated may be the very group most likely to benefit from vaccination. Cervical cancer prevention programs need to be creative in efforts to reach young women most in need of the vaccine based on a higher profile of sexually related behaviors and the proxy measure of this risk (having an abnormal Pap test result). PMID:22136319

  1. What influences climate and glacier change in southwestern China?

    Yasunari, Teppei J.


    The subject of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Himalayas has taken on increasing importance because of the availability of water resources from their mountain glaciers (Immerzeel et al 2010). Many of the glaciers over these regions have been retreating, while some are advancing and stable (Yao et al 2004, Scherler et al 2011). Other studies report that some glaciers in the Himalayas show acceleration of their shrinkage (e.g., Fujita and Nuimura 2011). However, the causes of glacier melting are still difficult to grasp because of the complexity of climatic change and its influence on glacier issues. Despite this, it is vital that we pursue further study to enable future predictions of glacier changes. The paper entitled 'Climate and glacier change in southwestern China during the past several decades' by Li et al (2011) provided carefully analyzed, quality controlled, long-term data on atmospheric temperature and precipitation during the period 1961-2008. The data were obtained from 111 Chinese stations. The researchers performed systematic analyses of temperature and precipitation over the whole southwestern Chinese domain. They discussed those changes in terms of other meteorological components such as atmospheric circulation patterns, radiation and altitude difference, and then showed how these factors could contribute to climate and glacier changes in the region. Air temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with glacier mass balance because of heat balance and the addition of mass when it snows. Temperature warming trends over many places in southwestern China were unequivocally dominant in all seasons and at higher altitudes. This indicates that the heat contribution to the glaciers has been increasing. On the other hand, precipitation has a wider variability in time and space. It is more difficult to clearly understand the effect of precipitation on the climate and glacier melting characteristics in the whole of southwestern China

  2. Lessons in collaboration and effective field research from the Appalachian Headwaters Research Experience for Undergraduates Program

    Jones, A. L.; Fox, J.; Wilder, M. S.


    In the summer of 2009, the authors launched year one of a three-year National Science Foundation-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates entitled "Carbon Storage and Headwater Health in the Appalachian Headwaters." Eight undergraduates selected from a nationally competitive field of more than 60 applicants participated in the ten-week field- and laboratory-based program along with three middle- and high-school teachers. Each student developed and completed an independent research project related to coal mining’s impact on soil organic carbon and sediment transport processes. Specifically, they used isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signature of soils and sediments in the Appalachian headwater landscapes and first order streams of Kentucky's southeastern coalfields. Among the program's innovative features was its fundamentally collaborative nature--which was represented in several ways. First, the background of the three program leaders was very different: an environmental planner with an academic background in land use planning and administration (Jones); a civil engineer trained in biogeochemistry and watershed modeling (Fox); and an environmental educator experienced in both formal and nonformal educator training and certification (Wilder). The program was also a collaboration between a Carnegie 1 research-oriented institution and an undergraduate/ teaching -focused regional comprehensive university. Finally, the participants themselves represented a diversity of disciplines and institutional backgrounds--including biology, geology, chemistry, environmental science and civil engineering. The Research Experience for Teachers component was another innovative program element. The teachers participated in all field and laboratory research activities during the first six weeks, then developed a unit of study for their own classrooms to be implemented during the current school year. In addition to the six

  3. Assessment of 21st century change of climate drivers to hydrological change across the Appalachian Region

    Fernandez, R.; Zegre, N.


    Atmospheric water supply and demand largely drives the available water in the land surface. Precipitation (P) is the main supply of water to the land surface, while water demand largely depends on energy supply. Most frameworks that analyze climate change have limit their scope to changes in P and temperature as an indicator of energy. However, atmospheric water demand is not only dependent on temperature but also on variables such as solar radiation, air humidity and wind. For this study, we use the downscaled GCM outputs of (P) and calculate atmospheric water demand by aggregating solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind as potential evapotranspiration (EP) using the Penman-Monteith equation across the Appalachian Region. We investigate absolute changes in P and EP and changes in their relation or aridity index (AI=EP/P) to spatially determine places becoming wetter or drier. Moreover, we explore how their changes are distributed throughout the year, i.e. changes in the seasonality for P and widening of the intra-annual cycle of EP. The changes in seasonality can act as a further indicator of the partition of precipitation into evaporation or land surface water. Changes of precipitation that occur during summer are likely to be partitioned towards evapotranspiration whereas changes in winter are likely to be absorbed by land surface components of storage and runoff. Furthermore, widening of the intra-annual cycle of EP means that there will be water demand for a longer part of the year (earlier in spring and later in autumn). Our results show that places with lower mean annual temperature are likely to experience larger temperature changes. Regarding the AI, the Eastern Coasts of North and South Carolina, and Georgia as well as Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky are likely to get drier. The states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, and inland North and South Carolina and Alabama are likely to become wetter, with West Virginia

  4. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding


    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  5. Morphological and interlayer geochemical studies on manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlsberg ridge

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Siddiquie, H.N.

    Mixed facies of manganese nodules from the southwestern Carlberg Ridge have been analysed for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co and Zn. Seventy one analyses including the averages presented for outer layer, inner layer and near-core material. Morphological studies...

  6. Seasonal mixed layer heat balance of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean

    Foltz, G.R.; Vialard, J.; PraveenKumar, B.; McPhaden, M.J.

    from a long-term moored buoy are used in conjunction with satellite, in situ, and atmospheric reanalysis datasets to analyze the seasonal mixed layer heat balance in the thermocline ridge region of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean. This region...

  7. Aeolian deposition of Arabia and Somalia sediments on the southwestern continental margin of India

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Kaolinite, smectite, illite and chlorite as major clay minerals and palygorskite and gibbsite in minor quantities have been recorded from the slope of southwestern continental margin of India. Contribution of kaolinite, smectite and gibbsite is from...

  8. Women's Health

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  9. Na-Cl-Br systematics of fluid inclusions from Mississippi Valley-type deposits, Appalachian Basin: Constraints on solute origin and migration paths

    Kesler, S.E.; Martini, A.M.; Appold, M.S.; Walter, L.M.; Huston, T.J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Furman, F.C. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)


    This study evaluated Na-Cl-Br systematics of fluid inclusion-hosted brines in Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits from the Appalachian Basin. Unlike other geochemical tracers such as lead and strontium isotopes which constrain metal sources, Na-Cl-Br systematics identify sources of brine salinity. Saline formation waters can vary systematically within and between basins with regard to their Na-Cl-Br compositions depending on the importance of halite dissolution relative to retention of subaerially evaporated seawater for the halogen budget. Oil field brine compositions from the Illinois and Appalachian basins are quite distinct in their Na-Cl-Br systematics. Compositions of saline fluid inclusions in MVT deposits generally are consistent with these regional differences. These results shed new light on the extent of regional flow systems and on the geochemical evolution of saline fluids responsible for mineralization. Nearly all fluid inclusions analyzed from the Appalachian MVT deposits have Na/Br and Cl/Br ratios less than modern seawater, consistent with ratios observed in marine brines involved in halite precipitation. The Na-Cl-Br systematics of the brines responsible for Appalachian MVT deposits may be inherited from original marine brines refluxed into the porous carbonate shelf sediments that host these deposits. The Cl/Br and Na/Br ratios of most fluid inclusion-hosted brines from Appalachian MVT sphalerites and fluorites fall into two compositional groups, one from the Lower Cambrian paleoaquifer and another from the Lower Ordovician paleoaquifer. Leachates from most MVT barite deposits form a third compositional group having lower Na/Br and Cl/Br ratios than the other two. Appalachian MVT leachate compositions differ significantly from those in MVT deposits in the Cincinnati arch-midcontinent region suggesting that these two MVT provinces formed from brines of different origin or flow path. 59 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Evaluating the effect of lithology on porosity development in ridgetops in the Appalachian Piedmont

    Marcon, V.; Gu, X.; Fisher, B.; Brantley, S. L.


    Together, chemical and physical processes transform fresh bedrock into friable weathered material. Even in systems where lithology, tectonic history, and climatic history are all known, it is challenging to predict the depth of weathering because the mechanisms that control the rate of regolith formation are not understood. In the Appalachian Piedmont, where rates of regolith formation and erosion are thought to be in a rough steady state, the depth of weathering varies with lithology. The Piedmont provides a controlled natural environment to isolate the effects of lithology on weathering processes so we can start to understand the mechanisms that initiate and drive weathering. Weathering is deepest over feldspathic rocks (schist/granite) with regolith 20-30m thick and thinnest over mafic and ultramafic rocks (diabase/serpentinite) with regolith serpentinization reactions and lost from collapse during weathering. Serpentinite consists of easily weathered hydrous minerals with little quartz. Comparatively, rocks with more quartz (e.g. schist) have a supportive skeleton as the rock weathers. This quartz skeleton could prevent the collapse of pores and result in isovolumetric weathering. Non-isovolumetric weathering limits infiltration of reactive fluids deeper into the rock, minimizing regolith formation in serpentinite due to its lack of a quartz skeleton. Given this, fracture toughness may be an important parameter to consider in terms of predicting regolith thickness.

  11. Using food as a tool to teach science to 3 grade students in Appalachian Ohio.

    Duffrin, Melani W; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene


    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007-2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3(rd)-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3(rd)-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4(th) grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations.

  12. Effectiveness of a primary care practice intervention for increasing colorectal cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Dignan, Mark; Shelton, Brent; Slone, Stacey A; Tolle, Cheri; Mohammad, Sohail; Schoenberg, Nancy; Pearce, Kevin; Van Meter, Emily; Ely, Gretchen


    This report describes findings from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in primary care practices in Appalachian Kentucky. Sixty-six primary care practices were randomized to early or delayed intervention groups. The intervention was provided at practices using academic detailing, a method of education where providers receive information on a specific topic through personal contact. Data were collected in cross-sectional surveys of medical records at baseline and six months post-intervention. A total of 3844 medical records were reviewed at baseline and 3751 at the six-month follow-up. At baselines, colonoscopy was recommended more frequently (43.4%) than any other screening modality, followed by fecal occult blood testing (18.0%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (0.4%), and double-contrast barium enema (0.3%). Rates of documented screening results were higher for all practices at the six-month follow-up for colonoscopy (31.8% vs 29.6%) and fecal occult blood testing (12.2% vs 11.2%). For early intervention practices that recommended screening, colonoscopy rates increased by 15.7% at six months compared to an increase of 2.4% in the delayed intervention practices (p=.01). Using academic detailing to reach rural primary care providers with a CRC screening intervention was associated with an increase in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of coal mining, forestry, and road construction on southern Appalachian stream invertebrates and habitats.

    Gangloff, Michael M; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W; Walker, Craig


    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  14. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.


    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  15. The Role of Terrestrial N along a Frasnian/Famennian Boundary Transect of the Appalachian Basin

    Tuite, Michael; Macko, Stephen


    A causal link between the Late Devonian emergence of forest ecosystems and episodic black shale deposition has been proposed by several authors. Most attribute increases in epicontinental basin productivity to elevated rates of terrestrial phosphorus weathering facilitated by the co-evolution of root systems and soils. Two reasons to suspect that an increase in the P weathering flux was not the primary cause of organic-rich shale deposition are as follows. First, most Late Devonian black shales were deposited during sea level transgressions, periods when riverine fluxes of sediment and mineral nutrients such as P to marine basins were diminished. Second, Late Devonian forests were restricted to warm, moist lowlands where P was sequestered in soils as inorganic, occluded forms. However, the export flux of reactive N from these forests to adjacent epeiric seas by riverine and atmospheric deposition was enhanced by the warm, wet climate and expanding areal extent of forests. Abundant terrestrial reactive N primed the marine eutrophication pump by extending the residence time of P in the photic zone, permitting extensive growth of primary biomass. The consequent flux of organic matter to the sea floor created anoxic bottom waters that, in turn, allowed for the remobilization of P into the water column. Based on abundance and isotopic analyses of organic and inorganic C, N, P, and S from terrestrial and marine environments within and adjacent to the Late Devonian Appalachian Basin, this latter scenario is supported.

  16. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein


    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  17. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.


    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  18. Unexpected rarity of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957-2011.

    Carly Muletz

    Full Text Available Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central American plethodontids. We tested 1,498 Plethodon salamanders of 12 species (892 museum specimens, 606 wild individuals for the presence of Bd, and tested 94 of those for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs and for ranavirus. Field samples were collected in 2011 from 48 field sites across a 767 km transect. Historic samples from museum specimens were collected at five sites with the greatest number and longest duration of collection (1957-987, four of which were sampled in the field in 2011. None of the museum specimens were positive for Bd, but four P. cinereus from field surveys were positive. The overall Bd prevalence from 1957-2011 for 12 Plethodon species sampled across a 757 km transect was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.7%. All 94 samples were negative for Bs and ranavirus. We conclude that known amphibian pathogens are unlikely causes for declines in these Plethodon populations. Furthermore, these exceptionally low levels of Bd, in a region known to harbor Bd, may indicate that Plethodon specific traits limit Bd infection.

  19. Bankfull Curves for the Temperate Rainforests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina



    Full Text Available Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships, also called regional curves, relate bankfull stream channel dimensions and discharge to watershed drainage area. This paper describes results of bankfull curve relationships developed for the temperate rainforests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains primarily on Western North Carolina Mountain streams in the Southeastern United States. Gauge stations for small and larger catchments were selected with a range of 10 to 50 years of continuous or peak discharge measurements, no major impoundments, no significant change in land use over the past 10 years, and impervious cover ranges of <20%. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys were measured at each study reach to determine channel dimension, pattern, and profile information. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were used to analyze annual peak discharge data for nine small watersheds sites gauged by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and for eleven larger watersheds gauged by the United States Geological Survey (USGS. Power function relationships were developed using regression analyses for bankfull discharge, channel cross-sectional area, mean depth, and width as functions of watershed drainage area.

  20. Skeletal deformities in smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieui, from southern Appalachian reservoirs

    Van den Avyle, M J; Garvick, S J; Blazer, V S; Hamilton, S J; Brumbaugh, W G


    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) populations in two of five reservoirs sampled in the southern Appalachian Mountains contained high percentages of individuals with lordosis, kyphosis, or scoliosis. Deformities of the vertebral column occurred in several year classes and varied with fish size; they were absent in small fish, present in 25-30% of the fish 241-300 mm long, and then decreased in occurrence with increased length. Because environmental contamination is often responsible for high occurrences of deformed fish, whole-body concentrations of contaminants, bone development characteristics, and blood plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in normal and deformed fish were measured and compared the results with those for fish from reservoirs where no deformities were found. Vertebrae were significantly weaker and more elastic in deformed than in normal fish, but biochemical properties of vertebrae were similar among the groups tested. Concentrations of pesticides and metals were not elevated in deformed fish, and concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in blood plasma were similar in normal and deformed groups. Most environmental contaminants that have been shown to cause fish deformities could be discounted as causative agents on the basis of these results; however, the exact cause was not determined. Further attempts to diagnose the cause of the deformities were limited by the lack of background information on relationships among bone development processes, types of stresses that cause deformities, and types of bone tissue in fish.

  1. Terrestrial P and Reactive N and Marine Productivity in the Late Devonian Appalachian Basin

    Tuite, M. L.; Macko, S. A.


    A causal link between the Late Devonian emergence of forest ecosystems and episodic black shale deposition has been proposed by several authors. Most attribute increases in epicontinental basin productivity to elevated rates of terrestrial phosphorus weathering facilitated by the co-evolution of root systems and soils. Two reasons to suspect that an increase in the P weathering flux was not the primary cause of organic-rich shale deposition are as follows. First, most Late Devonian black shales were deposited during sea level transgressions, periods when riverine fluxes of sediment and mineral nutrients such as P to marine basins were diminished. Second, Late Devonian forests were restricted to warm, moist lowlands where P was sequestered in soils as inorganic, occluded forms. However, the export flux of reactive N from these forests to adjacent epeiric seas by riverine and atmospheric deposition was enhanced by the warm, wet climate and expanding areal extent of forests. Abundant terrestrial reactive N primed the marine eutrophication pump by extending the residence time of P in the photic zone, permitting extensive growth of primary biomass. The consequent flux of organic matter to the sea floor created anoxic bottom waters that, in turn, allowed for the remobilization of P into the water column. Based on abundance and isotopic analyses of organic and inorganic C, N, P, and S from terrestrial and marine environments within and adjacent to the Late Devonian Appalachian Basin, this latter scenario is supported.

  2. Fire History of Appalachian Forests of the Lower St-Lawrence Region (Southern Quebec

    Serge Payette


    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum forests are among the main forest types of eastern North America. Sugar maple stands growing on Appalachian soils of the Lower St-Lawrence region are located at the northeastern limit of the northern hardwood forest zone. Given the biogeographical position of these forests at the edge of the boreal biome, we aimed to reconstruct the fire history and document the occurrence of temperate and boreal trees in sugar maple sites during the Holocene based on soil macrocharcoal analysis. Despite having experienced a different number of fire events, the fire history of the maple sites was broadly similar, with two main periods of fire activity, i.e., early- to mid-Holocene and late-Holocene. A long fire-free interval of at least 3500 years separated the two periods from the mid-Holocene to 2000 years ago. The maple sites differ with respect to fire frequency and synchronicity of the last millennia. According to the botanical composition of charcoal, forest vegetation remained relatively homogenous during the Holocene, except recently. Conifer and broadleaf species coexisted in mixed forests during the Holocene, in phase with fire events promoting the regeneration of boreal and temperate tree assemblages including balsam fir (Abies balsamea and sugar maple.

  3. Large quaternary landslides in the central appalachian valley and ridge province near Petersburg, West Virginia

    Southworth, C. Scott


    Geological mapping and photointerpretation of side-looking airborne radar images and color-infrared aerial photographs reveal two large Quaternary landslides in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians near Petersburg, W. Va. The Elkhorn Mountain rock avalanche occurs on the thrust-faulted northwestern flank of the Elkhorn Mountain anticlinorium. A minimum of 7 ?? 106 m3 of quartzite colluvium was transported more than 3 km from a 91 m high escarpment of Silurian Tuscarora Quartzite. The extensively vegetated deposit may owe, in part, its transport and weathering to periglacial conditions during the Pleistocene. In contrast, the Gap Mountain rock block slide is a single allochthonous block that is 1.2 km long, 0.6 km wide, and at least 60 m thick. The 43 ?? 106 m3 block is composed of limestone of the Helderberg Group and the Oriskany Sanstone of Early Devonian age. Planar detachment probably occurred along a dissolution bedding plane near the Shriver Chert and the Oriskany Sandstone contact. Failure probably was initiated by downcutting of the South Branch Potomac River during the Pleistocene. Landslides of this magnitude suggest accelerated erosion during periglacial climates in the Pleistocene. The recognition of these large slope failures may provide evidence of paleoclimatic conditions and, thereby, increase our understanding of the geomorphologic development of the Valley and Ridge province. ?? 1988.

  4. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    Peter L Erb

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT, a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana and coyotes (Canis latrans. Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus and bobcats (Lynx rufus, while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor. Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions.

  5. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  6. Antenatal services for pregnant teenagers in Mbarara Municipality, Southwestern Uganda: health workers and community leaders' views.

    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Abaasa, Catherine; Natukunda, Peace Byamukama; Ashabahebwa, Bob Harold; Allain, Dominic


    Globally, about 11% of all annual births involve adolescents aged 15-19 years. Uganda has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stakeholders' views concerning factors affecting availability, accessibility and utilization of teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara Municipality, southwestern Uganda. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). It was conducted in three divisions of Mbarara Municipality. The KIIs were held six Village Health Team (VHT) members, three gynecologists, six midwives, three Community leaders (LC 3 Secretaries for women affairs), one police officer from the Family and Child protection unit at Mbarara Police and three Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Data analysis was done manually by identifying emergent themes which were later coded and organized into concepts which were later developed into explanations. Reproductive health stakeholders generally considered teenage pregnancy to be among the high risk pregnancies that need to be handled with care. In addition, the reproductive health workers described their experience with teenagers as challenging due to their limited skills when it comes to addressing adolescent-specific needs. Adolescent-friendly services were defined as those that could provide privacy, enough time and patience when dealing with teenagers. With this description, there were no teenager-friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality at the time of the study. There is need for proactive steps to establish these services if the needs of this subgroup are to be met. There are no teenager friendly antenatal services in Mbarara municipality and few teenagers access and utilise the available general antenatal services. There is need for specialized training for health workers who deal with pregnant teens in Mbarara Municipality in order for them to provide teenager friendly services.

  7. Digital data in support of studies and assessments of coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: Chapter I.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Gunther, Gregory; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Appalachian basin is a mature basin containing abundant oil, gas, and coal resources. Its fossil-fuel-bearing strata range in age from Cambrian to Permian and extend over the States of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The basin has provided abundant fossil fuels to support the Nation’s economic growth for at least 150 years and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments suggest that substantial untapped resources remain. A merger of new and old geologic data and ideas is required to locate and extract those remaining resources.

  8. 87Sr/86Sr Concentrations in the Appalachian Basin: A Review

    Mordensky, Stanley P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Lieuallen, A. Erin [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Hakala, Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)


    This document reviews 87Sr/86Sr isotope data across the Appalachian Basin from existing literature to show spatial and temporal variation. Isotope geochemistry presents a means of understanding the geochemical effects hydraulic fracturing may have on shallow ground substrates. Isotope fractionation is a naturally occurring phenomenon brought about by physical, chemical, and biological processes that partition isotopes between substances; therefore, stable isotope geochemistry allows geoscientists to understand several processes that shape the natural world. Strontium isotopes can be used as a tool to answer an array of geological and environmental inquiries. In some cases, strontium isotopes are sensitive to the introduction of a non-native fluid into a system. This ability allows strontium isotopes to serve as tracers in certain systems. Recently, it has been demonstrated that strontium isotopes can serve as a monitoring tool for groundwater and surface water systems that may be affected by hydraulic fracturing fluids (Chapman et al., 2013; Kolesar Kohl et al., 2014). These studies demonstrated that 87Sr/86Sr values have the potential to monitor subsurface fluid migration in regions where extraction of Marcellus Shale gas is occurring. This document reviews publicly available strontium isotope data from 39 sample locations in the Appalachian Basin (Hamel et al., 2010; Chapman et al., 2012; Osborn et al., 2012; Chapman et al., 2013; Capo et al., 2014; Kolesar Kohl et al., 2014). The data is divided into two sets: stratigraphic (Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippi, Middle Devonian, and Silurian) and groundwater. ArcMap™ (ESRI, Inc.) was used to complete inverse distance weighting (IDW) analyses for each dataset to create interpolated surfaces in an attempt to find regional trends or variations in strontium isotopic values across the Appalachian Basin. 87Sr/86Sr varies up to ~ 0.011 across the

  9. Woodland salamander responses to a shelterwood harvest-prescribed burn silvicultural treatment within Appalachian mixed-oak forests

    Ford, W. Mark; Mahoney, Kathleen R.; Russell, Kevin R.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Riddle, Jason D.; Schuler, Thomas M.; Adams, Mary Beth


    Forest management practices that mimic natural canopy disturbances, including prescribed fire and timber harvests, may reduce competition and facilitate establishment of favorable vegetative species within various ecosystems. Fire suppression in the central Appalachian region for almost a century has contributed to a transition from oak-dominated to more mesophytic, fire-intolerant forest communities. Prescribed fire coupled with timber removal is currently implemented to aid in oak regeneration and establishment but responses of woodland salamanders to this complex silvicultural system is poorly documented. The purpose of our research was to determine how woodland salamanders respond to shelterwood harvests following successive burns in a central Appalachian mixed-oak forest. Woodland salamanders were surveyed using coverboard arrays in May, July, and August–September 2011 and 2012. Surveys were conducted within fenced shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires, shelterwood harvest, and fencing to prevent white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus] herbivory), shelterwood-burn (prescribed fires and shelterwood harvest), and control plots. Relative abundance was modeled in relation to habitat variables measured within treatments for mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus), slimy salamanders (Plethodon glutinosus), and eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus). Mountain dusky salamander relative abundance was positively associated with canopy cover and there were significantly more individuals within controls than either shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments. Conversely, habitat variables associated with slimy salamanders and eastern red-backed salamanders did not differ among treatments. Salamander age-class structure within controls did not differ from shelterwood-burn or fenced shelterwood-burn treatments for any species. Overall, the woodland salamander assemblage remained relatively intact throughout the shelterwoodburn

  10. Prevalence and correlates of high body mass index in rural Appalachian children aged 6-11 years.

    Montgomery-Reagan, Karen; Bianco, Joseph A; Heh, Victor; Rettos, Jean; Huston, Rebecca S


    In rural regions of the United States of America, estimates of pediatric obesity often exceed national averages. This problem may be particularly pronounced in Appalachian regions, where significant health and economic disparities abound. This study presents the findings of a body mass index (BMI) screening program for 6-11 year old children living in a rural Appalachian community. County-wide estimates of high BMI (>or=85th percentile) were obtained to understand the health status and needs of our pediatric community and to compare obesity prevalence rates with national averages. An additional aim was to identify subpopulations of children who may warrant clinical intervention due to demographic and behavioral risks factors of high BMI. A school-based BMI screening was conducted of 6-11 year old children in southeastern Ohio. Investigators collected 3 sets of height and weight measurements from approximately 2000 elementary school students between 2006 and 2007. Caregivers for a subset of this population also completed a health behaviors questionnaire. Thirty-eight percent of children had high BMI, with 17% at risk for overweight and 20.9% overweight. Boys were 23% more likely than girls to be overweight (chi(2)(1) = 95% CI = 1.08, 1.40) and 11% more likely to become overweight with each year of age (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.15). Overweight children were more likely to view television, eat meals at school, and live with a caregiver who smokes. Consistent with expectations, prevalence of high BMI in this sample of rural Appalachian children exceeds national averages. Prevalence of overweight varied by age and sex; boys are particularly vulnerable to developing obesity, especially as they age. Preliminary survey data suggest that eating breakfast at home and at school and increased hours of television viewing may be associated with higher BMI, especially in younger boys.

  11. Energy analysis of the coal fuel cycle: Community health and resource change in an Appalachian coal county

    Watson, A.P.


    In spite of steadily expanding coal development in this decade in the USA, there has been little systematic assessment of occupational and public health implications of increased production in specific regions of the USA. Preliminary analysis of a prototype Appalachian area is presented. Anderson County, Tennessee, the prototype area chosen for evaluation, lies in the Upper East Tennessee Coalfield. This county is uniquely suited for study since every process of the coal fuel cycle (extraction, transport, combustion, power production and waste disposal) takes place within the county boundary. By extensive exploitation of both surface and underground methods of extraction, this county has maintained a leading position in Tennessee's coal production for several years. Concepts of energy analysis and systematized data presentation were used to convert information gathered from diverse sources into comparable energy units (kcal). Concepts and methodology implemented in the analysis can be applied most appropriately to existing conditions in other counties of the Appalachian Coal Basin. Findings are presented for calendar year 1978. For the year of study, the major energy loss to the county was depletion of the coal resource base by use of inefficient mining techniques (a loss of 10.5x10 12 kcal fuel equivalents). Another loss is to community health, which is depleted by lost productivity of, and compensation payments to, victims of mining accidents and occupational disease such as 'black lung' (15x10 9 kcal). Another countywide depletion process is roadbed and bridge deterioration caused by large volumes of heavy coal-haul vehicular traffic (10x10 9 kcal). These losses are being borne mainly by residents of the Appalachian host region, with little systematic compensation by consumers of the coal resource. It is expected that these losses will increase in magnitude as national coal use increases. (author)

  12. Provenance of Late Ordovician Sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains: Implications for the Tectonic Model of the Taconic Orogeny

    Guerrero, J. C.; Herrmann, A. D.; Haynes, J.


    A provenance study of sandstones along the southeastern Appalachian Mountains has been conducted in order to test the current volcanic arc-continent collision and foreland basin formation model of the Taconic Orogeny. Samples along the southeastern Appalachians were taken from sandstone sequences deposited between 460-450 Ma. Results from these sandstones show three dominate age ranges: 465-685 Ma, 980-1300 Ma, and 1300-1500 Ma. The 980-1300 Ma and 1300-1500 Ma ages are seen throughout the study area and are compatible with previously reported ages of the Grenville Orogeny and the Rhyolite-Granite Province. The northernmost samples have a small quantity of 465-685 Ma zircons which is attributed to an accretionary wedge that formed as a result of the continent-island arc collision and acted as a physical barrier keeping sediment from depositing within the basin. The younger age signal becomes stronger to the south, as samples in Georgia and Alabama show strong concentrations of 465-685 zircons. These ages are attributed to exotic terranes (Dalhonega Terrane and Carolina Terrane) that were accreted onto Laurentia during the Taconic Orogeny and/or a possible change in subduction direction leading to a back-arc basin model for the southern Appalachian Taconic Orogeny. The results from this provenance analysis support previous studies indicating that the model for the Taconic Orogeny is a combined A-type subduction for the north and a B-type subduction model for the southern part of the orogeny.

  13. Southwestern Federal Power System 1995 Financial Statement audit under the Chief Financial Officers Act (WR-FC-96-02)



    The Southwestern Federal Power System encompasses the operation of 24 hydroelectric power plants by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the marketing of power and energy from those plants by the Southwestern Power Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy. To integrate the operation of these hydroelectric generating plants and to transmit power from the dams to its customers, Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) maintains 2,220 kilometers (1,380 miles) of high-voltage transmission lines, 24 substations, and 46 microwave and VHF radio sites. Southwestern`s headquarters are in Tulsa, Oklahoma; its dispatch center is in Springfield, Missouri; and its maintenance crews are based in Jonesboro, Arkansas, in Gore and Tupelo, Oklahoma, and in Springfield, Missouri. Three offices - Power Marketing and Delivery, Maintenance, and Administration and Rates - are responsible for meeting Southwestern`s mission. Twelve of the 24 generating plants are scheduled directly by Southwestern, and a total of 19 contribute to the interconnected system operations. Generation at the five remaining projects (Denison, Narrows, Sam Rayburn, Whitney, and Willis) is used to serve specific customer loads. At the end of fiscal year 1995, Southwestern marketed power and energy to 10 generation and transmission cooperatives, one distribution cooperative, three military installations, 44 municipal utilities, and three municipal utility joint-action agencies. One of the joint-action agencies has its own allocation of power from Southwestern; the other two serve 33 municipal utilities to whom Southwestern has allocated power. The total number of power allocation customers is 92. Additionally, excess energy is occasionally sold to non-allocation utilities.

  14. Attitude to rehabilitative counselling in southwestern Nigerian prisons.

    A Alao, Kayode; F Adebowale, Olusegun


    The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of prison inmates and warders (prison staff) to rehabilitative counselling and its relationship to their prison status on one hand and their educational attainment on the other. The study adopts a descriptive survey research design. In all 123 prison inmates and 110 warders were selected by stratified random sampling from Osogbo prison headquarters, as well as Ilesa and Ile-Ife prisons in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected through a self-constructed questionnaire titled "inmate and prison staff attitude to rehabilitation counselling". Data collected were analysed using percentages and χ2 statistics. The results showed that the prison inmates and staff possessed positive attitude to rehabilitative counselling. No significant difference was found between the attitudes of prison inmates and staff members or on the basis of their prison statuses. However, the study found a significant relationship between the prison inmates' attitude to rehabilitative counselling and their educational attainment. Research LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Statutory provision needs be made for professional rehabilitative counselling in Nigerian prisons in contrast to the religious instructions currently being allowed prisoners. Educational opportunities should be provided to ensure that the knowledge so obtained complements the rehabilitative counselling. Originality/value - This paper fulfils an identified need to study the attitude towards rehabilitative counselling.

  15. Ecosystem biophysical memory in the southwestern North America climate system

    Forzieri, G; Feyen, L; Vivoni, E R


    To elucidate the potential role of vegetation to act as a memory source in the southwestern North America climate system, we explore correlation structures of remotely sensed vegetation dynamics with precipitation, temperature and teleconnection indices over 1982–2006 for six ecoregions. We found that lagged correlations between vegetation dynamics and climate variables are modulated by the dominance of monsoonal or Mediterranean regimes and ecosystem-specific physiological processes. Subtropical and tropical ecosystems exhibit a one month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a zero- to one-month lag negative correlation with temperature, and modest negative effects of sea surface temperature (SST). Mountain forests have a zero month lag negative correlation with precipitation, a zero–one month lag negative correlation with temperature, and no significant correlation with SSTs. Deserts show a strong one–four month lag positive correlation with precipitation, a low zero–two month lag negative correlation with temperature, and a high four–eight month lag positive correlation with SSTs. The ecoregion-specific biophysical memories identified offer an opportunity to improve the predictability of land–atmosphere interactions and vegetation feedbacks onto climate. (letter)


    Duje Smirčić


    Full Text Available Middle Triassic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have been recognized at several localities near Bosansko Grahovo, in southwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the External Dinarides. Peculiar types of autoclastic rocks were investigated. These are peperites and hyaloclastites. Regarding specific structures, mineral composition and micropetrographic characteristics it was possible to further differentiate hyaloclastites into in situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites that represent genetic succession. All rock types occurred in a deep sea troughs that formed as a consequence of Middle Triassic extensional tectonic and rift related wrench faulting. In situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites were formed due to quenching at the contact of lava effusions with sea water. Genesis of peperites is related to lava emplacement in unconsolidated water saturated lime mudstones that were deposited in deep sea basin. All investigated rock types represent first findings of autoclastic deposits in the External Dinarides. Biostratigraphic constraints achieved by means of conodont species Neogondolella excentrica, Paragondolella excelsa, Paragondolella trammeri and Gladigondolella tethydis indicate Late Anisian to Early Ladinian interval of the autoclastic deposits from Bosansko Grahovo.

  17. Drought-induced vegetation stress in southwestern North America

    Zhang Xiaoyang; Goldberg, Mitchell; Tarpley, Dan; Kogan, Felix; Yu Yunyue; Friedl, Mark A; Morisette, Jeffrey


    Trends towards earlier greenup and increased average greenness have been widely reported in both humid and dry ecosystems. By analyzing NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2007, we report complex trends in both the growing season amplitude and seasonally integrated vegetation greenness in southwestern North America and further highlight regions consistently experiencing drought stress. In particular, greenness measurements from 1982 to 2007 show an increasing trend in grasslands but a decreasing trend in shrublands. However, vegetation greenness in this period has experienced a strong cycle, increasing from 1982 to 1993 but decreasing from 1993 to 2007. The significant decrease during the last decade has reduced vegetation greenness by 6% in shrublands and 13% in grasslands (16% and 21%, respectively, in the severe drought years). The greenness cycle correlates to both annual precipitation and dry season length derived from NOAA North America Regional Reanalysis data. If drought events continue as predicted by climate models, they will exacerbate ecosystem degradation and reduce carbon uptake.

  18. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan


    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  19. Entomologic inoculation rates of Anopheles arabiensis in southwestern Ethiopia.

    Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt


    We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6 infectious bites per person per month), the period of highest mosquito density.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Judith River Formation in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada

    Ferris, David; Lypka, Morgan; Ferguson, Grant


    The Judith River Formation forms an important regional aquifer in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. This aquifer is used for domestic and agricultural purposes in some areas and supports oil and gas production in other areas. As a result, the available data come from a range of sources and integration is required to provide an overview of aquifer characteristics. Here, data from oil and gas databases are combined with data from groundwater resource assessments. Analysis of cores, drill-stem tests and pumping tests provide a good overview of the physical hydrogeology of the Judith River Aquifer. Water chemistry data from oil and gas databases were less helpful in understanding the chemical hydrogeology due contamination of samples and unreliable laboratory analyses. Analytical modeling of past pumping in the aquifer indicates that decreases in hydraulic head exceeding 2 m are possible over distances of 10s of kilometers. Similar decreases in head should be expected for additional large withdrawals of groundwater from the Judith River Aquifer. Long-term groundwater abstraction should be limited by low pumping rates. Higher pumping rates appear to be possible for short-term uses, such as those required by the oil and gas industry.

  1. The melliferous potential of apiflora of southwestern Vojvodina (Serbia

    Mačukanović-Jocić Marina P.


    Full Text Available The individual and community-level melliferous potential of apiflora was evaluated in southwestern Vojvodina in order to assess its significance and contribution to the bee pasture. Seven plant communities belonging to ruderal, segetal and floodplain type of vegetation, with a total of 279 plant species were registered. Apifloristic and phytocoenological investigations included the determination and analysis of honey plants using the following parameters: total number, percentage, abundance and frequency of these species in the communities, as well as their intensity of pollen and nectar production. The coenotic coefficient of melliferousness (CCm indicating the melliferous potential of each community, was calculated based on the above parameters. Although the greatest number of melliferous species was found in the ass. Chenopodio-Ambrosietum artemisiifoliae (132, the highest percentage (80% of them was registered in the ass. Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis. Considering the coefficients of nectar and pollen production, the most valuable honey plants commonly present in the majority of communities were: Cirsium arvense, Rubus caesius, Lythrum salicaria, Daucus carota, Trifolium pratense, Dipsacus laciniatus, Medicago sativa, Asclepias syriaca, Cichorium intybus and Taraxacum officinale. The low abundance and frequency of melliferous species within the Consolido-Polygonetum avicularis, Polygonetum convolvulo-avicularis and Populetum nigrae-albae communities indicated their poor contribution to the bee pasture. Within ruderal vegetation, the highest CCm was registered in Amorpho-Typhaetum, providing, theoretically, the richest food resource for the honeybees in the investigated area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009 i br. 173018

  2. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.


    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  3. An Ethnographic Meta-Synthesis of Three Southwestern Rural Studies.

    Averill, Jennifer B


    The objectives were to synthesize cumulative findings across three critical ethnographic, community-partnered studies in the southwestern United States and to describe the process of meta-ethnography for that analysis. The meta-ethnography followed the design of Noblit and Hare for constructing an analysis of composite data, informed by community-based participatory research and Stringer's ethnographic strategies of Look-Think-Act. The three studies occurred in rural settings of Colorado and New Mexico, engaging 129 total participants, along with community organizations and agencies as partners. Methods consisted of detailed review of each original study, mapping of major concepts and themes, and general analysis, interpretation, and synthesis across the studies. Overall themes were: health is the capacity to care for oneself and do work, meaningful relationships are key in health care interactions, patterns of discrimination persist in rural settings, poor literacy and health literacy are barriers, and food insecurity is a growing concern for older rural adults. Resolutions involve practice, policy, and research and must incorporate all stakeholder groups in rural settings; a participatory approach is critical to prioritize and impact existing inequities; and work is needed to extend education and understanding of multiple cultures, groups, customs, and rural contexts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Some geophysical constraints to dynamic processes in the Southwestern Mediterranean

    P. Chiozzi


    Full Text Available The total tectonic subsidence, thermal state and seismotectonic regime have been analysed to better constrain the dynamic processes which originated the basins of the Southwestern Mediterranean. It is argued that backarc extension and oceanic spreading are the possible and main processes which took place within a compressional framework, driven by the interaction between the African and European plates. As inferred by both subsidence and heat-flux data, in the central part of the Algerian-Balearic basin the crust is oceanic, 20 Ma old on average, originated by a spreading phase, which also affected the Ligurian-Provençal basin. The Alboran basin, which is underlain by stretched continental crust, shows an intermediate seismic activity and a few deep events, explainable by a gravitational collapse of cold lithosphere. After a review of the most recent geodynamical hypotheses, an evolutionary scheme is attempted envisaging the lateral continental escape of the Gibraltar arc. Within a convergent tectonic framework, some lithospheric material could translate almost perpendicular to the convergence direction, and undergo a lateral subduction process, secondary to the main boundary between plates.

  5. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  6. Current perspectives on unconventional shale gas extraction in the Appalachian Basin.

    Lampe, David J; Stolz, John F


    The Appalachian Basin is home to three major shales, the Upper Devonian, Marcellus, and Utica. Together, they contain significant quantities of tight oil, gas, and mixed hydrocarbons. The Marcellus alone is estimated to contain upwards of 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The extraction of these deposits is facilitated by a combination of horizontal drilling and slick water stimulation (e.g., hydraulic fracturing) or "fracking." The process of fracking requires large volumes of water, proppant, and chemicals as well as a large well pad (3-7 acres) and an extensive network of gathering and transmission pipelines. Drilling can generate about 1,000 tons of drill cuttings depending on the depth of the formation and the length of the horizontal bore. The flowback and produced waters that return to the surface during production are high in total dissolved solids (TDS, 60,000-350,000 mg L(-1)) and contain halides (e.g., chloride, bromide, fluoride), strontium, barium, and often naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) as well as organics. The condensate tanks used to store these fluids can off gas a plethora of volatile organic compounds. The waste water, with its high TDS may be recycled, treated, or disposed of through deep well injection. Where allowed, open impoundments used for recycling are a source of air borne contamination as they are often aerated. The gas may be "dry" (mostly methane) or "wet," the latter containing a mixture of light hydrocarbons and liquids that need to be separated from the methane. Although the wells can produce significant quantities of natural gas, from 2-7 bcf, their initial decline rates are significant (50-75%) and may cease to be economic within a few years. This review presents an overview of unconventional gas extraction highlighting the environmental impacts and challenges.

  7. Soil Carbon Dynamics Along an Elevation Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Garten Jr., C.T.


    The role of soil C dynamics in the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is at the center of many science questions related to global climate change. The purpose of this report is to summarize measured trends in environmental factors and ecosystem processes that affect soil C balance along elevation gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, USA. Three environmental factors that have potentially significant effects on soil C dynamics (temperature, precipitation, and soil N availability) vary in a predictable manner with altitude. Forest soil C stocks and calculated turnover times of labile soil C increase with elevation, and there is an apparent inverse relationship between soil C storage and mean annual temperature. Relationships between climate variables and soil C dynamics along elevation gradients must be interpreted with caution because litter chemistry, soil moisture, N availability, and temperature are confounded; all potentially interact in complex ways to regulate soil C storage through effects on decomposition. Some recommendations are presented for untangling these complexities. It is concluded that past studies along elevation gradients have contributed to a better but not complete understanding of environmental factors and processes that potentially affect soil C balance. Furthermore, there are advantages linked to the use of elevation gradients as an approach to climate change research when hypotheses are placed in a strong theoretical or mechanistic framework. Climate change research along elevation gradients can be both convenient and economical. More importantly, ecosystem processes and attributes affecting soil C dynamics along elevation gradients are usually the product of the long-term interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil type. Investigations along elevation gradients are a useful approach to the study of environmental change, and its effect

  8. Using Silviculture to Influence Carbon Sequestration in Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Forests

    Patrick T. Moore


    Full Text Available Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled. We explicitly considered C stored in standing forest stocks and the fate of forest products derived from harvesting. Over a 100-year simulation period the even-aged scenario (250 Mg C ha1 outperformed the no-action scenario (241 Mg C ha1 in total carbon (TC sequestered. The uneven-aged scenario approached 220 Mg C ha1, but did not outperform the no-action scenario within the simulation period. While the average annual change in C (AAC of the no-action scenario approached zero, or carbon neutral, during the simulation, both the even-aged and uneven-aged scenarios surpassed the no-action by year 30 and maintained positive AAC throughout the 100-year simulation. This study demonstrates that silvicultural treatment of forest stands can increase potential C storage, but that careful consideration of: (1 accounting method (i.e., TC versus AAC; (2 fate of harvested products and; (3 length of the planning horizon (e.g., 100 years will strongly influence the evaluation of C sequestration.

  9. Food Insecurity and Behavioral Characteristics for Academic Success in Young Adults Attending an Appalachian University.

    Hagedorn, Rebecca L; Olfert, Melissa D


    In order to investigate the impact of food insecurity on college students in a highly health disparate region we (1) assessed the prevalence of food insecurity among young adults at a large, rural university in Appalachia, and (2) investigated the relationship between food insecurity and behavioral characteristics including academic performance, coping strategies, and money expenditure. A cross-sectional design was used to capture a representative sample of young adults attending a large, central Appalachian university in Fall 2016. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Adult Food Security Survey was used to measure food insecurity. Independent variables include money expenditure (MES), coping strategies (CSS), academic performance (APS), and demographic, health, economic and culinary variables. Participant responses ( n = 692) showed one third (36.6%) of respondents were food-insecure. Students with higher scores for MES and CSS had significantly higher odds of being food-insecure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.81 to 2.38 and OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.23, respectively). The odds of high APS scores (OR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.73 to 0.86) were inversely related to food insecurity. Results of the logistic regression showed MES, CSS, health, and school year remained a significant predictor of food insecurity in college students. These findings suggest behavioral differences in terms of coping strategies, money expenditure, and academic progress among food-insecure students and can be used to identify and target at-risk students to promote student food security and well-being.

  10. Assessing Whether Northeastern Earthquakes and Warm Springs Are Produced by the Northern Appalachian Anomaly

    Marrero, A. M.; Abbott, D. H.; Menke, W. H.


    The passive margin of eastern North America has been tectonically quiescent for >100 Ma. However, earthquakes, mantle-derived 3He in ground water and warm springs hint at continued activity. The recent proposal of asthenospheric upwelling (the Northern Appalachian Anomaly, NAA) beneath southern New England (SNE) raises the possibility that this activity is due to mantle melt. Its delivery to the lithosphere may lower density and cause stress, open pathways for 3He, and heat the crust. We examine isostatic balance along the Levin et al. [2017] receiver function profile for which crustal thickness H and compressional-to-shear velocity ratio R are published. It crosses the continental margin north of the NAA and acts as a control against which regions closer to it may be compared. We use Christensen's [1996] measurements of rocks to predict crustal density Dc from R. Isostatic balance is estimated by combining H, Dc, elevation and mantle density Dm. We assume a constant Dm, which allows us to assess the imbalance due to factors other than mantle heterogeneities. The crust along the profile is not in isostatic balance, with very large disequilibrium pressure P (up to -33.6 MPa). We use the horizontal gradient of P as a proxy for crustal shear force and compare it to seismicity. The signals show significant correlation, indicating that both the isostatic imbalance and the crustal seismicity may be due to crustal features that are thought to be mostly "fossil'; that is, originating hundreds of millions of year ago when the crust was formed. While our results do not preclude the possibility that the present-day NAA is influencing isostatic disequilibria and seismicity in SNE, they indicate that distinguishing its effect from the very large ancient causes may be problematical. We also study warm springs underlain by the NAA and show that their temperatures have been stable over the last 100 years, suggesting their importance in long-term heat transport.

  11. Behavior and reproductive ecology of the Sicklefin Redhorse: An imperiled southern Appalachian Mountain fish

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.


    Many nongame fishes are poorly understood but are essential to maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems globally. The undescribed Sicklefin Redhorse Moxostoma sp. is a rare, imperiled, nongame fish endemic to two southern Appalachian Mountain river basins. Little is known of its behavior and ecology, but this information is urgently needed for conservation planning. We assessed the spatial and temporal bounds of spawning migration, quantified seasonal weekly movement patterns, and characterized seasonal and spawning behavior using radiotelemetry and weir sampling in the Hiwassee River basin, North Carolina–Georgia, during 2006 and 2007. Hiwassee River tributaries were occupied predominantly during the fish's spawning season, lower reaches of the tributaries and the Hiwassee River were primarily occupied during the postspawning season (i.e., summer and fall), and lower lotic reaches of Hiwassee River (upstream from Hiwassee Lake) were occupied during winter. Adults occupied Hiwassee Lake only as a movement corridor during spawning migrations. Both sexes conducted upstream spawning migrations simultaneously, but males occupied spawning tributaries longer than females. Sicklefin Redhorse exhibited interannual spawning‐area and tributary fidelity. Cold water temperatures associated with hypolimnetic releases from reservoirs and meteorological conditions influenced spawning migration distance and timing. During 2007, decreased discharges during the spawning season were associated with decreases in migration distance and spawning tributary occupancy duration. Foraging was the dominant behavior observed annually, followed by reproductive behaviors (courting and spawning) during the spawning season. No agonistic reproductive behavior was observed, but females exhibited a repetitious postspawning digging behavior that may be unique in the family Catostomidae. Our findings suggest that protection and restoration of river continuity, natural flow regimes, seasonally

  12. Assessing effects of stocked trout on nongame fish assemblages in southern Appalachian Mountain streams

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.


    Fisheries managers are faced with the challenge of balancing the management of recreational fisheries with that of conserving native species and preserving ecological integrity. The negative effects that nonnative trout species exert on native trout are well documented and include alteration of competitive interactions, habitat use, and production. However, the effects that nonnative trout may exert on nongame fish assemblages are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of trout stocking on native nongame fish assemblages intensively on one newly stocked river, the North Toe River, North Carolina, and extensively on other southern Appalachian Mountain streams that are annually stocked with trout. In the intensive study, we adopted a before-after, control-impact (BACI) experimental design to detect short-term effects on the nongame fish assemblage and found no significant differences in fish density, species richness, species diversity, or fish microhabitat use associated with trout stocking. We observed differences in fish microhabitat use between years, however, which suggests there is a response to environmental changes, such as the flow regime, which influence available habitat. In the extensive study, we sampled paired stocked and unstocked stream reaches to detect long-term effects from trout stocking; however, we detected no differences in nongame fish density, species richness, species diversity, or population size structure between paired sites. Our results revealed high inherent system variation caused by natural and anthropogenic factors that appear to overwhelm any acute or chronic effect of stocked trout. Furthermore, hatchery-reared trout may be poor competitors in a natural setting and exert a minimal or undetectable impact on native fish assemblages in these streams. These findings provide quantitative results necessary to assist agencies in strategic planning and decision making associated with trout fisheries, stream

  13. Experimental Evidence that Hemlock Mortality Enhances Carbon Stabilization in Southern Appalachian Forest Soils

    Fraterrigo, J.; Ream, K.; Knoepp, J.


    Forest insects and pathogens (FIPs) can cause uncertain changes in forest carbon balance, potentially influencing global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. We quantified the effects of hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carr.) mortality on soil carbon fluxes and pools for a decade following either girdling or natural infestation by hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) to improve mechanistic understanding of soil carbon cycling response to FIPs. Although soil respiration (Rsoil) was similar among reference plots and plots with hemlock mortality, both girdled and HWA-infested plots had greater activities of β-glucosidase, a cellulose-hydrolyzing extracellular enzyme, and decreased O-horizon mass and fine root biomass from 2005 to 2013. During this period, total mineral soil carbon accumulated at a higher rate in disturbed plots than in reference plots in both the surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (10-30 cm); increases were predominantly in the mineral-associated fraction of the soil organic matter. In contrast, particulate organic matter carbon accrued slowly in surface soils and declined in the subsurface of girdled plots. δ13C values of this fraction demonstrate that particulate organic matter carbon in the surface soil has become more microbially processed over time, suggesting enhanced decomposition of organic matter in this pool. Together, these findings indicate that hemlock mortality and subsequent forest regrowth has led to enhanced soil carbon stabilization in southern Appalachian forests through the translocation of carbon from detritus and particulate soil organic matter pools to the mineral-associated organic matter pool. These findings have implications for ecosystem management and modeling, demonstrating that forests may tolerate moderate disturbance without diminishing soil carbon storage when there is a compensatory growth response by non-host trees.

  14. A computational fluid dynamics approach to wind prospecting: Lessons from the U.S. Appalachian region

    Womeldorf, Carole A.; Chimeli, Ariaster B.


    A number of technological, institutional and market developments have lowered the minimally economic viable wind speeds for wind power generation while contributing to increasing profitability of the wind power industry in recent decades. Yet, information on the potential for wind power generation is still highly uncertain in many regions of the globe, particularly those with complex terrain features. We focus on an area by the foothills of the Appalachian region. Because we do not have precise wind measurements for this area, we do not attempt to produce an actual wind map, but instead use a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model to demonstrate the calculation of high resolution wind speeds with complex terrain information. Using this approach, we show how finer wind speed information can impact the status of an overlooked region in terms of its wind potential and improve wind prospecting by enabling investors to focus on the most promising sub-regions of a study area. Since private sector investors might not have the incentive to invest in finer-scale wind resource assessment that can be easily observed by competitors, public sector incentives or direct investments can help to promote wind power generation in overlooked but viable regions. - Highlights: • Costly expansion of transmission stimulates wind prospecting in accessible regions. • A search model motivates the rationale for wind prospecting in a given region. • A computational fluid dynamics model simulates finer wind information. • The distribution of wind speeds is estimated using finer wind information. • An initially overlooked region might become attractive for wind prospecting

  15. Release of suppressed red spruce using canopy gap creation—Ecological restoration in the Central Appalachians

    Rentch, J.S.; Ford, W. Mark; Schuler, T.S.; Palmer, J.; Diggins, Corinne A.


    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the results of an understory red spruce release experiment in hardwood-dominated stands that have a small component of understory red spruce. In 2005, 188 target spruce were identified in sample plots at six locations in central West Virginia. We projected a vertical cylinder above the crown of all target spruces, and in 2007, we performed a release treatment whereby overtopping hardwoods were treated with herbicide using a stem injection technique. Release treatments removed 0–10% (Control), 11–50% (Low), 51–89% (Medium), and ≤90% (High) of the basal area of overtopping trees. We also took canopy photographs at the time of each remeasurement in 2007, 2010, and 2013, and compared basal removal treatments and resulting 2010 canopy openness and understory light values. The high treatment level provided significantly greater six-year dbh and height growth than the other treatment levels. Based on these results, we propose that a tree-centered release approach utilizing small canopy gaps that emulate the historical, gap-phase disturbance regime provides a good strategy for red spruce restoration in hardwood forests where overstory spruce are virtually absent, and where red spruce is largely relegated to the understory.

  16. Environmental equity and the conservation of unique ecosystems: an analysis of the distribution of benefits for protecting Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Joseph E. Aldy; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes


    Some critics in the environmental equity literature argue that low-income populations disproportionately have environmental risks, while the wealthy and better educated gain disproportionately from protecting unique ecosystems. The authors test this hypothesis in an analysis of the decline of Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests. They calculate willingness-to-pay...

  17. An evaluation of seven methods for controlling mountain laurel thickets in the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Patrick H. Brose


    In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) thickets in mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) stands can lead to hazardous fuel situations, forest regeneration problems, and possible forest health concerns. Therefore, land managers need techniques to control mountain laurel thickets and limit...

  18. Economic analysis of the potential impact of climate change on recreational trout fishing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains: An appication of a nested multinomial logti model

    Soeun Ahn; Joseph E. de Steiguer; Raymond B. Palmquist; Thomas P. Holmes


    Global warming due to the enhanced greenhouse effect through human activities has become a major public policy issue in recent years. The present study focuses on the potential economic impact of climate change on recreational trout fishing in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Significant reductions in trout habitat and/or populations are...

  19. Baseline capture rates and roosting habits of Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-Eared Bat) prior to white-nose syndrome  detection in the southern Appalachians

    Vanessa G. Rojas; Joy M. O' Keefe; Susan C. Loeb


    Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) is a federally threatened insectivorous bat facing devastating population declines due to white-nose syndrome (WNS). Our study provides pre-WNS (2009) capture rates and roosting-behavior data for Northern Long-eared Bats in the southern Appalachians. We conducted mist-net surveys at 37 sites and...

  20. Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Peter Baas; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Daniel Markewitz; Jacqueline E. Mohan


    The critical role streamside riparian zones play in mitigating the movement of nitrogen (N) and other elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems could be threatened by residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Many studies have investigated the influence of agriculture on N loading to streams but less is known about the impacts of residential...

  1. Total C and N Pools and fluxes vary with time, soil temperature, and moisture along an elevation, precipitation, and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian Forests

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Craig R. See; James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; James S. Clark


    The interactions of terrestrial C pools and fluxes with spatial and temporal variation in climate are not well understood. We conducted this study in the southern Appalachian Mountains where complex topography provides variability in temperature, precipitation, and forest communities. In 1990, we established five large plots across an elevation gradient...

  2. Assessing Lost Ecosystem Service Benefits Due to Mining-Induced Stream Degradation in the Appalachian Region: Economic Approaches to Valuing Recreational Fishing Impacts

    Sport fishing is a popular activity for Appalachian residents and visitors. The region’s coldwater streams support a strong regional outdoor tourism industry. We examined the influence of surface coal mining, in the context of other stressors, on freshwater sport fishing in...

  3. Effect of forest harvesting best management practices on coarse woody debris distribution in stream and riparian zones in three Appalachian watersheds

    J. M. McClure; R. K. Kolka; A. White


    The distribution of coarse woody debris (CWD) was analyzed in three Appalachian watersheds in eastern Kentucky, eighteen years after harvest. The three watersheds included an unharvested control (Control), a second watershed with best management practices (BMPs) applied that included a 15.2 m unharvested zone near the stream (BMP watershed), and a third watershed that...

  4. Short-term response of ground-dwelling arthropods to prescribed fire and mechanical fuel reduction in a Southern Appalachian upland hardwood forest

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; T.G. Forrest; Thomas. Waldrop


    As part of the multidisciplinary National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study, we used drift fences with pitfall traps to determine how three fuel reduction treatments affected ground-dwelling macroarthropods in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Four experimental units, each

  5. Characterization of major-ion chemistry and nutrients in headwater streams along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and within adjacent watersheds, Maine to Georgia

    Argue, Denise M.; Pope, Jason P.; Dieffenbach, Fred


    An inventory of water-quality data on field parameters, major ions, and nutrients provided a summary of water quality in headwater (first- and second-order) streams within watersheds along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (Appalachian Trail). Data from 1,817 sampling sites in 831 catchments were used for the water-quality summary. Catchment delineations from NHDPlus were used as the fundamental geographic units for this project. Criteria used to evaluate sampling sites for inclusion were based on selected physical attributes of the catchments adjacent to the Appalachian Trail, including stream elevation, percentage of developed land cover, and percentage of agricultural land cover. The headwater streams of the Appalachian Trail are generally dilute waters, with low pH, low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and low concentrations of nutrients. The median pH value was slightly acidic at 6.7; the median specific conductance value was 23.6 microsiemens per centimeter, and the median ANC value was 98.7 milliequivalents per liter (μeq/L). Median concentrations of cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) were each less than 1.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and median concentrations of anions (bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were less than 10 mg/L. Differences in water-quality constituent levels along the Appalachian Trail may be related to elevation, atmospheric deposition, geology, and land cover. Spatial variations were summarized by ecological sections (ecosections) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. Specific conductance, pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate) were all negatively correlated with elevation. The highest elevation ecosections (White Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Allegheny Mountains) had the lowest pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions. The lowest elevation ecosections (Lower New England and Hudson Valley) generally had the highest pH, ANC, and

  6. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian mountains

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt; Joseph F. Merritt


    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue Ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  7. Climate change and runoff in south-western Australia

    Silberstein, R. P.; Aryal, S. K.; Durrant, J.; Pearcey, M.; Braccia, M.; Charles, S. P.; Boniecka, L.; Hodgson, G. A.; Bari, M. A.; Viney, N. R.; McFarlane, D. J.


    SummaryThis paper presents the results of computer simulations of runoff from 13 major fresh and brackish river basins in south-western Australia (SWA) under climate projections obtained from 15 GCMs with three future global warming scenarios equivalent to global temperature rises of 0.7 °C, 1.0 °C and 1.3 °C by 2030. The objective was to apply an efficient methodology, consistent across a large region, to examine the implications of the best available projections in climate trends for future surface water resources. An ensemble of rainfall-runoff models was calibrated on stream flow data from 1975 to 2007 from 106 gauged catchments distributed throughout the basins of the study area. The sensitivity of runoff to projected changes in mean annual rainfall is examined using the climate 'elasticity' concept. Averaged across the study area, all 15 GCMs project declines in rainfall under all global warming scenarios with a median decline of 8% resulting in a median decline in runoff of 25%. Such uniformity in projections from GCMs is unusual. Over SWA the average annual runoff under the 5th wettest and 5th driest of the 45 projections of the 2030 climate declines by 10 and 42%, respectively. Under the 5th driest projection the runoff decline ranges from 53% in the northern region to 40% in the southern region. Strong regional variations in climate sensitivity are found with the proportional decline in runoff greatest in the northern region and the greatest volumetric declines in the wetter basins in the south. Since the mid 1970s stream flows into the major water supply reservoirs in SWA have declined by more than 50% following a 16% rainfall reduction. This has already had major implications for water resources planning and for the preservation of aquatic and riparian ecosystems in the region. Our results indicate that this reduction in runoff is likely to continue if future climate projections eventuate.

  8. Investigating Ultra-low Velocity Zones beneath the Southwestern Pacific

    Carson, S. E.; Hansen, S. E.; Garnero, E.


    The core mantle boundary (CMB), where the solid silicate mantle meets the liquid iron-nickel outer core, represents the largest density contrast on our planet, and it has long been recognized that the CMB is associated with significant structural heterogeneities. One CMB structure of particular interest are ultra low-velocity zones (ULVZs), laterally-varying, 5-50 km thick isolated patches seen in some locations just above the CMB that are associated with increased density and reduced seismic wave velocities. These variable characteristics have led to many questions regarding ULVZ origins, but less than 40% of the CMB has been surveyed for the presence of ULVZs given limited seismic coverage of the lowermost mantle. Therefore, investigations that sample the CMB with new geometries are critical to further our understanding of ULVZs and their potential connection to other deep Earth processes. The Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network (TAMNNET), a 15-station seismic array that was recently deployed in Antarctica, provides a unique dataset to further study ULVZ structure with new and unique path geometry. Core-reflected ScP and PcP phases from the TAMNNET dataset particularly well sample the CMB in the vicinity of New Zealand in the southwestern Pacific, providing coverage between an area to the north where ULVZ structure has been previously identified and another region to the south, which shows no ULVZ evidence. By identifying and modeling pre- and post-cursor ScP and PcP energy, we are exploring a new portion of the CMB with a goal of better understanding potential ULVZ origins. Our study area also crosses the southern boundary of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP); therefore, our investigations may allow us to examine the possible relationship between LLSVPs and ULVZs.

  9. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Broxton, D.E.


    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km/sup 2/. The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill.

  10. The 2010 spring drought reduced primary productivity in southwestern China

    Zhang Li; Li Jing; Xiao Jingfeng; Wang Kun; Lei Liping; Guo Huadong


    Many parts of the world experience frequent and severe droughts. Summer drought can significantly reduce primary productivity and carbon sequestration capacity. The impacts of spring droughts, however, have received much less attention. A severe and sustained spring drought occurred in southwestern China in 2010. Here we examine the influence of this spring drought on the primary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems using data on climate, vegetation greenness and productivity. We first assess the spatial extent, duration and severity of the drought using precipitation data and the Palmer drought severity index. We then examine the impacts of the drought on terrestrial ecosystems using satellite data for the period 2000–2010. Our results show that the spring drought substantially reduced the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) during spring 2010 (March–May). Both EVI and GPP also substantially declined in the summer and did not fully recover from the drought stress until August. The drought reduced regional annual GPP and net primary productivity (NPP) in 2010 by 65 and 46 Tg C yr −1 , respectively. Both annual GPP and NPP in 2010 were the lowest over the period 2000–2010. The negative effects of the drought on annual primary productivity were partly offset by the remarkably high productivity in August and September caused by the exceptionally wet conditions in late summer and early fall and the farming practices adopted to mitigate drought effects. Our results show that, like summer droughts, spring droughts can also have significant impacts on vegetation productivity and terrestrial carbon cycling. (letter)

  11. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    AlBinali Ali M; AlShehri, Mohammed A; AlFifi, Suliman H; Abdelmoneim, Ismail; Shomrani, Ali S


    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  12. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.


    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  13. Natural radioactivity releases from lignite power plants in Southwestern Anatolia

    Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.; Cam, F.; Candan, O.


    The Mugla basin is one of the most productive lignite basins in Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Mining activities started in 1979 and total reserves were estimated during exploration at 767.5 million tonnes. Total mean annual lignite production of the Mugla basin is estimated at about 10 million tonnes per year. Most of the lignite production supplies three thermal power plants (Yatagan 630 MW, Yenikoey 420 MW, Kemerkoey 630 MW) with a total capacity of 1680 MW. It is well known that the lignite contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. The investigation reported here deals with the determination of the 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K concentrations in the lignite feeding 3 thermal power plants in Mugla region and in the product ash. Samples of lignite feeding the power plants and fly and bottom ashes produced in the same power plants were collected over a period of 1 year and therefore systematic sampling allowed for the determination of mean representative values for the natural radioactivity content of above materials and also estimation of the radioactivity releases to the environment. Furthermore, grid soil sampling within 10-15 km around the power plants allowed for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides. Dosimetric calculations from terrestrial gamma radiation for the population living around the power plants were performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR 2000 report

  14. Orchid conservation in the biodiversity hotspot of southwestern China.

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Jin; Corlett, Richard T; Fan, XuLi; Yu, DongLi; Yang, HongPei; Gao, JiangYun


    Xishuangbanna is on the northern margins of tropical Asia in southwestern China and has the largest area of tropical forest remaining in the country. It is in the Indo-Burma hotspot and contains 16% of China's vascular flora in biodiversity. To understand the effects of land-use change and collection on orchid species diversity and determine protection priorities, we conducted systematic field surveys, observed markets, interviewed orchid collectors, and then determined the conservation status of all orchids. We identified 426 orchid species in 115 genera in Xishuangbanna: 31% of all orchid species that occur in China. Species richness was highest at 1000-1200 m elevation. Three orchid species were assessed as possibly extinct in the wild, 15 as critically endangered, 82 as endangered, 124 as vulnerable, 186 as least concern, and 16 as data deficient. Declines over 20 years in harvested species suggested over-collection was the major threat, and utility value (i.e., medicinal or ornamental value) was significantly related to endangerment. Expansion of rubber tree plantations was less of a threat to orchids than to other taxa because only 75 orchid species (17.6%) occurred below the 1000-m-elevation ceiling for rubber cultivation, and most of these (46) occurred in nature reserves. However, climate change is projected to lift this ceiling to around 1300 m by 2050, and the limited area at higher elevations reduces the potential for upslope range expansion. The Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden is committed to achieving zero plant extinctions in Xishuangbanna, and orchids are a high priority. Appropriate in and ex situ conservation strategies, including new protected areas and seed banking, have been developed for every threatened orchid species and are being implemented. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Investigation of the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma

    Luza, K.V.; Madole, R.F.; Crone, A.J.


    The Meers fault is part of a major system of NW-trending faults that form the boundary between the Wichita Mountains and the Anadarko basin in southwestern Oklahoma. A portion of the Meers fault is exposed at the surface in northern Comanche County and strikes approximately N. 60 0 W. where it offsets Permian conglomerate and shale for at least 26 km. The scarp on the fault is consistently down to the south, with a maximum relief of 5 m near the center of the fault trace. Quaternary stratigraphic relationships and 10 14 C age dates constrain the age of the last movement of the Meers fault. The last movement postdates the Browns Creek Alluvium, late Pleistocene to early Holocene, and predates the East Cache Alluvium, 100 to 800 yr B.P. Fan alluvium, produced by the last fault movement, buried a soil that dates between 1400 and 1100 yr B.P. Two trenches excavated across the scarp near Canyon Creek document the near-surface deformation and provide some general information on recurrence. Trench 1 was excavated in the lower Holocene part of the Browns Creek Alluvium, and trench 2 was excavated in unnamed gravels thought to be upper Pleistocene. Flexing and warping was the dominant mode of deformation that produced the scarp. The stratigraphy in both trenches indicates one surface-faulting event, which implies a lengthy recurrence interval for surface faulting on this part of the fault. Organic-rich material from two samples that postdate the last fault movement yielded 14 C ages between 1600 and 1300 yr B.P. These dates are in excellent agreement with the dates obtained from soils buried by the fault-related fan alluvium

  16. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Broxton, D.E.


    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill

  17. Demography of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

    Zabel, Cynthia J.; Salmons, Susan E.; Forsman, Eric D.; DeStefano, Stephen; Raphael, Martin G.; Gutierrez, R.J.


    Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are associated with lower elevation, commercially valuable, late-successional coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Meta-analyses of demographic parameters indicate that Northern Spotted Owl populations are declining throughout their range (Anderson and Burnham 1992, Burnham et al. this volume). Recent research has attempted to determine whether management activities have affected the viability of Spotted Owl populations, and results have led to development of conservation plans for the species (Dawson et al. 1987, Thomas et al. 1990, Murphy and Noon 1992, USDI 1992, Thomas et al. 1993b).In the Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (USDI 1992b) threats to the species were identified as small population sizes, declining populations, limited amounts of habitat, continued loss and fragmentation of habitat, geographically isolated populations, and predation and competition from other avian species. Weather and fire are natural processes that also may affect reproductive success of Spotted Owls. Weather may be a factor in the high annual variability in fecundity of Spotted Owls, as has been suggested for other predatory bird species (Newton, 1979, 1986). However, these factors have not been addressed in previous studies of Spotted Owls.Our objectives were to estimate survival, fecundity, and annual rates of population change (l) for resident, territorial female Spotted Owls at two study areas in the coastal mountains of southwestern Oregon. We tested if the amount of rainfall was correlated with reproduction of Spotted Owls. While surveying for Spotted Owls, we documented the increased presence of Barred Owls (Strix varia), a potential competitor of Spotted Owls.

  18. Late Frasnian sedimentation cycles in the Appalachian basin—possible evidence for high frequency eustatic sea-level changes

    Filer, Jonathan K.


    During the late Frasnian, 11 fourth-order progradational/retrogradational marine sedimentation cycles were deposited in the Appalachian foreland basin. Mapping based primarily on subsurface data demonstrates the continuity of these cycles over a distance of 700 km. Cyclicity in distal facies occurs as alternations of organic-rich and organic-poor shales, two of the organic shales can be correlated with the transgressive "Kellwasser Beds" of Europe. In more proximal facies, recurring lobes of siltstone and sandstone were deposited. Based on lithologic indices, the temporal pattern shows significant variation in the strength of relative facies change during deposition. In particular, two times of particularly pronounced progradation correspond to previously recognized eustatic sea-level falls. The correlation of portions of Appalachian basin depositional cyclicity with global sea-level events suggests that the entire sequence of 11 cycles, with estimated average duration of around 100-150 ka, were the result of high-frequency eustatic sea-level changes. This in turn would be consistent with a brief period of late Frasnian glaciation, as others have previously suggested.

  19. Engaging Rural Appalachian High School Girls in College Science Laboratories to Foster STEM-Related Career Interest

    Karen Louise Kelly


    Full Text Available Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong high school junior girls and their teachers from the Carter County School System in rural east Tennessee were invited for a laboratory day at Milligan College, a small liberal arts college in the heart of the county. Science faculty, female science majors, and admissions staff volunteered in service to the project. The event included three laboratory sessions, lunch in the college cafeteria, and campus tours. This successful example, as evidenced by positive evaluations by the invited girls and their teachers, of educational outreach by a local, small liberal arts college to a rural county school system provides a model for establishing a relationship between higher education institutions and these underprivileged schools, with the intention of drawing more of these poor, rural Appalachian students, particularly girls, into a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM career path.

  20. First-Year Vitality of Reforestation Plantings in Response to Herbivore Exclusion on Reclaimed Appalachian Surface-Mined Land

    Zachary J. Hackworth


    Full Text Available Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance and failure of reforestation efforts, yet empirical evaluation of herbivory impacts on planted seedling vitality in this region remains relatively uninitiated. First growing-season survival, height growth, and mammal herbivory damage of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L., shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill., and white oak (Quercus alba L. are presented in response to varying intensities of herbivore exclusion. Seedling survival was generally high, and height growth was positive for all species. The highest herbivory incidence of all tree species was observed in treatments offering no herbivore exclusion. While seedling protectors lowered herbivory incidence compared with no exclusion, full exclusion treatments resulted in the greatest reduction of herbivore damage. Although herbivory from rabbits, small mammals, and domestic animals was observed, cervids (deer and elk were responsible for 95.8% of all damaged seedlings. This study indicates that cervids forage heavily on planted seedlings during the first growing-season, but exclusion is effective at reducing herbivory.

  1. Water-level trends and potentiometric surfaces in the Nacatoch Aquifer in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and in the Tokio Aquifer in southwestern Arkansas, 2014–15

    Rodgers, Kirk D.


    The Nacatoch Sand in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and the Tokio Formation in southwestern Arkansas are sources of groundwater for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and public use. Water-level altitudes measured in 51 wells completed in the Nacatoch Sand and 42 wells completed in the Tokio Formation during 2014 and 2015 were used to create potentiometric-surface maps of the two areas. Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation are hereafter referred to as the Nacatoch aquifer and the Tokio aquifer, respectively.Potentiometric surfaces show that groundwater in the Nacatoch aquifer flows southeast toward the Mississippi River in northeastern Arkansas. Groundwater flow direction is towards the south and southeast in Hempstead, Little River, and Nevada Counties in southwestern Arkansas. An apparent cone of depression exists in southern Clark County and likely alters groundwater flow from a regional direction toward the depression.In southwestern Arkansas, potentiometric surfaces indicate that groundwater flow in the Tokio aquifer is towards the city of Hope. Northwest of Hope, an apparent cone of depression exists. In southwestern Pike, northwestern Nevada, and northeastern Hempstead Counties, an area of artesian flow (water levels are at or above land surface) exists.Water-level changes in wells were identified using two methods: (1) linear regression analysis of hydrographs from select wells with a minimum of 20 years of water-level data, and (2) a direct comparison between water-level measurements from 2008 and 2014–15 at each well. Of the six hydrographs analyzed in the Nacatoch aquifer, four indicated a decline in water levels. Compared to 2008 measurements, the largest rise in water levels was 35.14 feet (ft) in a well in Clark County, whereas the largest decline was 14.76 ft in a well in Nevada County, both located in southwestern Arkansas.Of the four hydrographs analyzed in the Tokio aquifer, one indicated a decline in water levels, while

  2. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683,, and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  3. The Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station's Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project: building on ten years of success [Abstract

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Carleton B. Edminster


    The USDA Forest Service initiated the Southwestern Borderlands Ecosystem Management Project in 1994. The Project concentrates on the unique, relatively unfragmented landscape of exceptional biological diversity in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Its mission is to: "Contribute to the scientific basis for developing and implementing a comprehensive...

  4. Implementing northern goshawk habitat management in Southwestern forests: a template for restoring fire-adapted forest ecosystems.

    James A. Youtz; Russell T. Graham; Richard T. Reynolds; Jerry. Simon


    Developing and displaying forest structural targets are crucial for sustaining the habitats of the northern goshawk, a sensitive species in Southwestern forests. These structural targets were described in Management Recommendations for the Northern Goshawk in the Southwestern United States (MRNG) (Reynolds, et al., 1992). The MRNG were developed in a unique food-web...

  5. 36 CFR 261.73 - Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved] 261.73 Section 261.73 Parks, Forests... § 261.73 Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved] ...

  6. Point Locations of 849 Continuous Record Streamflow Gages Used to Estmate Annual and Average Values of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...


    Miceli, M.; Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Acero, F. [ORAU/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dubner, G. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Decourchelle, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The supernova remnant SN 1006 is a powerful source of high-energy particles and evolves in a relatively tenuous and uniform environment despite interacting with an atomic cloud in its northwestern limb. The X-ray image of SN 1006 reveals an indentation in the southwestern part of the shock front and the H I maps show an isolated (southwestern) cloud, having the same velocity as the northwestern cloud, whose morphology fits perfectly in the indentation. We performed spatially resolved spectral analysis of a set of small regions in the southwestern nonthermal limb and studied the deep X-ray spectra obtained within the XMM-Newton SN 1006 Large Program. We also analyzed archive H I data, obtained by combining single-dish and interferometric observations. We found that the best-fit value of N {sub H} derived from the X-ray spectra significantly increases in regions corresponding to the southwestern cloud, while the cutoff energy of the synchrotron emission decreases. The N {sub H} variation corresponds perfectly with the H I column density of the southwestern cloud, as measured from the radio data. The decrease in the cutoff energy at the indentation clearly reveals that the back side of the cloud is actually interacting with the remnant. The southwestern limb therefore presents a unique combination of efficient particle acceleration and high ambient density, thus being the most promising region for γ-ray hadronic emission in SN 1006. We estimate that such emission will be detectable with the Fermi telescope within a few years.


    Miceli, M.; Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F.; Acero, F.; Dubner, G.; Decourchelle, A.


    The supernova remnant SN 1006 is a powerful source of high-energy particles and evolves in a relatively tenuous and uniform environment despite interacting with an atomic cloud in its northwestern limb. The X-ray image of SN 1006 reveals an indentation in the southwestern part of the shock front and the H I maps show an isolated (southwestern) cloud, having the same velocity as the northwestern cloud, whose morphology fits perfectly in the indentation. We performed spatially resolved spectral analysis of a set of small regions in the southwestern nonthermal limb and studied the deep X-ray spectra obtained within the XMM-Newton SN 1006 Large Program. We also analyzed archive H I data, obtained by combining single-dish and interferometric observations. We found that the best-fit value of N H derived from the X-ray spectra significantly increases in regions corresponding to the southwestern cloud, while the cutoff energy of the synchrotron emission decreases. The N H variation corresponds perfectly with the H I column density of the southwestern cloud, as measured from the radio data. The decrease in the cutoff energy at the indentation clearly reveals that the back side of the cloud is actually interacting with the remnant. The southwestern limb therefore presents a unique combination of efficient particle acceleration and high ambient density, thus being the most promising region for γ-ray hadronic emission in SN 1006. We estimate that such emission will be detectable with the Fermi telescope within a few years

  9. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.


    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  10. Contrasting evidence of Holocene ice margin retreat, south-western Greenland

    Levy, L. B.; Larsen, N. K.; Davidson, T. A.


    Constraining the Greenland Ice Sheet's (GrIS) response to Holocene climate change provides calibrations for ice sheet models that hindcast past ice margin fluctuations. Ice sheet models predict enhanced ice retreat in south-western Greenland during the middle Holocene; however, few geological...... observations corroborating the extensive retreat are available. We present new data from lake sediment cores from the Isua region, south-western Greenland, which provide constraints on Holocene fluctuations of the GrIS margins. Our data indicate that the main GrIS margin was 30 km west of its present...

  11. Reconnaissance study of the Taylor Mountains pluton, southwestern Alaska

    Hudson, Travis L.; Miller, Marti L.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Layer, Paul W.


    The Taylor Mountains pluton is a Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (median age 65 + or ? 2 Ma) epizonal, composite biotite granite stock located about 235 km (145 mi) northeast of Dillingham in southwestern Alaska. This 30 km2 (12 mi2) pluton has sharp and discordant contacts with hornfels that developed in Upper Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks of the Kuskokwim Group. The three intrusive phases in the Taylor Mountains pluton, in order of emplacement, are (1) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar phenocrysts in a coarse-grained groundmass, (2) porphyritic granite containing large K-feldspar and smaller, but still coarse, plagioclase, quartz, and biotite phenocrysts in a fine-grained groundmass, and (3) fine-grained, leucocratic, equigranular granite. The porphyritic granites have different emplacement histories, but similar compositions; averages are 69.43 percent SiO2, 1.62 percent CaO, 5.23 percent FeO+MgO, 3.11 percent Na2O, and 4.50 percent K2O. The fine-grained, equigranular granite is distinctly felsic compared to porphyritic granite; it averages 75.3 percent SiO2, 0.49 percent CaO, 1.52 percent FeO+MgO, 3.31 percent Na2O, and 4.87 percent K2O. Many trace elements including Ni, Cr, Sc, V, Ba, Sr, Zr, Y, Nb, La, Ce, Th, and Nd are strongly depleted in fine-grained equigranular granite. Trace elements are not highly enriched in any of the granites. Known hydrothermal alteration is limited to one tourmaline-quartz replacement zone in porphyritic granite. Mineral deposits in the Taylor Mountains area are primarily placer gold (plus wolframite, cassiterite, and cinnabar); sources for these likely include scattered veins in hornfels peripheral to the Taylor Mountain pluton. The granite magmas that formed the Taylor Mountains pluton are thought to represent melted continental crust that possibly formed in response to high heat flow in the waning stage of Late Cretaceous subduction beneath interior Alaska.

  12. Stratigraphy and tephra of the Kibish Formation, southwestern Ethiopia.

    Brown, Francis H; Fuller, Chad R


    The Kibish Formation in southwestern Ethiopia, with an aggregate thickness of approximately 105 m, consists of lacustrine, marginal lacustrine, and deltaic deposits. It is divided into four members numbered I to IV on the basis of erosion surfaces (disconformities) between the strata of each member. It overlies the Mursi and Nkalabong formations, the latter of which is here shown to correlate with the Shungura Formation. Tephra layers in each member allow for secure correlation between geographically separated sections on the basis of the composition of their volcanic glass. Members I, III, and IV of the Kibish Formation appear to have been deposited at the same times as sapropels S7 (197 ka), S4 (104 ka), and S1 (8 ka) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, respectively. We correlate the KHS Tuff of the Kibish Formation with a >154-kyr-old unnamed tuff in the Konso Formation. Tephra in Member IV may derive from Mount Wenchi, a volcano situated on the divide between the Omo and Blue Nile drainage basins. Thin-bedded sedimentary layers probably represent annual deposition reflecting rapid sedimentation (approximately 30 m/kyr) of parts of the formation. This conclusion is supported by variation in paleomagnetic inclination through a sequence of these layers at KHS. Two fossils of early Homo sapiens (Omo I and Omo II) derive from Member I. Their stratigraphic placement is confirmed by analysis of the KHS Tuff in the lower part of Member II at both fossil sites. The KHS Tuff lies above a disconformity, which itself lies above the fossils at both sites. (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates provide an estimated age of approximately 195 kyr for these fossils. Omo III, a third fossil H. sapiens, probably also derives from Member I of the Kibish Formation and is of similar age. Hominin fossils from AHS, a new site, also derive from Member I. Hominin fossils from CHS can only be placed between 104 ka and 10 ka, the H. sapiens specimen from JHS is most likely 9-13 kyr in age, and a partial

  13. Histological Pattern of Cervical Malignancies in Southwestern Nigeria

    Background: Malignant diseases of the uterine cervix are typically common among women in the developing countries of the world where they cause a lot of reproductive ill-health and mortality at the prime of age. Objectives:The aim of this study is to present the histological pattern of cervical malignancies as they present at ...


    Gary D. Kronrad


    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  15. Cambrian-lower Middle Ordovician passive carbonate margin, southern Appalachians: Chapter 14

    Read, J. Fred; Repetski, John E.


    The southern Appalachian part of the Cambrian–Ordovician passive margin succession of the great American carbonate bank extends from the Lower Cambrian to the lower Middle Ordovician, is as much as 3.5 km (2.2 mi) thick, and has long-term subsidence rates exceeding 5 cm (2 in.)/k.y. Subsiding depocenters separated by arches controlled sediment thickness. The succession consists of five supersequences, each of which contains several third-order sequences, and numerous meter-scale parasequences. Siliciclastic-prone supersequence 1 (Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group fluvial rift clastics grading up into shelf siliciclastics) underlies the passive margin carbonates. Supersequence 2 consists of the Lower Cambrian Shady Dolomite–Rome-Waynesboro Formations. This is a shallowing-upward ramp succession of thinly bedded to nodular lime mudstones up into carbonate mud-mound facies, overlain by lowstand quartzose carbonates, and then a rimmed shelf succession capped by highly cyclic regressive carbonates and red beds (Rome-Waynesboro Formations). Foreslope facies include megabreccias, grainstone, and thin-bedded carbonate turbidites and deep-water rhythmites. Supersequence 3 rests on a major unconformity and consists of a Middle Cambrian differentiated rimmed shelf carbonate with highly cyclic facies (Elbrook Formation) extending in from the rim and passing via an oolitic ramp into a large structurally controlled intrashelf basin (Conasauga Shale). Filling of the intrashelf basin caused widespread deposition of thin quartz sandstones at the base of supersequence 4, overlain by widespread cyclic carbonates (Upper Cambrian lower Knox Group Copper Ridge Dolomite in the south; Conococheague Formation in the north). Supersequence 5 (Lower Ordovician upper Knox in the south; Lower to Middle Ordovician Beekmantown Group in the north) has a basal quartz sandstone-prone unit, overlain by cyclic ramp carbonates, that grade downdip into thrombolite grainstone and then storm

  16. Determining the source and genetic fingerprint of natural gases using noble gas geochemistry: a northern Appalachian Basin case study

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.


    Silurian and Devonian natural gas reservoirs present within New York state represent an example of unconventional gas accumulations within the northern Appalachian Basin. These unconventional energy resources, previously thought to be noneconomically viable, have come into play following advances in drilling (i.e., horizontal drilling) and extraction (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) capabilities. Therefore, efforts to understand these and other domestic and global natural gas reserves have recently increased. The suspicion of fugitive mass migration issues within current Appalachian production fields has catalyzed the need to develop a greater understanding of the genetic grouping (source) and migrational history of natural gases in this area. We introduce new noble gas data in the context of published hydrocarbon carbon (C1,C2+) (13C) data to explore the genesis of thermogenic gases in the Appalachian Basin. This study includes natural gases from two distinct genetic groups: group 1, Upper Devonian (Marcellus shale and Canadaway Group) gases generated in situ, characterized by early mature (13C[C1  C2][13C113C2]: –9), isotopically light methane, with low (4He) (average, 1  103 cc/cc) elevated 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar (where the asterisk denotes excess radiogenic or nucleogenic production beyond the atmospheric ratio), and a variable, atmospherically (air-saturated–water) derived noble gas component; and group 2, a migratory natural gas that emanated from Lower Ordovician source rocks (i.e., most likely, Middle Ordovician Trenton or Black River group) that is currently hosted primarily in Lower Silurian sands (i.e., Medina or Clinton group) characterized by isotopically heavy, mature methane (13C[C1 – C2] [13C113C2]: 3), with high (4He) (average, 1.85  103 cc/cc) 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar near crustal production levels and elevated crustal noble gas content (enriched 4He,21Ne, 40Ar). Because the release of each crustal noble gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar

  17. Water resources and shale gas/oil production in the Appalachian Basin: critical issues and evolving developments

    Kappel, William M.; Williams, John H.; Szabo, Zoltan


    Unconventional natural gas and oil resources in the United States are important components of a national energy program. While the Nation seeks greater energy independence and greener sources of energy, Federal agencies with environmental responsibilities, state and local regulators and water-resource agencies, and citizens throughout areas of unconventional shale gas development have concerns about the environmental effects of high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF), including those in the Appalachian Basin in the northeastern United States (fig. 1). Environmental concerns posing critical challenges include the availability and use of surface water and groundwater for hydraulic fracturing; the migration of stray gas and potential effects on overlying aquifers; the potential for flowback, formation fluids, and other wastes to contaminate surface water and groundwater; and the effects from drill pads, roads, and pipeline infrastructure on land disturbance in small watersheds and headwater streams (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2012). Federal, state, regional and local agencies, along with the gas industry, are striving to use the best science and technology to develop these unconventional resources in an environmentally safe manner. Some of these concerns were addressed in U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet 2009–3032 (Soeder and Kappel, 2009) about potential critical effects on water resources associated with the development of gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale of the Hamilton Group (Ver Straeten and others, 1994). Since that time, (1) the extraction process has evolved, (2) environmental awareness related to high-volume hydraulic fracturing process has increased, (3) state regulations concerning gas well drilling have been modified, and (4) the practices used by industry to obtain, transport, recover, treat, recycle, and ultimately dispose of the spent fluids and solid waste materials have evolved. This report updates and expands on Fact Sheet 2009


    Oksana Karbashevska


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research, presented at the Conference sectional meeting, is to trace peculiarities of transformation of British folk medieval ballads, which were brought to the Southern Appalachians in the east of the USA by British immigrants at the end of the XVIIIth – beginning of the XIXth century and retained by their descendants, through analyzing certain texts on the levels of motifs, dramatis personae, composition, style and artistic means, as well as to outline relevant Ukrainian parallels. The analysis of such ballads, plot types and epic songs was carried out: 1 British № 10: “The Twa Sisters” (21 variants; American “The Two Sisters”(5 variants and Ukrainian plot type I – C-5: “the elder sister drowns the younger one because of envy and jealousy” (8 variants; 2 British № 26: The Three Ravens” (2, “The Twa Corbies” (2; American “The Three Ravens” (1, “The Two Crows”(1 and Ukrainian epic songs with the motif of lonely death of a Cossack warrior on the steppe (4. In our study British traditional ballads are classified according to the grouping worked out by the American scholar Francis Child (305 numbers, Ukrainian folk ballads – the plot-thematic catalogue developed by the Ukrainian folklorist Оleksiy Dey (here 288 plots are divided into 3 spheres, cycles and plot types. The investigation and comparison of the above indicated texts witness such main tendencies: 1 the American counterparts, collected in the Appalachian Mountains, preserve the historic-national memory and cultural heritage of the British immigrant bearers on the level of leading motifs, dramatis personae, composition peculiarities, traditional medieval images, epithets, similes, commonplaces; 2 some motifs, characters, images, artistic means, archaic and dialectal English of the Child ballads are reduced or substituted in the Appalachian texts; 3 realism of American ballad transformations, which overshadows fantasy and

  19. Temporal evolution of carbon budgets of the Appalachian forests in the U.S. from 1972 to 2000

    Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Loveland, Thomas R.


    Estimating dynamic terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) sources and sinks over large areas is difficult. The scaling of C sources and sinks from the field level to the regional level has been challenging due to the variations of climate, soil, vegetation, and disturbances. As part of an effort to estimate the spatial, temporal, and sectional dimensions of the United States C sources and sinks (the U.S. Carbon Trends Project), this study estimated the forest ecosystem C sequestration of the Appalachian region (186,000 km2) for the period of 1972–2000 using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) that has a strong capability of assimilating land use and land cover change (LUCC) data. On 82 sampling blocks in the Appalachian region, GEMS used sequential 60 m resolution land cover change maps to capture forest stand-replacing events and used forest inventory data to estimate non-stand-replacing changes. GEMS also used Monte Carlo approaches to deal with spatial scaling issues such as initialization of forest age and soil properties. Ensemble simulations were performed to incorporate the uncertainties of input data. Simulated results show that from 1972 to 2000 the net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem productivity (NEP), and net biome productivity (NBP) averaged 6.2 Mg C ha−1 y−1 (±1.1), 2.2 Mg C ha−1 y−1 (±0.6), and 1.8 Mg C ha−1 y−1(±0.6), respectively. The inter-annual variability was driven mostly by climate. Detailed C budgets for the year 2000 were also calculated. Within a total 148,000 km2 forested area, average forest ecosystem C density was estimated to be 186 Mg C ha−1 (±20), of which 98 Mg C ha−1 (±12) was in biomass and 88 Mg C ha−1 (±13) was in litter and soil. The total simulated C stock of the Appalachian forests was estimated to be 2751 Tg C (±296), including 1454 Tg C (±178) in living biomass and 1297 Tg C (±192) in litter and soil. The total net C sequestration (i

  20. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the Appalachian Basin Province is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the Utica Shale are usually greater than 1 weight percent. TOC values ranging from 2 to 3 weight percent outline a broad, northeast-trending area that extends across western and southern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and southeastern New York. The Utica Shale is characterized by type II kerogen, which is a variety of kerogen that is typically prone to oil generation. Conondont color-alteration index (CAI) isograds, which are based on samples from the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone (or Group), indicate that a pod of mature Utica Shale source rocks occupies most of the TPS.

  1. Stream channel designs for riparian and wet meadow rangelands in the southwestern United States

    Roy Jemison; Daniel G. Neary


    Inappropriate land uses have degraded wetland and riparian ecosystems throughout the Southwestern United States. In 1996, the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico implemented a channel relocation project, as part of a road improvement project, to determine the feasibility of restoring wet meadow and riparian ecosystems degraded by inappropriately located roads and...

  2. Alternative agricultures: Emphasis in contributions of the people of field of southwestern sector of Colombia

    Mejia Gutierrez, M.


    It offers a definition of alternative agricultures. Some antecedents are mentioned about the evolution of the Colombian movements from the chemical agriculture toward alternative forms. Some Colombian experiences are enumerated, making emphasis in people of field of the southwestern sector of the country contributions. Some conclusions settle down

  3. An Investigation of Southwestern Area Principals and the Enactment of Crisis Plans in High Schools

    Parker, Kerry L.


    The purpose of this study was to identify what southwestern area high school principals reported as the enactment of school crisis plans as described in the Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA (CMHS, 2008), "Resource Aid: Responding to a Crisis at School." The conceptual framework guiding the study was an adaptation of the Crisis…

  4. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China’s Southwestern Mountainous Regions


    Taking agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China’s southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years.Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as follows:first,the structure innovation of agricultural organization,a gradual process,proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture,and in this process,farmers always play a fundamental role;second,the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor;third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization includes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of different forms of agricultural organization,and emergence of other forms of agricultural organization.

  5. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Undergraduate Nursing Students and Nursing Faculty in Southwestern Nigeria

    Ojewole, Foluso O.


    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,…

  6. Fire effects on Gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine-oak forests

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé


    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is ecologically and aesthetically valuable in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Fire effects on Gambel oak are important because fire may be used in pine-oak forests to manage oak directly or to accomplish other management objectives. We used published literature to: (1) ascertain...

  7. Changes in Gambel oak densities in southwestern ponderosa pine forests since Euro-American settlement

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé


    Densities of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees have increased in southwestern ponderosa pine forests during a period of fire exclusion since Euro-American settlement in the late 1800s. However, less well known are potential changes in Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) densities during this period in these forests....

  8. Ecology and management of oak woodlands and savannas in the southwestern Borderlands Region

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott


    Management of the Madrean oak woodlands and the less dense and ecologically different oak savannas must be based on sound ecological information. However, relatively little is known about the Madrean oak ecosystems in spite of the fact that they cover about 80,000 km2 in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), the dominant tree...

  9. Cicada emergence in southwestern riparian forest: Influences of wildfire and vegetation composition

    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey Kelly; Deborah M. Finch


    Annually emerging cicadas are a numerically and ecologically dominant species in Southwestern riparian forests. Humans have altered disturbance regimes that structure these forests such that floods are less common and wildfires occur more frequently than was historically the case. Impacts of these changes on primary consumers such as riparian cicadas are unknown....

  10. Microbial community diversity and physical-chemical features of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Alves Junior, Nelson; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; de Oliveira Santos, Eidy; Dutilh, Bas; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Rezende, Carlos; Iida, Tetsuya; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Pereira, Renato C; Valle, Rogério; Sawabe, Tomoo; Thompson, Cristiane; Thompson, Fabiano


    Microbial oceanography studies have demonstrated the central role of microbes in functioning and nutrient cycling of the global ocean. Most of these former studies including at Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) focused on surface seawater and benthic organisms (e.g., coral reefs and sponges). This

  11. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson


    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  12. Influences of prior wildfires on vegetation response to subsequent fire in a reburned Southwestern landscape

    Jonathan D. Coop; Sean A. Parks; Sarah R. McClernan; Lisa M. Holsinger


    Large and severe wildfires have raised concerns about the future of forested landscapes in the southwestern United States, especially under repeated burning. In 2011, under extreme weather and drought conditions, the Las Conchas fire burned over several previous burns as well as forests not recently exposed to fire. Our purpose was to examine the influences of...

  13. Description of a new moss frog from the south-western Cape (Anura ...

    A new species of moss frog, genus Arthroleptella, is described from the Kleinrivier mountains of the south-western Cape. It is morphologically indistinguishable from the other three species in the area. The four Cape species are allopatric, each has a unique male advertisement call, and preliminary molecular data shows ...


    We used direct observations to quantify prey types, prey delivery rate, and adult and nestling behavior at nests of Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in suburban southwestern Ohio. Twenty-one nests were observed for a total of 256 hr in 1997-2001. Small mammals made up the ...

  15. How do we know how much groundwater is stored in south-western Cape mountains?

    Midgley, JJ


    Full Text Available Isotopes of water (D, O-18) in rain and streams were used to obtain an estimate of the amount of ground water in the south-western Cape Mountains. It was assumed that the groundwater reservoir is well-mixed and that the water isotope signals...

  16. Abundance of birds in the oak savannas of the southwestern United States

    Wendy D. Jones; Carlton M. Jones; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried


    Oak ecosystems of the Southwestern United States are important habitats for a variety of wildlife species. Information is available on the abundance and habitat preferences of some species inhabiting the more densely structured oak woodlands, but little information is available on these topics for the comparatively open oak savannas. Studies are underway to alleviate...

  17. Evaluation of insecticides for protecting southwestern ponderosa pines from attack by engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Tom E. DeGomez; Christopher J. Hayes; John A. Anhold; Joel D. McMillin; Karen M. Clancy; Paul P. Bosu


    Insecticides that might protect pine trees from attack by engraver beetles (Ips spp.) have not been rigorously tested in the southwestern United States. We conducted two field experiments to evaluate the efficacy of several currently and potentially labeled preventative insecticides for protecting high-value ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa...

  18. HIV/AIDS: Knowledge and attitudes of dentists in South-Western ...

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of dentists in South-Western Nigeria in relation to HIV/AIDS. Materials and methods: A questionnaire survey of 164 dentists in Lagos, Ibadan and Benin The data was analyzed using Epi-info statistical software. Results: The modes of ...

  19. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. ... Strandveld; but 38 % of all nests recorded in the South-western Cape are in Acacia. S. senegalensis is .... of mixed exotic trees, often including some Acacia but also Eucalyptus, Pinus, Quercus,. Populus and other ...

  20. Haplosclerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the coast of Maranhao State, Brazil, Southwestern Atlantic.

    Campos, M.; Mothes, B.; Eckert, R.; van Soest, R.W.M.


    This work deals with haplosclerid sponges off the coast of Maranhão State, northeastern coast of Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). A new species is described, Haliclona (Halichoclona) lernerae. Four species are recorded for the first time for the Brazilian coast: Amphimedon caribica

  1. Spatial probability models of fire in the desert grasslands of the southwestern USA

    Fire is an important driver of ecological processes in semiarid environments; however, the role of fire in desert grasslands of the Southwestern US is controversial and the regional fire distribution is largely unknown. We characterized the spatial distribution of fire in the desert grassland region...

  2. Length-weight relationships for fishes off the southwestern coast of ...

    Length-weight relationships are presented for 24 fish species representing 12 families captured monthly from February 2009 to March 2010, off the southwestern coast of Taiwan. 12 of these species are documented in fishbase, but no length-weight relationships were available. One record of maximum length was recorded.

  3. Effect of cement production on vegetation in a part of southwestern ...

    The impact of cement dust emissions from the factory of West African Portland Cement at Ewekoro in Southwestern Nigeria on the surrounding vegetation was investigated. Sample plots of 20 m x 20 m were established at 1 km intervals from the factory site up to a distance of 10 km intervals from the factory site up to a ...

  4. Influence of fire on dead woody material in forests of California and southwestern Oregon

    Carl N. Skinner


    The frequent occurrence of fire in most forested areas of California and southwestern Oregon before this century has been well established. Likewise, the importance of dead woody material to various wildlife species as snags and downed logs has been well documented. It is unlikely that much large woody material survived fire long enough to decompose fully in fire...

  5. Rapid acidification of mode and intermediate waters in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Salt, L.A.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Claus, M.E.; Jones, E.M.; de Baar, H.J.W.


    Observations along the southwestern Atlantic WOCE A17 line made during the Dutch GEOTRACESNL programme (2010-2011) were compared with historical data from 1994 to quantify the changes in the anthropogenic component of the total pool of dissolved inorganic carbon (Delta C-ant). Application of the

  6. Quantifying the Eocene to Pleistocene topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps, France and Italy

    Fauquette, Séverine; Bernet, Matthias; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Grosjean, Anne-Sabine; Guillot, Stéphane; van der Beek, Peter; Jourdan, Sébastien; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Bertini, Adele; Pittet, Bernard; Tricart, Pierre; Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Zheng, Zhuo; Roche, Emile; Pavia, Giulio; Gardien, Véronique


    We evaluate the topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps using Eocene to Pleistocene pollen data combined with existing sedimentological, petrographic and detrital geo- and thermochronological data. We report 32 new pollen analyses from 10 sites completed by an existing dataset of 83 samples from 14 localities situated across the southwestern Alps, including both the pro- and the retro-foreland basins. The presence of microthermic tree pollen (mainly Abies, Picea) indicates that this part of the mountain belt attained elevations over 1900 m as early as the Oligocene. Inferred rapid surface uplift during the mid-Oligocene coincided with a previously documented brief phase of rapid erosional exhumation, when maximum erosion rates may have reached values of up to 1.5-2 km/Myr. Slower long-term average exhumation rates of ∼0.3 km/Myr since the Late Oligocene helped maintaining the high Alpine topography of the southwestern Alps until today. The relative abundances of meso-microthermic tree pollen (Cathaya, Cedrus and Tsuga) and microthermic tree pollen (Abies, Picea) in the pro- and retro-foreland basin deposits, indicate that the present-day asymmetric topography, with a relatively gentle western flank and steeper eastern flank, was established early in the southwestern Alps, at least since the Early Miocene, and possibly since the Oligocene or Late Eocene. Therefore, the high topography and asymmetric morphology of this part of the Alps has been maintained throughout the past ∼30 Ma.

  7. Geography of spring landbird migration through riparian habitats in southwestern North America

    Susan K. Skagen; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Charles van Riper III; Richard L. Hutto; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper; Cynthia P. Melcher


    Migration stopover resources, particularly riparian habitats, are critically important to landbirds migrating across the arid southwestern region of North America. To explore the effects of species biogeography and habitat affinity on spring migration patterns, we synthesized existing bird abundance and capture data collected in riparian habitats of the borderlands...

  8. Vulnerability of field crops to midcentury temperature changes and yield effects in the Southwestern USA

    Increased temperatures in the Southwestern United States will impact future crop production via multiple pathways. We used four methods to provide an illustrative analysis of midcentury temperature impacts to eight field crops. By midcentury, cropland area thermally suitable for maize cultivation is...

  9. Water source protection funds as a tool to address climate adaptation and resiliency in southwestern forests

    Laura Falk McCarthy


    Wildfire intensity in the Southwestern United States has increased over the last decade corresponding with dense fuels and higher temperatures. For example, in New Mexico on the 2011 Las Conchas fire, intense fire and wind-driven fire behavior resulted in large areas of moderate and high severity burn (42 percent of burned area) with roughly 65,000 acres (26,300 ha)...

  10. Influences of previous wildfires on change, resistance, and resilience to reburning in a montane southwestern landscape

    Jonathan D. Coop; Lisa Holsinger; Sarah McClernan; Sean A. Parks


    Land use legacies and climate have altered fire regimes across montane forests of much of the southwestern US (Allen and others 2002), and several recent wildfires have been extremely large and severe (Dennison and others 2014). Large openings resulting from high-severity fire in former ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed conifer forests may be persistent given...

  11. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch


    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  12. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States. Vol. 1

    Deborah M. Finch


    This report is volume 1 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broadscale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  13. Summary (Songbird ecology in southwestern ponderosa pine forests: A literature review)

    William M. Block; Deborah M. Finch; Joseph L. Ganey; William H. Moir


    Most ornithological studies in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have yielded results that are applicable only to the specific location and particular conditions of the study areas (for example, Green 1979 and Hurlbert 1984). In addition, varying interpretation of similar study results by investigators has limited our ability to extend or synthesize research results...

  14. Avian nest box selection and nest success in burned and unburned southwestern riparian forests

    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Deborah M. Finch


    Riparian forest communities in the southwestern United States were historically structured by a disturbance regime of annual flooding. In recent decades, however, frequency of flooding has decreased and frequency of wildfires has increased. Riparian forests provide important breeding habitat for a large variety of bird species, and the effects of this altered...

  15. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States: Wildlife and fish. Vol. 2

    Deborah M. Finch


    This report is volume 2 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broad-scale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  16. Traditional ranching heritage and cultural continuity in the southwestern United States

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney


    This study, conducted among ranchers on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests in the Southwestern United States, examines the role of ranching in maintaining traditional heritage and cultural continuity. The mainly Hispanic ranching families of northern New Mexico first came into the region in 1598 with Spanish colonization. Many of the villages received community...

  17. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn


    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among elderly and middle-aged rural community-dwellers in South-Western Nigeria

    Olowe OA


    Full Text Available OA Olowe,1 OB Makanjuola,1 KO Olabiyi,1 PO Akinwusi,2 CO Alebiosu,2 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,4 WO Adebimpe,4 TA Adewole5 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Community Medicine, 5Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria Abstract: Asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly individuals has been well described in institutionalized settings, but to a lesser extent in the community. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathogens responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria in elderly and middle-aged individuals in Alajue-Ede, South-Western Nigeria, and to identify any associated factors. Mid-stream urine samples were collected from apparently healthy elderly and middle-aged volunteers who were participating in community health screening. Samples were processed and bacterial isolates were identified following standard procedures. In total, 128 volunteers (48 men, 76 women participated in the study. Twenty-eight (22.6% urinary pathogens were isolated, comprising Klebsiella species in five (17.9%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in one (3.6%, Escherichia coli in 19 (67.9%, and Proteus species in three (10.7% cases. Women were identified as being at higher risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and the prevalence also increased with increasing age in men. The elderly in this community have a high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and screening for comorbid medical conditions may be of benefit. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary pathogens, elderly, urinary tract infection

  19. A coordinated school health approach to obesity prevention among Appalachian youth: the Winning with Wellness Pilot Project.

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick


    Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.

  20. Calcic soils and calcretes in the southwestern United States

    Bachman, George Odell; Machette, Michael N.


    Secondary calcium carbonate of diverse origins, 'caliche' of many authors, is widespread in the southwestern United States. 'Caliche' includes various carbonates such as calcic soils and products of groundwater cementation. The term 'caliche' is generally avoided in this report in favor of such terms as calcrete, calcic soils, and pervasively cemented deposits. Criteria for the recognition of various types of calcrete of diverse origins include field relations and laboratory data. Calcic soils provide a comprehensive set of characteristics that aid in their recognition in the field. These characteristics include a distinctive morphology that is zoned horizontally and can frequently be traced over tens to hundreds of square kilometers. The major process in the formation of pedogenic calcrete and calic soils is the leaching of calcium carbonate from upper soil horizons by downward percolating soil solutions and reprecipitation of the carbonate in alluvial horizons near the base of the soil profile. The formation of pedogenic calcrete involves many factors including climate, source of carbonate, and tectonic stability of the geomorphic surface on which the calcrete is deposited. Most of the carbonate in pedogenic calcrete is probably derived from windblown sand, dust, and rain. Calcic soils and pedogenic calcretes follow a six-stage sequence morphologic development and is based on a classification devised by Gile, Peterson and Grossman in 1966. The .six morphologic stages of carbonate deposition in soils are related to the relative age of the soil and are as follows: I. The first or youngest stage includes filamentous or faint coatings of carbonate on detrital grains. II. The second stage includes pebble coatings which are continuous; firm carbonate nodules are few to common. III. The third stage includes coalesced nodules which occur in a friable or disseminated carbonate matrix. IV. The fourth stage includes platy, firmly cemented matrix which engulfs nodules

  1. Preliminary soil-slip susceptibility maps, southwestern California

    Morton, Douglas M.; Alvarez, Rachel M.; Campbell, Russell H.; Digital preparation by Bovard, Kelly R.; Brown, D.T.; Corriea, K.M.; Lesser, J.N.


    This group of maps shows relative susceptibility of hill slopes to the initiation sites of rainfall-triggered soil slip-debris flows in southwestern California. As such, the maps offer a partial answer to one part of the three parts necessary to predict the soil-slip/debris-flow process. A complete prediction of the process would include assessments of “where”, “when”, and “how big”. These maps empirically show part of the “where” of prediction (i.e., relative susceptibility to sites of initiation of the soil slips) but do not attempt to show the extent of run out of the resultant debris flows. Some information pertinent to “when” the process might begin is developed. “When” is determined mostly by dynamic factors such as rainfall rate and duration, for which local variations are not amenable to long-term prediction. “When” information is not provided on the maps but is described later in this narrative. The prediction of “how big” is addressed indirectly by restricting the maps to a single type of landslide process—soil slip-debris flows. The susceptibility maps were created through an iterative process from two kinds of information. First, locations of sites of past soil slips were obtained from inventory maps of past events. Aerial photographs, taken during six rainy seasons that produced abundant soil slips, were used as the basis for soil slip-debris flow inventory. Second, digital elevation models (DEM) of the areas that were inventoried were used to analyze the spatial characteristics of soil slip locations. These data were supplemented by observations made on the ground. Certain physical attributes of the locations of the soil-slip debris flows were found to be important and others were not. The most important attribute was the mapped bedrock formation at the site of initiation of the soil slip. However, because the soil slips occur in surficial materials overlying the bedrocks units, the bedrock formation can only serve as

  2. Bird diversity and conservation of Alto Balsas (Southwestern Puebla, Mexico

    Jorge E Ramírez-Albores


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the composition of the bird community in Alto Balsas (southwestern Puebla, Central Mexico is needed for management programs aiming at protection and conservation of bird species and their habitats I studied sites with tropical deciduous forest. Data were obtained during 1666 hours of field work in 238 days from March 1998 to September 2000. Six permanent transect (3.5 km long and 100 m wide; 30 to 40 ha in each transect were used to determine species richness in the study sites. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for each site and Sorensen’s index was used to assess similarity between sites. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between sites in species richness and diversity values. A total of 128 species were recorded, Tepexco (n = 75, H´= 3.76 and Puente Márquez (n = 61, H´= 3.62 were the sites that showed the greatest specific richness and diversity. However, species richness and diversity seasonally patterns were similar among sites (ANOVA p > 0.05, with highest diversity during the rainy season. Most species were resident; 42 were migrants. The avifauna was represented by 30 species associated with tropical deciduous forest and 12 from open habitats or heavily altered habitats. Insectivores were the best represented trophic category, followed by carnivores and omnivores. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 287-300. Epub 2007 March. 31.Este estudio describe la diversidad avifaunística en sitios del Alto Balsas (suroeste de Puebla en el Centro de México y examina la variación en la diversidad de las especies de aves. El estudio fue llevado a cabo en sitios con presencia de bosque tropical caducifolio. Los datos fueron obtenidos durante 1666 horas de trabajo de campo en 238 días de Marzo 1998 a Septiembre 2000. Se realizaron seis transectos permanentes (de 3.5 km de longitud y 100 m de ancho; de 30 a 40 ha en cada transecto para determinar la riqueza de especies en los sitios de estudio. Se

  3. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) in black shale sequences: US Southern Midcontinent, Illinois Basin, and northern Appalachian Basin

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)


    The Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) boundary in the Woodford Shale of the US southern Midcontinent, Sweetland Creek Shale of the Illinois Basin, and the Hanover Shale of the northern Appalachian Basin is recognized to a discrete horizon. In each locality the boundary is marked by evidence of a disconformity: phosphate nodules, concentration of conodonts, or coated and corroded grains. The Woodford Shale consists of finely laminated pyritic organic-rich shale containing interbeds of greenish shale and chert. The F/F boundary horizon is marked by a concentration of conodonts and phosphatic nodules. The boundary lag horizon contains Pa. linguliformis, Pa. subperlobtata, Pa. delicatula delicatula, and Pa. triangularis. Underlying laminations contain Ancyrognathus ubiquitus and Pa. triangularis indicating that the disconformity is within the uppermost MN Zone 13 or Lower triangularis Zone. The upper portion of the Type Sweetland Creek Shale consists of dark organic-rich shales. The F/F boundary is located within an interval containing three green shale interbeds. Palmatolepis triangularis in the absence of Frasnian species first occurs in the middle green shale. In the thick Upper Devonian clastic sequence of the northern Appalachian Basin the F/F boundary is within an interval of interbedded pyritic green and organic-rich silty shales of the Hanover Shale. At Irish Gulf strata containing Pa. triangularis overlie finely laminated dark shales containing Pa. bogartensis, Pa. triangularis, Pa. winchell, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus. The conodont fauna transition is below a conodont-rich laminae containing a Famennian fauna that marks the boundary horizon.

  4. Episodic reactivation of a Late Precambrian mylonite zone on the Gondwanan Margin of the Appalachians, southern Newfoundland

    O'Brien, B. H.; O'Brien, S. J.; Dunning, G. R.; Tucker, R. D.


    The Grand Bruit Fault Zone of southern Newfoundland is a fundamental structure within Late Precambrian basement on the Gondwanan margin of the Appalachian orogen. Within the fault zone, a sequence of structures documents changes in the sense of ductile displacement from (1) reverse dip slip, to (2) dextral strike slip, to (3) sinistral oblique slip, and, finally, to (4) dextral lateral offsets. Fault movements along this structure were punctuated by emplacement of a variety of plutons and minor intrusions which, when precisely dated, allow these movements to be bracketed at between 571 Ma and 564 Ma, 497 Ma and 427 Ma, 424 Ma and 420 Ma, and 421 Ma and 387 Ma, respectively. The tectonic evolution of the Gondwanan inlier of southern Newfoundland is mirrored, in large part, by the record of mylonite development within the Grand Bruit Fault Zone. These tectonic events are attributable to well-constrained, regional orogenic events of both the Pan-African and Appalachian cycles. Newly formed shear zones in the fault zone reactivate parts of much older faults of similar regional orientation and are, in some cases, kinematically indistinguishable from the ancestral structures. Integration of precise geochronological data with the sequence of overprinted fault structures demonstrates that, although the role of progressive deformation in shear zone development was important, the observed disposition of structures and rock units is primarily a function of polyorogenic accretion. As a multiple-reactivated structural lineament in a Gondwanan basement inlier, the fault zone exerted fundamental control over the tectonic development of the leading edge of the convergent southeast margin of the orogen.

  5. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States

    Williams, A.P.; Allen, Craig D.; Millar, C.I.; Swetnam, T.W.; Michaelsen, J.; Still, C.J.; Leavitt, Steven W.


    In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth. We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ≈2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantial mortality due to wildfires from 1984 to 2006, and ≈7.6% experienced mortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ≈18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.

  6. Women in medicine: the challenge of finding balance.

    Mobilos, Sophia; Chan, Melissa; Brown, Judith Belle


    To examine the experiences of women physicians with regard to the interplay between career and lifestyle choices and to discover how women's experiences have evolved during the past 3 decades. Qualitative study using a phenomenologic approach and in-depth interviews. Southwestern Ontario. A total of 12 women physicians. A purposeful sample of women physicians was selected using a maximum variation sampling strategy. Through semistructured interviews, participants' experiences, opinions, behaviour, and feelings were explored. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The analysis strategy was both iterative and interpretive. Researchers independently reviewed and coded each transcript to identify key emerging themes, and the research team met to discuss and compare individual interpretations. Interviews continued until saturation was achieved. Three main challenges emerged from the women physicians' comments: lifestyle and career choices, family planning and career trajectory, and seeking balance. Despite the increased number of women physicians in the work force, the experiences and challenges faced by these women have not evolved during the past 30 years. Women continue to experience the strain of their dual role as women and as physicians, discordance between career and lifestyle choices, and difficulties with timing pregnancies. Some changes in legislation have been made to benefit women physicians, but these changes have not yet influenced attitudes and behaviour in the workplace.

  7. Women's series: by women, for women?

    Kuitert, L.; Spiers, J.


    One of the striking phenomena in the 19th century publishing history is the abundant publication of publisher''s series. This contribution concerns series specifically meant for women. The focus is on Dutch literary series for women, mostly 19th century.


    Douglas G. Patchen; Chris Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; James Drahovzal; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; John Bocan; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Katharine Lee Avary


    The ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' has reached the mid-point in a two-year research effort to produce a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 exploration and production companies and 6 research team members, including four state geological surveys, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks and one administrative and technology transfer task are being conducted basin-wide by research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined at least once. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 10 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York and Pennsylvania. In addition, three surfaces in that area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. In the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia portion of the study area, a velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Fifteen formation tops have been identified on seismic in that area. Preliminary conclusions based on the available seismic data do not support the extension of the Rome Trough into New York state. Members of the stratigraphy task team measured, described and photographed numerous cores from throughout the basin, and tied these data back to their network of geophysical log cross sections. Geophysical logs were scanned in raster files for use in detailed well examination and construction of cross sections. Logs on these cross sections that are only in raster format are being converted to vector format for final cross section displays. The petrology team measured and sampled one classic outcrop in Pennsylvania and ten cores in four states. More than 600 thin sections were prepared from samples in those four states. A seven-step procedure is being used to

  9. Islands in the Sky: Ecophysiological Cloud-Vegetation Linkages in Southern Appalachian Mountain Cloud Forests

    Reinhardt, K.; Emanuel, R. E.; Johnson, D. M.


    Mountain cloud forest (MCF) ecosystems are characterized by a high frequency of cloud fog, with vegetation enshrouded in fog. The altitudinal boundaries of cloud-fog zones co-occur with conspicuous, sharp vegetation ecotones between MCF- and non-MCF-vegetation. This suggests linkages between cloud-fog and vegetation physiology and ecosystem functioning. However, very few studies have provided a mechanistic explanation for the sharp changes in vegetation communities, or how (if) cloud-fog and vegetation are linked. We investigated ecophysiological linkages between clouds and trees in Southern Appalachian spruce-fir MCF. These refugial forests occur in only six mountain-top, sky-island populations, and are immersed in clouds on up to 80% of all growing season days. Our fundamental research questions was: How are cloud-fog and cloud-forest trees linked? We measured microclimate and physiology of canopy tree species across a range of sky conditions (cloud immersed, partly cloudy, sunny). Measurements included: 1) sunlight intensity and spectral quality; 2) carbon gain and photosynthetic capacity at leaf (gas exchange) and ecosystem (eddy covariance) scales; and 3) relative limitations to carbon gain (biochemical, stomatal, hydraulic). RESULTS: 1) Midday sunlight intensity ranged from very dark (2500 μmol m-2 s-1), and was highly variable on minute-to-minute timescales whenever clouds were present in the sky. Clouds and cloud-fog increased the proportion of blue-light wavelengths 5-15% compared to sunny conditions, and altered blue:red and red:far red ratios, both of which have been shown to strongly affect stomatal functioning. 2) Cloud-fog resulted in ~50% decreased carbon gain at leaf and ecosystem scales, due to sunlight levels below photosynthetic light-saturation-points. However, greenhouse studies and light-response-curve analyses demonstrated that MCF tree species have low light-compensation points (can photosynthesize even at low light levels), and maximum

  10. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.


    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  11. Early Jurassic clay authigenesis in the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province; infiltration of surface-derived fluids during Pangean rifting

    Lynch, E. A.; van der Pluijm, B.; Vennemann, T. W.


    The eastern margin of North America has a protracted and intricate tectonic history. The terminal collision of Gondwana and Laurentia in the late Paleozoic formed the Appalachian mountain belt, a trans-continental orogen that persisted for almost 100 million years until Mesozoic break-up of the supercontinent Pangea. A host of studies have targeted the evolution and migration of fluids through Appalachian crust in an effort to understand how fluid promotes mass and heat redistribution, and mediates crustal deformation, particularly during the assembly of Pangea. Folded clay units from the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province were sampled for stable and radiogenic isotope analysis. Separation of samples into different grain-size fractions characterizes detrital (host) and authigenic (neomineralized) clays. Stable H-isotope compositions reveal a systematic pattern with varying proportions of illite polytypes—the finer, younger fraction is D-depleted compared to the coarser, primarily detrital fraction. For each individual location, the H-isotopic composition of the fluid from which the authigenic population was grown is calculated. δDVSMOW of these fluids has a range from -77 to -52 ± 2 ‰, consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. The notably negative values for several samples indicates a meteoric composition of moderate to high elevation origin, suggesting that they are not connate waters, but instead preserve infiltration of fluids due to fracture-induced permeability. Key to this interpretation is 40Ar/39Ar-dating of a subset of these samples that reveals a post-orogenic age for authigenic clay mineralization in the Early Jurassic ( 180 Ma). These ages are evidence that surface fluid infiltration was unrelated to the Appalachian orogeny, but coeval with (upper) crustal extension from the initial break-up of Pangea and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

  12. Women boxers

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing......This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...

  13. Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis For The Appalachian Basin: Phase 1 Revised Report November 18, 2016

    Jordan, Teresa E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Richards, Maria C. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Horowitz, Franklin G. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Camp, Erin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Smith, Jared D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Whealton, Calvin A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Stedinger, Jery R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Hornbach, Matthew J. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Tester, Jefferson W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Anderson, Brian [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Welcker, Kelydra [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Chickering Pace, Catherine [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); He, Xiaoning [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Magnani, Maria Beatrice [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Bolat, Rahmi [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)


    Geothermal energy is an attractive sustainable energy source. Yet project developers need confirmation of the resource base to warrant their time and financial resources. The Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis of the Appalachian Basin evaluated risk metrics that communicate the favorability of potential low-temperature geothermal energy resources in reservoirs more than 1000 m below the surface. This analysis is focused on the direct use of the heat, rather than on electricity production. Four risk factors of concern for direct-use geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin portions of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia are examined individually, and then in combination: 1) thermal resource quality, 2) natural reservoir quality, 3) induced seismicity, and 4) utilization opportunities. Uncertainty in the risk estimation is quantified. Based on these metrics, geothermal plays in the Appalachian Basin were identified as potentially viable for a variety of direct-use-heat applications. The methodologies developed in this project may be applied in other sedimentary basins as a foundation for low temperature (50-150 °C), direct use geothermal resource, risk, and uncertainty assessment. Three methods with which to combine the four risk factors were used. Among these, the averaging of the individual risk factors indicates the most favorable counties within the study area are the West Virginia counties of Monongalia, Harrison, Lewis (dubbed the Morgantown–Clarksburg play fairway), Putnam, and Kanawha (Charleston play fairway), the New York counties of Chemung and Steuben plus adjacent Bradford county in Pennsylvania (Corning–Ithaca play fairway), and the Pennsylvania counties of Mercer, Crawford, Erie, and Warren, and adjacent Chautauqua county in New York (together, the Meadville–Jamestown play fairway). These higher priority regions are surrounded by broader medium priority zones. Also worthy of additional exploration is a broad region near Pittsburgh

  14. Land uplift in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area, southwestern Finland, during the last 8000 years

    Eronen, M.; Glueckert, G.; Rantala, P.; Plassche, O. van de; Plicht, J. van der


    Land is rising in relation to sea level several millimetres per year on the coast of southwestern Finland. The aim of the study was to gather information about the land uplift process. Sediment samples were collected from 14 lakes lying at different altitudes in the area between Olkiluoto and Lake Pyhaejaervi in southwestern Finland to study the relative sea-level changes and land uplift. The present-day lakes had once been below the waters of the Baltic, but due to uplift they had been isolated from the sea one after another. The isolation points in the sediments were determined by preliminary diatom analyses. They show the change from brackish to fresh-water conditions, and these horizons were then dated by two radiocarbon assays. (37 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.)

  15. Philorhizus occitanus sp. n. from the South-Western Alps (Piedmont, Italy (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Dromiini

    Gianni Allegro


    Full Text Available Philorhizus occitanus sp. n. from the South-Western Alps (Ellero Valley and Maira Valley is described. This new species is similar to P. crucifer and P. notatus as far as the external morphology is concerned, but it is distinguished by the color pattern and the shape of elytra, as well as by the features of the median lobe of aedeagus. P. liguricus, which is easily distinguished from P. occitanus sp. n. by the external morphology, was already recorded from the South-Western Alps and from the Ligurian Apennines. P. occitanus sp. n. is a likely close relative of P. notatus, although the affinities of this relict flightless new species remain uncertain.

  16. Radiometric ages of some igneous rocks from the southern and southwestern coalfields of New South Wales

    Carr, P.F.; Facer, R.A.


    Samples from six igneous rock units of the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields (Sydney Basin) of New South Wales have been dated using the K-Ar radiometric technique. The following ages were determined: a dolerite from Towradgi, 243 +- 10 MY; a dolerite from a diamond-drill hole at Sutton Forest, 202 +- 8 MY; the Bong Bong Basalt, 190 +- 8 MY; the Good Dog Lamprophyre, 101 +- 4 MY; a teschenite from South Bulli coal mine 74.0 +- 3.6 MY; and a dolerite from Robertson, 63.8 +- 3.2 MY. Combination of these new ages wth previously-published ages indicates that igneous activity in the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields occurred during four discrete periods of time - Middle-to-Late Permian; Late Triassic to Early Jurassic; mid-Cretaceous (only the Good Dog Lamprophyre has yielded such an age); and latest Cretaceous to Late Oligocene

  17. Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin

    Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper


    To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600

  18. Characterization of Mesa Verde Black-on-white ceramics from southwestern Colorado using NAA

    Glowacki, D M; Neff, H; Glascock, M D [Missouri Univ., Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor Facility


    Sixty Mesa Verde variety Black-on-white bowls from Castle Rock Pueblo (5MT 1825) and Sand Canyon Pueblo (5MT765) in southwestern Colorado were chemically characterized using neutron activation analysis. Eleven clay sources local to the sites in the McElmo Drainage area were also analyzed. The results revealed two distinct compositional groups containing relative frequencies that imply local production. The occurrence of trade between the two sites was also identified. (author). 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Cutaneous adornment in the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria - past and present.

    George, Adekunle O; Ogunbiyi, Adebola O; Daramola, Olaniyi O M


    The traditional practice of cutaneous adornment is rich and vast amongst the Yoruba in the south-western part of Nigeria. There are varieties of traditionally made products, such as oils, soaps, fragrances, and beads, that have been employed over the years to enhance body beauty. This rich cultural heritage, however, has more or less given way to the values of Western culture, together with the disadvantages of the latter, manifesting as sequelae on the skin.

  20. Winter Counter-Wind Transport in the Inner Southwestern Yellow Sea

    Wu, Hui; Gu, Jinghua; Zhu, Ping


    Coastal currents generally flow downshelf with land on the right side (Northern Hemisphere) under the geostrophic balance, and are often strengthened by downwelling-favorable winds. However, the recent mooring observation in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea showed that coastal transport direction can be substantially changed by tidal forcing. In the survey, the tidal-averaged transports at two out of three sites remained northward (i.e., in the upshelf direction) and opposite the downwelling-favorable northerly wind, except during a brief neap tide period. Numerical experiments showed that the incoming Poincaré wave tide from the East China Sea plays a key role in forming this counter-wind transport system. This tidal wave produces a shoreward tidal stress south of 33.5°N in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea, driving an upshelf transport under the Earth's rotation. Counterpropagating tidal waves from the East China Sea and the northern Yellow Sea collide in coastal water in 32.5-34°N, which produce a standing tidal wave and therefore a mean sea-surface setup with alongshore and cross-shelf scales of both >100 km. This sea-surface setup causes an alongshore sea surface gradient, which veers the upshelf transport to the offshore direction under geostrophic balance. The strong tidal current increases the tidal-mean bottom resistance in the SCW, thus reduces the wind-driven current to a magnitude smaller than the tide-induced residual transport velocity. Therefore, upshelf transport persists in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea, and the Changjiang River Estuary becomes a major source area for the inner southwestern Yellow Sea.

  1. Description of two new Capnia species (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China.

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; DU, Yu-Zhou


    Two new species of the genus Capnia from the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China, C. oblata sp. nov. and C. xiei sp. nov. are described and illustrated as new members of the C. cordata Kimmins species group. Capnia oblata sp. nov. is characterized by posteromedial process of tergum 9 connecting antecosta with the medial sclerite bar. Capnia xiei sp. nov. is characterized by main epiproct sclerite bifurcate apically and basally with a bilamellar structure. The new species are compared with similar taxa.

  2. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.


    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples


    Agbowuro G.O


    The objective of this work is to identify and examine major factors constraining pawpaw production and marketing in Ekiti State, Southwestern Nigeria. Questionnaire schedule and personal interviews were used to collect data from ten Local Government Areas in the state. A total of 76 pawpaw farmers were randomly interviewed for this study. The study identified poor patronage in the market, poor marketing system, inadequate capital, poor price, inadequate extension services, poor transportation...

  4. Helminth Infections of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Importance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran

    RANJBAR, Mohammad Javad; SARKARI, Bahador; MOWLAVI, Gholam Reza; SEIFOLLAHI, Zeinab; MOSHFE, Abdolali; ABDOLAHI KHABISI, Samaneh; MOBEDI, Iraj


    AbstractBackground: Rodents are considered as reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases including helminthic infections. The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of helminth infections in rodents, in Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Overall, 52 rodents were captured from various areas of the district by Sherman live traps. The animals were then euthanized and dissected. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any cyst or visible parasit...

  5. First find of serpentinite in the cliffs of the Heracleian Peninsula of Southwestern Crimea

    Demina, L. I.; Promyslova, M. Yu.; Koronovskii, N. V.; Tzarev, V. V.


    This paper reports on the geological position and composition of serpentinite and serpentinitized peridotite, which we were the first to find in the cliffs of the southern part of the Heracleian Peninsula of Southwestern Crimea. In combination with pillow lava, gabbro, fragments of parallel dikes, and jasper, these rocks form an ophiolite association, which formerly belonged to the ancient crust of a back-arc basin that had reached the spreading stage of development.

  6. A new species of Leptadenia (Apocynaceae) and two other new records from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Masrahi, Yahya S.


    Leptadenia jazanica Y. Masrahi from the province of Jazan, southwestern Saudi Arabia is described as a new species and illustrated. The species differs from the other known nearest species of the genus, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, by decumbent to scrambling habit of stems and persistent leaves. In the same province also two new records belonging to the genera Canavalia (Fabaceae) and Craterostigma (Scrophulariaceae) were collected; they were identified as Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. and Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. PMID:26288569

  7. Changes in the forest ecosystems in areas impacted by aridization in south-western Romania

    Pravalie, Remus; Sîrodoev, Igor; Peptenatu, Daniel


    Background In the past few decades, global climate change has accentuated the intensification of aridization in South-Western Romania, with direct and indirect consequences on the quality of forest ecosystems. In addition to qualitative deterioration, the quantitative changes brought about by intensive anthropic deforestation have created the conditions for a decline in the size of forest areas on vast tracts of land. The paper aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in the f...

  8. Stelletta hajdui, a new species from the southwestern Atlantic (Porifera, Choristida, Ancorinidae)

    Lerner, Cléa; Mothes, Beatriz


    A new species of Stelletta from the southwestern Atlantic, Stelletta hajdui sp.n. is described from the slope off Rio Grande do Sul State coast, Brazil (32°24'S, 50°15'W) (Fig.1). The material studied was dredged up at the depth of 200m by the R/V Atlântico Sul, during “Projeto Talude” run by

  9. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    Anning, David W


    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from Salton Sea accounting unit.

  10. Microbial inputs in coffee (Coffea arabica L.) production systems, southwestern Ethiopia

    Muleta, Diriba


    Arabica coffee is the key cash crop and top mainstay of the Ethiopian economy and requires sustainable production methods. Southwestern natural forests, the site of this study, are believed to be the centre of origin and diversity for Coffea arabica and still harbour wild Arabica coffee that may serve as an important gene pool for future breeding. Cost reductions, sustainability and quality improvement are now the major priorities in coffee production systems and require organic growing of co...

  11. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain; Stuart Loewenstein; Edward DeRidder; Bruce Hart


    For two consecutive years, 2004 and 2005, the largest natural gas well (in terms of gas flow/day) drilled onshore USA targeted the Ordovician Trenton/Black River (T/BR) play in the Appalachian Basin of New York State (NYS). Yet, little data were available concerning the characteristics of the play, or how to recognize and track T/BR prospects across the region. Traditional exploration techniques for entry into a hot play were of limited use here, since existing deep well logs and public domain seismic were almost non-existent. To help mitigate this problem, this research project was conceived with two objectives: (1) to demonstrate that integrative traditional and innovative techniques could be used as a cost-effective reconnaissance exploration methodology in this, and other, areas where existing data in targeted fracture-play horizons are almost non-existent, and (2) determine critical characteristics of the T/BR fields. The research region between Seneca and Cayuga lakes (in the Finger Lakes of NYS) is on strike and east of the discovery fields, and the southern boundary of the field area is about 8 km north of more recently discovered T/BR fields. Phase I, completed in 2004, consisted of integrating detailed outcrop fracture analyses with detailed soil gas analyses, lineaments, stratigraphy, seismic reflection data, well log data, and aeromagnetics. In the Seneca Lake region, Landsat lineaments (EarthSat, 1997) were coincident with fracture intensification domains (FIDs) and minor faults observed in outcrop and inferred from stratigraphy. Soil gas anomalies corresponded to ENE-trending lineaments and FIDs. N- and ENE-trending lineaments were parallel to aeromagnetic anomalies, whereas E-trending lineaments crossed aeromagnetic trends. 2-D seismic reflection data confirmed that the E-trending lineaments and FIDs occur where shallow level Alleghanian salt-cored thrust-faulted anticlines occur. In contrast, the ENE-trending FIDs and lineaments occur where Iapetan

  12. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

    Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Baabdullah, Rnda; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim A; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K


    Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands. In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples. Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

  13. THE subfossil occurrence and paleoecological significance of small mammals at ankilitelo cave, southwestern Madagascar

    Muldoon, K.M.; De Blieux, D. D.; Simons, E.L.; Chatrath, P.S.


    Small mammals are rarely reported from subfossil sites in Madagascar despite their importance for paleoenvironmental reconstruction, especially as it relates to recent ecological changes on the island. We describe the uniquely rich subfossil small mammal fauna from Ankilitelo Cave, southwestern Madagascar. The Ankilitelo fauna is dated to the late Holocene (???500 years ago), documenting the youngest appearances of the extinct giant lemur taxa Palaeopropithecus, Megaladapis, and Archaeolemur, in association with abundant remains of small vertebrates, including bats, tenrecs, carnivorans, rodents, and primates. The Ankilitelo fauna is composed of 34 mammalian species, making it one of the most diverse Holocene assemblages in Madagascar. The fauna comprises the 1 st report of the short-tailed shrew tenrec (Microgale brevicaudata) and the ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans) in southwestern Madagascar. Further, Ankilitelo documents the presence of southwestern species that are rare or that have greatly restricted ranges today, such as Nasolo's shrew tenrec (M. nasoloi), Grandidier's mongoose (Galidictis grandidieri), the narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata), and the giant jumping rat (Hypogeomys antimena). A simple cause for the unusual small mammal occurrences at Ankilitelo is not obvious. Synergistic interactions between climate change, recent fragmentation and human-initiated degradation of forested habitats, and community-level processes, such as predation, most likely explain the disjunct distributions of the small mammals documented at Ankilitelo. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  14. On long-term evolution of seasonal precipitation in southwestern Europe

    F. Valero


    Full Text Available Annual cycles in long time series of precipitation from sixteen southwest European observatories have been analysed using complex demodulation. The stations have been clustered into two distinct regions and a hybrid one. They are referred to as the southwestern Europe precipitation Atlantic regime (SEPAR and the southwestern Europe precipitation Mediterranean regime (SEPMER, with the hybrid regime referred to in terms of the mean amplitude ratios between semiannual and annual rainfall components. Some evidence of linking between seasonal cycle harmonic amplitudes and the zonal circulation has been found for SEPAR stations and a more obscured relationship for the SEPMER region. Within the SEPAR region the strength of the relationship is diminished towards the north. A trend analysis of the amplitudes against time since 1920 has also been carried out and the results reveal a divergent pattern in trends between annual and semiannual component amplitudes for the SEPAR region. In fact, both an increasing annual-amplitude trend and a decreasing semiannual-amplitude trend are observed, in each case statistically significant. The fact that the seasonal cycle variability of rainfall in southwestern Europe becomes more sensitive southwards to changes in atmospheric zonal circulation over the North Atlantic might, in our opinion, be related to the swing of the circumpolar vortex.

  15. Variability and trends in dry day frequency and dry event length in the southwestern United States

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Legates, David R.; Lins, Harry F.


    Daily precipitation from 22 National Weather Service first-order weather stations in the southwestern United States for water years 1951 through 2006 are used to examine variability and trends in the frequency of dry days and dry event length. Dry events with minimum thresholds of 10 and 20 consecutive days of precipitation with less than 2.54 mm are analyzed. For water years and cool seasons (October through March), most sites indicate negative trends in dry event length (i.e., dry event durations are becoming shorter). For the warm season (April through September), most sites also indicate negative trends; however, more sites indicate positive trends in dry event length for the warm season than for water years or cool seasons. The larger number of sites indicating positive trends in dry event length during the warm season is due to a series of dry warm seasons near the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Overall, a large portion of the variability in dry event length is attributable to variability of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, especially for water years and cool seasons. Our results are consistent with analyses of trends in discharge for sites in the southwestern United States, an increased frequency in El Niño events, and positive trends in precipitation in the southwestern United States.

  16. The Association of Perceived Memory Loss with Osteoarthritis and Related Joint Pain in a Large Appalachian Population.

    Innes, Kim E; Sambamoorthi, Usha


    Previous studies have documented memory impairment in several chronic pain syndromes. However, the potential link between memory loss and osteoarthritis (OA), the second most common cause of chronic pain, remains little explored. In this cross-sectional study, we examine the association of perceived memory loss to OA and assess the potential mediating influence of sleep and mood disturbance in a large Appalachian population.  Cross-sectional.  US Ohio Valley.  A total of 21,982 Appalachian adults age 40 years or older drawn from the C8 Health Project (N = 19,004 adults without and 2,478 adults with OA). All participants completed a comprehensive health survey between 2005 and 2006. Medical history, including physician diagnosis of OA, lifestyle factors, short- and long-term memory loss, sleep quality, and mood were assessed via self-report.  After adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, health-related, and other factors, participants with OA were almost three times as likely to report frequent memory loss (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] for short- and long-term memory loss, respectively = 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2-3.3, and 2.6, 95% CI = 2.0-3.3). The magnitude of these associations increased significantly with rising frequency of reported joint pain (adjusted OR for OA with frequent joint pain vs no OA = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.6-4.1, P trend  memory loss = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6-2.4, and 2.1, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8, adjusted for sleep and mood impairment, respectively; OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.4-2.2, adjusted for both factors).  In this large cross-sectional study, OA and related joint pain were strongly associated with perceived memory loss; these associations may be partially mediated by sleep and mood disturbance. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Small-for-gestational age prevalence risk factors in central Appalachian states with mountain-top mining.

    Ferdosi, Hamid; Lamm, Steve H; Afari-Dwamena, Nana Ama; Dissen, Elisabeth; Chen, Rusan; Li, Ji; Feinleib, Manning


    To identify risk factors for small-for-gestational age (SGA) for counties in central Appalachian states (Kentucky (KY), Tennessee (TN), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV)) with varied coal mining activities. Live birth certificate files (1990-2002) were used for obtaining SGA prevalence rates for mothers based on the coal mining activities of their counties of residence, mountain-top mining (MTM) activities, underground mining activities but no mountain-top mining activity (non-MTM), or having no mining activities (non-mining). Co-variable information, including maternal tobacco use, was also obtained from the live birth certificate. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained using multivariable logistic regression comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities to those without coal mining activities and comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities for those with and without mountain-top mining activities. Comparisons were also made among those who had reported tobacco use and those who had not. Both tobacco use prevalence and SGA prevalence were significantly greater for mining counties than for non-mining counties and for MTM counties than for non-MTM counties. Adjustment for tobacco use alone explained 50% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 75% of the risk for MTM counties, including demographic pre-natal care co-variables that explained 75% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 100% of the risk for MTM. The increased risk of SGA was limited to the third trimester births among tobacco users and independent of the mining activities of their counties of residence. This study demonstrates that the increased prevalence of SGA among residents of counties with mining activity was primarily explained by the differences in maternal tobacco use prevalence, an effect that itself was gestational-age dependent. Self-reported tobacco use marked the population at the increased risk for SGA in central

  18. Coupled prediction of flood response and debris flow initiation during warm and cold season events in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    Tao, J.; Barros, A. P.


    Debris flows associated with rainstorms are a frequent and devastating hazard in the Southern Appalachians in the United States. Whereas warm season events are clearly associated with heavy rainfall intensity, the same cannot be said for the cold season events. Instead, there is a relationship between large (cumulative) rainfall events independently of season, and thus hydrometeorological regime, and debris flows. This suggests that the dynamics of subsurface hydrologic processes play an important role as a trigger mechanism, specifically through soil moisture redistribution by interflow. The first objective of this study is to investigate this hypothesis. The second objective is to assess the physical basis for a regional coupled flood prediction and debris flow warning system. For this purpose, uncalibrated model simulations of well-documented debris flows in headwater catchments of the Southern Appalachians using a 3-D surface-groundwater hydrologic model coupled with slope stability models are examined in detail. Specifically, we focus on two vulnerable headwater catchments that experience frequent debris flows, the Big Creek and the Jonathan Creek in the Upper Pigeon River Basin, North Carolina, and three distinct weather systems: an extremely heavy summertime convective storm in 2011; a persistent winter storm lasting several days; and a severe winter storm in 2009. These events were selected due to the optimal availability of rainfall observations, availability of detailed field surveys of the landslides shortly after they occurred, which can be used to evaluate model predictions, and because they are representative of events that cause major economic losses in the region. The model results substantiate that interflow is a useful prognostic of conditions necessary for the initiation of slope instability, and should therefore be considered explicitly in landslide hazard assessments. Moreover, the relationships between slope stability and interflow are

  19. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  20. Empowering Women

    UNCTAD; World Bank


    This note addresses practices for reducing gender inequalities and for empowering women to make a positive contribution to development through agricultural investments. Women make a crucial contribution to the agriculture sector and account for over 40 percent of agricultural labor in developing countries. However, they are frequently marginalized and their contributions under-acknowledged...