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Sample records for appalachian spruce fir

  1. GROWTH-TREND DECLINES OF SPRUCE AND FIR IN MID-APPALACHIAN SUBALPINE FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendroecological analysis of 258 increment growth cores collected from red spruce, balsam fir, and Fraser fir in central West Virginia and western Virginia indicates marked declines in growth-trend during the past 20 years similar to that reported for spruce and fir in high-eleva...

  2. Using Silviculture to Influence Carbon Sequestration in Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Moore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled. We explicitly considered C stored in standing forest stocks and the fate of forest products derived from harvesting. Over a 100-year simulation period the even-aged scenario (250 Mg C ha1 outperformed the no-action scenario (241 Mg C ha1 in total carbon (TC sequestered. The uneven-aged scenario approached 220 Mg C ha1, but did not outperform the no-action scenario within the simulation period. While the average annual change in C (AAC of the no-action scenario approached zero, or carbon neutral, during the simulation, both the even-aged and uneven-aged scenarios surpassed the no-action by year 30 and maintained positive AAC throughout the 100-year simulation. This study demonstrates that silvicultural treatment of forest stands can increase potential C storage, but that careful consideration of: (1 accounting method (i.e., TC versus AAC; (2 fate of harvested products and; (3 length of the planning horizon (e.g., 100 years will strongly influence the evaluation of C sequestration.

  3. Red spruce dynamics in an old southern Appalachian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busing, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    By the late 1980s the composition and structure of forest stands in the southern Appalachian spruce-fir zone were altered by insect infestations to Fraser fir. The response of red spruce, the sole remaining coniferous forest dominant, to this disturbance was followed over twenty years (1983-2003) in an old spruce-fir forest at Mt. Collins, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Although diameter growth of canopy red spruce (>30 cm dbh) at six plot sites was considerable (mean 10-yr increment 2.1 cm; 1993-2003), red spruce mortality increased sharply (mean 4% yr-1; 1993-2003). Wind-related mortality of canopy red spruce was substantial after the loss of Fraser fir from the canopy circa 1985 (>70% of the dead spruce had broken or uprooted boles; 1983-2003). Wind damage to red spruce was observed at most plot sites, but it was most pronounced on exposed topographic positions, where canopy gap expansion was extensive. The elevated mortality of red spruce at Mt. Collins was not associated with reduced diameter growth. Altered canopy structure has left large red spruce vulnerable to high winds. With the loss of canopy fir and the subsequent increase in mortality of canopy spruce, total live basal area has declined to about half of its pre-disturbance level.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF EASTERN U.S. SPRUCE-FIR SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    he spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. his chapter will describe the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, includ...

  5. Demographic Aspects of Coexistence in Engelmann Spruce and Subalpine Fir

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Kathleen L

    1985-01-01

    The mechanisms for the maintenance of coexistence of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in subalpine forests of the Colorado Front Range were examined by comparing age, size, and spatial distributions of spruce and fir in two adjacent, previously logged sites of differing moisture availability. Adult tree ages were calculated from stem cores, while seedling ages were calculated from a multiple regression equation based on diameter, height, and number of branch whorls. Tree size was measured b...

  6. Soil chemistry and nutrition of North American spruce-fir stands: Evidence of recent change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One set of hypotheses offered to explain the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in eastern North America focuses on the effect of acidic deposition on soil chemistry changes that may affect nutrient availability and root function. Long-term soils data suggests that soil acidification has occurred in some spruce stands over the past 50 yr, with plant uptake and cation leaching both contributing to the loss of cations. Studies of tree ring chemistry also have indicated changes in Ca/Al and Mg/Al ratios in red spruce wood, suggesting increases in the ionic strength of soil solution. Irrigation studies using strong acid inputs have demonstrated accelerated displacement of base cations from upper horizons. Spruce-fir (Abies spp.) nutrient budgets indicate that current net Ca and Mg leaching loss rates are of the same order of magnitude as losses to whole tree harvest removals, spread out over a 50-yr rotation. For most cations, red spruce foliar nutrient levels decline with elevation, but it is difficult to assess the contribution of the elevational gradient in atmospheric deposition to this pattern. Compared to northeastern sites, spruce-fir soil solutions in the southern Appalachians have higher nitrate levels and higher Al concentrations, which at times approach the Al toxicity threshold for red spruce seedlings and frequently are at levels known to interfere with cation uptake. There is little evidence that either nutrient deficiencies or Al toxicity are primary causes of red spruce decline in the Northeast, though both may play a role in the Southeast

  7. If Long-Term Resistance to a Spruce Beetle Epidemic is Futile, Can Silvicultural Treatments Increase Resilience in Spruce-Fir Forests in the Central Rocky Mountains?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella A. Windmuller-Campione; Long, James N

    2015-01-01

    Within the Central Rocky Mountains, spruce beetle populations have the potential to rapidly transition from endemic to epidemic levels in the spruce-fir (Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir) forest type. Conventional management has focused on creating resistance to spruce beetle outbreaks by manipulating the overstory density and composition. Three silvicultural treatments, single tree selection, group selection, and shelterwood with reserves, were established in a spruce-fir forest in northe...

  8. If Long-Term Resistance to a Spruce Beetle Epidemic is Futile, Can Silvicultural Treatments Increase Resilience in Spruce-Fir Forests in the Central Rocky Mountains?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella A. Windmuller-Campione; Long, James N

    2015-01-01

    Within the Central Rocky Mountains, spruce beetle populations have the potential to rapidly transition from endemic to epidemic levels in the spruce-fir (Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir) forest type. Conventional management has focused on creating resistance to spruce beetle outbreaks by manipulating the overstory density and composition. Three silvicultural treatments, single tree selection, group selection, and shelterwood with reserves, were established in a spruce-fir forest in norther...

  9. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  10. Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-16

    This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

  11. FOLIAR INJURY SYMPTOMS AND PIGMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN RED SPRUCE SAPLINGS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency and percent surface area covered by necrotic flecking on red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) needles from sapling-sized trees were examined on nine research sites on three mountains in the southern Appalachians. oliar pigment analysis was conducted on trees from two of ...

  12. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  13. Research of the effect of saw blade set dullness on the dimensions of longitudinally cut fir and spruce slats

    OpenAIRE

    Svrzić Uroš; Danon Gradimir

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of choosing the best way of operating and maintaining a set of circular saws intended for longitudinal processing. The study objective was the analysis of current procedures of tools usage and recommendations for their improvement, in order to achieve better quality and longer operating life of tools. The tested set (24+5 blades) was mounted on multisaw blade machine which produces slats from fir or spruce planks for three-la...

  14. Soil-solution chemistry in a low-elevation spruce-fir ecosystem, Howland, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ivan J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Son, Yowhan

    1995-01-01

    Soil solutions were collected monthly by tension and zero-tension lysimeters in a low-elevation red spruce stand in east-central Maine from May 1987 through December 1992. Soil solutions collected by Oa tension lysimeters had higher concentrations of most constituents than the Oa zero-tension lysimeters. In Oa horizon soil solutions growing season concentrations for SO4, Ca, and Mg averaged 57, 43, and 30 μmol L−1 in tension lysimeters, and 43, 28, and 19 μmol L−1 in zero-tension lysimeters, respectively. Because tension lysimeters remove water held by the soil at tensions up to 10 kPa, solutions are assumed to have more time to react with the soil compared to freely draining solutions collected by zero-tension lysimeters. Solutions collected in the Bs horizon by both types of collectors were similar which was attributed to the frequency of time periods when the water table was above the Bs lysimeters. Concentrations of SO4 and NO3 at this site were lower than concentrations reported for most other eastern U.S. spruce-fir sites, but base cation concentrations fell in the same range. Aluminum concentrations in this study were also lower than reported for other sites in the eastern U.S. and Ca/Al ratios did not suggest inhibition of Ca uptake by roots. Concentrations of SO4, Ca, K, and Cl decreased significantly in both the Oa and Bs horizons over the 56-month sampling period, which could reflect decreasing deposition rates for sulfur and base cations, climatic influences, or natural variation. A longer record of measured fluxes will be needed to adequately define temporal trends in solution chemistry and their causes.

  15. Sky island diversification meets the multispecies coalescent - divergence in the spruce-fir moss spider (Microhexura montivaga, Araneae, Mygalomorphae) on the highest peaks of southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Marshal; Carlson, Dave; Coyle, Fred

    2015-07-01

    Microhexura montivaga is a miniature tarantula-like spider endemic to the highest peaks of the southern Appalachian mountains and is known only from six allopatric, highly disjunct montane populations. Because of severe declines in spruce-fir forest in the late 20th century, M. montivaga was formally listed as a US federally endangered species in 1995. Using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes, patterns of multigenic genetic divergence were assessed for six montane populations. Independent mitochondrial and nuclear discovery analyses reveal obvious genetic fragmentation both within and among montane populations, with five to seven primary genetic lineages recovered. Multispecies coalescent validation analyses [guide tree and unguided Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP), Bayes factor delimitation (BFD)] using nuclear-only data congruently recover six or seven distinct lineages; BFD analyses using combined nuclear plus mitochondrial data favour seven or eight lineages. In stark contrast to this clear genetic fragmentation, a survey of secondary sexual features for available males indicates morphological conservatism across montane populations. While it is certainly possible that morphologically cryptic speciation has occurred in this taxon, this system may alternatively represent a case where extreme population genetic structuring (but not speciation) leads to an oversplitting of lineage diversity by multispecies coalescent methods. Our results have clear conservation implications for this federally endangered taxon and illustrate a methodological issue expected to become more common as genomic-scale data sets are gathered for taxa found in naturally fragmented habitats. PMID:26011071

  16. Research of the effect of saw blade set dullness on the dimensions of longitudinally cut fir and spruce slats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svrzić Uroš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problem of choosing the best way of operating and maintaining a set of circular saws intended for longitudinal processing. The study objective was the analysis of current procedures of tools usage and recommendations for their improvement, in order to achieve better quality and longer operating life of tools. The tested set (24+5 blades was mounted on multisaw blade machine which produces slats from fir or spruce planks for three-layer parquet. Changes in thickness of sawed slats, operation time between two sharpenings and blade size changes after removing saw blades from machine and aftesharpening, were monitored. Control x-charts were used for stability evaluation. Work quality of saw blade set for longitudinal cut of fir and spruce planks was presented by cost-effectiveness ratio, ratio of total costs (for purchase of set and its servicing and volume of sawed timber. The saw blade set did not reach the targeted coefficient based on the previous tests. After each sharpening, the set had a different persistence presented in time, and we could not determine the work dynamics. The persistence of saw blade set was affected by wood resin that accumulates on the saw blade surface, the method and angles of sharpening, work dynamics and the continuity of cutting.

  17. A comparison of structural characteristics and ecological factors between forest reserves and managed silver fir - Norway spruce forests in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine ecological, floristic and structural differences between the forest stands of managed and unmanaged silver fir - Norway spruce forests (Bazzanio trilobatae-Abietetum albae), twelve sample plots (25x25 m) were established in forest reserves and managed forests. Within the plots, subplots and microplots we conducted phytosociological and pedological surveys, analyses of the stand structure, natural regeneration and estimation of solar radiation. We determined that there are no significant differences in floristic composition and ecological factors between managed forest and forest reserve stands. The only variables that were significantly different were the solar radiation variables (ISF; TSF; DSF), vertical structure (cover indexes (CI)) and stand basal area. Small differences in the composition and the structure of the vegetation indicate that, as far as ecosystematic changes are concerned, managing these forests is not as significant as the soil conditions. Solar radiation had a major influence on natural regeneration. Indirect solar radiation seemed to be more important than direct solar radiation. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between silver fir and Norway spruce regeneration and indirect solar radiation and confirmed that the management of light is a significant factor in the management of regeneration. Another trend that was detected was an increase in the number of beech, which will have quite a large proportion in the upper tree layer of the next generation, especially in forest reserves

  18. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D

    2009-10-09

    Nutrient uptake capacity is an important parameter in modeling nutrient uptake by plants. Researchers commonly assume that uptake capacity measured for a species can be used across sites. We tested this assumption by measuring the nutrient uptake capacity of intact roots of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni Parry) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) at Loch Vale Watershed and Fraser Experimental Forest in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado. Roots still attached to the tree were exposed to one of three concentrations of nutrient solutions for time periods ranging from 1 to 96 hours, and solutions were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Surprisingly, the two species were indistinguishable in nutrient uptake within site for all nutrients (P > 0.25), but uptake rates differed by site. In general, nutrient uptake was higher at Fraser (P = 0.01, 0.15, 0.03, 0.18 for NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}, respectively), which is west of the Continental Divide and has lower atmospheric deposition of N than Loch Vale. Mean uptake rates by site for ambient solution concentrations were 0.12 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.02 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1}, 0.21 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and 0.01 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1} at Loch Vale, and 0.21 {micro}mol NH{sub 4}{sup +} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, 0.04 {micro}mol NO{sub 3}{sup -} g{sub fwt}{sup -1} h{sup -1}, 0.51 {micro}mol Ca{sup 2+}g{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1}, and 0.07 {micro}mol Mg{sup 2+} f{sub fwt}{sup -1}h{sup -1} at Fraser. The importance of site conditions in determining uptake capacity should not be overlooked when parameterizing nutrient uptake models. We also characterized the root morphology of these two species and compared them to other tree species we have measured at various sites in the northeastern USA. Engelman spruce and subalpine fir

  19. SOIL-MEDIATED EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION ON EASTERN US SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coincident observation of Waldsterben in Germany and red spruce decline in the northeastern U. S. has naturally led to some speculation that similar mechanisms may be involved. n the German situation, soil-mediated hypotheses played (and still play) a major role; namely, soil...

  20. Harmonized Growth Models and Simulations of the Evolution of Pure Stands of Norway spruce, Larches and Douglas-fir for Southern Belgium (Wallonia).

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Jérôme; Ligot, Gauthier; Cerisier, François; Claessens, Hugues; Hebert, Jacques; Lejeune, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In order to compare different silvicultural scenarios we have undertaken the development of a software that can simulate stand evolution in regards to their species composition, site characteristics and silvicultural operations. As a first approach we limited the scope of our work to even-aged and pure coniferous stands of the three most important coniferous species in Wallonia (southern part of Belgium): Norway spruce (Picea abies), douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziensii) and larches (Larix sp....

  1. Commercial Thinning to Meet Wood Production Objectives and Develop Structural Heterogeneity: A Case Study in the Spruce-Fir Forest, Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Michel Gauthier; Martin Barrette; Stéphane Tremblay

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of commercial thinning mainly from below (CT; 0, 26%, 32% and 40% merchantable basal area removals) in meeting wood production demands and developing structural heterogeneity in a balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill) and spruce (Picea spp.) stand. After 10 years, 32%–40% removals showed a 12%–18% increase in mean diameter and 27%–38% increase in gross merchantable volume (GMV) per tree compared to the unthinned control. At the stand level, all thinning treatme...

  2. [Spatial heterogeneity of natural regeneration in a spruce-fir mixed broadleaf-conifer forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Li; Yang, Hua; Kang, Xin-Gang; Wang, Yan; Yue, Gang; Shen, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Based on fieldwork on a plot of 60 m x 60 m in the Changbai Mountain area of Northeast China in August 2012, the spatial distribution pattern and heterogeneity of natural regeneration in the spruce-fir mixed broadleaf-conifer forest were analyzed using semi-variograms, fractal dimensions and Kriging interpolation methods. The results showed that Abies nephrolepis and Acer mono were the most common regeneration species, accounting for 87.4% of the total. The regeneration seedlings and saplings presented an aggregate distribution pattern with the biggest radius of 9.93 m. Distinct spatial autocorrelation existed among regeneration seedlings and saplings, with 88.7% of variation coming from structure factors (biological and ecological properties and environmental heterogeneity) and 11.3% from random factors. The spatial distribution of the regeneration seedlings and saplings presented anisotropy, with the smallest fractal dimension and strongest spatial heterogeneity from north to south, and the highest fractal dimension and weakest spatial heterogeneity from northeast to southwest. The spatial heterogeneity of heights of seedlings and saplings was greater than that of root collar diameters. The distance of spatial autocorrelation for tree root collar diameters was 29.97 m, and that for heights was 31.86 m. Random factors and structure factors were found to contribute equally to the spatial heterogeneity. PMID:24830227

  3. The structure of spruce-fir tree stands mortality under impact of the Middle Ural copper smelter emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Bergman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of industrial pollution on mortality values (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees and its distribution by degrees of decomposition were investigated in spruce-fir forest stands in the vicinity of the Middle Ural copper smelter (the city of Revda, Sverdlovsk region. The total mortality and mortality in each size category did not depend on the distance to the source of pollution. At the same time, the amount of dead fallen wood was significantly greater (1.9 times in the polluted area (2 and 4 km from the smelter as compared with the background territory (30 km from the smelter. Mortality proportion out of the total number of the trees (both live and dead did not differ significantly between the sites, although this parameter tended to increase nearer the smelter. The distribution of mortality by size categories revealed significant differences between background territory and site with average level of contamination, as well as background territory and highly contaminated site. Observed differences are associated with an increased proportion of lesser mortality near the smelter (by 15 % and 12 % as compared with areas of background and middle levels of contamination, respectively, as well as because of double-declining of medium- and large-sized mortality near the smelter. The distribution of the living tree stands by size categories also has a connection with level of contamination. The average diameters of the living tree stand and the elements of coarse woody debris (dead fallen wood and dead standing trees do not differ significantly between sites with different levels of contamination. For the small-sized dead fallen wood, the proportion of weakly decomposed stems increased with the level of pollution, while proportion of strongly decomposed stems decreased. The distribution of medium- and large-sized dead fallen wood on the stages of decomposition does not vary between sites with different levels of pollution.

  4. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.; MacMahon, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the bioenergetics of the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, are coupled with data on demography, activity budgets, and microclimates to model the energy requirements of individuals and populations in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah during 1976-1979. Metabolic rates during rest increased linearly with decreasing ambient temperature, but burrowing metabolic rates (16.3 mL O2 • h-1 • g-9.75) were independent of both temperature and physical properties of the soil. Radio-telemetry studies indicated that free-ranging gophers are active =50% of each day. Conservative estimates of true energy consumption were calculated using estimates of habitat-specific minimum daily burrowing requirements. Rates of burrowing measured in the laboratory were either ∞ 0.0 or ∞ 2.0 cm/min. The low burrowing rate was observed when the soil was frozen or saturated with water, as would occur in the field in early winter and in spring, respectively. Gophers burrowed through soil at the study site at an average rate of ∞ 1.5 cm/min. Belowground food energy densities at gopher foraging depth declined from 24.6 to 3.2 J/cm3 along a successional gradient (subalpine forb meadow to Engelmann spruce dominated forest). We conclude that individual gophers are food limited within the climax spruce seral stage. Further, daily energy costs associated with reproduction in females may exceed the belowground energy supply available in intermediate seral stages (aspen and subalpine fir). Reduction of burrowing rates for any reason will affect gophers in the late seral stages proportionately more than those resident in the meadow. The peak gopher densities recorded (from 62 individuals/ha in the meadow to 2 individuals/ha in spruce forest) support these inferences. Detailed demographic information was obtained only in the meadow seral stage. Adult survivorship was lower in winter than in summer and varied greatly between years (0.18-0.70 yr-1). Juvenile survivorship from weaning

  5. Commercial Thinning to Meet Wood Production Objectives and Develop Structural Heterogeneity: A Case Study in the Spruce-Fir Forest, Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Michel Gauthier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effectiveness of commercial thinning mainly from below (CT; 0, 26%, 32% and 40% merchantable basal area removals in meeting wood production demands and developing structural heterogeneity in a balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L. Mill and spruce (Picea spp. stand. After 10 years, 32%–40% removals showed a 12%–18% increase in mean diameter and 27%–38% increase in gross merchantable volume (GMV per tree compared to the unthinned control. At the stand level, all thinning treatments generated as much cumulative GMV (harvested volume + GMV after 10 years and gross sawlog volume per hectare as the unthinned control. As for stand structure, eight out of nine thinned experimental units showed increased structural heterogeneity after 10 years, i.e., irregular, positively-skewed diameter distribution with an elongated right tail toward larger trees. The diameter distribution in the unthinned control became more symmetric, unimodal and regular over time, with fewer saplings than at the beginning of the experiment and lower density of larger trees compared to CT. Regeneration density and stocking were abundant in all treatments, largely dominated by balsam fir. Results indicate that thinning can be used to meet wood production objectives and help develop structural heterogeneity in this forest.

  6. Wood Anatomy and Insect Defoliator Systems: Is there an anatomical response to sustained feeding by the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis) on Douglas-fir (Pseudotusga menziesii)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Jodi; Gärtner, Holger; Alfaro, René; Smith, Dan

    2013-04-01

    The western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) is the most widespread and destructive defoliator of coniferous forests in western North America, and has a long-term coexistence with its primary host tree, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco). Western spruce budworm (WSB) outbreaks usually last for several years, and cause reductions in annual growth, stem defects, and regeneration delays. In British Columbia, the WSB is the second most damaging insect after the mountain pine beetle, and sustained and/or severe defoliation can result in the mortality of host trees. Numerous studies have used tree rings to reconstruct WSB outbreaks across long temporal scales, to evaluate losses in stand productivity, and examine isotope ratios. Although some studies have looked at the impacts of artificial defoliation on balsam fir in eastern North America, there has been no prior research on how WSB outbreaks affect the anatomical structure of the stem as described by intra-annual wood density and potential cell size variations. The objective of this study was to anatomically examine the response of Douglas-fir to sustained WSB outbreaks in two regions of southern British Columbia. We hypothesize that the anatomical intra-annual characteristics of the tree rings, such as cell wall thickness, latewood cell size, and/or lumen area changes during sustained WSB outbreaks. To test this hypothesis we sampled four permanent sample plots in coastal and dry interior sites, which had annually resolved defoliation data collected over a 7-12 year period. At each site diameter-at-breast height (cm), height (m), and crown position were recorded and three increment cores were extracted from 25 trees. Increment cores were prepared to permit anatomical and x-ray density analyses. For each tree, a 15µm thick micro section was cut from the radial plane. Digital images of the micro sections were captured and processed. In each annual ring, features such as cell lumen area (µm2

  7. Comparison of site index and biomass production on four soil drainage classes from the Chesuncook Catena for spruce-fir stands in northwestern Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Biomass production was compared to site index ratings for fully stocked natural 10 to 80 year-old balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.)-spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss, P. rubens Sarg., P. marianna (Mill) B.S.P.) stands that occurred on four soils of the Chesuncook Catena: Elliottsville (well drained), Chesuncook (moderately well), Telos (somewhat poorly), and Monarda (poorly). Regression equations were developed to predict the total dry weight and component weights of individual trees, and were applied to standing trees to predict total stand biomass. Total biomass production was not significantly different among all soil groups until about age 60 years, after which the biomass production on the better drained Chesuncook and Elliottsville soils surpasses that of the poorer drained Telos and Monarda soils. Biomass production was not significantly different between stands on these latter two soils over the measured lifetimes of the stands. Within each soil grouping, biomass production remained constant over the range of site index for the Telos-Monarda soil grouping. However, biomass production decreased the increasing site index for the Chesuncook-Elliottsville soil grouping. No consistent relationship was found between site index and total biomass. Total biomass of merchantable trees increased with improved soil drainage.

  8. Importance of Arboreal Cyanolichen Abundance to Nitrogen Cycling in Sub-Boreal Spruce and Fir Forests of Central British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Kobylinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of N2-fixing arboreal cyanolichens to the nitrogen (N-balance of sub-boreal interior hybrid spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa forests was examined at field sites in central BC, Canada. Host trees were accessed by a single-rope climbing technique and foliage as well as arboreal macrolichen functional groups were sampled by branch height in eight random sample trees from each of two high (High Cyano and two low (Low Cyano cyanolichen abundance sites for a total of 32 sample trees. Natural abundances of stable isotopes of N (15N, 14N and carbon (13C, 12C were determined for aggregate host tree and epiphytic lichen samples, as well as representative samples of upper organic and soil horizons (Ae and Bf from beneath host trees. As expected, N2-fixing cyanolichens had 2–6-fold greater N-contents than chlorolichens and a δ15N close to atmospheric N2, while foliage and chlorolichens were more depleted in 15N. By contrast, soils at all trees and sites were 15N-enriched (positive δ15N, with declining (not significant δ15N with increased tree-level cyanolichen abundance. Lichen functional groups and tree foliage fell into three distinct groups with respect to δ13C; the tripartite cyanolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (lightest, host-tree needles (intermediate, and bipartite cyanolichens, hair (Alectoria and Bryoria spp. and chlorolichens (heaviest. Branch height of host trees was an effective predictor of needle δ13C. Our results showed a modest positive correlation between host tree foliage N and cyanolichen abundance, supporting our initial hypothesis that higher cyanolichen abundances would elevate host tree foliar N. Further study is required to determine if high cyanolichen abundance enhances host tree and/or stand-level productivity in sub-boreal forests of central BC, Canada.

  9. Ungulate Impact on Natural Regeneration in Spruce-Beech-Fir Stands in Černý důl Nature Reserve in the Orlické Hory Mountains, Case Study from Central Sudetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Vacek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study on tree regeneration of forest stands in the Černý důl Nature Reserve, which is situated in the Orlické hory Mountains Protected Landscape area in the Czech Republic. Research was conducted in a spruce-beech stand with an admixture of silver fir, sycamore maple and rowan on two comparative permanent research plots (PRPs (PRP 1—fenced enclosure and PRP 2—unfenced. Typological, soil, phytosociological and stand characteristics of the two PRPs are similar. The results showed that ungulate browsing is a limiting factor for successful development of natural regeneration of autochthonous tree species. The population of tree species of natural regeneration on the fenced plot (PRP 1 is sufficient in relation to the site and stand conditions. However, natural regeneration on PRP 2 is considerably limited by browsing. Damage is greatest to fir, sycamore maple and rowan; less severe to beech; and the least to spruce.

  10. Spatial distribution patterns and associations of tree species during different succession stages in spruce-fir forests of Changbai Mountains, northeastern China.%长白山云冷杉林不同演替阶段的树种空间分布格局及其关联性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志; 亢新刚; 包昱君; 杨鑫霞

    2012-01-01

    云冷杉针阔混交林、云冷杉针叶混交林和近原始云冷杉林是长白山区代表性的森林群落。以这3种典型群落的各1块样地调查数据为基础,采用点格局分析法的0-ring统计,对各样地主要树种的空间分布格局及树种间的空间关联性进行分析。结果表明:各种群以随机分布为主,从云冷杉针阔混交林到云冷杉针叶混交林和近原始云冷杉林,所有主要树种的空间分布格局聚集分布减少,而随机分布、均匀分布增多,云杉、冷杉和红松两两间的空间关联性,表现为负相关的现象增多。在小尺度上,椴树呈显著聚集分布,其他尺度上表现为随机分布,其他树种分布的规律性不明显。%Spruce-fir and broadleaved mixed forests, spruce-fir mixed forests and near primitive spruce-fir forests are representative of the forest communities in Changbai Mountains of northeastern China. Based on investigation data from each plot of the above three typical spruce-fir forests, one point pattern analysis method-O-ring statistics was used to analyze the spatial patterns of dominant species and the spatial correlations among different species were studied. The results showed that the random distribution appeared widely in the three communities, the aggregated distribution decreased, while the random and regular distributions increased in all major species. The phenomenon of negative correlations increased between Pinus koraiensis and P. koraiensis, P. koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis, A. nephrolepis and P. koraiensis from the spruce-fir and broadleaved mixed forests to the spruce-fir mixed forests and near primitive spruce-fir forests. Tilia amurensis was clumped significantly at small scales and a random distribution showed at other scales, the regularity of distribution was not obvious in other species.

  11. Cloud immersion alters microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations in Rhododendron catawbiense and Abies fraseri seedlings in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Smith, William K

    2008-03-01

    The high altitude spruce-fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poiret.-Picea rubens Sarg.) forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, experience frequent cloud immersion. Recent studies indicate that cloud bases may have risen over the past 30 years, resulting in less frequent forest cloud immersion, and that further increases in cloud base height are likely in the event of continued climate warming. To assess the impact of this trend on the regeneration of high altitude spruce-fir forests and the migration of plant communities, in particular the encroachment of spruce-fir forests and Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. islands into adjacent grass bald communities, we investigated effects of cloud immersion on photosynthetic parameters of seedlings of Abies fraseri and R. catawbiense in a grass bald site and A. fraseri in a forest understory. Although photosynthetic photon flux was 4.2 to 19.4-fold greater during clear conditions, cloud immersion had no effect on photosynthesis in A. fraseri at either site, whereas it reduced photosynthesis of R. catawbiense by about 40%. However, cloud immersion increased mean leaf fluorescence by 7.1 to 12.8% in both species at both sites. Cloud immersion increased mean relative humidity from 65 to 96%, reduced transpiration by 95% and reduced mean leaf-to-air temperature difference from 6.6 to 0.5 degrees C. PMID:18171662

  12. A Review of Studies on Structural Features,Regeneration Features and Management of Natural Spruce-Fir Mixed Stand of Coniferous and Broadleaved Trees in China%我国天然云冷杉针阔混交林结构特征、更新特点及经营管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 樊金拴; 车小强

    2012-01-01

    天然云冷杉林是世界主要森林类型之一,具有重要的生态、经济和社会效益。探明天然云冷杉林结构特点和演替规律,制定科学的经营管理措施,因地制宜地合理经营云冷杉林意义深远而迫切。文中概述了我国天然云冷杉林的分布、结构和更新演替特征,分析了经营管理现状及存在的问题,并提出建议:1)对禁伐区内的云冷杉林分,坚决杜绝一切采伐活动;对限伐区要严格控制采伐强度,一般控制在伐前蓄积量的15%以内;对商品林经营区可按每公顷蓄积量的大小确定适宜采伐强度,并按照林分特点进行经营,做到科学择伐。2)对林地草本植被密集、灌木覆盖度不大、采伐迹地上有种源条件的进行封育、栽植或补植,人工促进天然更新。3)建立秦岭冷杉、大果青杄、元宝山冷杉等珍稀濒危物种自然保护区和科学试验站,积极开展就地保护,减少人为破坏。4)适时采种,就地建立苗圃,开展育苗造林,扩大人工种群,促进天然更新。%Natural spruce-fir mixed stand is one of the main forest types in the world,and also has huge ecological,economic and social benefits.According to the structural characteristics and succession laws of natural spruce-fir forest,it is urgent and significant to develop scientific management measures for natural spruce-fir mixed stand in line with local conditions.The article outlined the characteristics of the distribution and structure,regeneration and succession laws of natural spruce-fir forest,and analyzed the current situation and existing problems of natural spruce-fir forest management.The following recommendations were eventually made: 1) In no cutting area,all logging activities should be banned.In a restricted cutting area,the cutting intensity should be generally controlled within 15% of the stock volume before cutting.On the commodity forest management area,the appropriate cutting intensity

  13. 长白山云冷杉针阔混交林两个演替阶段乔木的种间联结性%Interspecific association among arbor species in two succession stages of spruce-fir conifer and broadleaved mixed forest in Changbai Mountains,northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚直文; 亢新刚; 顾丽; 高延; 冯启祥; 姚景春

    2011-01-01

    Based on the use of variance ration(VR),2×2 contingency table,χ2 test and interspecies association coefficient calculation,we examined interspecific association of dominant species both in polar-birch secondary forest and in spruce-fir forest.The results showed that mean variance of the 12 principal arbor species in poplar-birch secondary forests was 0.932,closes to 1,and had no significant correlation;but in spruce-fir mixed forest,it showed positive correlation,which indicated that the stage was relatively stable and adapted to the environmental conditions.The positive correlation of the whole community was strengthening along with the progression of succession.The end-result of competition would lead to the pioneer tree,Betula platyhylla and Populu.davidiana,which were declining species,be replaced by the zonal climax species spruce-fir forest in the future.The overall correlations among multi-species reflect the general trend among various species in community.The interspecific association further explains that the community we studied is in the transitional stage,ie from the polar-birch secondary forest to spruce-fir mixed forest.%基于2×2联列表和方差比率,通过χ2统计量检验和种间联结系数值计算,对杨桦次生林和云冷杉针阔混交林阶段林分总体种间联结性进行了分析。结果表明:杨桦次生林群落内出现的12个乔木树种之间的总体关联性方差比率为0.932,接近1,表现为无相关性;在针阔混交林阶段,群落主要种间的总体关联性表现为正相关,说明该阶段的群落已处于和该地区环境条件相适应的稳定阶段,群落总体正关联性随着演替进程而加强。竞争的最后结果将导致杨桦退出先锋树种阶段,并被地带性顶级树种云冷杉代替。多树种间总体联结性反映了群落内各树种间相关性的总体趋势,树木种群的关联关系进一步说明该群落处于杨桦次生林向云冷杉针阔混交林过渡的阶段。

  14. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  15. Cytophotometric differentiation of high elevation spruces: physiological and ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red and black spruce and their hybrids can be determined by morphological indices; however, the criteria are somewhat subjective and increasingly difficult to use at higher elevations. Although the chromosome number is identical (2n = 24), red spruce has twice as much nuclear DNA (48 pg) than black spruce (24 pg) and thus the species and their hybrids can also be separated by cytophotometry. This is relevant to spruce decline studies because black spruce is much more resistant to high elevation environmental stresses, both natural and anthropogenic. It also has implications for the effect of climatic changes on the composition of high elevation spruce-fir forests because red spruce can outcompete black spruce under more mesic conditions. Four elevation transects sampling spruce on the east and west sides of Mount Washington (New Hampshire) and Camels Hump (Vermont) and a single transect on the southwest side of Whiteface Mountain (New York) were made to investigate the degree of hybridization and introgression between these two species. A positive correlation was found between increased elevation and increased black spruce genes on Mount Washington and Camels Hump. Pure black spruce was found on Mount Washington from 1356 m to 1582 m. No pure black or red spruce was found on Camels Hump although the proportion of red spruce alleles was significantly greater on Camels Hump. All trees sampled at all elevations on Whiteface Mountain were pure red spruce. Thus the proportion of black spruce alleles in high elevation spruce populations decreases from east to west. This closely parallels the increase in spruce decline which increases from east to west. (author)

  16. The Spruce Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Holsten, E H; Their, R W; Munson, A. S.; Gibson, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is the most significant natural mortality agent of mature spruce. Outbreaks of this beetle have caused extensive spruce mortality from Alaska to Arizona and have occurred in every forest with substantial spruce stands. Spruce beetle damage results in the loss of 333 to 500 million board feet of spruce saw timber annually. More than 2.3 million acres of spruce forests have been infested in Alaska in the last 7 years with an estimated 30 milli...

  17. Fluorescence-microscopic investigations on the vitality of mycorrhizas from spruce (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) and fir (Abies alba Mill. ) of stands in the Black Forest exhibiting varying degrees of damage. Fluoreszenzmikroskopische Untersuchungen zur Vitalitaet der Mykorrhizen von Fichten (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) und Tannen (Abies alba Mill. ) unterschiedlich geschaedigter Bestaende im Schwarzwald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, T.

    1989-11-16

    This is the first investigation to make use of 'FDA-Vitalfluorochromierung', a vitality test, for working on a large number of ectomycorrhizas. The test was found to provide a host of information on the physiological condition of ectomycorrhizas. Because of the limited durability of the fresh material required for the test, it cannot be applied to any given number of mycorrhizas from a sample. But as regards the amount of information on the vitality of mycorrhizas, 'FDA-Vitalfluorochromierung' is comparable to much more sophisticated techniques such as transmission electron microscopy. Comparative investigations of healthy and sick spruces and firs revealed that almost 100% of all investigated very fine roots carried mycorrhizas. A distinct decrease of the rate of mycorrhization in sick trees was not established. As the vitality of the mycorrhizas decreased, the starch content in the central cylinder increased. The increase in starch content was strongest after the mycorrhizas' hypha coat and Hartig's net had died off. (orig./MG).

  18. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Michael J; Hebertson, Elizabeth G; A. Steven Munson

    2014-01-01

    Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the bio...

  19. Testing remote sensing estimates of bark beetle induced mortality in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce with ground data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Ewers, B. E.; Sivanpillai, R.; Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetles have caused widespread regional mortality in both lodgepole and Engelmann spruce forests across western North America, and while studies have addressed the impact on water partitioning caused by the mountain pine beetle, spruce beetle which often occur at high elevations with larger snowpack might have a disproportional impact. Beetle caused mortality can have significant effects on the hydrology of a watershed and therefore needs to be considered when evaluating increased runoff. The objective of this project was to generate maps showing beetle caused mortality for lodgepole pine and spruce fir forests that capture changes to the landscape to improve hydrologic models. Our study area in southeast Wyoming covered an area of approximately 2 by 4 km from 2700 to 2800m elevation range. High spatial resolution (0.5m) aerial imagery acquired by the Airborne Environmental Research Observational Camera (AEROCam) in fall 2011, provided by the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC), was manually classified into four conifer thematic classes: live and dead lodgepole pine, and live and dead spruce/fir. The classified high resolution image was then verified by tree surveys conducted July-September, 2012 documenting species, tree diameter at breast height (dbh), and the stage of beetle infestation for each tree. After verification the high resolution aerial images were used to train and evaluate the accuracy of a supervised classification of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image from the same time period and area. The preliminary results of a supervised classification show that map accuracy was 57%, 77%, 44%, and 83% for lodgepole live and dead, and spruce/fir live and dead respectively. The highest commission error, 24%, was for dead lodgepole pine being falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The second highest commission error, 22%, was for live spruce/fir falsely labeled dead spruce/fir. The results indicate high spectral overlap between dead spruce/fir and dead

  20. 模拟氮沉降对云冷杉红松林土壤呼吸的影响%Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Respiration in Spruce-fir-Korean Pine Forest of Xiaoxing' anling Mountains in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘博奇; 牟长城; 邢亚娟; 王庆贵

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil respiration in spruce-fir-Korean pine forests, a simulated nitrogen deposition experiment was conducted in Xiaoxing' anling Mountains area in Heilongjiang Province from May to October, 2011. The experiment included the Control (0, CK ) , low-N (50 kg · hm-2 · a-1, TL) , medial-N (100 kg · hm-2 · a-1 , TM) and high-N (150 kg · hm-2 · a-1 , TH) treatment level. The results showed that the nitrogen deposition did not change the daily and seasonal variation patterns of soil respiration. Compared to Control, the TL, TM, and TH treatments increased the soil daily average respiration rates by 13. 72% , 23. 22% and 5. 12% , and 13. 98% , 18. 26% and 1. 12% for soil annul average respiration rates. Significant exponential relationship was found between soil respiration rate and soil temperature, but no significant relationship was found between the soil moisture and soil respiration rates. The Q10(the respiratory flux at one temperature over the flux at a temperature 10℃ lower) were 4. 77, 5. 71 , 6. 62 and 5. 49 for soil respiration of the CK, TL, TM, and THtreatments respectively. The findings suggested that nitrogen deposition could promote soil respiration, and increase soil respiration temperature sensitivity in spruce-fir-Korean pine forests.%2011年5月至2011年10月在黑龙江省小兴安岭云冷杉红松林内进行模拟氮沉降试验,使用便携式土壤CO2通量观测仪LI-8100测定不同氮沉降浓度CK(0)、TL (50 kg·hm-2.a-1)、TM(100 kg· hm-2·a-1)和TH(150 kg·hm-2·a-1)对土壤呼吸的影响.结果表明,氮沉降未显著改变土壤呼吸的日变化和季节性变化规律;对比CK,TL、TM和TH处理,分别使土壤日呼吸速率提高了13.72%、23.22%和5.12%,年呼吸速率提高了13.98%、18.26%和1.12%;土壤呼吸与温度呈极显著的指数相关(P <0.001),与土壤湿度无显著相关;CK,TL、TM和TH处理下,土

  1. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  2. PAH FIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioda, Andrew; Ricca, A.; Tucker, J.; Bauschlicher, C., Jr.; Allamandola, L.

    2009-01-01

    The mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 µm. These features, formerly referred to as the Unidentified Infrared (UIR) Bands, are now generally thought to originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and closely related species. In addition to dominating the 3-20 µm region of the spectrum, they carry some 20-40% of the total IR luminosity from most of these objects. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (20 to 1000 mm) and these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview of the FIR spectroscopy of PAHs.

  3. Interspecific variation in resistance of two host tree species to spruce budworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Bauce, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants regularly sustain biomass losses to herbivorous insects. Consequently, they have developed various resistance mechanisms to cope with insect attack. However, these mechanisms of defense and how they are affected by resource availability are not well understood. The present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the natural resistance (antibiosis and tolerance) of balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench) Voss] to spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), and how drainage site quality as a component of resource availability affects the expression of resistance over time (6 years). Our results showed that there are differences in natural resistance between the two tree species to spruce budworm, but it was not significantly affected by drainage quality. Balsam fir exhibited higher foliar toxic secondary compounds concentrations than white spruce in all drainage classes, resulting in lower male pupal mass, survival and longer male developmental time. This, however, did not prevent spruce budworm from consuming more foliage in balsam fir than in white spruce. This response suggests that either natural levels of measured secondary compounds do not provide sufficient toxicity to reduce defoliation, or spruce budworm has developed compensatory mechanisms, which allow it to utilize food resources more efficiently or minimize the toxic effects that are produced by its host's defensive compounds. Larvae exhibited lower pupal mass and higher mortality in rapidly drained and subhygric sites. Drainage class also affected the amount of foliage destroyed but its impact varied over the years and was probably influenced by climatic variables. These results demonstrate the complexity of predicting the effect of resource availability on tree defenses, especially when other confounding environmental factors can affect tree resource allocation and utilization.

  4. SPRUCE Mashup London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SPRUCE digital preservation mashups are a series of unique events that are being organized in the United Kingdom to bring together digital preservation practitioners and developers to work on real-world digital preservation challenges. During the 3-day event the digital preservation developers work to create practical solutions to real-world challenges the practitioners are having related to digital preservation. Meanwhile, the practitioners work to create compelling business cases for digital preservation at their institution. This article describes the SPRUCE Mashup London event held in September 2012.

  5. Douglas-fir seedlings exhibit metabolic responses to increased temperature and atmospheric drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Jansen

    Full Text Available In the future, periods of strongly increased temperature in concert with drought (heat waves will have potentially detrimental effects on trees and forests in Central Europe. Norway spruce might be at risk in the future climate of Central Europe. However, Douglas-fir is often discussed as an alternative for the drought and heat sensitive Norway spruce, because some provenances are considered to be well adapted to drier and warmer conditions. In this study, we identified the physiological and growth responses of seedlings from two different Douglas-fir provenances to increased temperature and atmospheric drought during a period of 92 days. We analysed (i plant biomass, (ii carbon stable isotope composition as an indicator for time integrated intrinsic water use efficiency, (iii apparent respiratory carbon isotope fractionation as well as (iv the profile of polar low molecular metabolites. Plant biomass was only slightly affected by increased temperatures and atmospheric drought but the more negative apparent respiratory fractionation indicated a temperature-dependent decrease in the commitment of substrate to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The metabolite profile revealed that the simulated heat wave induced a switch in stress protecting compounds from proline to polyols. We conclude that metabolic acclimation successfully contributes to maintain functioning and physiological activity in seedlings of both Douglas-fir provenances under conditions that are expected during heat waves (i.e. elevated temperatures and atmospheric drought. Douglas-fir might be a potentially important tree species for forestry in Central Europe under changing climatic conditions.

  6. Tree plant organic matter stocks in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Manov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of organic matter in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall was investigated. Phytomass of Piceetum hylocomiosum stand is 51.8 t • ha-1, and Pinetum cladinosum stand is 7.5 t • ha-1. Phytomass in the disturbed stands is 3.5 times less than in undisturbed spruce forest and 15 times less than in undisturbed pine forest. The undergrowth accumulates 2.8 t • ha-1 in spruce forest, and 0.9 t • ha-1 in pine forest after windfall. Number of trees, volume of wood, stock of organic matter was determined in coarse woody debris subject to decay class. Most of the dead trees (77–97 % belong to the second decay class. Reduced competition for light and mineral nutrients influences the intensity of organic matter accumulation by tree plants. We detected that increasing radial growth of spruce and fir began before windfall. This demonstrates the stand drying. However, maximal rate of annual ring increment (2.03–2.17 mm for spruce and 3.98–4.07 mm for fir was observed in 2009–2010 years. After windfall radial growth of undergrowth increased 2 times in Piceetum hylocomiosum and 7.7 times in Pinetum cladinosum. Height increment of spruce and fir understorey increased 2.2–2.6 times in spruce forest. As compared with undisturbed ecosystems height increment of pine understorey is 1.2–2.0 times higher on windbreak in Pinetum cladinosum.

  7. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  8. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W.; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W.; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme r...

  9. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  10. Leader growth in Nordman fir christmas trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Jerram; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought......Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought...

  11. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in spruce forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the impact of these disturbances and forestry practices on collembolan community distribution and structure four years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The present study shows the negative impact of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance three years after the event. Moreover, we found out that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.

  12. Canopy gap dynamics of second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentch, J.S.; Schuler, T.M.; Nowacki, G.J.; Beane, N.R.; Ford, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration requires an understanding of the natural disturbance regime of the target community and estimates of the historic range of variability of ecosystem components (composition, structure, and disturbance processes). Management prescriptions that support specific restoration activities should be consistent with these parameters. In this study, we describe gap-phase dynamics of even-aged, second-growth red spruce-northern hardwood stands in West Virginia that have been significantly degraded following early Twentieth Century harvesting and wildfire. In the current stage of stand development, gaps tended to be small, with mean canopy gap and extended canopy gap sizes of 53.4m2 and 199.3m2, respectively, and a canopy turnover rate of 1.4%year-1. The majority of gaps resulted from the death of one or two trees. American beech snags were the most frequent gap maker, partially due to the elevated presence of beech-bark disease in the study area. Gaps ranged in age from 1 to 28 years, had a mean of 13 years, and were unimodal in distribution. We projected red spruce to be the eventual gap filler in approximately 40% of the gaps. However, we estimated that most average-sized gaps will close within 15-20 years before red spruce canopy ascension is projected (30-60 years). Accordingly, many understory red spruce will require more than one overhead release - an observation verified by the tree-ring record and consistent with red spruce life history characteristics. Based on our observations, silvicultural prescriptions that include overhead release treatments such as thinning from above or small gap creation through selection harvesting could be an appropriate activity to foster red spruce restoration in the central Appalachians. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Analysis of natural regeneration in declining spruce forests on the Slovak part of the Beskydy Mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kulla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with regeneration processes in unnatural spruce forest ecosystems in the Beskydy mts. (North-Western Slovakia, declining due to so called "new type of spruce decline". On 510 sample plots along the transects allocated across the most affected areas, site-related, stand-related data and data about natural regeneration were collected in years 2007--2008. Relations between coverage and vitality of regeneration and main ecological factors were analyzed using multidimensional statistical methods. Results show that declining spruce forests are able regenerate spontaneously, but rather by small-scale dynamics in the gaps and under canopy. When intensive damage and larger new-formed clearings occurred, some unfavorable tendencies in regeneration were indicated. Norway spruce continues to have the highest proportion in regeneration, followed by European beech that expands to a much higher occurrence and coverage than it has in mature stands, Silver fir is present in a lower frequency, but as a steady admixture. The main factors controlling regeneration in general are stand age, canopy closure and the presence of tree species in a mature stand; the influence of other factors seem to be less important and differs between tree species according to their ecological demands.

  14. Fate of spinosad in litter and soils of a white spruce plantation in central Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dean G; Harris, Brenda J; Buscarini, Teresa M; Chartrand, Derek T

    2002-04-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with potential as a novel biorational control agent for spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem]), the most destructive insect defoliator of spruce and balsam fir in Canada. Concurrent terrestrial fate experiments were conducted under full coniferous canopy and in a natural opening of a mature white spruce (Piecea glauca [Moench]) plantation of central Ontario to examine the fate and persistence of spinosad in the forest floor and underlying soils. Mean initial residues of spinosyn A and D were approximately 0.2 and 0.02 microgram g-1, respectively, in thatch and exposed soils, but were substantially higher, 2.72 and 0.36 micrograms g-1, in litter under coniferous canopy. Results demonstrated that spinosad residues in spruce litter, graminaceous thatch and exposed sandy loam soils dissipated rapidly, following hyperbolic or exponential decline models. Dissipation time (DT50) values ranged from 2.0 to 7.8 days, depending on matrix and experimental conditions. Transient increases in demethylated metabolite residues confirmed that the parent product was degraded in situ. No evidence of vertical mobility of any of the analytes was observed. PMID:11975189

  15. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assimilation of labelled NH4+ into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH4+ feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH4+ fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of 15N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the 15N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited

  16. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  17. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2011-01-01

    hemicelluloses being most sensitive to thermal degradation. The chemical changes had a negative impact, both on the pelletizing process and the pellet properties. Torrefaction resulted in higher friction in the press channel of the pellet press and low compression strength of the pellets. Fracture surface...... analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids...

  18. Cancer Mortality in Rural Appalachian Kentucky. Appalachian Data Bank Report #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Thomas C.; And Others

    This report compares cancer mortality rates in rural Appalachian Kentucky with rates for rural non-Appalachian Kentucky and the U.S. white population. Rural Appalachian Kentucky differs from the rest of rural Kentucky in having a younger, poorer, less educated population with greater employment in mining as opposed to agriculture, and with less…

  19. The impact of Site Changes and Management Methods on Dieback of Common Spruce (Picea abies Karst. in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Matić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Common spruce (Picea abies Karst. is a tree species that occurs naturally in the valleys and other frost sites in high mountain regions, where it is free of serious competition of other tree species. Being resistant to frost, the winter colds of the continental and mountainous climate suit it. It is highly tolerant of winter chills of the continental and mountainous climate, it likes areas with abundant precipitation and snow in particular and avoids those with little precipitation and low relative air humidity. In Croatia, it naturally occurs in high mountain areas of Gorski Kotar, Velebit and other parts of Lika, and especially in frost spots where it is free of competition with other tree species. In Europe, spruce is a favourite tree species for the establishment of forest cultures. It has the properties of both pioneer and transitional tree species. It is highly sensitive to summer droughts. During its growth, in its habitats it creates the conditions for the development of tree species of a climatogenous forest. It develops in regular and uneven-aged stands, while its percentage in selection stands with stable structural and stand conditions is lower. The total growing stock amounts to 13,200,000 m³, which accounts for 5.57 m³/ha of the forested area in Croatia. Its volume share in the highest age and diameter classes is 80%, which indicates its advanced age and physiological weakening. Regular and uneven-aged spruce forests of high silvicultural form cover an area of 6,300 ha, of which spruce accounts for 52% in the composition mixture, silver fir for 35%, common beech for 11%, and other species for 2%. Spruce is currently significantly affected by dieback; at the level of Croatia, the percentage of defoliated crowns is 59.3%, while in the Gorski Kotar area alone it is 96.2%. Droughts are one of the most important factors contributing to the physiological weakening and dieback of spruce in Croatia, while in Europe they are the major

  20. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  1. Spruce Beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) Outbreak in Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannil) in Central Utah, 1986-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Dymerski, Alan D; Anhold, John A; Munson, Allen S

    2001-01-01

    Extensive Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) mortality caused by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) has been occurring at the southern end of the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah. This spruce beetle outbreak is the largest recorded in Utah history. An extensive ground survey was conducted in 1996 on the Manti-LaSal National Forest, Sanpete and Ferron Ranger Districts, to document mortality and impact of a major spruce beetle outbreak on post-outbreak forest co...

  2. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. (Univ. of nancy, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Stewart, G. (University College, London (England))

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  3. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  4. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  5. Spruce budworm biological and nutritional performance responses to varying levels of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbasli M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dose effect of six monoterpenes (α-pinene, bornyl acetate, camphene, δ-3-carene, terpinolene, tricyclene found in the foliage of host trees was tested on sixth-instar spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem. using artificial diet. The larval mortality, growth and food utilization have been observed. Two monoterpenes, α-pinene and δ-3-carene caused 22 and 12% mortality respectively at concentrations found in balsam fir foliage. Bornyl acetate and camphene reduced larval survival when their concentration was higher than the foliage. Terpinolene and tricyclene have no effect on mortality. All six tested monoterpenes reduced larval growth rate. Spruce budworm tried to minimize this negative growth impact by increasing his digestibility in presence of camphene and δ-3-carene, and by increasing his efficiency of conversion of ingested-digested food with α-pinene and bornyl acetate. These results support the traditional theory that monoterpenes are a defense agent against spruce budworm and that each monoterpene has a different mode of action and effects which are not necessarily proportional to its concentration.

  6. Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway spruce defoliation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstroem, H.

    1999-02-01

    Satellite based remote sensing supported by air photo and field surveys, provide a means to area covering forest health assessment on a regional scale. Landsat TM data has been extensively used in studies of spruce and fir defoliation in Europe and North America. The temporal coverage of Landsat TM in combination with cloudiness however restrict the availability of data. In this study the LISS-3 sensor onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the central part of Sweden. The near infrared wavelength band proved to be best correlated with mean stand defoliation. After normalisation of satellite data for topographic conditions, the correlation coefficient increased from -0,19 to -0,83. Normalising satellite data for species composition did not improve the results though. The correction coefficients involved in the procedure were originally developed for Landsat TM, and proved to be inadequate for the LISS-3 data set. A thorough examination of the effects of species composition on LISS-3 data is needed to yield better results. The correlation between observed defoliation in the verification stands and predicted (based on the inverse regression function between corrected NIR values and defoliation in reference stands) was 0,70, despite a very limited range of defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to Landsat TM for spruce defoliation studies, although the results would probably not be significantly improved 49 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  7. SOIL AIR CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN A NEW ENGLAND SPRUCE-FIR FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and modeling efforts to evaluate soil-soil solution chemical interactions must take into account solution equilibria with soil air CO2. Measurements of soil air CO2 and soil temperature were made in the major horizons of a forest soil in eastern Maine through the 1985 gr...

  8. Field testing of thermal canopy models in a spruce-fir forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technology allow the use of the thermal infrared region to gain information about vegetative surfaces. Extending existing models to account for thermal radiance transfers within rough forest canopies is of paramount importance. This is so since all processes of interest in the physical climate system and biogeochemical cycles are thermally mediated. Model validation experiments were conducted at a well established boreal forest; northern hardwood forest ecotone research site located in central Maine. Data was collected to allow spatial and temporal validation of thermal models. Emphasis was placed primarily upon enhancing submodels of stomatal behavior, and secondarily upon enhancing boundary layer resistance submodels and accounting for thermal storage in soil and vegetation.

  9. Low-Noise-Far-Infrared (FIR) Receiver tasks: FIR laser development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Low-Noise Far-Infrared (FIR) Receiver program for FIR laser development were established with the particular goal of improving magnetic fusion diagnostics in tokamak fusion reactors. Development of both FIR sources and receivers can greatly benefit such programs studying controlled nuclear fusion by providing vital data on particle velocity (temperature) and density through scattering measurements. The Department of Energy (DOE), through the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), has funded The Aerospace Corporation to design and implement state-of-the-art techniques in the FIR/near-millimeter-wave spectral region. Specific areas of interest to DOE are portable FIR lasers, near-millimeter-wave mixers, solid-state sources, and the integration of these areas into advanced diagnostic tools for plasma studies. This report documents the work accomplished in those areas of interest

  10. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrefaction is a thermo-chemical conversion process improving the handling, storage and combustion properties of wood. To save storage space and transportation costs, it can be compressed into fuel pellets of high physical and energetic density. The resulting pellets are relatively resistant to moisture uptake, microbiological decay and easy to comminute into small particles. The present study focused on the pelletizing properties of spruce torrefied at 250, 275 and 300 °C. The changes in composition were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and chemical analysis. The pelletizing properties were determined using a single pellet press and pellet stability was determined by compression testing. The bonding mechanism in the pellets was studied by fracture surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy. The composition of the wood changed drastically under torrefaction, with hemicelluloses being most sensitive to thermal degradation. The chemical changes had a negative impact, both on the pelletizing process and the pellet properties. Torrefaction resulted in higher friction in the press channel of the pellet press and low compression strength of the pellets. Fracture surface analysis revealed a cohesive failure mechanism due to strong inter-particle bonding in spruce pellets as a resulting from a plastic flow of the amorphous wood polymers, forming solid polymer bridges between adjacent particles. Fracture surfaces of pellets made from torrefied spruce possessed gaps and voids between adjacent particles due to a spring back effect after pelletization. They showed no signs of inter-particle polymer bridges indicating that bonding is likely limited to Van der Waals forces and mechanical fiber interlocking. -- Highlights: ► Thermal degradation of wood polymers increased with torrefaction temperature. ► Utilization of torrefied wood increased the friction in the press channel of a pellet mill. ► Pellets compression stability decreased with increasing

  11. Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Faccoli; Iris Bernardinelli

    2014-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012) on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1) pure spruce plantations; (2) pure spruce reforestations; (3) pure spruce mountain forests; (4) pure spruce alpine forests; (5) spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6) spruce-broad...

  12. FIR galaxies with compact radio cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, R.; Biermann, P. L.; Kreysa, E.; Kuhr, H.; Mezger, P. G.; Schmidt, J.; Witzel, A.; Zensus, J. A.

    1987-07-01

    Comparing the IRAS point-source catalog (1985) with sources detected in a VLBI extragalactic radio source survey (Zensus et al., 1984), five FIR sources are found which all show compact radio cores. These objects have been observed with the 30-m MRT at Pico Veleta (Spain) at 1.2-mm wavelength to provide spectral coverage between IRAS and radio bands. The two galaxies among the five sources have luminosities of order 10 to the 12th solar luminosities in the FIR and thus may be super star bursters similar to Arp 220. On the other hand, all five objects have active galactic nuclei, and so the FIR luminosities may be powered by the nuclear activity. Since flat-spectrum radio sources have compact nuclear components, the 1-Jy catalog and its extension to lower flux densities (Kuehr et al., 1979 and 1981) are compared with the IRAS catalog, and a small number of additional active nuclei with strong emission in the FIR are identified. These objects can serve to study the competition between starbursts and nuclear activity to explain high FIR luminosities.

  13. Area Efficient Parallel FIR Digital Filter Structures of Even Length Based on Fast FIR Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Sreenivasulu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces novel parallel FIR filter structures which are advantageous to symmetric coefficient in the reduction of hardware cost , based, on“Fast finite impulse response (FIR, algorithms” (FFA,under the condition that number of taps is multiple of two or three. The novel parallel finite impulse response determines the inherent nature of symmetric coefficients which reduces the half of the required multiplier in sub filter block at additional increase of adders in pre processing and post processing blocks .Interchanging multipliers with adders is profitable because multipliers occupy more silicon area compared to that of adders which occupy less silicon area .and also additional increase adders ,stay fixed only in preprocessing and post processing blocks they do not in the subfilter section. For example for a 2 parallel 24 tap FIR filter the proposed structure save 6 multipliers at expense of 2 adders for a 3 parallel 24 tap FIR filter the proposed structure saves 6 multipliers at expense of 7 adders and for a 4 parallel 24 tap FIR filter the proposed structure saves 9 multipliers at the expense of 11 adders. The advantage of novel parallel FIR filter structures is that the more number of multipliers are saved as the length of the FIR filter increases.

  14. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  15. Heterobasidion root rot in Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its biological and economic impact on Swedish forestry, root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu lato has received no or little attention in forest planning. This thesis summarizes and discusses two experiments involving prophylactic treatment of stumps, and three investigations on the modelling and simulation of root rot in coniferous stands with special emphasis on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). In 14 previously unthinned stands of Norway spruce, the...

  16. White Spruce Regeneration Following a Major Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Forests on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1987 and 2000, a spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic infested 1.19 million hectares of spruce (Picea spp.) forests in Alaska, killing most of the large diameter trees. We evaluated whether these forests would recover to their pre-outbreak density, and determined the site conditi...

  17. Forest decline in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Research and observations: 1983-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An insect and desease survey initiated in 1985 on 100 permanent plots has yielded little significant pathology or insect infestation. With the exception the balsam wooly adelgid, few signs or symptoms of disease or insect attack were noted on either Fraser fir or red spruce populations. Cultures from destructively-sampled root systems yielded few significant pathogens that could be attributed to decline symptoms. Measurements of throughfall in 1986 yielded estimates of total wet deposition for NO-3 and SO4-2 of 25 and 75 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Cloud and rain water was dominated by H+, NH+4, NO-3, and SO4-2 ions. Interaction with the forest canopy resulted in an enrichment of throughfall with base cations (K+, Ca+2, and MG+2) and a loss of H+ and NH+4. Mean-volume-weighted pH for throughfall was 3.9. The effects of simulated acidic cloud water on the epicuticular waxes of red spruce needles were studied during the summer of 1987. The cuticle proper of both 1986 and 1987 needles did not appear to be damaged by the treatments. The wax crystals which consititute the stomatal wax plugs, however, exhibited substantial degradation by simulated treatments at or below pH 3.5. (orig./VT)

  18. Active beamforming with interpolated FIR filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan, P.P.; Weng, Ching-Chih

    2010-01-01

    The interpolated FIR (IFIR) radar was recently introduced in the context of MIMO radar theory. It was shown that this system has a signal to clutter ratio intermediate between those of the SIMO and MIMO radars. This paper considers the optimal design of the active IFIR beamformer in presence of jammers. It is shown that this beamformer can achieve beamwidths as sharp as those of colocated MIMO radars with full-length virtual arrays. At the same time, the extra complexity ...

  19. The International Appalachian Trail: the ancient Appalachians as ambassador of the geosciences to modern societies

    OpenAIRE

    Marvinney, R.G.; Anderson, W. A.; Barron, H.F.; Hernandez, R. (Roberto)

    2014-01-01

    Throughout human history, the geological foundation of our landscape has determined the location of settlements, trade routes, and human migratory paths, inextricably linking our culture to geology. The International Appalachian Trail (IAT) addresses our common geoheritage by establishing a long-distance walking trail that extends beyond borders to all geographic regions once connected by the “Appalachian Mountain” range, formed more than 300 million years ago on the super-continent Pangaea....

  20. Understory Structure and Vascular Plant Diversity in Naturally Regenerated Deciduous Forests and Spruce Plantations on Similar Clear-Cuts: Implications for Forest Regeneration Strategy Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiQiang Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active effect of natural regeneration on understory vegetation and diversity on clear-cut forestlands, in contrast to conifer reforestation, is still controversial. Here we investigated differences in understory vegetation by comparing naturally regenerated deciduous forests (NR and reforested spruce plantations (SP aged 20–40 years on 12 similar clear-cuts of subalpine old-growth spruce-fir forests from the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We found that 283 of the 334 vascular plant species recorded were present in NR plots, while only 264 species occurred in SP plots. This was consistent with richer species, higher cover, and stem (or shoot density of tree seedlings, shrubs, and ferns in the NR plots than in the SP plots. Moreover, understory plant diversity was limited under dense canopy cover, which occurred more frequently in the SP plots. Our findings implied that natural deciduous tree regeneration could better preserve understory vegetation and biodiversity than spruce reforestation after clear-cutting. This result further informed practices to reduce tree canopy cover for spruce plantations or to integrate natural regeneration and reforestation for clear-cuts in order to promote understory vegetation and species diversity conservation.

  1. Appalachian versus non-Appalachian US traffic fatalities, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Zhao, Songzhu; Gurka, Kelly K.; Kandati, Sahiti; Coben, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Though myriad health disparities exist in Appalachia, limited research has examined traffic fatalities in the region. This study compared traffic-fatality rates in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian US. Methods Fatality Analysis Reporting System and Census data from 2008-2010 were used to calculate traffic-fatality rates. Poisson models were used to estimate unadjusted (RR) and adjusted rate ratios (aRR), controlling for age, sex, and county-specific population density levels. Results: The Appalachian traffic-fatality rate was 45% (95% CI: 1.42, 1.47) higher than the non-Appalachian rate. Though only 29% of fatalities occur in rural counties in non-Appalachia versus 48% in Appalachia, rates in rural counties were similar (RR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.00). However, the rate for urban, Appalachian counties was 42% (95% CI: 1.38, 1.45) higher than among urban, non-Appalachian counties. Appalachian rates were higher for passenger-vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and all-terrain-vehicle riders, regardless of rurality, as well as for passenger-vehicle passengers overall and for urban counties. Conversely, Appalachia experienced lower rates among pedestrians and bicyclists, regardless of rurality. Conclusions Disparities in traffic fatality rates exist in Appalachia. Though elevated rates are partially explained by the proportion of residents living in rural settings, overall rates in urban Appalachia were consistently higher than in urban non-Appalachia. PMID:23619016

  2. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  3. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  4. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    OpenAIRE

    T. T. Efremova; A. F. Avrova; S. P. Efremov

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss)-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm) with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha), which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, w...

  5. Organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, G.; Johansen, C.; Grøn, C.

    1998-01-01

    Deposition of dissolved organic halogens by throughfall was determined in a small spruce forest site in Denmark (56 degrees 28'N, 8 degrees 24'E). The mean annual deposition of dissolved organic halogens was 377 g ha(-1)yr(-1), and larger than the general deposition by precipitation. No...... concentrations were higher during the growing season than during the dormant season. This indicates that the major part of the organic carbon and organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall originates from canopy leachates or other internal sources. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  6. Molecular clouds photoevaporation and FIR line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, L; Pallottini, A; Gallerani, S

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of improving predictions on the far infrared (FIR) line emission from Giant Molecular Clouds (GMC), we have studied the effects of photoevaporation (PE) produced by external far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ionizing (extreme-ultraviolet, EUV) radiation on the GMC structure. Our model includes: (i) an observationally-based inhomogeneous GMC density field, and (ii) its time evolution during the PE process. We find that the photoevaporation timescale, $t_{pe}$, of a typical GMC ($M_{\\rm GMC}=9 \\times 10^{4}\\,\\rm{M_{\\odot}}$) is in the range $1-30$ Myr, for gas metallicity $Z=0.05-1\\,\\rm Z_{\\odot}$, respectively. At fixed metallicity, $t_{pe}$ decreases for higher FUV fluxes, $G_0$, due to the larger temperature of the photodissociation region (PDR). The presence of EUV radiation is important at $Z<0.2\\,\\rm{Z_{\\odot}}$, when the size of the HII layer becomes comparable to the cloud radius. We then compute the time-dependent luminosity (for which we give fitting formulae) of several key FIR lines ([CII], ...

  7. Effect of Continuous Plantation of Chinese Fir on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGYING-XIANG; CHENJIN-LIN

    1995-01-01

    The changes in soil fertility under continuous plantation of Chinese fir were studied by comparing soil samples from different forest stands:the first and second plantations of Chinese fir,evergreen broad-leaved forests,and clear-cut and burnt Chinese fir land located at Xihou Village,Nanping of Fujian Province.The soils were humic red soil originated from weathered coarse granite of the Presinian system.Soil pH,CEC,base saturation ,exchangeable Ca2+,exchangeable Mg2+ and A1-P declined after continuous plantation of Chinese fir.The same trends were also found in the soils under broad-leaved stands and slash burnt lands.The explantation was that not merely the biological nature of the Chinese fir itself but the natural leaching of nutrients,soil erosion and nutrient losses due to clear cutting and slash burning of the preceduing plantation caused the soil deterioration .Only some of main soil nutrients decreased after continuous plantation of Chinese fir,depending on specific silvicultural system,which was different from the conclusions in some other reports which showed that all main nutrients,such as OM,total N,available P and available K decreased,Some neccessary step to make up for the lost base,to apply P fertilizer and to avoid buring on clear cut lands could be taken to prevent soil degradation and yield decline in the system of continuous plantation of Chinese fir.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchensi...s_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+si...tchensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NS ...

  9. Polypores on Spruce in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Poroid species of wood-inhabiting fungi growing on spruce (Picea koraiensis Nakai or Picea yezoensis (Sieb. & Zucc.) Carriere) in Northeast China were investigated during 1993-2002, and 71 species were recorded from these trees or their wood. Skeletocutis lilacina A. David & Jean Keller and Skeletocutis papyracea A. David are new to China. Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw.:Fr.) P. Karst., Onnia leporina (Fr.) H. Jahn, Perenniporia subacida (Peck) Donk, Phaeolus sckweinitzii (Fr.:Fr.) Pat., Phellinidium sulphuras...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: white spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available white spruce Picea glauca Picea_glauca_L.png Picea_glauca_NL.png Picea_glauca_S.png Picea_glau...ca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=L http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+glauca&t=NS ...

  11. 7 CFR 1005.2 - Appalachian marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appalachian marketing area. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA...

  12. Effect of Allelochemicals of Chinese—fir root extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction on Chinese fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINSi-zu; CAOGuang-qiu; DULing; WANGAi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root was extracted by technology of supercritical CO2 extraction under orthogonal experiment design, and it was used to analyze allelopathic activity of Chinese-fir through bioassay of seed germination, The results showed that as to the available rate of allelochemicals, the pressure and temperature of extraction were the most im-portant factors, The allelochemicals of Chinese-fir root extracted by pure CO2 and ethanol mixed with CO2 have different al-lelopathic activities to seed germination, and the allelochemicals extracted by ethanol mixed with CO2 had stronger inhibitory effects on seed Qermination than that extracted by pure CO2.

  13. Remote sensing of spruce budworm defoliation using EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data: an example in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Each year, the spruce budworm (SBW) causes severe, widespread damage to spruces and fir in east coast Canada. Early estimation of the defoliation can provide crucial support to mitigate the socio-economic impact on vulnerable forests. Remote sensing techniques are suitable to investigate the affected regions that usually consist of large and inaccessible forestry areas. Using satellite images, surface reflectance values at two or more wavelengths are combined to generate vegetation indices (VIs), revealing a relative abundance of features of interest. Forest health analysis based on VIs is considered as one of the primary information sources for monitoring vegetation conditions. Especially the spectral resolution of Hyperion hyperspectral satellite imagery used in this study allows for a detailed examination of the red to near-infrared portion of the spectrum to identify areas of stressed vegetation. Several narrow-band vegetation indices are used to indicate the overall amount and quality of photosynthetic material and moisture content in vegetation. By integrating the information from VIs that focus on different aspects of overall health and vigour in forested areas, the study aims at detecting defoliated condition in a forested region in the Province of Quebec, Canada. In June and August of 2014 two Hyperion images were acquired by NASA's EO-1 satellite for this study. Changes in vegetation health and vigour are observed and quantitatively compared using the multi-temporal remote sensing images. The experimental results suggest that the VI- based forest health analysis is effective in estimating SBW defoliation in the study area.

  14. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  15. Visual-FIR for ozone modeling and prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Nebot Castells, M. Àngela; Múgica, Violeta; Escobet Canal, Antoni

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in urban areas, being extremely critical in Mexico City. The main air pollution problem that has been identified in Mexico City metropolitan area is the formation of photochemical smog, primarily ozone. The study and development of modeling methodologies that allow the capturing of time series behavior becomes an important task. The present work aims to develop Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning (FIR) models using the Visual-FIR platfor...

  16. Effect of FIR Fluxes on Constraining Properties of YSOs

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Ji-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Jeong, Woong-Seob

    2010-01-01

    Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in the early evolutionary stages are very embedded, and thus they emit most of their energy at long wavelengths such as far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter (Submm). Therefore, the FIR observational data are very important to classify the accurate evolutionary stages of these embedded YSOs, and to better constrain their physical parameters in the dust continuum modeling. We selected 28 YSOs, which were detected in the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS), from the Sp...

  17. A revision of the genus Odontolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (Leujeuneaceae, Hepaticae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwen, M.

    1988-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is presented for the epiphyllous liverwort genus Odontolejeunea (Lejeuneaceae subf. Ptychantoideae). Three species are accepted: O. decemdentata (Spruce) Steph.; O. lunulata (Web.) Schiffn. and O. rhomalea (Spruce) Steph. All three species occur in tropical America, and O. lunul

  18. A revision of the genus Odontolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (Leujeuneaceae, Hepaticae)

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuwen, M

    1988-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is presented for the epiphyllous liverwort genus Odontolejeunea (Lejeuneaceae subf. Ptychantoideae). Three species are accepted: O. decemdentata (Spruce) Steph.; O. lunulata (Web.) Schiffn. and O. rhomalea (Spruce) Steph. All three species occur in tropical America, and O. lunulata occurs also in tropical Africa.

  19. SPRUCE Discovery Manual, 169 Investigations Indoors and Outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    Contained are instructional materials developed by the Science Project Related to Upgrading Conservation Education ("SPRUCE"). It is designed for use with the SPRUCE "Discovery Box" and contains twenty-one sets of investigations based on the twenty-one packets of specimens in the box; three sets are recommended for each of Grades K through 6. Each…

  20. Changes in the Content of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Cytokinins in Spruce, Fir and Oak Trees after Herbicide Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matschke, J.; Macháčková, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2002), s. 375-382. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1354; GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Abies nordmanniana * anatomical changes * forest decline Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2002

  1. Factors Influencing Understory Seedling Establishment of Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii) and Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in Southeast Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Alan K; Smith, William K.

    1982-01-01

    Although trees of Picea engelmannii were more abundant and had a greater basal area in the overstorey than those of Abies lasiocarpa at two study sites, saplings and seedlings of A. lasioscarpa were more numerous in the understorey. Field measurements in the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeast Wyoming showed that seedlings of A. lasiocarpa had greater photosynthetic rates at low understorey light levels and required lower levels of incident radiation for saturation of photosynthesis than thos...

  2. Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areas such as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signal processing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamental properties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of the noise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presents design, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMS algorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.

  3. Performance Analysis of LMS Adaptive FIR Filter and RLS Adaptive FIR Filter for Noise Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna Yadav

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adaptive filters continues to grow as they begin to find practical real-time applications in areassuch as channel equalization, echo cancellation, noise cancellation and many other adaptive signalprocessing applications. The key to successful adaptive signal processing understands the fundamentalproperties of adaptive algorithms such as LMS, RLS etc. Adaptive filter is used for the cancellation of thenoise component which is overlap with undesired signal in the same frequency range. This paper presentsdesign, implementation and performance comparison of adaptive FIR filter using LMS and RMSalgorithms. MATLAB Simulink environment are used for simulations.

  4. FIR line emission from high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vallini, Livia; Ferrara, Andrea; Baek, Sunghye

    2013-01-01

    By combining high resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations of z~6 galaxies with a sub-grid multi-phase model of their interstellar medium we derive the expected intensity of several far infrared (FIR) emission lines ([C II] 158 micron, [O I] 63 micron, and [N II] 122 micron) for different values of the gas metallicity, Z. For Z = Z_sun the [C II] spectrum is very complex due to the presence of several emitting clumps of individual size < 3 kpc; the peak is displaced from the galaxy center by ~100 km/s. While the [O I] spectrum is also similarly displaced, the [N II] line comes predominantly from the central ionized regions of the galaxy. When integrated over ~500 km/s, the [C II] line flux is 185 mJy km/s; 95% of such flux originates from the cold (T~250 K) H I phase, and only 5% from the warm (T~5000 K) neutral medium. The [O I] and [N II] fluxes are ~6 and ~90 times lower than the [C II] one, respectively. By comparing our results with observations of Himiko, the most extended and luminous...

  5. Cs-137 content in a spruce stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cs-137 content of a spruce stand was investigated in soil, plant and animal biomasses of a 100 m. 100 m permanent study-site. The total content was 119 kBq.m-2. Most of all, 82.7% were found in soil, of that about 59.5% were bound in the 4 cm thick humus layer. The Cs-137 content of the above growing plant-biomass was 13050 Bq.m-2, these are 11.1% of the total. The Cs-137 contribution, bound in animal biomass was insignificant small. (orig.)

  6. Knowledge and Perceptions of Diabetes in an Appalachian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Rye, MS; Shannon L. Smith, MA; Irene Tessaro, MA, MSN, DrPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Qualitative research on knowledge and perceptions of diabetes is limited in the Appalachian region, where social, economic, and behavioral risk factors put many individuals at high risk for diabetes. The aim of this study was to gain a culturally informed understanding of diabetes in the Appalachian region by 1) determining cultural knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of diabetes among those who live in the region; 2) identifying concerns and barriers to care for those with diabet...

  7. Norway spruce and spruce shoot aphid as indicators of traffic pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production Research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Two-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) seedlings were exposed to traffic emissions along roadsides with three different traffic densities and speed limits; highway, street and a quiet local road. The responses of the exposed seedlings as a host plant and those of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) were studied. The concentrations of soluble N and free amino acids, defence chemicals (total phenolics, monoterpenes) were analysed, and aphid growth and reproduction were studied. Along the highway, street and at the local road control site, the atmospheric concentrations of black carbon (BC) and oxides of N (NO{sub x}) were measured for 1 week during the experiment. The BC data indicate deposition of organic particulate compounds along the highway and street. The NO{sub x} concentrations along the highway and street showed great diurnal variation, but the average NO{sub x} concentrations were relatively low. Thus, no changes in N metabolism or growth of the exposed Norway spruce seedlings were found. Along the street, the concentrations of many individual free amino acids, such as proline, as well as total amino acid concentrations, were lower than at the associated control site. Correspondingly, there was also no increase in spruce shoot aphid mean relative growth rate. The aphid reproduction, however, increased along the highway and is suggested to be due to more conducive microclimatic conditions at the exposure site or lack of natural enemies. No changes in defence chemicals (total phenolics, monoterpenes) in relation to the traffic exposure were found. Instead, the microclimatic conditions (temperature, solar irradiation) seemed to affect the concentration of total phenolics. (Author)

  8. FIR digital filter-based ZCDPLL for carrier recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Qassim

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse the performance of the newly proposed two-tap FIR digital filter-based first-order zero-crossing digital phase-locked loop (ZCDPLL) in the absence or presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The introduction of the two-tap FIR digital filter widens the lock range of a ZCDPLL and improves the loop's operation in the presence of AWGN. The FIR digital filter tap coefficients affect the loop convergence behaviour and appropriate selection of those gains should be taken into consideration. The new proposed loop has wider locking range and faster acquisition time and reduces the phase error variations in the presence of noise.

  9. FPGA-Based Efficient Programmable Polyphase FIR Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN He; XIONG Cheng-huan; ZHONG Shu-nan; WANG Hua

    2005-01-01

    The modelling, design and implementation of a high-speed programmable polyphase finite impulse response (FIR) filter with field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology are described. This FIR filter can run automatically according to the programmable configuration word including symmetry/asymmetry, odd/even taps, from 32 taps up to 256 taps. The filter with 12 bit signal and 12 bit coefficient word-length has been realized on a Xilinx VirtexⅡ-v1500 device and operates at the maximum sampling frequency of 160 MHz.

  10. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Taranjit Singh; Harvinder Singh Josan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA). FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these charact...

  11. Plant uptake and metabolism - TCA in Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forczek, Sándor; Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Rohlenová, Jana; Schröder, P.

    Germany, 2004, s. 22-23. [Int. Workshop on Forest Decline and Trichloroacetic Acid. Garmisch-Partenkirchen (DE), 24.10.2004-26.10.2004] Keywords : Norway spruce * Trichloroacetic Acid * Microbial degradation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  12. The Spruce System: quality verification of Linux file systems drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Karen, Tsirunyan; Vahram, Martirosyan; Andrey, Tsyvarev

    2012-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the problem of dynamic verification of Linux file system drivers. Alongside with some existing solutions, the Spruce system is presented, which is dedicated to verification of drivers of certain Linux file systems. This system is being developed in the System Programming Laboratory of Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University in Armenia. Spruce provides a large variety of tests for file system drivers. These tests help not only verify the file system functionality, but...

  13. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  14. 76 FR 16236 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... within the Tripoli (HLLL) Flight Information Region (FIR) by all U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial... and national security concerns regarding flight operations in the Tripoli FIR (HLLL). An...

  15. Nordmanns fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach) - From research to production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens Iver

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of the research on somatic embryogenesis in nordmanns fir has until recently been on improving the basic protocols in each step of the process. However, with recent developments, one single set of methods has shown to be effective for production of plants from more than 500 differe...

  16. Power Consumption Models for Decimation FIR Filters in Multistandard Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Grati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decimation filters are widely used in communication-embedded systems. In fact, decimation filters are useful for implementing channel filtering or selection with low-computation complexity requirements. Many multistandard receiver designs that are required in ubiquitous embedded systems are based on a cascade of decimation filter processing. Filter number and implementation architectures have a significant impact on system performances, such as computation complexity, area, throughput, and power consumption. In this work, we present filter power consumption estimation models for FIR filters. Power consumption models were obtained from a large number of FIR filter syntheses using a direct form. Several curves that estimate power consumption were extracted from these synthesis results. Then, we have evaluated the impact of polyphase decomposition on power consumption of FIR filter and compared it with the direct form results. Some tips regarding power consumption were deduced for the polyphase implementation form. The aim of this work is to help a system designer to select an efficient implementation for FIR in terms of power consumption without having to implement and synthesize the different possible solutions. The proposed method is applied for STMicroelectronics libraries 90 nm and 65 nm low power then validated with a use case of multistandard receiver designing.

  17. Critical Path Reduction of Distributed Arithmetic Based FIR Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Badave

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Operating speed, which is reciprocal of critical path computation time, is one of the prominent design matrices of finite impulse response (FIR filters. It is largely affected by both, system architecture as well as technique used to design arithmetic modules. A large computation time of multipliers in conventionally designed multipliers, limits the speed of system architecture. Distributed arithmetic is one of the techniques, used to provide multiplier-free multiplication in the implementation of FIR filter. However suffers from a sever limitation of exponential growth of look up table (LUT with order of filter. An improved distributed arithmetic technique is addressed here to design for system architecture of FIR filter. In proposed technique, a single large LUT of conventional DA is replaced by number of smaller indexed LUT pages to restrict exponential growth and to reduce system access time. It also eliminates the use of adders. Selection module selects the desired value from desired page, which leads to reduce computational time of critical path. Trade off between access times of LUT pages and selection module helps to achieve minimum critical path so as to maximize the operating speed. Implementations are targeted to Xilinx ISE, Virtex IV devices. FIR filter with 8 bit data width of input sample results are presented here. It is observed that, proposed design perform significantly faster as compared to the conventional DA and existing DA based designs.

  18. First Lasing of the CAEP FIR-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Maozhen; Xu, Z

    2005-01-01

    First lasing of the CAEP FIR-FEL at center wavelength 115 μm was observed in March 2005. The facility consists of RF-gun, alpha magnet, L-band SW accelerator, beam transport line, wiggler, optical cavity and measurement system. In this paper, the design consideration, the system layout, some experimental results are introduced.

  19. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  20. Ectomycorrhizal communities associated with silver fir seedlings (Abies alba Mill.) differ largely in mature silver fir stands and in Scots pine forecrops

    OpenAIRE

    Ważny, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    & Context The requirement for rebuilding forecrop stands besides replacement of meadow vegetation with forest plants and formation of soil humus is the presence of a compatible ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community. & Aims This study aims to assess ectomycorrhizal fungi di-versity associated with silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) seedlings regenerating in silver fir stands and Scots pine forecrops. & Methods One-year-old seedlings were sampled in six study sites: three mature fir forests and thr...

  1. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  2. Detecting mistletoe infestation on Silver fir using hyperspectral images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ančić M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver fir is one of the most important commercial and ecological species in Croatia, and is currently the most damaged tree species in Croatian forests. It is increasingly being infested by white mistletoe, whose irrational consumption of water and nutrients contributes to physiological weakening of the tree. Mistletoe may indicate the presence of stress factors in the site and may even cause premature death. The increment of mistletoe-infested trees is lower compared to that of non-infested trees. Hence, these trees should have a cutting priority, while their timber still retains its commercial value. Areas of mistletoe-infested fir forests are expanding; therefore, there is a high correlation between silver fir forest damage and mistletoe distribution, with an almost exponential increase in mistletoe populations. The purpose of this research was to develop an efficient and reliable method of mistletoe detection. Surveying was performed in the mountain area of beech-fir forests, using a hyperspectral scanner. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM classification for 5° proved to be the best classification method. The results were also confirmed by terrestrial validation, i.e. aerial surveying with a non-pilot aircraft from a height of ~30 m above the crowns. The results of this research do not differ significantly from the results obtained with standard ground methods. Limitations of standard ground methods further highlight the importance and efficiency of hyperspectral imagery in mistletoe detection. Furthermore, the first “spectral signatures” - endmembers for fir and mistletoe, were determined, and entered into a spectral library database. The results of this research are applicable primarily in the field of forest management, protection and harvesting, but they can also supply experts in other fields with a basis for explaining various observed phenomena. It outlines some of the possibilities of the application both in scientific and

  3. Study seeks to boost Appalachian gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashland Exploration Inc. and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are trying to find ways to increase gas recovery in the Appalachian basin. They are working together to investigate Mississippian Berea sandstone and Devonian shale in a program designed to achieve better understanding and improved performance of tight natural gas formations in the area. This paper reports that three wells on Ashland Exploration acreage in Pike County, Ky., are involved in the research program. Findings from the first two wells will be used to optimize evaluation and completion of the third well. The first two wells have been drilled. Drilling of the third well was under way at last report. Ashland Exploration has been involved with GRI's Devonian shale research since 1988. GRI's initial focus was on well stimulation because Devonian shale wells it reviewed had much lower recoveries than could be expected, based on estimated gas in place. Research during the past few years was designed to improve the execution and quality control of well stimulation

  4. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction

  5. Characteristics of Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) surviving a spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakuš, R.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Cudlín, Pavel; Blaženec, M.; Ježík, M.; Havlíček, František; Moravec, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2011), s. 965-973. ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06068; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Keywords Norway spruce * Ips typographus * Host selection * Bark beetle attack * Crown geometry Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.685, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/p476l65x8hx72634/

  6. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  7. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  8. 75 FR 39691 - Announcement To Extend the Recommended Determination Preparation Period for the Spruce No. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Announcement To Extend the Recommended Determination Preparation Period for the Spruce No. 1... the Spruce No. 1 Proposed Determination or prepare a Recommended Determination within 30 days...

  9. Assessment of sanitary conditions in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. damaged by spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miezite O

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk. affects tree growth directly and indirectly. Direct injury appears in the form of tissue damage, as insects suck sap from tree phloem. Indirect injury appears as “honeydew”, which results in negative effects on tree growth. Plant sap is saturated with various carbohydrates called photosynthates that are difficult for scaly insects to digest. Therefore it is secreted in excrements, which are subsequently a food source for the black sooty mold (Apiosporium pinophilum Fuckel. The fungus covers needles blocking stomata, causing decreased transpiration and photosynthesis. An inexplicable wither of Norway spruce was reported in Latvia during 2010 due to black sooty mold. However, spruce bud scale was not evident. In 2011, mass propagation of spruce bud scale was observed following the 2010 Norway spruce loss. One objective of this research was to determine if Kraft tree growth classes could be applied to establish the factors responsible for tree foliage damage. Six 21 - 40 year old (second age class Norway spruce stands were evaluated. Two circular sample plots with a 7.98 m radius, and a 200-m2 area were randomly established per each forest stand hectare. Diameter at breast height (dbh, 1.3 m, and height of approximately 30 trees was measured to model a trend. For all trees, Kraft class, and foliage damage level caused by spruce bud scale and black sooty mold were determined. Significant differences were not observed in tree damage levels among stands, however significant differences among damage levels in different Kraft classes were detected (F = 3.45 > Fcrit. = 2.80, α = 0.05 > P = 0.02 found. Overall damage intensity was 29.3 %. Total forestry loss was 1153 LVL (1640 EUR for all surveyed stands (10 ha, and 115 LVL (164 EUR per hectare.

  10. Radio-sensitivity of spruce population progeny in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radio-sensitivity of Picea abies (L.) Karst populations was investigated by comparing the effect of acute irradiation with different Co-60 rates on seed germination and the survival of the seedlings obtained from them. Spruce stands in the Rila, Pirin and Rhodopes, the Balkan, Vitosha and Ossogovo mountains have been studied at 1000 to 2000 m alt. into 200-300 m intervals. The seed material collected from them by individual trees, altitude belts and mountains has been irradiated with 200 krad, 500 krad, 1000 krad, 1500 krad and 7500 krad. The germination capacity of the seeds was calculated in technical germination, absolute germination, germination energy and seed dormancy, while the post-irradiation effect was established in accordance with the survival rate of the seedlings for one- and two-year periods in greenhouses on a sand substrate. Radio-sensitivity of every spruce population depended on its vitality and Vigour. The spruce population in the Rhodope Mountains exhibits highest radio-hardiness, followed by those in the Rila, Central Balkan, Pirin, Vitosha and Ossogovo mountains. Irradiation with 200 krad, and in certain cases with 500 krad, showed a stimulation effect on germination of spruce seeds and the survival rate of the seedlings. LD-50 for spruce seeds, taking into account one- and two-year-old seedlings, was within the 500 to 1000 krad range. (author)

  11. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  12. Cyclotron Resonance Gain for FIR and THz Radiation in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Nightvid

    2016-01-01

    A cyclotron resonance maser source using low-effective-mass conduction electrons in graphene, if successful, would allow for generation of Far Infrared (FIR) and Terahertz (THz) radiation without requiring magnetic fields running into the tens of Tesla. In order to investigate this possibility, we consider a device in which electrons are effectively injected via pumping from the valence band to the conduction band using an infrared (IR) laser source, subsequently gyrate in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the graphene, and give rise to gain for a FIR/THz wave crossing the plane of the graphene. A set of integral expressions is derived by assuming that the non-radiative energy loss processes of the electrons can be adequately represented by a damping force proportional and antiparallel to their momentum. Minimal gain may occur at very short electron damping times of hundreds of femtoseconds.

  13. Noniterative Design of 2-Channel FIR Orthogonal Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez M Elena Domínguez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of obtaining an explicit expression of all real FIR paraunitary filters. In this work, we present a general parameterization of 2-channel FIR orthogonal filters. Unlike other approaches which make use of a lattice structure, we show that our technique designs any orthogonal filter directly, with no need of iteration procedures. Moreover, in order to design an -tap 2-channel paraunitary filterbank, it suffices to choose independent parameters, and introduce them in a simple expression which provides the filter coefficients directly. Some examples illustrate how this new approach can be used for designing filters with certain desired properties. Further conditions can be eventually imposed on the parameters so as to design filters for specific applications.

  14. Reducting Power Dissipation in Fir Filter: an Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Bansal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, three existing techniques, Signed Power-of-Two (SPT, Steepest decent and Coefficient segmentation, for power reduction of FIR filters are analyzed. These techniques reduce switching activity which is directly related to the power consumption of a circuit. In an FIR filter, the multiplier consumes maximum power. Therefore, power consumption can be reduced either by by making the filter multiplier-less or by minimizing hamming distance between the coefficients of this multiplier as it directly translates into reduction in power dissipation [8]. The results obtained on four filters (LP show that hamming distance can be reduced upto 26% and 47% in steepest decent and coefficient segmentation algorithm respectively. Multiplier-less filter can be realized by realizing coefficients in signed power-of-two terms, i.e. by shifting and adding the coefficients, though at the cost of shift operation overhead.

  15. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported

  16. Robust Two-Dimensional FIR Filter Design for Broadband Beamformers

    OpenAIRE

    Nordebo, Sven

    1995-01-01

    With conventional least squares or Chebyshev approximation methods in the design of a fixed, broadband, delay{and{sum beamformer, the filter weight values may become excessively large. This anomaly is due to large, unspecified regions of the corresponding two{dimensional FIR filter frequency plane. With large filter weight values, the frequency response of the resulting beamformer may be severely degraded due to inaccuracies in sensor positions and/or sensor frequency response. For an adaptiv...

  17. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meraim Karim; Kacha Ibrahim; Belouchrani Adel

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR) systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance mat...

  18. The Hardware Design of Parameter-Adjustable FIR Filter System

    OpenAIRE

    Guosheng Xu

    2013-01-01

    This design using FPGA parallel architecture, high computing speed and high-speed reliability of USB2.0 interface, designed an FPGA + USB2.0 + computer FIR digital filter system, organically combining the speed of FPGA and flexibility of Computer through USB2.0 bus. The results demonstrated that the coefficients configuring of the system is easy, which can adjust the filter coefficients flexibly according to the actual demand, that it can effectively filter out the noise signals.

  19. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  20. Excess growing-season water limits lowland black spruce productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, S.; Kolka, R. K.; Bolstad, P. V.; Gill, K.; Curzon, M.; D'Amato, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The annual growth of many tree species is limited by water availability, with growth increasing as water becomes less scarce. In lowland bogs of northern Minnesota, however, black spruce (Picea mariana) is often exposed to excess water via high water table elevations. These trees grow in thick deposits of organic mucky peat and often have shallow rooting systems to avoid the complete submersion of roots in water. While it is generally believed that black spruce decrease growth rates with rising water table elevations, this hypothesis has not been tested in situ. We used a unique, 50-year record of daily bog water table elevations at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) in northern Minnesota to investigate the relationship between climate and black spruce productivity. Nine 1/20th ha circular plots were established in five different bogs and tree height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), and crown class were recorded. Additionally, two perpendicular cores were collected on all trees greater than 10 cm diameter-at-breast-height. Tree cores were sanded, mounted, cross-dated, and de-trended according to standard dendrochronological procedures. Ring width measurements were correlated with precipitation, temperature, and water table elevation using package BootRes in R to determine the climatic variables most associated with stand level productivity. Across the different plots, we found that early growing season water table elevation (May and June) was negatively correlated with both individual and stand-level black spruce growth (p < 0.01), while growth was positively correlated with March temperatures (p < 0.01). No significant relationships existed between black spruce growth and monthly precipitation. If summer water table elevations in these peatland ecosystems rise as is anticipated with more extreme precipitation events due to climate change, we could see an overall decrease in the stand level productivity of black spruce.

  1. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  2. Telecommunications and rural economies: Findings from the Appalachian region

    OpenAIRE

    Strover, Sharon; Oden, Michael; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2001-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure, economic conditions, and federal and state policies and initiatives. It presents a detailed look at the telecommunications environment of the Appalachian region, particularly focusing on broadband technologies. A strong, positive association exists between telecommunications infrastructure and economic status. The effects of federal and state universal service policies are examined, as well as some of the w...

  3. Blacks in Appalachian America: Reflections on Biracial Education and Unionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the coming of Blacks to Appalachia and the general character of their social and cultural development in the region. Focuses on the retreat from biracial education and biracial unionism in the early 1900s and how these failures affected the present status of Appalachian Blacks as some of America's poorest people. (CMG)

  4. Teacher Retention in Appalachian Schools: Evidence from Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Butler, J. S.; Fowles, Jacob; Streams, Megan E.; Toma, Eugenia F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze teacher attrition from Appalachian school districts over nearly twenty years of data. We employ a unique panel of public K-12 teachers active in Kentucky between 1986 and 2005, and discern several patterns of interest to scholars and policymakers. Inter-district mobility is rare in Kentucky, and rarer still among…

  5. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Barbara G.

    2005-01-01

    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  6. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  7. Determination of Fire and Burning Properties of Spruce Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zachar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the determination of selected fire properties of spruce wood. It describes the general characteristics of spruce wood, microscopic and macroscopic features. Broad application of this material requires the assessment of its properties regarding the fire aspects, being a cause of fire in forests or due to frequent occurrence of wildland fires in the Slovak territory, and being a flammable material used in building industry, furniture industry, etc. This paper analyses the following fire properties: flash-ignition temperature, spontaneous ignition temperature, mass burning rate, ignitability of material exposed to a small open flame.

  8. Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

  9. Design of Low Pass Digital FIR Filter Using Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranjit Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of designing linear phase FIR low pass filter using cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA. FIR filter design is a multi-modal optimization problem. The conventional optimization techniques are not efficient for digital filter design. An iterative method is introduced to find the best solution of FIR filter design problem.Flat passband and high stopband attenuation are the major characteristics required in FIR filter design. To achieve these characteristics, a Cuckoo Search algorithm (CSA is proposed in this paper. CSA have been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Results are presented in this paper that seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design

  10. Farrow-structure-based reconfigurable bandpass linear-phase FIR filters for integer sampling rate conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    A class of Farrow-structure-based reconfigurable bandpass finite-length impulse response (FIR) filters for integer sampling rate conversion is introduced. The converters are realized in terms of a number of fixed linear-phase FIR subfilters and two sets of reconfigurable multipliers that determine the passband location and conversion factor, respectively. Both Mth-band and general FIR filters can be realized, and the filters work equally well for any integer factor and passband location. Desi...

  11. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  12. Abies – Circum-Mediterranean firs in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats

    OpenAIRE

    Caudullo, Giovanni; Tinner, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Most European firs occur predominantly in small to medium-sized populations in the Mediterranean region, sometimes with fragmented and limited distributions, except for silver fir (Abies alba). They all are genetically closely related and can easily hybridise, perhaps as a consequence of late speciation during the late Quaternary. Circum-Mediterranean firs occur principally in mountain areas with medium to high precipitations rates which are mostly concentrated during the winter period. The s...

  13. Min-Max Design of FIR Digital Filters by Semidefinite Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahara, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    In this article we consider two problems: FIR (Finite Impulse Response) approximation of IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and inverse FIR filtering of FIR or IIR filters. By means of Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma and its generalization (GKYP), the problems are reduced to semidefinite programming described in linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). MATLAB codes for these design methods are given. An design example shows the effectiveness of these methods.

  14. Production, Application, and Field Performance of AbietivTM, the Balsam Fir Sawfly Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher J. Lucarotti; Benoit Morin; Robert I. Graham; Renée Lapointe

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in the early 1990s, the balsam fir sawfly (Neodiprion abietis) became a significant defoliating insect of precommercially thinned balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) stands in western Newfoundland, Canada. In 1997, a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NeabNPV) was isolated from the balsam fir sawfly and, as no control measures were then available, NeabNPV was developed for the biological control of balsam fir sawfly. In order to register NeabNPV for operational use under the Canadian Pest Control Products Act, research was carried out in a number of areas including NeabNPV field efficacy, non-target organism toxicology, balsam fir sawfly ecology and impact on balsam fir trees, and NeabNPV genome sequencing and analysis. As part of the field efficacy trials, approximately 22 500 hectares of balsam fir sawfly-infested forest were aerially treated with NeabNPV between 2000 and 2005. NeabNPV was found to be safe, efficacious, and economical for the suppression of balsam fir sawfly outbreak populations. Conditional registration for the NeabNPV-based product, Abietiv(, was received from the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (Health Canada) in April 2006. In July 2006, Abietiv was applied by spray airplanes to 15 000 ha of balsam fir sawfly-infested forest in western Newfoundland in an operational control program.

  15. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332. ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Remote-sensed monitoring of norway spruce forest ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Z.; Cudlín, Pavel; Moravec, Ivo

    Jíloviště Strnady : VULHM, 2001, s. 1-6. [INTERNATIONAL CROSS-CALIBRATION COUSCES. Luhačovice (CZ), 18.06.2001-22.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : norway spruce * remote sensing * multiple stress Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  17. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    . The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith and...

  18. A new name for the western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    There currently is considerable confusion as to the correct application of the name Choristoneura occidentalis. This name has historically been applied to the western spruce budworm, a serious forest pest in western North America. However, Razowski (2008) transferred Archips occidentalis into Choris...

  19. POSSIBLE RED SPRUCE DECLINE: CONTRIBUTIONS OF TREE-RING ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In studies of the northeastern red spruce ecosystem, several points evoke some agreement: 1) many high elevation sites exhibit substantial post-1960 mortality that could be due to winter injury; 2) there is widespread pre-1950 growth increase with a subsequent post-l960 growth de...

  20. Tensile strength of glulam laminations of Nordic spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bräuner, Lise; Boström, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    investigation aimed at establishing such an adequate experimental background for the assignment of strength classes for glulam made of visually strength graded laminations from Nordic sawmills. The investigation includes more than 1800 boards (laminations) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) sampled from eight...

  1. Evaluation of Spruce Forest Regeneration and Vegetation Changes

    OpenAIRE

    HREŽÍKOVÁ, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    The impact of a bark beetle outbreak, and the following sanitation management actions, on the mountain spruce forest in the central part of the Šumava Mountains were compared after twelve years of development. The survey was focused on natural regeneration of trees and herb-layer vegetation.

  2. Natural regeneration of mountain spruce forests after windthrow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; Vávrová, Eva; Cudlín, Pavel

    Bratislava : Geofyzikálny ústav SAV, 2007 - (Fleischer, P.; Matejka, F.), s. 1-9 ISBN 978-80-85754-17-9. [International Workshop Windstorm research in TANAP. Tatranská Lomnica (SK), 25.10.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : natural regeneration * windthrow * mountain spruce forest Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  3. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater. PMID:21240722

  4. Acceptability of HPV Vaccine for Males and Preferences for Future Education Programs Among Appalachian Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Paul L.; Oldach, Benjamin R.; Randle, Katherine E.; Katz, Mira L.

    2013-01-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups an...

  5. Cancer Recurrence Worry, Risk Perception, and Informational-Coping Styles among Appalachian Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; DeSimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perc...

  6. Protocol for fir tree sampling for provenance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Thomas; Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic (stable and radiogenic) as well as trace element fingerprinting methods used for tracing the geographical origin, rely on databases, that need to contain data sets representative of the measurands of the individual samples for a specific geographic entity. Through this work, we want to assess different sampling strategies for obtaining representative sample of fir trees (Abies sp.). Motivation for this work is the protection of the local Austrian Christmas tree market from wrongly tagged trees of non-Austrian origin. In particular, we studied three typical Christmas trees the most common species sold as Christmas tree, namely Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann Fir), from the same locality in lower Austria. For the initial tests we applied the elemental fingerprinting method, to study the suitability of the different parts of the tree applying ICP-MS analysis after complete acid digestion in a high pressure asher system (HPA-S).Needle samples from each year of life of the tree and stem wood from three different heights were analyzed for their trace element content to prove the repeatability and to find the best sampling protocol. For the analysis of the needles, the natural wax coating had to be removed in order to get reproducible results. For the analysis of stem wood only the bark was removed. As expected the data of all three trees allowed the differentiation of the individual needle ages, but interestingly enough also between the three sampling heights of the needs. Both needles and wood proved to be suitable for successful fingerprinting, but importantly, provided that sample of the same type and ages are compared. The same samples for the three trees will also be used for isotopic analysis studies to better understand the influence of age and sampling height on the representativeness of fir tree samples. Based on elemental fingerprinting alone, a successful discrimination between local (Austrian) and foreign (Danish, Irish) Christmas trees was possible.

  7. A nonlinear neural fir filter with an adaptive activation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su Goh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive amplitude normalized nonlinear gradient descent (AANNGD algorithm for the class of nonlinear finite impulse response (FIR adaptive filters (dynamical perception is introduced. This is achieved by making the amplitude of the nonlinear activation function gradient adaptive. The proposed learning algorithm is suitable for processing of nonlinear and nonstationary signals with a large dynamical range, and removes the unwanted effect of saturation nonlinearities. For rigor, sensitivity analysis is performed and the improved performance of the AANNGD algorithm over the standard LMS, NGD, NNGD, the fully adaptive NNGD (FANNGD and the sign algorithm is verified by simulations on nonlinear and nonstationary inputs with large dynamics.

  8. Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a "lumped network" as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

  9. Power and Aging Characterization of Digital FIR Filters Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calimera, Andrea; Liu, Wei; Macii, Enrico; Nannarelli, Alberto; Poncino, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    -variation, temperature and aging induced variations pose new challenges in the fabrication of the next generation of ICs. This work presents a detailed power and aging characterization of digital FIR filters in an industrial 45nm CMOS technology, and a design space exploration of different filter architectures with......With technology scaling, newer metrics have been introduced, in addition to delay, area, and power dissipation, to characterize the behavior of digital systems. While dynamic and static power dissipation still remain the most serious concern at nanometer lengths (65nm and below), process...

  10. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surf...

  11. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  12. Tree-ring growth and climate response of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. in Basilicata (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todaro L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A dendroclimatic study on silver fir (Abies alba Mill. was carried out in the Abetina of Ruoti (PZ, Basilicata - southern Italy, a nearly natural mixed Quercus cerris - Silver fir forest. Observations were made on twenty-three large size dominant silver fir trees and dendroecological analyses performed for the period 1866-2007. Results show that late spring/summer precipitations, rather than temperatures, are the most critical factor affecting silver fir growth in this area.

  13. Secondary dispersal of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa ) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, Stephen B.; Borchert, Mark I.; Gworek, Jennifer R.

    2006-07-01

    Large-seeded pines ( Pinus spp.) are known to be dispersed by seed-caching corvids (i.e. jays and nutcrackers) and rodents (e.g. chipmunks and mice), with a concomitant decrease in seed dispersability by wind. We tested the idea that seeds of bigcone Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), which are winged but larger than the seeds of other members of Pseudotsuga, are dispersed by a combination of wind and seed-caching rodents. We compared characteristics of seeds from P. macrocarpa in southern California (mean seed mass 132.6 mg) to seeds of a population of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) in northern California (24.8 mg). We also tested whether rodents would cache seeds of P. macrocarpa. Seeds of P. macrocarpa had greater wing loadings (1.37 mg/mm 2) and descent velocities (2.47 m/s) than those of P. menziesii (0.52 mg/mm 2 and 1.28 m/s, respectively). These data indicate that the wind dispersability of P. macrocarpa is likely to be less than that of P. menziesii, but this loss of wind dispersability is partially compensated for by secondary dispersal of seeds by rodents, which readily gathered and cached the larger seeds of P. macrocarpa up to 34 m from source trees. Large seed size confers several advantages to P. macrocarpa, most importantly attracting seed-caching animals that effectively bury seeds.

  14. POLARIZATION OF FIR EMISSION FROM T-TAURI DISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of 850 gm sub-mm polarization from T-Tauri disks open up the possibility of studying the magnetic eld structure within protostellar disks. The degree of polarization is around 3% and the direction of polarization is perpendicular to the disk. Since thermal emission from dust grains dominates the spectral energy distribution at sub-mm/far-infrared (FIR wavelengths, dust grains are thought to be the cause of the polarization. We discuss grain alignment by radiation and we explore the efficiency of dust alignment in T-Tauri disks. The calculations show that dust grains located far away from the central proto-star are more efficiently aligned. In the presence of a regular magnetic eld, the aligned grains produce polarized emission in sub-mm/FIR wavelengths. The direction of polarization is perpendicular to the local magnetic eld direction. When we use a recent T-Tauri disk model and take a Mathis-Rumpl-Nordsieck-type distribution with maximum grain size of 500{1000 -m, the degree of polarization is around 2{3% level at wavelengths larger than - 100 gm. Our work indicates that multifrequency infrared polarimetric studies of protostellar disks can provide good insights into the details of their magnetic structure. We also provide predictions for polarize emission for disks viewed at di erent wavelengths and viewing angles.

  15. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  16. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  17. Effect of spruce swamp forest drainage and restoration on soil organic matter quality

    OpenAIRE

    MASTNÝ, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of spruce swamp forest drainage and water regime restoration on soil organic matter (SOM) quality. Six localities of spruce swamp forests in Šumava Mountains were studied (2 drained, 2 restored and 2 pristine). SOM quality was affected by long-term drainage. Spruce swamp forest restoration (3-7 years) did not have significant effect on SOM quality although other parameters (pH, bulk density, water level, plant coverage) changed.

  18. Fungal inoculation and methyl jasmonate application induce highly variable terpene accumulation in Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Erbilgin, Nadir; Christiansen, Erik; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about tree chemical defense is vital for developing practical methods to maintain healthy forests. With the aims of characterizing the defensive chemical induction in Norway spruce Picea abies and demonstrating its ecological function to spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, we measured the terpenoid content in the bark of mature Norway spruce trees inoculated with Ceratocystis polonica, or treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and investigated the colonization and pheromone emission ...

  19. Clinal Variation at Phenology-Related Genes in Spruce: Parallel Evolution in FTL2 and Gigantea?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Xu, Nannan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Huotari, Tea; Semerikov, Vladimir L.; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Parallel clines in different species, or in different geographical regions of the same species, are an important source of information on the genetic basis of local adaptation. We recently detected latitudinal clines in SNPs frequencies and gene expression of candidate genes for growth cessation in Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Here we test whether the same clines are also present in Siberian spruce (P. obovata), a close relative of Norway spruce with a different Qu...

  20. Highly informative single-copy nuclear microsatellite DNA markers developed using an AFLP-SSR approach in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (P. rubens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Zhong Shi

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (Picea rubens using a simple but efficient method based on a combination of AFLP and microsatellite technologies.A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from genomic AFLP DNA fragments of black spruce. Sequencing of the 108 putative SSR-containing clones provided 94 unique sequences with microsatellites. Twenty-two of the designed 34 primer pairs yielded scorable amplicons, with single-locus patterns. Fourteen of these microsatellite markers were characterized in 30 black spruce and 30 red spruce individuals drawn from many populations. The number of alleles at a polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 18, with a mean of 9.3 in black spruce, and from 3 to 15, with a mean of 6.2 alleles in red spruce. The polymorphic information content or expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.340 to 0.909 (mean = 0.67 in black spruce and from 0.161 to 0.851 (mean = 0.62 in red spruce. Ten SSR markers showing inter-parental polymorphism inherited in a single-locus Mendelian mode, with two cases of distorted segregation. Primer pairs for almost all polymorphic SSR loci resolved microsatellites of comparable size in Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, P. sitchensis, and P. abies.The AFLP-based microsatellite-enriched library appears to be a rapid, cost-effective approach for isolating and developing single-locus informative genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce. The markers developed should be useful in black spruce, red spruce and other Picea species for

  1. Perimeter Measurement of Spruce Needles Profile Using MRI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtová, E.; Bartušek, Karel

    Cambridge: Electromagnetic Academy, 2009 - (Kong, J.), s. 1128-1131 ISBN 978-1-934142-08-0. ISSN 1559-9450. [Progress in Electromagnetic s Research Symposium 2009 Beijing. Beijing (CN), 23.04.2009-27.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MRI * Spruce Needles Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  2. Sequestration of atmospheric CO2 by the spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havránková, Kateřina; Janouš, Dalibor

    Zvolen : Forest Research Institute, 2001 - (Mind?áš, J.), s. - ISBN 80-88853-44-3. [Perspectives of the ecological research in mountain forest ecosystems. Po ana (SK), 22.10.2001-25.10.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/0485 Grant ostatní: -(BE) EVK2-CT-1999-00032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : carbon fluxes * mountain spruce stand Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Spruce monoculture establishment affects functional traits of soil microarthropod communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Rusek, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 3 (2013), s. 479-486. ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: SGA BF JU(CZ) 30-0004; GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Collembola * spruce * beech Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  4. Exome capture from the spruce and pine giga-genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suren, H; Hodgins, K A; Yeaman, S; Nurkowski, K A; Smets, P; Rieseberg, L H; Aitken, S N; Holliday, J A

    2016-09-01

    Sequence capture is a flexible tool for generating reduced representation libraries, particularly in species with massive genomes. We used an exome capture approach to sequence the gene space of two of the dominant species in Canadian boreal and montane forests - interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmanii) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Transcriptome data generated with RNA-seq were coupled with draft genome sequences to design baits corresponding to 26 824 genes from pine and 28 649 genes from spruce. A total of 579 samples for spruce and 631 samples for pine were included, as well as two pine congeners and six spruce congeners. More than 50% of targeted regions were sequenced at >10× depth in each species, while ~12% captured near-target regions within 500 bp of a bait position were sequenced to a depth >10×. Much of our read data arose from off-target regions, which was likely due to the fragmented and incomplete nature of the draft genome assemblies. Capture in general was successful for the related species, suggesting that baits designed for a single species are likely to successfully capture sequences from congeners. From these data, we called approximately 10 million SNPs and INDELs in each species from coding regions, introns, untranslated and flanking regions, as well as from the intergenic space. Our study demonstrates the utility of sequence capture for resequencing in complex conifer genomes, suggests guidelines for improving capture efficiency and provides a rich resource of genetic variants for studies of selection and local adaptation in these species. PMID:27428061

  5. Effects of thinning on microclimate of a young spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, F.; Janouš, Dalibor; Hurtalová, T.; Rožnovský, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2004), s. 30-38. ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/1561 Grant ostatní: SGA VEGA(SK) 2/2093/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * stand density * air temperature Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.078, year: 2004

  6. The Role of Language in Interactions with Others on Campus for Rural Appalachian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Dialects of English spoken in rural, Southern Appalachia are heavily stigmatized in mainstream American culture, and speakers of Appalachian dialects are often subject to prejudice and stereotypes which can be detrimental in educational settings. We explored the experiences of rural, Southern Appalachian college students and the role speaking a…

  7. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ∼10% and ∼20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0–5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America. (letter)

  8. Fertility of soils under spruce forests of the Khibiny Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, M. A.; Lukina, N. V.; Smirnov, V. E.; Krasnov, D. A.; Kamaev, I. O.

    2012-06-01

    The development of fertility of soils on different parent rocks is considered for different types of spruce forests in the Khibiny Mountains. The spruce forests of Mts. Kuel'por, Vud'yavrchorr, Chil'mana, and Saami were the objects for the study. The results showed that the fertility level of the soils of the Khibiny Mountains was determined by the combined influence of the parent rock's composition and the vegetation. The differences in the soil properties are mainly explained by the composition of the parent rocks. The pod-burs differ from the podzols by the higher contents of organic matter, nitrogen, and available nutrients. The podzols are the most acid soils there. The podburs of Mt Kuel'por developing on base-rich parent rocks are the most fertile. The differences in the fertility of the soils on the intrabiogeocenotic (tessera) level are related to the vegetation. The soils of the spruce and tall-grass tesseras are richer in nitrogen, calcium, and manganese as compared to the soils of the dwarf shrub-green moss, low-grass-dwarf shrub-green moss, and tussock grass-dwarf shrub tesseras.

  9. Modelling of spruce forest decay caused by the European spruce bark beetle in the area of Bohemian Forest using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Brož, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the bark beetle population gradation which resulted in dieback of montane spruce forest in the central part of the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic, during 1991 - 2000. A spatio-temporal model of changing land cover has been made using remote sensing and GIS methods. The statistical analyses have been made using generalized linear models (GLM). The possible effect of various conditions and environmental factors at landscape as well as the stand level has been discussed.

  10. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  11. FIR 1 TRIGA activity inventories for decommissioning planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study has been to estimate the residual activity in the decommissioning waste of TRIGA Mark II type research reactor FiR 1 in Finland. Neutron flux distributions were calculated with Monte Carlo code MCNP. These were used in ORIGEN-S point-depletion code to calculate the neutron induced activity of materials at different time points by modelling the irradiation history and radioactive decay. The knowledge of radioactive inventory of irradiated materials is important in the planning of the decommissioning activities and is essential for predicting the radiological impact to personnel and environment. Decommissioning waste consists mainly of ordinary concrete, aluminium, steel and graphite parts. Results include uncertainties due to assumptions on material compositions and possible diffusion of gaseous nuclides. Comparison to activity inventory estimates of two other decommissioned research reactors is also presented. (authors)

  12. USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR DESIGNING OF FIR DIGITAL FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new technique is presented for the design and optimization of digital FIR filters with coefficients that are presented in canonic signed-digit (CSD format. Since such implementation requires no multipliers, it reduces the hardware cost and lowers the power consumption. The proposed technique considers three goals, the optimum number of coefficients, the optimum wordlength, and the optimum set of coefficients which satisfies the desirable frequency response and ensures the minimum hardware cost by minimizing the number of nonzero digits in CSD representation of the coefficients using Genetic Algorithms (GA. Comparing with equiripple method, the proposed technique results in about 30-40 percent reduction in hardware cost.

  13. Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Ryou, Albert

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to enhancing the bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally canceling acoustical resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) in the open-loop response via an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an inverse filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth down to 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by canceling the ten largest mechanical resonances and anti-resonances of a high-finesse optical resonator, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. This approach is applicable to a broad array of stabilization problems including optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes, and points the way to applying modern optimal control techniques to intricate linear acoustical systems.es to intricate linear acoustical systems.

  14. Fast fringe pattern phase demodulation using FIR Hilbert transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdeisat, Munther; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Arevalillo-Herráez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests the use of FIR Hilbert transformers to extract the phase of fringe patterns. This method is computationally faster than any known spatial method that produces wrapped phase maps. Also, the algorithm does not require any parameters to be adjusted which are dependent upon the specific fringe pattern that is being processed, or upon the particular setup of the optical fringe projection system that is being used. It is therefore particularly suitable for full algorithmic automation. The accuracy and validity of the suggested method has been tested using both computer-generated and real fringe patterns. This novel algorithm has been proposed for its advantages in terms of computational processing speed as it is the fastest available method to extract the wrapped phase information from a fringe pattern.

  15. Active Cancellation of Acoustical Resonances with an FPGA FIR Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Albert; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel approach to enhancing the closed-loop bandwidth of a feedback-controlled mechanical system by digitally cancelling its acoustical resonances and antiresonances with an FPGA FIR filter. By performing a real-time convolution of the feedback error signal with an arbitrary filter, we can suppress arbitrarily many poles and zeros below 100 kHz, each with a linewidth as small as 10 Hz. We demonstrate the efficacy of this technique by cancelling the six largest resonances and antiresonances of a high-finesse optical resonator piezomechanical transfer function, thereby enhancing the unity gain frequency by more than an order of magnitude. More broadly, this approach is applicable to stabilization of optical resonators, external cavity diode lasers, and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  16. A Hardware-Efficient Programmable FIR Processor Using Input-Data and Tap Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsun Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nanoelectronic fabrication have enabled integrated circuits to operate at a high frequency. The finite impulse response (FIR filter needs only to meet real-time demand. Accordingly, increasing the FIR architecture's folding number can compensate the high-frequency operation and reduce the hardware complexity, while continuing to allow applications to operate in real time. In this work, the folding scheme with integrating input-data and tap folding is proposed to develop a hardware-efficient programmable FIR architecture. With the use of the radix-4 Booth algorithm, the 2-bit input subdata approach replaces the conventional 3-bit input subdata approach to reduce the number of latches required to store input subdata in the proposed FIR architecture. Additionally, the tree accumulation approach with simplified carry-in bit processing is developed to minimize the hardware complexity of the accumulation path. With folding in input data and taps, and reduction in hardware complexity of the input subdata latches and accumulation path, the proposed FIR architecture is demonstrated to have a low hardware complexity. By using the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the proposed FIR processor with 10-bit input data and filter coefficient enables a 128-tap FIR filter to be performed, which takes an area of 0.45 mm2, and yields a throughput rate of 20 M samples per second at 200 MHz. As compared to the conventional FIR processors, the proposed programmable FIR processor not only meets the throughput-rate demand but also has the lowest area occupied per tap.

  17. A Hardware-Efficient Programmable FIR Processor Using Input-Data and Tap Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Oscal T-C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in nanoelectronic fabrication have enabled integrated circuits to operate at a high frequency. The finite impulse response (FIR filter needs only to meet real-time demand. Accordingly, increasing the FIR architecture's folding number can compensate the high-frequency operation and reduce the hardware complexity, while continuing to allow applications to operate in real time. In this work, the folding scheme with integrating input-data and tap folding is proposed to develop a hardware-efficient programmable FIR architecture. With the use of the radix-4 Booth algorithm, the 2-bit input subdata approach replaces the conventional 3-bit input subdata approach to reduce the number of latches required to store input subdata in the proposed FIR architecture. Additionally, the tree accumulation approach with simplified carry-in bit processing is developed to minimize the hardware complexity of the accumulation path. With folding in input data and taps, and reduction in hardware complexity of the input subdata latches and accumulation path, the proposed FIR architecture is demonstrated to have a low hardware complexity. By using the TSMC 0.18 m CMOS technology, the proposed FIR processor with 10-bit input data and filter coefficient enables a 128-tap FIR filter to be performed, which takes an area of 0.45 , and yields a throughput rate of 20 M samples per second at 200 MHz. As compared to the conventional FIR processors, the proposed programmable FIR processor not only meets the throughput-rate demand but also has the lowest area occupied per tap.

  18. Characteristics and modeling of spruce wood under dynamic compression load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spruce wood is frequently used as an energy absorbing material in impact limiters of packages for the transportation of radioactive material. A 9m drop test onto an unyielding target is mandatory for the packages. The impact results in a dynamic compression load of the spruce wood inside the impact limiter. The lateral dilation of the wood is restrained thereby due to encasing steel sheets. This work's objective was to provide a material model for spruce wood based on experimental investigations to enable the calculation of such loading conditions. About 600 crush tests with cubical spruce wood specimens were performed to characterize the material. The compression was up to 70% and the material was assumed to be transversely isotropic. Particularly the lateral constraint showed to have an important effect: the material develops a high lateral dilation without lateral constraint. The force-displacement characteristics show a comparably low force level and no or only slight hardening. Distinctive softening occurs after the linear-elastic region when loaded parallel to the fiber. On the other hand, using a lateral constraint results in significantly higher general force levels, distinctive hardening and lateral forces. The softening effect when loaded parallel to the fiber is less distinctive. Strain rate and temperature raise or lower the strength level, which was quantified for the applicable ranges of impact limiters. The hypothesis of an uncoupled evolution of the yield surface was proposed based on the experimental findings. It postulates an independent strength evolution with deviatoric and volumetric deformation. The hypothesis could be established using the first modeling approach, the modified LS-DYNA material model MAT075. A transversely isotropic material model was developed based thereupon and implemented in LS-DYNA. The material characteristics of spruce wood were considered using a multi-surface yield criterion and a non-associated flow rule. The yield

  19. Disturbance and climatic effects on red spruce community dynamics at its southern continuous range margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relena Rose Ribbons

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Red spruce (Picea rubens populations experienced a synchronous rangewide decline in growth and vigor starting in the 1960s, likely caused by climate change and a combination of environmental disturbances. However, it is not yet known if populations continue to decline or have recovered. Red spruce growing near its southern range margin in Massachusetts is a species of concern, in light of the vulnerability to climate change. This study uses population data from 17 permanent plots coupled with tree-ring data to examine radial growth rates, determine the growth-climate relationship, and document disturbance events. Red spruce at these plots ranged from 90 to 184 years old, and comprised 15 to 29 m2/ha basal area. Red spruce seedlings and saplings were common at plots with previously high overstory spruce abundance, indicating it could return to a more dominant position under favorable growing conditions. However, permanent plot measures over a 50 year time span did not indicate any consistent trends for changes in basal area or density for red spruce or other woody species. Climate data show that mean annual minimum, maximum, and summer temperatures have increased over the last 100 years. Dendroclimatological analyses indicated that red spruce growth was sensitive to both temperature and precipitation. Prior to the 1960s, spruce at these sites showed a positive response to precipitation; however after a multi-year drought in the 1960s showed an increasingly negative correlation with precipitation. There has been a negative growth response to regional warming, as spruce radial growth was mostly constrained by increasing temperatures, potentially coupled with the associated increasing drought-dress. I suggest the change in climate response is potentially due to a physiological threshold response to increasing temperatures, which may cause spruce to continue to decline or be lost from the lower elevation sites, while the high elevation sites has a

  20. FIR Filter Implementation Based on the RNS with Diminished-1 Encoded Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Uros Zivaljevic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A technique, based on the residue number system (RNS with diminished-1 encoded channel, has being used for implementing a finite impulse response (FIR digital filter. The proposed RNS architecture of the filter consists of three main blocks: forward and reverse converter and arithmetic processor for each channel. Architecture for residue to binary (reverse convertor with diminished-1 encoded channel has been proposed. Besides, for all RNS channels, the systolic design is used for the efficient  realization of FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of diminished-1 residue arithmetic, signal processing, and decoding for FIR filters.

  1. Constant-coefficient FIR filters based on residue number system arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Negovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter based on the residue number system (RNS is presented. We chose to implement it in the (RNS, because the RNS offers high speed and low power dissipation. This architecture is based on the single RNS multiplier-accumulator (MAC unit. The three moduli set {2n+1,2n,2n-1}, which avoids 2n+1 modulus, is used to design FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of residue encoding, residue arithmetic, and residue decoding for FIR filters.

  2. Hydrolytic stability of water-soluble spruce O-acetyl galactoglucomannans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Pranovich, A.; Hemmimg, J.; Holmbom, B.; Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Willfor, S.

    2009-01-01

    Water-soluble native O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) from spruce is a polysaccharide that can be produced in an industrial scale. To develop GGM applications, information is needed on its stability, particularly under acidic conditions. Therefore, acid hydrolysis of spruce GGM was investigated at

  3. Dendrochronology of the Oriental Spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link.) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Zafer Cemal

    1998-01-01

    This study attempted to describe the variations in the annual growth of Oriental spruce and to give a mean annual ring curve using annual rings. Another purpose was to determine the standardized chronology in the wood of Picea orientalis (L.) Link. As a result the standardized chronology in the wood of Oriental spruce between 1749-1988 was determined.

  4. FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....

  5. A Proficient Design of Hybrid Synchronous and Asynchronous Digital FIR Filter using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Paulchamy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid synchronous and asynchronous digital FIR filter is designed and implemented in FPGA using VHDL. The digital FIR filter of high throughput, low latency operating at above 1.3 GHz was designed. An adaptive high capacity pipelined was introduced in the hybrid synchronous asynchronous design of the filter. The degree of the pipelining is dynamically variable depending upon the input. Concurrent execution of software or program can be achieved in FPGA through parallel processing. The designed digital FIR filter is simulated using ModelSim and implemented using Xilinx. The simulation results are presented for different order such as 3, 6 and 15. The FIR filter designed is synthesized in Xilinx 9.1i and the device utilization report is presented for filter of order 3, 6 and 15.

  6. Neural FIR adaptive Laguerre equalizer with a gradient adaptive amplitude for nonlinear channel in communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO HaiQuan; ZHANG JiaShu

    2009-01-01

    To mitigate the linear and nonlinear distortions in communication systems, two novel nonlinear adaptive equalizers are proposed on the basis of the neural finite impulse response (FIR) filter, decision feedback architecture and the characteristic of the Laguerre filter. They are neural FIR adaptive decision feedback equalizer (SNNDFE) and neural FIR adaptive Laguerre equalizer (LSNN). Of these two equalizers, the latter is simple and with characteristics of both infinite impulse response (IIR) and FIR filters; it can use shorter memory length to obtain better performance. As confirmed by theoretical analysis, the novel LSNN equalizer is stable (0<α<1). Furthermore, simulation results show that the SNNDFE can get better equalized performance than SNN equalizer, while the latter exhibits better performance than others in terms of convergence speed, mean square error (MSE) and bit error rate (BER). Therefore, it can reduce the input dimension and eliminate linear and nonlinear interference effectively. In addition, it is very suitable for hardware implementation due to its simple structure.

  7. Classification of West Virginia and Virginia Balsam Fir Communities Affected by Balsam Woolly Adelgid Infestation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Balsam fir reaches its southern limit in several high elevation wetlands in West Virginia and highelevation forests and rock outcrops in Virginia. This study...

  8. Highly Informative Single-Copy Nuclear Microsatellite DNA Markers Developed Using an AFLP-SSR Approach in Black Spruce (Picea mariana) and Red Spruce (P. rubens)

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Zhong Shi; Natascha Forneris; Rajora, Om P

    2014-01-01

    Background Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea) and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana)...

  9. Reconstruction of crown length of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, establishment of sample methods and application in forest growth analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Spathelf, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Évolution en hauteur des houppiers d'épicéa (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) et de sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill.) - technique, mise en œuvre de méthodes d'échantillonnage, application à l'analyse de la croissance des forêts. On a utilisé une technique permettant de dater la mortalité des branches pour estimer la régression par le bas des houppiers de l'épicéa et du sapin pectiné, dans des placettes temporaires installées dans des forêts mélangées et inéquiennes de la Forêt Noire (Allemagne). Les r...

  10. Knowledge and Perceptions of Diabetes in an Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rye, MS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Qualitative research on knowledge and perceptions of diabetes is limited in the Appalachian region, where social, economic, and behavioral risk factors put many individuals at high risk for diabetes. The aim of this study was to gain a culturally informed understanding of diabetes in the Appalachian region by 1 determining cultural knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of diabetes among those who live in the region; 2 identifying concerns and barriers to care for those with diabetes; and 3 determining the barriers and facilitators to developing interventions for the prevention and early detection of diabetes in Appalachia. Methods Thirteen focus groups were conducted in 16 counties in West Virginia in 1999. Seven of the groups were composed of persons with diabetes (n = 61, and six were composed of community members without diabetes (n = 40. Participants included 73 women and 28 men (n = 101. Results Findings show that among this population there is lack of knowledge about diabetes before and after diagnosis and little perception that a risk of diabetes exists (unless there is a family history of diabetes. Social interactions are negatively affected by having diabetes, and cultural and economic barriers to early detection and care create obstacles to the early detection of diabetes and education of those diagnosed. Conclusion Public health education and community-level interventions for primary prevention of diabetes in addition to behavior change to improve the management of diabetes are needed to reduce the health disparities related to diabetes in West Virginia.

  11. Global Reprogramming of Transcription in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during Progressive Drought Stress and after Rewatering

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiyang Hu; Bo Wu; Huiquan Zheng; Dehuo Hu; Xinjie Wang; Hongjing Duan; Yuhan Sun; Jinxing Wang; Yue Zhang; Yun Li

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), an evergreen conifer, is the most commonly grown afforestation species in southeast China due to its rapid growth and good wood qualities. To gain a better understanding of the drought-signalling pathway and the molecular metabolic reactions involved in the drought response, we performed a genome-wide transcription analysis using RNA sequence data. In this study, Chinese fir plantlets were subjected to progressively prolonged drought stress, up to 15 d, ...

  12. Skidding of fir roundwood by Timberjack 240C from selective forests of Gorski Kotar

    OpenAIRE

    Sabo, Anton; Poršinsky, Tomislav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the productivity of the cable skidder Timberjack 240C equipped with double-drum winch Konrad Adler HY 16 during skidding of fir roundwood from the Croatian mountainous selective forests of fir and beech. The research took place in the area of Delnice Forest Management, at two workplaces with different degrees of stone obstacles provided with strip road network. Skidder productivity was determined by the method of time and work study. The paper shows th...

  13. Woody Fuel Structure and Fire in Subalpine Fir Forests, Olympic National Park, Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, K L; Fonda, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The fuel structure and flammability of fire-resilient subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) stands in Washington were studied in 1987 to determine the relation between these forests and fire; for comparison, fuel patterns were also studied in fire-stable ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands. It has long been known that subalpine fir forests burn catastrophically, but the contributions of fuel structure and fuel moisture to this pattern of burning have been relatively unstudied. The two main fin...

  14. Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dyka, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the 'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from the market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduc...

  15. Mathematical methods of modelling the morphology of spruce trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoutová, Růžena; Novotný, Jan; Pivovarník, Marek; Zemek, František

    Brno: Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban, O.; Trnka, M.), s. 163-167 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience. Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk OC09001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : 3-D spruce model * L-system * radiative transfer Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings. In...... batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  17. Diurnal changes of monoterpene fluxes in Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, S.; Křůmal, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Urban, Otmar

    Brno: Global Change Research Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., 2015 - (Urban, O.; Šprtová, M.; Klem, K.), s. 122-125 ISBN 978-80-87902-10-3. [Global Change: A Complex Challenge /4th/. Brno (CZ), 23.03.2015-24.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : diurnal dynamics * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; CE - Biochemistry (UIACH-O)

  18. Radio Observations of the Star Formation Activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 Region

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Minho; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Star formation activities in the NGC 2024 FIR 4 region were studied by imaging centimeter continuum sources and water maser sources using several archival data sets from the Very Large Array. The continuum source VLA 9 is elongated in the northwest-southeast direction, consistent with the FIR 4 bipolar outflow axis, and has a flat spectrum in the 6.2-3.6 cm interval. The three water maser spots associated with FIR 4 are also distributed along the outflow axis. One of the spots is located close to VLA 9, and another one is close to an X-ray source. Examinations of the positions of compact objects in this region suggest that the FIR 4 cloud core contains a single low-mass protostar. VLA 9 is the best indicator of the protostellar position. VLA 9 may be a radio thermal jet driven by this protostar, and it is unlikely that FIR 4 contains a high-mass young stellar object (YSO). A methanol 6.7 GHz maser source is located close to VLA 9, at a distance of about 100 AU. The FIR 4 protostar must be responsible for the ...

  19. Identification of varieties and gene flow in Douglas fir exemplified in artificially established stands in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Fussi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco] is an economically valuable non-native tree species in Germany and is considered very promising in view of global climate change. Therefore, the genetic characterization of Douglas-fir populations and seed stands in Germany is essential. We studied coastal and interior Douglas-fir varieties, both present in Germany, by using eleven isoenzyme and four microsatellite loci. By analyzing eight reference populations of known origin we were able to identify the two varieties on the population level using Bayesian and distance based methods. Seven populations present in Bavaria were then successfully assigned to one of the two varieties. Within varieties we found stronger grouping within the interior variety than within the coastal one. Despite lower differences within coastal Douglas-fir we have first indications for the origin of two populations. For two Bavarian populations, natural regeneration was included and genetic data revealed no significant genetic difference between adults and offspring. The parentage analysis for one of the studied stands revealed that a large proportion of adults took part in the reproduction, but some trees were more successful than others in transferring their genes to the next generation. Our study was able to improve variety identification of Douglas-fir using isoenzyme markers and nuclear microsatellites and study reproductive patterns, both are important issues for the management of Douglas-fir stands in Bavaria.

  20. An analysis of the FIR/RADIO Continuum Correlation in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Leverenz, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The local correlation between far-infrared (FIR) emission and radio-continuum (RC) emission for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is investigated over scales from 3 kpc to 0.01 kpc. Here, we report good FIR/RC correlation down to ~15 pc. The reciprocal slope of the FIR/RC emission correlation (RC/FIR) in the SMC is shown to be greatest in the most active star forming regions with a power law slope of ~1.14 indicating that the RC emission increases faster than the FIR emission. The slope of the other regions and the SMC are much flatter and in the range of 0.63-0.85. The slopes tend to follow the thermal fractions of the regions which range from 0.5 to 0.95. The thermal fraction of the RC emission alone can provide the expected FIR/RC correlation. The results are consistent with a common source for ultraviolet (UV) photons heating dust and Cosmic Ray electrons (CRe-s) diffusing away from the star forming regions. Since the CRe-s appear to escape the SMC so readily, the results here may not provide support for c...

  1. Comparison of Decomposition Rates of Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) and Spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link) Litter in Pure and Mixed Stands of Both Species in Artvin, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARIYILDIZ, Temel; TÜFEKÇİOĞLU, Aydın; Küçük, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The decomposition of spruce, beech and mixed litters of spruce and beech was investigated over 3.5 years in beech, spruce and mixed (beech/spruce) stands using less than 1.5 mm mesh litter bags. Initially, carbon, nitrogen, lignin and cellulose concentrations, and C:N and lignin:N ratios were determined in beech and spruce litters. For all sampling intervals, mixed litters showed higher decay rates than individual beech and spruce litters in both pure stands and mixed stands. Spruce decompose...

  2. Creep of Chinese Fir Wood Treated by Different Reagents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng-lian; Zhao Guang-jie; Lü Wen-hua

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different reagents on changes of the crystalline region and amorphous region(Matrix) in wood cell walls, the creep behavior of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood treated with dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and diethyl amine, sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfoxide mixture (DEA-SO2-DMSO), and the untreated wood at oven-dried,air-dry and water-saturated states during adsorption and desorption processes were all examined in air or in water. The measurements were carried out at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The load is constant with 62 g or 0.607 6 N. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The instantaneous compliance Jo and the creep compliance J of specimens decrystallized with DEA-SO2-DMSO solution were bigger than those of DMSO swollen wood, and the latter was still much bigger than those of untreated wood. 2) For untreated wood, Jo and J increased with equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood, but there was not apparent correlation between wood EMC and the relative compliance. 3) Specimens treated with DMSO and DEA-SO2-DMSO mixture were recrystallized after immersion in water, and the degree of recrystallization of the former was larger. 4) For oven-dried specimens, the creep compliances in water were bigger than those in air. But for fiber-saturated and water-saturated specimens they were nearly equivalent to each other.

  3. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  4. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacha, Ibrahim; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Belouchrani, Adel

    2006-12-01

    We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR) systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is the number of emitted signals,[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the data vector length, and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  5. Herschel FIR Spectroscopic Observations of L1448-MM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Lee, J.; DIGIT Team

    2012-01-01

    We present the FIR (continuum and line) maps and spectra of L1448-MM at 55 to 210 micron observed with the range scan mode of PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the DIGIT key program. L1448-MM was previously known as an embedded Class 0 and prominent outflow source, and a secondary YSO was claimed by the Spitzer images and confirmed by submm interferometric observations. The PACS detected various CO, OH, H2O, and OI lines. The PACS line and continuum maps show that the emission at shorter wavelengths peaks at the central spatial pixel (the primary YSO position) although the line emission of low energy levels distributes along the outflow direction. According to our excitation analysis, the CO gas has two temperature components (warm and hot) that are tentatively attributed to PDR and shock, respectively. However, the H2O gas with the rotational temperature of 200 K seems to trace the shock. Interestingly, the relative strength of OH transitions suggests the IR pumping process dominates in L1448-MM. The gas along the outflow cavities in L1448-MM seems to be heated mainly by shock and UV photons, and relative line luminosities indicate that H2O and CO are the main coolants of this gas, although cooling by OI and OH cannot be ignored.

  6. Stand dynamics and natural regeneration in silver fir (Abies alba Mill. plantations after traditional rotation age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottalico F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Apennine mountains most pure silver fir stands originated from planting and were managed according to the traditional model, with clear cutting and a 100 year rotation. In the last decades in most of these stands there has been a change towards nature conservation and active management has stopped. The aim of this work was (1 to analyse stand dynamics and spontaneous regeneration processes that are taking place with increasing age in even aged fir plantations, and (2 to discuss if these processes can be useful for defining management approaches answering biodiversity conservation aims. The study was carried out in the Vallombrosa Forest (Central Italy. The relationship between fir stand age and structural parameters was analyzed using inventory data. Gap dynamics were monitored between 1983 and 2007 on the basis of remote sensing data. Based on a field survey of a sample of gaps, species composition and density of seedlings and saplings were analysed in relation to gap size and within-gap position. From 1983 to 2007 the number of gaps and their total area increased, following increasing stand age. Significant relationships (p < 0.01 were found between fir stand age and number of trees per hectare (r = -0.30, quadratic mean diameter (r = 0.65 and volume per hectare (r = 0.50. In the fir stands with lower stand density, a layer of trees with DBH < 15 cm had filled in the structure: fifteen different broadleaf species were recorded in this layer, usually mixed with fir. Gap size had an influence on presence of young firs (seedlings and fir < 0.5 m, which were significantly more numerous in gaps < 200 m2, but it had relatively limited influence on species diversity. Within-gap position did not influence regeneration density. Results indicate that a possible management option for gradually transforming even aged fir plantations in the Apennines into mixed, naturally regenerating systems, could be based on the creation of small gaps (< 200 m2

  7. ALKALINE PRETREATMENT OF SPRUCE AND BIRCH TO IMPROVE BIOETHANOL AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jeihanipour

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.

  8. Managed Mixtures of Aspen and White Spruce 21 to 25 Years after Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kabzems

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intimate mixtures of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss are a key feature of western Canadian boreal forests. These mixtures have the potential to produce high yields of merchantable fibre and provide numerous ecological services. Achievement of this potential has been difficult, and often expensive, to realize as a regeneration goal in managed forests. We report 21 to 25 year results of managed mixtures on two study sites where the white spruce was planted, and the density of aspen natural regeneration manipulated within five years of the stand initiation disturbance. On both sites, white spruce mortality did not increase with increasing aspen density. While height and diameter growth of white spruce declined with increasing aspen density, the effect was not entirely consistent across the two sites. Abrasion from aspen branches was the most common source of damage to spruce crowns. Mixed stands had greater merchantable volume production than pure spruce stands based on model projections. Application of aspen harvest at year 60, while protecting the spruce component for a second harvest entry at year 90, was projected to optimize combined yield for the mixedwood stands.

  9. 75 FR 34477 - Potomac-Appalachian Transmission Highline (PATH) Environmental Impact Statement, Harpers Ferry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... National Scenic Trail, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National... National Historical Park (NHP), Appalachian National Scenic Trail (NST), Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, and Monongahela National Forest,...

  10. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west. PMID:27087633

  11. An analysis of timber trespass and theft issues in the Southern Appalachian region

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Shawn A., 1978-

    2003-01-01

    Timber theft is a crime within the forest industry which has not received a large amount of attention within research literature. As a result, there are no recent estimates available of the extent of the problem. The southern Appalachian region has conditions which seem to be conducive to timber theft, but convictions for timber theft in the area are infrequent. In order to address these issues, a study was undertaken in a 20 county region of the southern Appalachians to interview law enfo...

  12. Field Indicators for the Prediction of Appalachian Soil and Bedrock Geochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Daniel Keith

    2016-01-01

    Surface mining for coal in the Central Appalachians contributes total dissolved solids (TDS) to headwater streams, especially below larger mines and associated valley fills. My objective was to characterize the geochemical properties of a range of surface soils and associated geologic strata from the Central Appalachian coalfields and to relate those properties to simple field indicators, such as color or rock type. I hypothesized that these indicators can accurately predict certain geochemi...

  13. Late Quaternary expansion of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Europe according to pollen data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latałowa, Małgorzata; van der Knaap, W. O.

    2006-11-01

    Lateglacial and Holocene expansion of Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. in Europe is reconstructed in steps of 1000 radiocarbon years on the basis of pollen data collected from literature and databases. Pollen thresholds for the Lateglacial of 0%, 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% and for the Holocene of 2% were used. Spruce-pollen representation and limitations of pollen data are discussed. We assume that the 2% threshold tracks the advance of the main spruce front but might fail to detect small populations or those present in low density. The history of spruce expansion was distinctly different in northern and southern parts of its range: In NE Europe spruce expanded during the Allerød, reaching southwards to N Byelorussia. During the Younger Dryas spruce populations contracted north of ca 60°N, but expanded strongly in the region approximately 53-60°N, 23-32°E where they declined at the beginning of the Holocene. We infer that the Lateglacial expansion in NE Europe concerned mainly P. abies subsp. obovata. Holocene expansion in N Europe concerned mainly P. abies subsp. abies; southward expansion within the northern range is continuing to the recent millennium. In central Europe spruce expanded vigorously during the Allerød, contracted or stagnated during the Younger Dryas, and then strongly re-expanded during the Preboreal, following the simple expectation that climatic warming had a positive impact on its development. Holocene westward and northward expansion of spruce in its southern range (central Europe) was rapid 10-8 ka 14C BP, very slow 8-6 ka 14C BP, and rapid 6-5 ka 14C BP, when the present-day western limits were reached. The 2% spruce-pollen threshold is too high to detect the fact that the northern and southern ranges of spruce have joined in the Holocene. The persistence of low spruce abundance in the transitional area is explained mainly by the strong anthropogenic deforestation ever since spruce grew there.

  14. The condition of Norway spruce epicuticular waxes at higher altitudes in 2005--2009

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Truparová; Emilie Bednářová

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of damage to the assimilatory apparatus of spruce by above-limit concentrations of ground ozone using a method of the study of changes of epicuticular waxes at Norway spruce. The monitoring was carried out in five Norway spruce stands aged 35 years at an altitude of 790 to 890 m. The ground ozone concentration was measured during the growing season right in assessed stands. Above-limit concentrations of ground ozone resulted in the de- crease and destruction...

  15. FiR 1 reactor and the spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1-reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor has been lately the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). According to the current operating license of our reactor we have to achieve a binding agreement between our Research Centre and either the domestic Nuclear Power Companies about the possibility to use the Olkiluoto final disposal facility for our spent fuel or USDOE about the return of our spent fuel back to USA. If we want to continue the reactor operation beyond the year 2006, the domestic final disposal is the only possibility. At the moment the domestic final disposal is the primary alternative, but it seems still to be reasonable to be prepared to both possibilities: the domestic final disposal and the return to the USA offered by USDOE. Because the cost estimates of the both possibilities are on the same order of magnitude, the future of the reactor itself will decide, which of the spent fuel policies will be obeyed. In less than two years' time it will be reviewed, if the results of the BNC treatments are satisfactory for the continuation of the treatments. If the BNCT and other irradiations develop satisfactorily and seem to have positive future, the reactor can be kept in operation beyond the year 2006 and the domestic final disposal will be implemented. If, however, the development of the BNCT will not develop positively and there will be lack of money, there is no reason to continue the operation of the reactor and the choice of USDOE alternative is natural. (author)

  16. Effect of compression on hydroscopicity of extracted Chinese fir heartwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of extraction and compression on the hydroscopicity of wood, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia laneeolata Hook.) heartwood samples with or without extraction were radially or tangentially compressed under water-saturated condition at room temperature. Warm water and 1% sodium hydroxide were used as different solutions for extraction. Water absorp-tion capacity and moisture adsorption isotherms of the eornpressed samples were then tested. The fractai dimension of internal wood surfaces (Dfs) was calculated based on adsorption isotherms by FHH equation. Results showed that in both compressed groups, the hydroseopieity of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution improved greatly, while that of samples extracted by warm water changed little, compared with that of water-saturated samples. Recovery of set and the change of hydroscopic environment inside wood were main reasons for the difference of water absorption among water-saturated samples and samples extracted with warm water and sodium hydroxide solution. The swelling rate of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution significantly increased.Moreover, the swelling rate in the tangential direction of tangentially compressed samples was obviously higher than that in radial direction of radially compressed ones, Des values of woods extracted by warm water and sodium hydroxide solution decreased by 0.002 and 0.007 in a radially compressed group and by 0.013 and 0.013 in a tangentially compressed group, compared to those of water-saturated one. Therefore, the conclusion can be made that the extraction and compression treatments used in this study have no obvious effects on internal wood surface.

  17. Selected properties of spruce dust generated from sanding operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Očkajová

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research of selected properties of spruce dust generated from experimental sanding by a hand belt sander with two sanding models - along the wood fibres and perpendicular to the wood fibres in the radial direction. The experiment was carried out for the purpose of obtaining the basic characteristics of wood sanding dust – granularity, size and shape of individually formed particles, and bulk properties (bulk density, bulk angle, and tilt angle that are important for suction, which is connected with the quality of living and working environments. The particles smaller than 100 micrometers are unsuitable for both environments, since they do not sediment in space at all or only partly, and they are characterized as airborne dust. The most harmful particles for humans are those smaller than 2.5 μm as they reach the lung alveoli. When sanding wood the finest particles are formed and therefore it is important to know the basic characteristics of sanding dust in order to deal with these problems effectively. On the basis of the mesh sieve analysis, we can state that in sanding perpendicular to the wood fibres the share of particles smaller than 100 μm is 76.94 % on average and along the wood fibres it is only 56.01 %. The structure, shape and size of particles were investigated by microscope. When using the longitudinal model of sanding, the fibrous elements were formed for the most part. When using the perpendicular model, isometric particles were predominantly formed in smaller fractions and particles of fibrous shape in larger fractions. The smallest particles were found in the following samples. When the perpendicular model of sanding was used, we have found the smallest particle in the investigated samples with the diameter of 1.68 μm, and when the longitudinal model of sanding was used, the particle with the diameter of 1.75 μm. Bulk density of spruce dust from the longitudinal model of sanding is 77.77 kg · m-3

  18. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Robert W.

    1993-02-01

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. Sampling was done with Tenax TA and analysis and detection by GC and ion trap detection. The compounds Δ3-carene and α-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while Δ3-carene was predominant at the northern site. The relative composition of the emission of both species underwent changes in early spring and fall. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20°C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 ± 0.4 μg (gdw (grams dry weight) h)-1, and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 ± 0.7 μg(gdw h)-1. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are

  19. Effects of Temperature on Photosynthetic Rates in Korean Fir (Abies koreana) between Healthy and Dieback Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Young Woo; Jong-Hwan Lim; Don Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out on natural Korean fir forests (Abies koreana) growing In Mount Halla in Jeju Island, Korea (33°13-36′ N and 126° 12-57′ E). Mount Halla is the highest mountain (1950 m a.s.l.) in South Korea. On the Korean fir forests near the top of Mount Halla in Korea, we established permanent plots between dieback and healthy population. Each permanent plot includes both dieback and relatively healthy Korean fir individuals. Three sites in this study showed similar altitude, topographic position, aspects, slope, diameter at breast height, average height and ages. Net photosynthetic rates (PN) on different temperature regimes were evaluated to explain the forest dieback phenomenon on Korean fir populations. Light response curves were determined on three different temperature regimes: 15℃, 20℃and 25℃. The Irradiance response curve showed higher values in lower air temperatures. Generally, Irradiance response curves of healthy Korean fir populations were higher than the dieback population at all sites.

  20. Water status of bare—root seedlings of Chinese fir and Masson pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUFang-yuan; GUOXin-bao; XUXi-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Water relation parameters of bare-root seedlings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.)and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)were measured and changes of root growth potential as well as field survival rate of both species were studied after the bare-root seedlings were exposed in a sunny field condition.the results showed that masson pine had a lower osmotic potential(-2.07Mpa) at turgor loss point and at full turgor(-1.29Mpa),compared with Chinese fir(-1.80Mpa and -1.08Mpa respectively).The parameter Vp/Vo(63.27%) of Masson pine was higher than that of chinese fir (58.03%).This means that Masson pine has a stronger ability to tolerate desiccation,compared to Chinese fir according to analysis of above water relation parameters.Root growth potential and field survival rate decreased with prolonging duration of exposure.The field survival rate of both species was reduced to less than 40% after the seedling being exposed only two hours.Water potentials of -1.60 Mpa and -1.70 Mpa were suggested to be critical values for Chinese fir and Masson pine respectively in successful reforestation.

  1. Carbon isotopes in tree rings of Norway spruce (Bohemian Forest, Central Europe) exposed to atmospheric pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šantrůčková, H.; Šantrůček, Jiří; Svoboda, M.

    Brno : ISBE CAS, 2006. s. 22. [15 Years of EU Supported Ecophysiological Research in the Czech Republic. 18.09.2006-21.09.2006, Olomouc] Keywords : Carbon isotopes * Norway spruce Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  2. MICROSTRUCTURE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED IN SPRUCE WOOD BY FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is amodern, non-invasive method for objective andspecialized image analysis of anatomical materialfeatures at microscopic level. Referring to wood, itoffers the possibility to view in 3D a bunch ofneighboring cells, in all three grain directions.This allows the imaging of modifications thatmight appear in the structure of the wood cellmembrane (e.g. micro-fissures caused by differentfactors, including temperature variations. This paperpresents the results of the SEM analysis performedon European spruce (Picea abies samples, cut fromboards which were subjected to freezing and thawingunder different conditions of temperature variationand time of exposure.The main aim of this research was to reveal theconditions which determine the occurrence of microfissuresin the cell wall and consequently lead tostrength losses in wood.

  3. Acetylation and characterization of spruce (Picea abies) galactoglucomannans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunlin; Leppänen, Ann-Sofie; Eklund, Patrik; Holmlund, Peter; Sjöholm, Rainer; Sundberg, Kenneth; Willför, Stefan

    2010-04-19

    Acetylated galactoglucomannans (GGMs) are the main hemicellulose type in most softwood species and can be utilized as, for example, bioactive polymers, hydrocolloids, papermaking chemicals, or coating polymers. Acetylation of spruce GGM using acetic anhydride with pyridine as catalyst under different conditions was conducted to obtain different degrees of acetylation on a laboratory scale, whereas, as a classic method, it can be potentially transferred to the industrial scale. The effects of the amount of catalyst and acetic anhydride, reaction time, temperature and pretreatment by acetic acid were investigated. A fully acetylated product was obtained by refluxing GGM for two hours. The structures of the acetylated GGMs were determined by SEC-MALLS/RI, (1)H and (13)C NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. NMR studies also indicated migration of acetyl groups from O-2 or O-3 to O-6 after a heating treatment in a water bath. The thermal stability of the products was investigated by DSC-TGA. PMID:20144827

  4. Vitamin E in spruces. Vitamin E in Fichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, J.

    1990-05-01

    The distribution of vitamin E in spruce and the change of its concentration in the needles under oxidative or dark stress are studied in this thesis. [gamma]-tocopherol is found in seeds only, and [beta]-tocopherol and [alpha]-tocotrienol are found in seddlings only, but [alpha]-tocopherol is found in all living organs. The age groups of needles exhibit on asymptotic, age-dependent accumulation. Etiolation in consequence of artifical dark stress and oxidative stress result in an increase in vitamin E, while monoterpene fumigation and high light intensity entail a decrease in vitam E. Field investigations reveal a connection between the degree of injury in trees and their vitamin E content. On the whole, vitamin E seems to be an essential, stabilizing component of vegetable membranes. (UWA).

  5. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High solids (30% dry matter) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. • Horizontal rotary reactor for hydrolysis and fermentation. • In situ hydrolysates detoxification using inhibitors adsorbing PEI polymer. • 50% of inhibitors recovered as by-product, recyclability of PEI polymer up to 5 times. • 76% of maximum theoretical ethanol was fermented at final concentration of 51 g/kg. - Abstract: Performing the bioethanol production process at high solids loading is a requirement for economic feasibility at industrial scale. So far this has successfully been achieved using wheat straw and other agricultural residues at 30% of water insoluble solids (WIS), but for softwood species (i.e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to ∼20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings. In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble polyelectrolyte polymer (polyethylenimine, PEI) to absorb inhibitory compounds in the material. On average 50% removal and recovery of the main inhibitors (HMF, furfural, acetic acid and formic acid) was achieved dosing 1.5% w/w of soluble PEI. The use of PEI was compatible with operating the process at high solids loadings and enabled fermentation of hydrolysates, which

  6. Role of Polyamines in Efficiency of Norway Spruce (Hurst Ecotype) Somatic Embryogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Cvikrová, Milena; Máchová, P.; Gemperlová, Lenka

    Rijeka : InTech, 2012 - (Sato, K.), s. 373-386 ISBN 978-953-51-0466-7 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH82303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Norway Spruce * Somatic Embryogenesis * Polyamines Subject RIV: GK - Forestry http://www.intechopen.com/books/howtoreference/embryogenesis/role-of-polyamines-in-efficiency-of-norway-spruce-hurst-ecotype-somatic-embryogenesis-

  7. Drought as stress factor and its role in spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst) dieback

    OpenAIRE

    Ĺubica Ditmarová; Daniel Kurjak; Jaroslav Kmeť

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of ecophysiological monitoring (chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, assimilatory pigments concentration, needles water potential) of spruce forest stands health state in the Kysucké Beskydy Mts. The focus has been set on evaluation of the role of drought acting as one of numerous factors causing dieback of this tree species. Our research was a part of an extensive project aimed at providing sufficient analytic data on spruce dieback at all levels: beg...

  8. Possibilities and limitations of vegetative propagation in breeding and mass propagation of Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Karl-Anders

    2003-01-01

    The use of vegetative mass propagation in practical forestry with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is limited at present, although its potential to deliver high genetic gains is obvious. The objective of this thesis was to study possibilities and limitations of vegetative propagation when applied in different parts of a breeding/mass propagation system for Norway spruce. Two vegetative propagation methods were studied: somatic embryogenesis and cutting propagation. Somatic embryogenesi...

  9. Extraction of spruce timber by Gantner cable crane from selective forests of Artvin region

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the productivity of the Gantner cable crane during extraction of Spruce timber from mixed stand of Oriental spruce, Scots pine and Oriental beech in North Eastern Turkey. Cable crane productivity is determined by using the methods of work and time study. The research results implies that some working characteristics of the Gantner cable crane such as extraction distance, speed of the carriage (loaded and unloaded), load volume, time consumption of h...

  10. Analysis of natural regeneration in declining spruce forests on the Slovak part of the Beskydy Mts.

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kulla; Ján Merganič; Róbert Marušák

    2009-01-01

    Paper deals with regeneration processes in unnatural spruce forest ecosystems in the Beskydy mts. (North-Western Slovakia), declining due to so called "new type of spruce decline". On 510 sample plots along the transects allocated across the most affected areas, site-related, stand-related data and data about natural regeneration were collected in years 2007--2008. Relations between coverage and vitality of regeneration and main ecological factors were analyzed using multidimensional statisti...

  11. Different Atmospheric Methane-Oxidizing Communities in European Beech and Norway Spruce Soils▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Degelmann, Daniela M.; Borken, Werner; Drake, Harold L; Kolb, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests exhibit lower annual atmospheric methane consumption rates than do European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. In the current study, pmoA (encoding a subunit of membrane-bound CH4 monooxygenase) genes from three temperate forest ecosystems with both beech and spruce stands were analyzed to assess the potential effect of tree species on methanotrophic communities. A pmoA sequence difference of 7% at the derived protein level correlated with the species-level d...

  12. Antifungal properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling homogenates

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Kozłowski; Jean P. Métraux

    2014-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobials in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon homogenates of Norway spruce was studied using in vitro assays with soil-borne pathogens. For the studies presented here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as a typical host and forest tree and Pythium as a typical soil-bome pathogen were used. The highly virulent species Pythium ultimum and the less virulent species Pythium irregulare were chosen for all experiments. They are both the causal agents of damping-off disease, w...

  13. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MIXTURES OF SPRUCE GALACTOGLUCOMANNANS AND KONJAC GLUCOMANNAN OR SOME OTHER POLYSACCHARIDES

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlin Xu; Stefan Willför; Bjarne Holmbom

    2008-01-01

    Spruce galactoglucomannan is a wood-derived polysaccharide with a modest molar mass that has recently been made available in kg-scale for research and development of value-added products. To promote the application of spruce galactoglucomannans in, for example, food prod-ucts, it is vital to understand also the rheological behaviour of the mixtures of galactoglucomannans with other polysaccharides. Rheol-ogical measurements were applied to study the rheological properties of mixtures of spruc...

  14. Clinal variation at phenology-related genes in spruce: parallel evolution in FTL2 and Gigantea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Xu, Nannan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Huotari, Tea; Semerikov, Vladimir L; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Parallel clines in different species, or in different geographical regions of the same species, are an important source of information on the genetic basis of local adaptation. We recently detected latitudinal clines in SNPs frequencies and gene expression of candidate genes for growth cessation in Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Here we test whether the same clines are also present in Siberian spruce (P. obovata), a close relative of Norway spruce with a different Quaternary history. We sequenced nine candidate genes and 27 control loci and genotyped 14 SSR loci in six populations of P. obovata located along the Yenisei river from latitude 56°N to latitude 67°N. In contrast to Scandinavian Norway spruce that both departs from the standard neutral model (SNM) and shows a clear population structure, Siberian spruce populations along the Yenisei do not depart from the SNM and are genetically unstructured. Nonetheless, as in Norway spruce, growth cessation is significantly clinal. Polymorphisms in photoperiodic (FTL2) and circadian clock (Gigantea, GI, PRR3) genes also show significant clinal variation and/or evidence of local selection. In GI, one of the variants is the same as in Norway spruce. Finally, a strong cline in gene expression is observed for FTL2, but not for GI. These results, together with recent physiological studies, confirm the key role played by FTL2 and circadian clock genes in the control of growth cessation in spruce species and suggest the presence of parallel adaptation in these two species. PMID:24814465

  15. Does mixing of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) litter hasten decomposition?

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Torsten W.; Berger, Pétra

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling, since the formation of thick organic layers is commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. Methods Litter decomposition was measured in three adjacent stands of ...

  16. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  17. Current utilization and long term strategy of the Finnish TRIGA research reactor FIR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish TRIGA reactor, FiR 1, started operation in 1962. From early on the reactor created versatile research to support the national nuclear program as well as generally the industry and health care sector. Production of short-lived radioisotopes is still a basic service. Education and training play a role in the form of university courses and training of nuclear industry personnel in the Baltic region. In the 1990's a BNCT cancer treatment facility was build. Over 200 patient irradiations have been performed since May 1999. FiR 1 is one of the few facilities in the world providing these treatments. A long term strategy is being worked out for FiR 1 by VTT supported by an independent survey. The survey recommends operation of the reactor at least till 2016 to enable continuation of the promising development of BNCT in parallel of developing accelerator based neutron sources for this treatment. (author)

  18. Design of Maximally Flat FIR Filters Based on Explicit Formulas Combined with Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A maximally flat FIR filter design method based on explicit formulas combined with simulated annealing and random search was presented. Utilizing the explicit formulas to calculate the initial values, the finite-word-length FIR filter design problem was converted into optimization of the filter coefficients. An optimization method combined with local discrete random search and simulated annealing was proposed, with the result of optimum solution in the sense of Chebyshev approximation. The proposed method can simplify the design process of FIR filter and reduce the calculation burden. The simulation result indicates that the proposed method is superior to the traditional round off method and can reduce the value of the objective function to 41%-74%.

  19. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response of FIR filters and error graph. The BB-BC seems to be promising tool for FIR filter design especially in a dynamic environment where filter coefficients have to be adapted and fast convergence is of importance.

  20. Properties of predictor based on relative neighborhood graph localized FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1995-01-01

    A time signal prediction algorithm based on relative neighborhood graph (RNG) localized FIR filters is defined. The RNG connects two nodes, of input space dimension D, if their lune does not contain any other node. The FIR filters associated with the nodes, are used for local approximation of the...... training vectors belonging to the lunes formed by the nodes. The predictor training is carried out by iteration through 3 stages: initialization of the RNG of the training signal by vector quantization, LS estimation of the FIR filters localized in the input space by RNG nodes and adaptation of the RNG...... nodes by equalizing the LS approximation error among the lunes formed by the nodes of the RNG. The training properties of the predictor is exemplified on a burst signal and characterized by the normalized mean square error (NMSE) and the mean valence of the RNG nodes through the adaptation...

  1. Influence of Norway Spruce and European Larch Heartwood Ring-Width on Extractive Content and Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Humar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Norway spruce and European larch wood are among the most important species for construction applications in central Europe. In order to assess the influence of the ring-widths and presence of the extractives on the performance of these wood species against wood decays fungi, Soxlet extracted and non-extracted spruce and larch wood specimens with different ring-widths were exposed to three brown rot fungi according to the EN 113 procedure. In parallel spruce and larch wood specimens were exposed in fi eld test sites in use class 3 conditions according to the double layer procedure. The results showed that ring-widths do not influence the performance of the spruce and larch heartwood against brown rot fungi in laboratory conditions, but on the other hand have influence on the performance of spruce wood in fi eld test setup. Additionally, extraction does not have an influence on the durability of spruce wood, but has an influence on the durability of larch wood.

  2. Beat sampling accuracy in estimating spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations and injury on juniper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    The use of a standardized beat sampling method for estimating spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), densities on a widely used evergreen ornamental plant species, Juniperus chinensis variety 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae), was examined. There was a significant positive relationship between total spruce spider mite densities and spider mite densities from beat sampling on juniper. The slope and intercept of the relationship may be used by pest managers to predict total spider mite densities on plants from beat sample counts. Beat sampling dramatically underestimates the total number of spider mites on a foliage sample. The relationships between spruce spider mite feeding injury and spider mite density estimates from beat sampling juniper foliage and total spider mite counts on foliage were also examined. There was a significant positive relationship between spruce spider mite density as estimated from beat sampling and injury to the plants. There was a similar positive relationship between the total number of spruce spider mites and injury to the plants, suggesting that a pest manager could use beat sampling counts to estimate plant injury and related thresholds. These findings have important implications to decision-making for spruce spider mite control, especially as it relates to threshold levels and determining rates of predator releases. Further assessment of the effectiveness of beat and other sampling methods across multiple spider mite- host plant associations needs to be examined to enable pest managers to select sampling plans that are feasible and reliable. PMID:15384359

  3. Competition for nitrogen in beech-spruce model ecosystems exposed to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed stands of beech and spruce saplings grown in open-top chambers on either acidic or calcareous soil were exposed to four treatment combinations of ambient or elevated carbon dioxide and low or high nitrogen deposition (four replicates) for four years. In May 1998, ammonium nitrate enriched in 15N (99.7% 15N atom) was applied to all model ecosystems to study the short-term competition for this nitrogen between the two species under the given treatment combinations. On calcareous soil, the 15N uptake at the whole-tree level was distinctly higher in spruce than in beech saplings, irrespective of the treatment applications. On acidic soil, beech and spruce saplings exposed to ambient CO2 incorporated similar amounts of the applied 15N, whereas under elevated CO2, spruce saplings were more competitive for this nitrogen. In the long term, total nitrogen uptake by the foliage was similar in beech and spruce on calcareous soil, while on acidic soil distinctly more nitrogen was found in spruce than in beech foliage. (authors)

  4. Organic matter characteristics in boreal forest soils under stands of silver birch, Norway spruce, and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolander, A.; Kitunen, V.

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study how tree species and a tree species mixture affect microbial C and N transformations and two major plant secondary compound groups, terpenes and phenolic compounds in soil. The study site was a tree-species experiment in middle-eastern part of Finland containing plots of 43-year-old silver birch, Norway spruce and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch (22 and 37 % birch of the total stem number). Soil was podzol and humus type mor. Samples were taken from the organic layer. C and N in the microbial biomass, rates of C mineralization (CO2 evolution), net N mineralization and nitrification, and concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds, condensed tannins and different kind of terpenes were measured. Amounts of C and N in the microbial biomass and the rates of C mineralization and net N mineralization were all lower under spruce than birch, and particularly net N mineralization was stimulated by birch mixture. Concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds were on a similar level, irrespective of tree species. However, there were less low-molecular-weight phenolics and more high-molecular-weight phenolics under spruce than birch. Concentrations of condensed tannins and both sesqui- and diterpenes were all higher under spruce than birch but the concentrations of triterpenes were similar in all soils. The difference between tree species was greatest with monoterpenes which were measured from both organic layer and soil atmosphere: high concentrations under spruce and negligible under birch. Birch mixture tended to decrease the concentrations of condensed tannins and mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes.

  5. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildfire risk to fir ecosystems of Greece in the context of climate change among a sample of Greek forestry experts by conducting personal interviews. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 forest experts answered the developed survey from 43 different forest management units covering all forestry agencies which manage fir forests in the country. The perceived fire risk and management to fir forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change and to all fire management aspects, such as fire prevention, fire suppression and post fire treatments. Results: Increased fire risk was rated as a quite important issue in fir forests during the last few years, while the adapting options to climate change are not implemented mainly due to budget and personnel constrains. According to forest experts, fire prevention in fir forests under climate change should be focused on public awareness and fuel management. Nevertheless, the survey results indicate that there is also a need for specific fire prevention measures such as the type of logging activities and other technical measures. The result of this survey highlighted the need for the establishment of a new firefighting organization and for the better coordination of all involved parties during fire suppression. Conclusions: The findings of the current study can be critically important in determining how forest fire management considerations are incorporated into

  6. Least Squares Based and Two-Stage Least Squares Based Iterative Estimation Algorithms for H-FIR-MA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenwei Shi; Zhicheng Ji

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the identification of Hammerstein finite impulse response moving average (H-FIR-MA for short) systems. A new two-stage least squares iterative algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of the H-FIR-MA systems. The simulation cases indicate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  7. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  8. Current activities at the FiR 1 TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 -reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose to run the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The epithermal neutrons needed for the irradiation of brain tumor patients are produced from the fast fission neutrons by a moderator block consisting of Al+AlF3 (FLUENTAL), which showed to be the optimum material for this purpose. Twenty-one patients have been treated since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization. The treatment organization has a close connection to the Helsinki University Central Hospital. The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor: three days per week for BNCT purposes and only two days per week for other purposes such as the neutron activation analysis and isotope production. In the near future the back end solutions of the spent fuel management will have a very important role in our activities. The Finnish Parliament ratified in May 2001 the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent fuel in Olkiluoto, on the western coast of Finland. There is a special condition in our operating license. We have now about two years' time to achieve a binding agreement between VTT and the Nuclear Power Plant Companies about the possibility to use the final disposal facility of the Nuclear Power Plants for our spent fuel. If this will not happen, we have to make the agreement with the USDOE with the well-known time limits. At the moment it seems to be reasonable to prepare for both spent fuel management possibilities: the domestic final disposal and the return to the USA offered by USDOE. Because the cost estimates of the both possibilities are on the same order of magnitude, the future of the reactor itself will determine, which of the spent fuel policies will be obeyed. In a couple of years' time it will be seen, if the funding of the reactor and the incomes from the BNC treatments will cover

  9. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  10. Finders keepers, losers weepers - drought as a modifier of competition between European beech and Norway spruce -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goisser, Michael; Blanck, Christian; Geppert, Uwe; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E. E.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) frequently reflect over-yielding, when compared to respective monospecific stands. Over-yielding is attributed to enhanced resource uptake efficiency through niche complementarity alleviating species competition. Under climate change, however, with severe and frequent summer drought, water limitation may become crucial in modifying the competitive interaction between neighboring beech and spruce trees. In view of the demands by silvicultural practice, basic knowledge from experimental field work about competitive versus facilitative interaction in maturing mixed beech-spruce forests is scarce. To this end, we investigate species-specific drought response including underlying mechanisms of species interaction in a maturing group-wise mixed beech-spruce forest, amongst 60 and 53 adult trees of beech and spruce, respectively (spruce 65 ± 2, beech 85 ± 4 years old). Severe and repeated experimental drought is being induced over several years through a stand-scale approach of rain throughfall exclusion (Kranzberg Forest Roof Experiment, KROOF). The experimental design comprises 6 roofed (E, automated, closing only during rain) and 6 control (C) plots with a total area of almost 1800 square meters. In 2015 minimum predawn potentials of -2.16 MPa and -2.26 MPa were reached in E for beech and spruce respectively. At the leaf level, spruce displayed high drought susceptibility reflected by a distinct decrease in both stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 80% each, suggesting isohydric response. Beech rather displayed anisohydry indicated by less pronounced yet significant reduction of stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 55% and 45%, respectively. Under the C regime, a negative species interaction effect on stomatal conductance was found in beech, contrasting with a positive effect in spruce. However, drought reversed the effect of

  11. Conversion of actual structure to optimal structure in fir stands of Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Aylak Özdemir, Gafura

    2014-01-01

    Conversion of actual structure to optimal structure in fir stands of Black Sea regionAbstract : In this study, it has been tried to develop an iteration method using natural relationships in order that the spoilt actual structures, that Karadeniz region fir stands have, be taken to the optimal structure. For this purpose, a computer program named as GOKOP has been written using the Visual Basic Application (VBA) Macro programming language of Ms Excel 2000.Keywords: Actual and optimum structur...

  12. Study on Drying Characteristic of Chinese Fir and Poplar Plantation Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYongdong; LIXiaoling

    2004-01-01

    The drying characteristic was studied for plantation wood of Chinese fir and poplar, which are typical plantation wood of southern and northern part of China, respectively. Through lO0-degree-method the drying characteristic and basic drying condition were gotten, then drying schedule was developed for practical drying, the results showed that the drying schedule is suitable for Chinese fir and poplar plantation lumber, but shrinkage is large. The recommendation was made that enough dead weight is needed to decrease shrinkage in drying process. The drying quality of the two species of lumber is good in conventional drying method.

  13. Identification and characterization of small non-coding RNAs from Chinese fir by high throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Li-Chuan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs play key roles in plant development, growth and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. At least four classes of sRNAs have been well characterized in plants, including repeat-associated siRNAs (rasiRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs and natural antisense transcript-derived siRNAs. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata is one of the most important coniferous evergreen tree species in China. No sRNA from Chinese fir has been described to date. Results To obtain sRNAs in Chinese fir, we sequenced a sRNA library generated from seeds, seedlings, leaves, stems and calli, using Illumina high throughput sequencing technology. A comprehensive set of sRNAs were acquired, including conserved and novel miRNAs, rasiRNAs and tasiRNAs. With BLASTN and MIREAP we identified a total of 115 conserved miRNAs comprising 40 miRNA families and one novel miRNA with precursor sequence. The expressions of 16 conserved and one novel miRNAs and one tasiRNA were detected by RT-PCR. Utilizing real time RT-PCR, we revealed that four conserved and one novel miRNAs displayed developmental stage-specific expression patterns in Chinese fir. In addition, 209 unigenes were predicted to be targets of 30 Chinese fir miRNA families, of which five target genes were experimentally verified by 5' RACE, including a squamosa promoter-binding protein gene, a pentatricopeptide (PPR repeat-containing protein gene, a BolA-like family protein gene, AGO1 and a gene of unknown function. We also demonstrated that the DCL3-dependent rasiRNA biogenesis pathway, which had been considered absent in conifers, existed in Chinese fir. Furthermore, the miR390-TAS3-ARF regulatory pathway was elucidated. Conclusions We unveiled a complex population of sRNAs in Chinese fir through high throughput sequencing. This provides an insight into the composition and function of sRNAs in Chinese fir and sheds new light on land plant sRNA evolution.

  14. Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil of Silver Fir (Abies alba)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jeon, Sang-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2009-01-01

    The essential oil of silver fir (Abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. In the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (Abies alba) essential oil. The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), α-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), β-phellandrene (2.13...

  15. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, T.S.; Tuijl, van, B.A.J.; Schinkel, D.; Annema, A.J.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant nature of this PWM-signal. An impulse response with only positive coefficients was chosen, because of its resistance to deadzone and mismatch. With a DAC current of 0.5 mA, the dynamic range is 111 dB (...

  16. Simulation of a FIR FEL oscillator with short-pulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We simulate the KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) FIR FEL which uses a Microtron electron beam source. The energy of the electron beam is about 7.3 MeV, period of the undulator is 1.25 cm, and peak power of the planar undulator is 0.41 Tesla. For this parameters, the effect of the electron beam parameters for the operation of the FIR FEL is studied using time-dependent 1-D FEL model. Using this code, we also investigate the effect of the cavity detuning and energy spread of the beam. (author)

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF SOME VALUABLE GERMPLASM SOURCES IN SILVER FIR (ABIES ALBA ON THE BASIS OF SEED GERMINATION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Fartais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Silver Fir genetic resources conservation is a very important activity (including in our country consideredthrough the viewpoint of a drastic diminution of natural arboreta. The elite (plus silver fir trees are the most importantpurveyors of high quality biological material for the creation of populations (orchards for seed or cutting production inthe process of forest genetic improvement and afforestation too. The experiments were fulfilled in order to establish thebiological answer of Silver Fir seeds concerning the germinative potential in a mixture arboretum (Silver Fir andEuropean Beech. Related to the main physiological indicators of Silver Fir seeds, the value of the germinativeenergy/germinative vigour, respectively 26,75%, is normal in natural conditions. The germinative capacity(technical germination registered 32%, value corresponding to second category of seed quality.

  18. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullat Harpreet K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  19. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  20. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction Contracts C Appendix C to..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  1. Digital assessment of northern and central Appalachian basin coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Braff, L.J.; Wallack, R.N. [US Geological Survey National Center, Reston, VA (US)

    1999-10-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coalbeds and zones that are projected to provide the bulk of the nation's resources for the next few decades. The Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coals are the first two beds in the northern and central Appalachian basin region to undergo fully digital coal assessments. The bed-specific assessments are being carried out in partnership with the state geologic surveys of West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland. Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical data-bases have been developed for both of the beds. The extent of the bed with mined areas, structure contour, isopach, and overburden thickness maps for the Pittsburgh coal bed have been realised as USGS open-file reports. The articles includes several detailed maps showing the export of the Pittsburgh coalbed, ash yield, sulphur contents and calorific value of the coal by county, structure contours, overburden thickness and isopac lines. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at treeline, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental conditions prevailing at treeline in subarctic Quebec have been reconstructed over the past 400 yr through a comparative analysis of tree rings and growth forms of black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.). Because black spruce growth forms are closely associated with the winter environment, they are a direct response to conditions of low temperature and windblown snow abrasion affecting living tissues at the snow-air interface. The age structure of supranival shoot populations was closely associated with periods of higher stem survival in winter most likely under snowier and windless conditions. Spruce growth on slopes and in the valley revealed periods of low tree-ring growth between 1601 and 1663 and between 1700 and 1904, respectively. A long-lasting period of low radial growth 1697 and 1939 prevailed in the hilltop site. During the 20th century, spruce height increased from 0.8 to 1.6 m on slopes and in the valley, while the basal level of abrasion from windblown snow increased from 0.1 to 0.5 m, suggesting an increasing trend towards warmer and snowier conditions. Abraded spruces growing during the Little Ice Age (1570-1880) were replaced by symmetrical trees during the 20th century. Supranival skirted and whorled spruces which dominated on the hilltop site during the 16th century reverted to infranival cushion and mat growth forms during the Little Ice Age. These stunted spruces were unable to recover during the recent warming because of their inability to catch enough drifting snow to allow vertical growth

  3. Black carbon characterization in Quebec black spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; Wasylishen, Roderick; MacKenzie, M. Derek

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC), an important component of the global soil carbon pool, is a major by-product of wildfires in Quebec black spruce forests. However, BC characteristics vary depending on the environmental conditions under which it is formed and this may further affect its resistance to degradation. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and physical properties of BC formed under variable fire severity to assess its potential for recalcitrance as a passive carbon pool. Samples (n = 267) of BC produced by early season wildfires in 2005-2007 were collected from the surface of black spruce forest floors to cover the range of severity encountered in these fire-affected forests. Representative samples (n = 33) were then analyzed using elemental analysis, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface area analysis (BET method). Properties of BC sampled in the field were compared with those of samples produced under a range of controlled formation conditions in the laboratory. The NMR spectra of the BC collected on sites affected by low fire severity showed a distribution of total intensity between the different spectral regions very similar to those of unburned fuels, and were dominated by peaks indicative of cellulose, while spectra for BC from higher fire severity sites were dominated by a broad peak assigned to aromatic carbons. Atomic H/C and O/C ratios decreased along the fire severity gradient, confirming that increasing severity was associated with an increase in condensation. By comparing field- to laboratory-produced samples, we concluded that the temperature of formation in the field ranged between 75 and 250 ° C. In all analyzed BC samples, the fraction of aromatic carbon:total carbon was low, suggesting that the freshly produced BC in this boreal forest environment may be susceptible to rapid physical alteration and chemical degradation. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight

  4. The spruce shoot gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): Piceacecis, a new genus for a non-native pest of Norway spruce from Europe and its native American relative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasineura abietiperda (Henschel), a European pest of Norway spruce, Picea abies (Pinaceae), is reported as new to North America. Damage symptoms are illustrated and an outline of its biology is given. A new genus, Piceacecis Gagné is described to include it and its North American relative, Phytophag...

  5. Effects of Different Types of Chinese Fir Stands on Nutrient Status of Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUYUAN-CHUN; ZHANGHUAN-CHAO

    1995-01-01

    The effects of different types of Chinese fir stand,including those with varous composition (pure and mixed),in various cropping systems (first and continuous cropping system)and at different ages,on the nutrient status of soils the hilly regions of southern Anhui Province were studied by means of ecological sequential comparison on the basis of similar climate and soil type.The work was carried out in the Xiaoxi Forest Farm of Jingxian County and the Caijiaqiao Forest Farm of Jingde Coundy,where the soil is parayellow soil derived from phyllite and sandstone,The results revealed that with the increase of age,Chinese fir pure stand could accumulate organic matter and nitrogen in the soil but it resulted in decreasing of soil pH and base ions(especially Ca2+) compared to its mixed stand with broad-leaf trees such as Chinese sassafras,In order to improve the soil fertility,It would be better to mix Chinese fir with broad-leaf trees when afforestation In the management of Chinese fir pure stand,base compounds and phosphates should be added to the soil for mintaining soil fertility and raising and raising forest productivity.

  6. Optimum preparation technology for Chinese fir wood/Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) composite board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Feng-Han; ZHAO Guang-jie

    2008-01-01

    For this study, an intercalation compounding method was used to prepare Chinese fir wood/Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-MMT) composite board to improve its properties such as surface mechanical properties, flume retardance and dimensional stability. By virtue of water-soluble phenolic resin (PF), Chinese fir wood and Ca-MMT were mixed by pressure and vacuum impregnation. The optimum impregnation technology of Chinese fir wood/Ca-MMT composite board was obtained by using an orthogonal design and a single factor design of pressure and vacuum impregnation, using weight percent gain (WPG) as the basic index. The results are as follows: 1) On the basis of the orthogonal design and an actual experiment, the optimum preparation technology of Chinese fir wood/Ca-MMT composite board is 20% PF resin dispersion concentration (wt%), 1.0 CEC amount of organic intercalation agent, 0.098 MPa vacuum degree, 5% concentration of Ca-MMT and 1.0 MPa pressure. 2) The WPG of the composite board samples of 450 mm length was much larger than that of the samples of 600, 750 and 900 mm length. Warm water extraction contributed little to WPG

  7. Three different criteria for the design of two-dimensional zero phase FIR digital filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, E.; Johansen, M.; Conradsen, Knut;

    1993-01-01

    An error criterion for the design of FIR filters is proposed. Filters with relatively many free filter coefficients are designed using the Chebyshev, the weighted-least-squares (WLS), and a new partitioned minimax error criterion, and the performance of the filters is compared. A general and fast...... technique for the WLS design is also presented.>...

  8. A low-power asynchronous data-path for a FIR filter bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Skovby; Sparsø, Jens

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a number of design issues relating to the implementation of low-power asynchronous signal processing circuits. Specifically, the paper addresses the design of a dedicated processor structure that implements an audio FIR filter bank which is part of an industrial application...

  9. Preparation and morphology of porous SiO2 ceramics derived from fir flour templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHONG LI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of SiO2 ceramics with controllable porous structure from fir flour templates via sol–gel processing was investigated. The specific size the fir flour, which was treated with 20 % NaOH solution, was infiltrated with a low viscous silica sol and subsequently calcined in air, which resulted in the formation of highly porous SiO2 ceramics. X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM were employed to investigate the microstructure and phase formation during processing as well as of the SiO2 ceramics. N2 adsorption measurements were used to analyze the pore size distributions (PSD of the final ceramics. The results indicated that the surface topography was changed and the proportion of the amorphous material was increased in NaOH-treated fir flour. The final oxide products retained ordered structures of the pores and showed unique pore sizes and distributions with hierarchy on the nanoscale derived from the fir flour.

  10. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism primer screening on Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiquan Zheng; Hongjing Duan; Dehuo Hu; Ruping Wei; Yun Li

    2015-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is one of the most important coniferous tree species used for timber production in China. Here, we conducted a sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) primer screening assay with a total of 594 primer combinations, using 22 forward and 27 reverse primers on four repre-sentative Chinese fir genotypes. The obtained results indicated that Chinese fir genomic DNA has a notable amplification bias on the employed forward or reverse primer nucleotides (3' selection bases). Out of the tested primer sets, 35 primer combinations with clearly distin-guished bands, stable amplification, and rich polymorphism were selected and identified as optimal primer sets. These optimal primer pairs gave a total of 379 scorable bands, including 265 polymorphic bands, with an average of 10.8 bands and 7.6 polymorphic bands per primer combination. The produced band number for each optimal primer set ranged from 7 to 14 with a percentage of polymorphic bands spanning from 33.3 to 100.0%. These primer combinations could facilitate the next SRAP analysis assays in Chinese fir.

  11. FiR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FiR 1 reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), but FiR 1 has also an important national role in providing local enterprises and research institutions in the fields of industrial measurements, pharmaceuticals, electronics etc. with isotope production and activation analysis services. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was built at the FiR 1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material FluentalTM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality after a major renovation of the whole reactor building in 1997. Recently the lithiated polyethylene neutron shielding of the beam aperture was modified to ease the positioning of the patient close to the beam aperture. Increasing the reactor power to 500 kW would allow positioning of the patient further away from the beam aperture. Possibilities to accomplish a safety analysis for this is currently under considerations. Over thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. Currently three clinical trial protocols for tumours in the brain as well as in the head and neck region are recruiting patients. (author)

  12. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  13. Stratospheric spectroscopy with the far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2) - Overview and recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's program of balloon-borne stratospheric spectroscopic measurements is described, including instrumentation, recent scientific results, and future plans. The design and operation of the FIRS-2 far-infrared spectrometer is discussed. The current status of our efforts to recover mixing-ratio profiles with about 1 percent precision is presented. Representative recent results are shown giving mixing-ratio profiles from 20 to 50 km, selected from the suite HOCl, HCl, HF, NO2, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, H2O2, H2O (and isotopes), O2 (and isotopes), O3 (and isotopes), and CO2 (and isotopes). The utility of O2 and CO2 spectral lines for information on view angle or temperature and pressure is discussed. Future plans are mentioned, including the use of FIRS-2 on a balloon platform for UARS correlative measurements, the use of FIRS-2 on the NASA DC-8 platform for polar measurements, and the potential benefits of a FIRS instrument on a Shuttle platform.

  14. A tool for automatic generation of RTL-level VHDL description of RNS FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Although digital filters based on the Residue Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dissipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR filters which hides the RNS algorithms to th...

  15. Effect of Mixed Forests of Chinese Fir and Tsoong‘s Tree on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGYUSHAN; DINGYINGXIANG

    1998-01-01

    An investigation and on 13-year-old(1984-1996) Chinese fir and Tsoong's tree mixed forests in Jianou City,Fujian Province,China was carried out to compare the influences of different interplanting types of individual tree-tree,row-row,row-strip(three rows)and pure Chinese fir stands on soil properties.Compared with the pure stands of Chinese fir ,the mixed stands exerted a posivtive effect on soil fertility,with increases in soil organic matter,total N,available P and available K.Moreover,improvements were also observed in soil enzymatic activities ,aggregate structure,structure,stability,status of soil porosity,soil aeration and penetrability in miexd stands.The row-row interplanted stands had the best effect on tree growth and soil properties among these mixed forests.In the southern subtropical region,the spreading of the row-row mixing model of the two tree species would be helpful to preventin ghe soil from fertility deterioratio caused by successive plantation of Chineses fir.

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Soils Affected by Douglas Fir Reforestation in Apennines (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Di Biase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Douglas fir reforestation plays an important role in Italian forest because no indigenous conifer has similar characteristics of productivity and timber quality. Few studies on physicochemical properties of soils under Douglas fire are noticeable. The aim of this work is to evaluate the organic C stock into soils under Douglas fir plantation in different selected areas. The areas of study are located in the North Apennine (Italy; Corno alle Scale (COR, Vallombrosa (VAL, Mulino Mengoni (MEN, respectively are chosen for the presence of Douglas fir reforestation of 60 years old. Two soil profiles for each area have been open and described. The pH value decreased along the profile depth. The organic C amount in organic layers was higher in Val and Men pedons than that determined in COR one. Higher amount of organic C were detected in organo-mineral horizons of Co pedons, highlighting a rapid turnover of soil organic matter. The C stock calculated in the first 30 cm of soil showed that the higher C amount is stored in highest altitudes profiles (COR6 and VAL6 than the other. The soil are classified as Lithic Dystrudepts in the highest altitudes (COR 6, 7 and VAL 6, 7, respectively while as Humic Dystrudepts in MEN (4 and 5 pedons. We conclude that no dangerous effects on soil quality of Douglas fir were investigated and they seem to be similar to those of native tree species, even if other different aspects should be investigated.

  17. Container Height and Douglas Fir Bark Texture Affect Substrate Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to quantify the effect of substrate texture on water holding capacity of douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] bark (DFB) in containers of varying height. Increasing container height resulted in a linear decrease in CC and a linear increase in AS. Fine texture DF...

  18. A tool for automatic generation of RTL-level VHDL description of RNS FIR filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Andrea Del; Nannarelli, Alberto; Re, Marco

    Although digital filters based on the Residue Number System (RNS) show high performance and low power dissipation, RNS filters are not widely used in DSP systems, because of the complexity of the algorithms involved. We present a tool to design RNS FIR filters which hides the RNS algorithms to th...

  19. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught. PMID:26305911

  20. Velocity-resolved [CII] Emission and [CII]/FIR Mapping along Orion with Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Teyssier, D.; Etxaluze, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Black, J. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Cuadrado, S.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Hacar, A.; Lis, D. C.; Marcelino, N.; Melnick, G. J.; Müller, H. S. P.; Persson, C.; Pety, J.; Röllig, M.; Schilke, P.; Simon, R.; Snell, R. L.; Stutzki, J.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first ˜7.‧5 × 11.‧5 velocity-resolved (˜0.2 km s-1) map of the [C ii] 158 μm line toward the Orion molecular cloud 1 (OMC 1) taken with the Herschel/HIFI instrument. In combination with far-IR (FIR) photometric images and velocity-resolved maps of the H41α hydrogen recombination and CO J = 2-1 lines, this data set provides an unprecedented view of the intricate small-scale kinematics of the ionized/photodissociation region (PDR)/molecular gas interfaces and of the radiative feedback from massive stars. The main contribution to the [C ii] luminosity (˜85%) is from the extended, FUV-illuminated face of the cloud (G0 > 500, {n}{{H}} \\gt 5 × 103 cm-3) and from dense PDRs ({G}0 ≳ 104, {n}{{H}} ≳ 105 cm-3) at the interface between OMC 1 and the H ii region surrounding the Trapezium cluster. Around ˜15% of the [C ii] emission arises from a different gas component without a CO counterpart. The [C ii] excitation, PDR gas turbulence, line opacity (from [13C ii]), and role of the geometry of the illuminating stars with respect to the cloud are investigated. We construct maps of the L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} and {L}{FIR}/{M}{Gas} ratios and show that L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} decreases from the extended cloud component (˜10-2-10-3) to the more opaque star-forming cores (˜10{}-3-10-4). The lowest values are reminiscent of the “[C ii] deficit” seen in local ultraluminous IR galaxies hosting vigorous star formation. Spatial correlation analysis shows that the decreasing L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} ratio correlates better with the column density of dust through the molecular cloud than with {L}{FIR}/{M}{Gas}. We conclude that the [C ii]-emitting column relative to the total dust column along each line of sight is responsible for the observed L[C ii]/{L}{FIR} variations through the cloud. Uses observations obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  1. Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oral Secretions I: Biology and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Leclair, Gaëtan; Mayo, Peter; Francis, Brittany; Williams, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The potential roles of the oral secretions (OS) of spruce budworm (SBW; Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens) larvae and factors that may affect the volume of OS disgorged were investigated in the laboratory. Experiments revealed that diet-fed SBW larvae readily disgorge OS when induced ("milked"), with minimal overall cost to their development and eventual pupal weight. Exposure of conspecific larvae to OS throughout larval development negatively affected survival and male pupal weight; however, male development time was faster when exposed to OS. Female pupal weight and development time were not affected. Preliminary experiments suggested that OS had a repellent effect on a co-occurring herbivore, the false hemlock looper, Nepytia canosaria (Walker). OS produced by larvae that fed on three host tree species and on artificial diet significantly increased the grooming time of ants (Camponotus sp.), indicating that SBW OS have an anti-predator function. The volume of OS is significantly greater in L6 than in L4 or L5, with the volume produced by L6 depending on weight and age as well as feeding history at time of milking. These findings indicate that SBW OS function as both an intra- and interspecific epideictic pheromone and as an anti-predator defensive mechanism, while incurring minimal metabolic costs. PMID:26454475

  2. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

  3. The dynamics of aerosol behaviour and fate within spruce canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current work was intended to provide data on aerosol inputs to forest ecosystems and their subsequent fate. The background to the project was the Chernobyl accident which highlighted the importance of forests and other semi-natural ecosystems as a link in the transfer of radioactivity to man. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, forests were identified as a specific type of semi-natural ecosystem for which radioecological data were almost completely absent within the countries of the European Union. Information on radionuclide behaviour and transfer in forest ecosystems was therefore needed to establish and test radiological assessment models which can be used to evaluate the likely contribution to radiological dose-to-man contaminated forests may make. The objective of this study was thus to provide data on dry deposition, resuspension and field loss of aerosols to forest canopies, in particular those of Norway spruce (Picea abies), from wind tunnel experiments conducted with small scale 'model' canopies. An aerosol generation system was developed to produce aerosol particles in the size range of 0.13-1.37 μm (VMD). Particle size distributions can be controlled within desired limits and with sufficient stability over time allowing the technique to be suitable for use in extended aerosol deposition studies. A full scale dry deposition experiment using 0.82 μm (VMAD) uranium particles was performed in the wind tunnel using Norway spruce saplings of approximately 45 cm height. Deposition velocities (Vg) were obtained and these were related to meteorological measurements (wind speed, friction velocity, turbulence intensity) inside the wind tunnel and LAI of the canopy. The latter was divided into five horizontal layers and both horizontal and vertical variations in deposition were assessed. A Vg value of 0.497 cm s-1 was obtained for the canopy as a whole with the highest and lowest fluxes of 2.85 x 10-8 and 8.14 x 10-9 μgU cm-2 s-1 occurring at the top

  4. Emissions of Sesquiterpenes from Spruce Sawdust During Drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granstroem, K.M. [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy Systems

    2006-07-15

    Large amounts of sawdust are dried for production of particleboard and Pellets. During processing of wood (i.e. drying, densification), volatile organic compounds are emitted. These contribute in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to the formation of ground level ozone and other harmful photo-oxidants. In this study sesquiterpene emissions from the drying of fresh Norway Spruce (Picea abies) sawdust in a continuous spouted bed steam dryer at 140-200 deg C have been investigated, and patterns of covariation between sesquiterpene emissions and drying parameters elucidated. Sesquiterpene emissions was about 20% of the monoterpene emissions. Drying in 200 deg C caused markedly larger sesquiterpene emissions than in 140 deg C or 170 deg C. Whereas a change in moisture content had no notable effect on the amount of sesquiterpenes emitted at high wood moisture contents (25-40%), the sesquiterpene emissions increased considerably as drying proceeded at low wood moisture contents (5-15%). While it has long been known that monoterpenes are a dominant VOC emitted during processing of wood, this study shows that sesquiterpenes are of considerable importance.

  5. Biochemical indicators for novel forest decline in spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of air pollution on 24 stands of spruce trees in several regions in Germany was investigated. We looked for evidence of biochemical and physiological change at the level of the photosynthetic thylakoid membranes as well as for changes in the antioxidative system in two year old needles. We observed that, as the chlorophyll content decreases in the needles, the among of D1 protein declines far more rapidly in relation to the redox components P700 and cytochrome f. Consequently, the PSII/PSI stoichiometry keeps dropping to progressively lower, meaning unfavorable, values at the chlorophyll content diminishes. This is particularly the case in the higher elevation characteristically increases while the D1 protein content falls. The higher α-tocopherol values, however, are obviously neither able to protect the D1 protein from degradation nor to compensate for the higher oxidative stress. Apart from that the ascorbate/tocopherol ratios remained in the majority of cases in the unfavorable range of far below 10, where an effective protection of the membranes from free radicals is not guaranteed. This then is mirrored in the increased degradation of D1 and the lower PSII/PSI ratio

  6. Relative importance of physical and economic factors in Appalachian coalbed gas assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    In the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, only 20% of the assessed technically recoverable Appalachian Province coalbed gas resources were economic. Physical and economic variables are examined to explain the disparity between economic and technically recoverable coalbed gas. The Anticline and Syncline plays of the Northern Appalachian Basin, which account for 77% of the assessed technically recoverable coalbed gas, are not economic. Analysis shows marginal reductions in costs or rate of return will not turn these plays into commercial successes. Physical parameters that determine ultimate well recoverability and the rate of gas recovery are primary reasons the Northern Appalachian Basin plays are non-commercial. If the application of new well stimulation technology could offset slow gas desorption rates, Appalachian Province economic gas could increase to more then 70% of the technically recoverable gas. Similarly, if operators are able to develop strategies to selectively drill plays by avoiding dry holes and non-commercial occurrences, the economic fraction of technically recoverable gas could increase to over half.In the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, only 20% of the assessed technically recoverable Appalachian Province coalbed gas resources were economic. Physical and economic variables are examined to explain the disparity between economic and technically recoverable coalbed gas. The Anticline and Syncline plays of the Northern Appalachian Basin, which account for 77% of the assessed technically recoverable coalbed gas, are not economic. Analysis shows marginal reductions in costs or rate of return will not turn these plays into commercial successes. Physical parameters that determine ultimate well recoverability and the rate of gas recovery are primary reasons the Northern Appalachian Basin plays are non-commercial. If the application of new well

  7. Distribution of Lepidopteran Larvae on Norway Spruce: Effects of Slope and Crown Aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulfan, Ján; Dvořáčková, Katarína; Zach, Peter; Parák, Michal; Svitok, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Lepidoptera associated with Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten, play important roles in ecosystem processes, acting as plant pests, prey for predators, and hosts for parasites and parasitoids. Their distribution patterns in spruce crowns and forests are only poorly understood. We examined how slope and crown aspect affect the occurrence and abundance of moth larvae on solitary spruce trees in a montane region in Central Europe. Moth larvae were collected from southern and northern crowns of trees growing on south- and north-facing slopes (four treatments) using emergence boxes at the end of winter and by the beating method during the growing season. Species responses to slope and crown aspect were not uniform. Treatment effects on moth larvae were stronger in the winter than during the growing season. In winter, the abundance of bud-boring larvae was significantly higher in northern than in southern crowns regardless of the slope aspect, while both slope and aspect had marginally significant effects on abundance of miners. During the growing season, the occurrence of free-living larvae was similar among treatments. Emergence boxes and beating spruce branches are complementary techniques providing valuable insights into the assemblage structure of moth larvae on Norway spruce. Due to the uneven distribution of larvae detected in this study, we recommend adoption of a protocol that explicitly includes sampling of trees from contrasting slopes and branches from contrasting crown aspect in all seasons. PMID:26795212

  8. Design of Low Power and Area Efficient New Reconfigurable FIR Filter using PSM and Shift and Add Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Jijina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an architectural approach to the design of Low power and area efficient reconfigurable Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. FIR digital filters are used in DSP by the virtue of its, linear phase, fewer finite precision error, stability and efficient implementation. The proposed architectures implemented by using carry save adder, it offer Low power and area reductions and compared to the best existing reconfigurable FIR filter implementations in the literature and the proposed architectures have been implemented and tested on Spartan-3 xc3s200-5pq208 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and synthesized.

  9. Research at Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, D. B.

    2003-12-01

    Astronomical research at Appalachian State University centers around the interests of the three observational astronomers on the faculty, and primarily involves observational work at our Dark Sky Observatory (DSO). ASU is a member of the 16-campus University of North Carolina system, and is a comprehensive university with about 13,000 students. Besides the usual constraint found in such a setting (teaching loads of 9-12 hours/semester), we face the challenges of maintaining a significant observatory facility in an era of shrinking state budgets. The DSO facility is 20 miles from campus, adding additional problems. This scenario differs from those of the other panelists, who are at private institutions and/or use shared facilities. The character of students at ASU also adds constraints--many have to hold part-time jobs that limit their participation in the very research that could contribute significantly to their success. Particularly, their need to leave for the summer for gainful employment at the very time that faculty have the most time for research is a loss for all concerned. In spite of these challenges, we have a long record of maintaining research programs in eclipsing binary star photometry, stellar spectroscopy and QSO/AGN monitoring. Undergraduate students are involved in all aspects of the work, from becoming competent at solo observing to publication of the results and presentation of papers and posters at meetings. Graduate students in our Masters in Applied Physics program (emphasis on instrumentation), have constructed instruments and control systems for the observatory. Most of what we have achieved would have been impossible without the support of the National Science Foundation. We have been fortunate to acquire funds under the Division of Undergraduate Education's ILI program and the Research at Undergraduate Institutions program. Among other things, this support provided our main telescope, CCD cameras, and some student stipends.

  10. Appalachian Basin Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Boswell; Susan Pool; Skip Pratt; David Matchen

    1993-04-30

    A preliminary assessment of Appalachian basin natural gas reservoirs designated as 'tight sands' by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests that greater than 90% of the 'tight sand' resource occurs within two groups of genetically-related units; (1) the Lower Silurian Medina interval, and (2) the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Acadian clastic wedge. These intervals were targeted for detailed study with the goal of producing geologic reservoir characterization data sets compatible with the Tight Gas Analysis System (TGAS: ICF Resources, Inc.) reservoir simulator. The first phase of the study, completed in September, 1991, addressed the Medina reservoirs. The second phase, concerned with the Acadian clastic wedge, was completed in October, 1992. This report is a combined and updated version of the reports submitted in association with those efforts. The Medina interval consists of numerous interfingering fluvial/deltaic sandstones that produce oil and natural gas along an arcuate belt that stretches from eastern Kentucky to western New York. Geophysical well logs from 433 wells were examined in order to determine the geologic characteristics of six separate reservoir-bearing intervals. The Acadian clastic wedge is a thick, highly-lenticular package of interfingering fluvial-deltaic sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Geologic analyses of more than 800 wells resulted in a geologic/engineering characterization of seven separate stratigraphic intervals. For both study areas, well log and other data were analyzed to determine regional reservoir distribution, reservoir thickness, lithology, porosity, water saturation, pressure and temperature. These data were mapped, evaluated, and compiled into various TGAS data sets that reflect estimates of original gas-in-place, remaining reserves, and 'tight' reserves. The maps and data produced represent the first basin-wide geologic characterization for either interval. This report

  11. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  12. Large woody debris and salmonid habitat in the Anchor River basin, Alaska, following an extensive spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    A widespread and intense spruce beetle outbreak has killed most of the mature white spruce trees across many watersheds in south-central Alaska. To investigate the potential habitat impacts in a salmon stream, we characterized the current abundance and species composition of large woody debris (LWD...

  13. Holocene occurrence of Lophodermium piceae, a black spruce needle endophyte and possible paleoindicator of boreal forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J. P. Paul; Payette, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Holocene occurrences of conifer needle endophytes have not previously been reported. We report the fossil remains of Lophodermium piceae (Fckl.) Hoehn., a fungal endophyte of black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) needles, in macrofossils dating back to 8000 cal yr BP. Spruce budworm head capsules and L. piceae remains were found preceding charcoal layers delineating the transformation of four spruce-moss forest sites to spruce-lichen woodland. As L. piceae is found solely on senescent needles, its increased presence during these transformation periods likely indicates that the forests were in decline due to the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) when they burned. Future paleoecological studies incorporating needle fungi observations could be used to investigate the historical occurrence of tree disease and the role of fungi in forest health and decline.

  14. Changes in soil algal communities in spruce phytocenoses under the influence of aerotechnogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaya, I. V.; Patova, E. N.

    2007-05-01

    The regularities of the development of algal communities in podzolic soils under coniferous forests were studied in areas differing in their technogenic pollution intensity. In the unpolluted soils under spruce forests, 80 alga species of 6 divisions were found; in the soils under the coniferous forests located in the zone exposed to the technogenic pollution, 59 alga species of 5 divisions were found. The algal groups in the soils of the spruce forests included 14 48 taxa. Chlamydomonas gloeogama, C. reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, Klebsormidium nitens, and Stichococcus bacillaris were resistant to different anthropogenic impacts. The results obtained may be used for monitoring of the state of the soil biota in the soils under the boreal forests of protected areas and also in spruce forests exposed to intense aerial technogenic pollution.

  15. Juvenile growth of white spruce and deciduous competition on mixedwood sites in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, S.; MacIsaac, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    Describes a study set up in juvenile mixed 9-to-14-year-old stands established on clearcuts within two of Alberta`s natural regions in order to provide quantification of deciduous (aspen and balsam poplar) competition and white spruce growth. Relationships of deciduous competition and white spruce height, basal diameter, and current diameter and height increments were tested by regression methods. About 40 competition and microsite variables were selected or developed for analysis, categorised in the following groups: Ten based on stem density, 13 based on crown cover, nine based on distance, and 13 based on microsite conditions. The analyses examined not only deciduous competition and white spruce growth interaction, but also the simultaneous effects of several competition variables. The results substantiate the need for adaptive management of juvenile mixed stands adjustable to stand and ecological conditions and resource management objectives.

  16. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  17. Metabolism of isopentenyladenosine in the roots of Norway spruce seedlings exposed to nutritive stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were grown on a low nutrient medium containing Al3+ ions (0.8 mM, stress) and a rich medium that was suitable for spruce and lacked Al3+ (control). After feeding with tritiated isopentenyladenosine via the roots, the metabolism of cytokinins in the roots of stressed and control plants was compared. HPLC radioactivity profiles of root extracts showed that isopentenyladenosine was mainly degraded to isopentenyladenine- and adenine/adenosine-like compounds. Stressed and non-stressed seedlings clearly differed with respect to the distribution of radioactivity for the different metabolites. The measurements showed that the degradation of isopentenyladenosine was strongly reduced in the roots of the stressed seedlings. Results are discussed with regard to the levels of endogenous cytokinins measured in spruce affected by the novel type of forest decline. (author)

  18. Continuous Monitoring of Soil Respiration in Black Spruce Forest Soils, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Kim, W.

    2009-12-01

    This research was carried out to estimate the continuous monitoring of soil respiration using automatic chamber system that was equipped with a control system, a compressor, and seven chambers (50 cm diameter, 30 cm high) set in sphagnum moss, feather moss, lichen, and tussock in black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska during growing season of 2008. The average daily soil respirations were 0.050±0.012 (standard deviation, CV 23%), 0.022±0.020 (91%), 0.082±0.035 (43%), and 0.027±0.010 mgCO2/m2/s (37%) in lichens, sphagnum moss, tussock and feather moss on black spruce forest soils with light chamber made by transparent material. The temporal variation of soil respiration in different vegetation types on black spruce forest soils during the growing season of 2008 is shown in Figure 1. The accumulative daily soil respiration was 5.2, 9.5, 2.3, and 2.8 mgCO2/m2/s in lichen, tussock, sphagnum moss, and feather moss of black spruce forest ground during the growing periods of 103 days, 2008 (Figure 2). Therefore, averaged regional soil respiration rate is 0.19±0.18 and 0.12±0.08 kgC/m2/(growing season) of 2007 and 2008 in black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska. The winter soil respiration was 0.049±0.013 gC/m2/(winter season), corresponding from 21±7% to 29±13% of the annual CO2 emitted from black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska.

  19. Stem growth reduction in mature Sitka spruce trees exposed to acid mist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, A; Sheppard, L J; Cape, J N; Smith, R I; Harvey, F J

    1997-01-01

    An eighteen-year-old clone of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr) growing in the field was used to evaluate the whole tree response of 'mature' Sitka spruce to acid mist treatment. The mist, an equimolar mixture of H(2)SO(4) and NH(4)NO(3) at pH 2.5 with or without particles (soda glass ballotini dendrometer bands. There was no significant difference between the (acid mist + particle) and the acid mist only treatments. The mean relative stem-area increment over two complete growing seasons (1991-1992) was 65% for control trees, but only 53% for acid-misted trees. PMID:15093418

  20. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb. Calculat......The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb...

  1. Radioactivity distribution in the soil and needles of two spruce stands in North-Rhine Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to permit quantification of radioecological stress in spruce forests in North-Rhine Westphalia following the Chernobyl reactor accident and the associated fallout, the 'Landesanstalt fuer Oekologie, Landschaftsentwicklung und Forstplanung' (State Authority for Ecology, Land Development and Forestry Planning) in 1987 instituted a programme of investigation whose first results are presented in this work. Investigated were spruce needles and forest soils. The results lead to the hypothesis that liming creates conditions resulting in higher speed of migration of ions, inter alia cesium 137, in the soil. As a result, they are more rapidly available to vegetation and penetrate via the roots into the plants and, thereby, the needles. (vhe)

  2. The Mathematics Self-Efficacy of Rural Central Appalachian Undergraduate Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation study was a two-part investigation with a sample of undergraduate students from three community and technical colleges and one university in the state of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the mathematics self-efficacy of rural Central Appalachian undergraduate females. Two…

  3. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  4. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  5. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  6. Finding Their Voice: Country Music Television and Appalachian Community Colleges Empower Communities to Overcome Economic Hardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how out-of-work miners are engaged in the Empowering Education Initiative, a unique alliance between Country Music Television (CMT) and community colleges in Appalachia. The initiative, which includes a website and a series of country music concerts, is changing the conversation in the Appalachian region, giving hope to…

  7. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  8. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  9. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  10. 77 FR 52711 - Appalachian Power; Notice of Temporary Variance of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Appalachian Power; Notice of Temporary Variance of License and...: Temporary Variance of License. b. Project No: 739-033. c. Date Filed: August 7, 2012. d. Applicant... filed. k. Description of Application: The licensee requests a temporary variance to allow for a...

  11. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  12. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood hereafter dogwood) populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees) across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1) quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian eco region, (2) quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3) identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian eco region. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (ρ<.05) were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent) sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  13. A Survey of Appalachian Middle & High School Teacher Perceptions of Controversial Current Events Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Kimberlee A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of a sample of Appalachian middle and high school social studies teachers regarding the teaching of controversial current events. Specifically, the survey ascertained the teachers' familiarity with school district administrative policies regarding the teaching of controversial current events, their perceptions…

  14. COMMUNITY CHOICES AND HOUSING DECISIONS: A SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN HIGHLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seong-Hoon; Newman, David H.; Wear, David N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines land development using an integrated approach that combines residential decisions about choices of community in the Southern Appalachian region with the application of the GIS (Geographical Information System). The empirical model infers a distinctive heterogeneity in the characteristics of community choices. The results also indicate that socioeconomic motives strongly affect urban housing decisions while environmental amenities affect those of rural housing.

  15. Information Seeking and Intentions to Have Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancers in Rural and Appalachian Kentuckians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Andrews, James E; Case, Donald O.; Allard, Suzanne L.; Johnson, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Research is limited regarding the potential of genetic testing for cancer risk in rural Appalachia. Purpose: This study examined perceptions of genetic testing in a population sample of Kentuckians, with a focus on Appalachian and rural differences. The goals were to examine cultural and psychosocial factors that may predict intentions to…

  16. Synchrotron FT-FIR spectroscopy of nitro-derivatives vapors: New spectroscopic signatures of explosive taggants and degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Gruet, Sébastien; Pirali, Olivier; Chamaillé, Thierry; Mouret, Gaël

    2014-11-01

    We report on the first successful rovibrational study of gas phase mononitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene in the TeraHertz/Far-Infrared (THz/FIR) spectral domain. Using the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and a Fourier Transform spectrometer connected to multipass cells, the low-energy vibrational cross-sections of the different isomers of mononitrotoluene have been measured and compared to calculated spectra with the density functional theory including the anharmonic contribution. The active FIR modes of 2,4 and 2,6 dinitrotoluene have been assigned to the vibrational bands measured by Fourier Transform FIR spectroscopy of the gas-phase molecular cloud produced in an evaporating/recondensating system. This study highlights the selectivity of gas phase THz/FIR spectroscopy allowing an unambiguous recognition and discrimination of nitro-aromatic compounds used as explosive taggants.

  17. EuroFIR Project – A Key Role in Creation and Compiling of Bulgarian Food Composition Database

    OpenAIRE

    Desislava Krasteva Gyurova

    2014-01-01

    The food chemical composition databases provide a detailed information on nutritional composition, derived from the specific needs of each country. Data sources and their quality should be documented for each nutrient and in accordance with international and regional standards. The collaboration with leadership of the EuroFIR Project and contacts with various representatives of the participating countries contributed to capacity development in our country in a following way: EuroFIR workshops...

  18. Non-Causal Fir Filters for the Maximum Return from Capital Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Dyka, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a trading strategy, which consists in buying or selling a financial instrument when the smoothing, non-causal FIR (Final Impulse Response) filter output attains a local minimum or maximum, respectively. Upon tis assumption the goal of this paper is to determine the 'best' non-causal smoothing FIR filters, which provide maximum value of the return from the market. The assumed non-causality is obtained by advancing the output signal to compensate for the delay introduced by the a priori known filter. The best result were obtained for the impulse response given by the Pascal triangle and the family of symmetric power triangles, both for the case of trading with, and without the transaction fee. It was found that the transaction fee dramatically reduces a possible net return from the market, and therefore should not be omitted in market analyzes.

  19. The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

  20. Embedded FIR filter design for real-time refocusing using a standard plenoptic video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar

    2014-03-01

    A novel and low-cost embedded hardware architecture for real-time refocusing based on a standard plenoptic camera is presented in this study. The proposed layout design synthesizes refocusing slices directly from micro images by omitting the process for the commonly used sub-aperture extraction. Therefore, intellectual property cores, containing switch controlled Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters, are developed and applied to the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) XC6SLX45 from Xilinx. Enabling the hardware design to work economically, the FIR filters are composed of stored product as well as upsampling and interpolation techniques in order to achieve an ideal relation between image resolution, delay time, power consumption and the demand of logic gates. The video output is transmitted via High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) with a resolution of 720p at a frame rate of 60 fps conforming to the HD ready standard. Examples of the synthesized refocusing slices are presented.

  1. Pathology of a Gammabaculovirus in Its Natural Balsam Fir Sawfly (Neodiprion abietis Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lucarotti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neodiprion abietis Gammabaculovirus (Baculoviridae: NeabNPV is virulent, highly contagious, and infects only midgut epithelial cells of balsam fir sawfly larvae, but infections can carry through to adult sawflies in the midgut. Larval infections are characterized by hypertrophy of midgut epithelial cell nuclei, where virogenic stromata develop to produce nucleocapsids that are singly enveloped before occlusion into occlusion bodies. Infected, occlusion body-laden cells slough from the midgut epithelium as a result of a dissolution of the basal lamina. Infected cells undergo lysis, and viral occlusion bodies exit affected larvae in a watery diarrhea to infect other balsam fir sawfly larvae. A budded virus stage was not observed, but nucleocapsid and occlusion body formation resembled the development of occlusion-derived virions and occlusion bodies in lepidopteran alphabaculoviruses.

  2. Design of Low Power Column Bypass Multiplier using FPGA and Implementation Using FIR Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemula Prakash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Design of area, high speed and power efficient data path logic systems in the low power VLSI circuits has been identified as vital technology in the in the DSP computations and signal processing applications like FIR,IIR filters. Since multipliers consume most of the power in DSP computations it is very important to develop new low-power multipliers for DSP computations. The switching activity of the multiplier depends on the input bit-coefficient, if the coefficient bits are zero the corresponding rows or columns need not to be activated. By inserting more number of zeros in the multiplicand using booth recoding unit we can reduce the switching activity by shutting down the idle part of the circuit and thereby reducing the power dissipation, based on this concept we presents low power column bypass multiplier and verifies the result using FIR filter

  3. Design of FIR Filter Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Audio Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpreet Kaur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal design of linear phase digital finiteimpulse response (FIR filter using Modified Particle SwarmOptimization (MPSO has been presented. In the designprocess, the filter length, pass band and stop band frequencies,pass band and stop band ripple sizes are specified. Sometimesthe gradient based optimization techniques are not effectivefor designing filter. An evolutionary method is introduced tofind the optimal solution of FIR filter design problem. MPSOis a global stochastic searching technique that can find out theglobal optima of the problem. A simulation results reveals theoptimization efficacy of the algorithm for the solution of,highly non-linear, and constrained filter design problems. Thedesigned filter is then applied on the audio application for upsampling of the audio signal. MATLAB toolkit functions areused for implementation of proposed algorithm.

  4. Optimization of FIR Digital Filters Using a Real Parameter Parallel Genetic Algorithm and Implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dexiang

    This dissertation presents a novel method of designing finite word length Finite Impulse Response (FIR) digital filters using a Real Parameter Parallel Genetic Algorithm (RPPGA). This algorithm is derived from basic Genetic Algorithms which are inspired by natural genetics principles. Both experimental results and theoretical studies in this work reveal that the RPPGA is a suitable method for determining the optimal or near optimal discrete coefficients of finite word length FIR digital filters. Performance of RPPGA is evaluated by comparing specifications of filters designed by other methods with filters designed by RPPGA. The parallel and spatial structures of the algorithm result in faster and more robust optimization than basic genetic algorithms. A filter designed by RPPGA is implemented in hardware to attenuate high frequency noise in a data acquisition system for collecting seismic signals. These studies may lead to more applications of the Real Parameter Parallel Genetic Algorithms in Electrical Engineering.

  5. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-08-23

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range. PMID:27503880

  6. Application of FIR heterodyne detection to collective scattering measurements of tokamak microturbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multichannel collective scattering of far-infrared (FIR) laser radiation is employed on the TEXT tokamak to investigate small-scale turbulent density fluctuations. A twin-frequency optically pumped FIR laser operating at 1222 μm (≅20 mW) and a difference frequency Δω/sub IF//2π≅1 MHz is used for the source and local oscillator beams. This permits heterodyne detection of the frequency-shifted scattered radiation which is necessary to determine wave propagation direction of plasma density fluctuations. The need for heterodyne versus homodyne detection is demonstrated. Such a diagnostic capability has allowed preliminary identification of the ion pressure-gradient-driven instability (whose most notable signature is that of turbulent fluctuations propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction) which is potentially responsible for saturation of the global energy confinement time with increasing density in tokamak plasmas

  7. EFFECT OF STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment often brings about some negative effects on mechanical properties of wood. Chinese fir is currently underutilized due to some inherent properties that limit its further applications. Using steam as a heating medium and a shielding gas, the heartwood and sapwood of Chinese fir were treated at a temperature ranging from 170ºC to 230ºC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an airtight chamber. Both the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were increased for the sapwood specimens under the temperature less than 200ºC for short treatment times. The hardness was increased for both two kinds of specimens under the temperature less than or about 200ºC, compared to the untreated specimens. The temperature has a stronger effect on mechanical properties of wood than the time, and the temperature of 200 ºC is a critical point in modifying mechanical properties of wood.

  8. Sources of growth variability in interior Douglas-fir. Information report No. BC-X-328

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnor, G.M.; De Jong, R.; Boudewyn, P.

    1991-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a data base containing Douglas-fir stand growth data, to use this data base to assess the effect on stand growth of differences in harvesting method, time since harvest, site quality and selected stand parameters, and to use the outcome of the assessment to derive a simple stand growth model. The study was limited to pure Douglas-fir stands in the dry belt of the British Columbia interior. Site quality assessment is limited by data scarcity to the two main biogeoclimatic subzones. Stand parameters comprise number of stems, basal area, and quadratic mean diameter. Harvesting methods include the faller's selection method, the diameter limit method, and no harvest.

  9. Aspirated pits in wetwood and micromorphology of microbial degradation in subalpine fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaoli; CAI Liping; XU Yongji

    2006-01-01

    Differentiating from normal wood,pit membranes in wetwood of subalpine fir contain bacteria of water drop shape or orbicular shape,and flaky shape,as observed using Scanning Electronic Microscope.Not only are ray parenchyma cells in wetwood partially degraded but also margo strands in pit membranes are somewhat degraded by bacterial activities.Most of the bordered-pit membranes in normal wood are unaspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits in earlywood and latewood account for only 6.8% and 13.4%,respectively.Nevertheless,most of the bordered-pit membranes in wetwood are aspirated in green conditions and the proportions of aspirated pits account for 77.7% and 72.1%,respectively.The problem of hard-to-dry for subalpine fir could be reasoned from the considerable amount of aspirated pit membranes in wetwood.

  10. Increased Biomass of Nursery-Grown Douglas-Fir Seedlings upon Inoculation with Diazotrophic Endophytic Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Khan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings are periodically challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses. The ability of endophytes to colonize the interior of plants could confer benefits to host plants that may play an important role in plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this greenhouse study, nursery-grown Douglas-fir seedlings were inoculated with diazotrophic endophytes previously isolated from poplar and willow trees and grown for fifteen months in nutrient-poor conditions. Inoculated seedlings had significant increases in biomass (48%, root length (13% and shoot height (16% compared to the control seedlings. Characterization of these endophytes for symbiotic traits in addition to nitrogen fixation revealed that they can also solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. Colonization was observed through fluorescent microscopy in seedlings inoculated with gfp- and mkate-tagged strains. Inoculation with beneficial endophytes could prove to be valuable for increasing the production of planting stocks in forest nurseries.

  11. Sharpening the response of an FIR filter using Fractional Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Chaturvedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented FIR filter with the help of Kaiser Window and Fractional Fourier Transform (FRFT. The window shape parameter is tuned for the transition band by considering linear phase FRFT Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter. Here FRFT of Kaiser Window is taken and convolved with the response function for tuning purposes of the transition band which makes effective transition band. This proposed method includes the change of parameters of Kaiser window by which other windows like Rectangle, Bartlett, Hamming Blackman and Hanning windows are generated by using FRFT. The efficiencies of this method in terms of main lobe and side ripples are better than the above mentioned windows under Fourier transform.

  12. [Effects of conversion of natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation on soil respiration in subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bai, Yang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Wu, Jia-sen; Tong, Zhi-peng; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-10-01

    Soil CO2 effluxes in natural broad-leaved forest and the conversed Chinese fir plantation in Linglong Mountains Scenic of Zhejiang Province were evaluated by using static closed chamber and gas chromatography method. The results showed that soil CO2 efflux showed consistent seasonal dynamics in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, with the maximums observed in summer and autumn, the minimums in winter and spring. Soil CO2 effluxes were 20.0-111.3 and 4.1-118.6 mg C . m-2 . h-1 in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The cumulative soil CO2 emission of natural broad-leaved forest (16.46 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1) was significantly higher than that of Chinese fir plantation (11.99 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1). Soil moisture did not affect soil CO2 efflux. There was a significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature at 5 cm depth. There was no significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux of natural broad-leaved forest and water soluble organic carbon content, while water soluble organic carbon content affected significantly soil CO2 efflux in Chinese fir plantation. Converting the natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation reduced soil CO2 efflux significantly but improved the sensitivity of soil respiration to environmental factors. PMID:26995901

  13. Measurement and decontamination of radiocesium on fir (Abies firma) and camellia (Camellia japonica) leaves in Fukushima city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollutants on radiocesium contaminated fir and camellia leaves in Northern Fukushima prefecture were measured and decontaminated after the accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The surface contamination of the leaves of the fir and the camellia leaves was measured by washing by hand with water; the contaminants were then removed by deposition. Leaves that had unfolded more than three years ago were polluted by a high concentration of Cs-137+Cs-134; 7,070±129 Bq/kg in fir and 6,610±195 Bq/kg camellia. Lower position leaves of large camellia plants showed higher levels of radiocesium concentration compared with them of small plants. The radiocesium contamination of leaves decreased to one-fifth (fir) and one-quarter (camellia) by hand rubbing with water before washing. 99.4% of radiocesium contamination from fir leaves and 90.8% of radiocesium contamination from camellia. A large amount of the radiocesium surface contamination on fir and camellia could be removed by rubbing leaf surfaces with water, and the contamination was collected by deposition processing. (author)

  14. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Yannis Raftoyannis; Dimitrios Bakaloudis

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildf...

  15. Glacial populations and postglacial migration of Douglas-fir based on fossil pollen and macrofossil evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Paul F.; Sugita, Shinya

    2010-08-01

    To understand how temperate forests might respond to future episodes of global warming, it is important to study the effects of large-scale climate change brought about by rapid postglacial warming. Compilations of fossil evidence have provided the best evidence of past plant range shifts, especially in eastern North America and Europe, and provide a context for interpreting new molecular datasets from modern forests. In western North America, however, such reviews have lagged even for common, widespread taxa. Here, we synthesize fossil evidence for Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) from nearly 550 fossil pollen, sedimentary macrofossil, and packrat midden macrofossil sites to develop hypotheses about the species' late Quaternary history that can be tested with molecular phylogeographic studies. For both the coastal and interior varieties, we identified alternative hypotheses on the number of glacial populations and postglacial migration patterns that can be characterized as single-population versus multiple-population hypotheses. Coastal Douglas-fir may have been subdivided into two populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and colonized British Columbia from populations in Washington and Oregon. Interior Douglas-fir could have been subdivided along major topographic barriers into at least three LGM populations and colonized British Columbia and Alberta from populations in northwest Wyoming and/or northeast Utah. For both varieties, we calculated migration rates lower than previous studies, which could have been as high as 100-220 m/yr if Douglas-fir reached its modern distribution 9000 cal yr BP, or as low as 50 m/yr if it reached its modern range at present. The elevational range of populations in California and the southern Rockies shifted upslope by 700-1000 m. If there were multiple LGM populations, these elevational shifts suggest that those populations did not contribute to the colonization of Canada. Our findings emphasize the possibility of low

  16. Using pixel and object based IKONOS image analysis for studying decay in silver fir stands

    OpenAIRE

    Ionut Barnoaiea; Ovidiu Iacobescu

    2009-01-01

    The problem of old silver fir stands decay has appeared in the last decades of the last century with symptoms such as defoliation, wood decay and parasites attacks. The problems in monitoring this phenomenon is that the defoliation and mistletoe attack appear on the crown top, triggering the coronation process - tree develop branches on their lower stem part in order to resist to the defoliation. This reaction makes the attack difficult to notice on aerial or satellite images, due to the refl...

  17. Multipath Pipelined Polyphase Structures for FIR Interpolation and Decimation in MIMO OFDM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-dong Zhang; Bin Wu; Yu-mei Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) technique is one favored solution in wireless communication systems for enhancing data rate. However, the computational complexity is also linear increased with the number of data streams. Generally, multiple finite impulse response (FIR) interpolations and decimations are added to solve the multiple data streams in a MIMO OFDM system, which cause a large increase ...

  18. Use of extract of bark of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for preparing of beekeeping products

    OpenAIRE

    Martinc, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our thesis was to gain new honey analogous beekeeping product by feeding the bees with fir bark extracts (Abies alba Mill.) and to assess the suitability of the product as honey in addition to daily human consumption. In this regard, we first had to determine the appropriate concentration of the extract, by testing which concentrations would the bees prefere. After finding out an appropriate concentration, we prepared large quantities of solutions and fed...

  19. On the nature of the deeply embedded protostar OMC-2 FIR 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Fischer, W. J. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Osorio, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Stutz, A. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ali, B. [NHSC/IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stanke, T. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Adams, J. D. [USRA-SOFIA, DAOF, 2825 E. Ave. P, Palmdale, CA 93550 (United States); Tobin, J. J., E-mail: furlan@ipac.caltech.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlotttesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We use mid-infrared to submillimeter data from the Spitzer, Herschel, and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes to study the bright submillimeter source OMC-2 FIR 4. We find a point source at 8, 24, and 70 μm, and a compact, but extended source at 160, 350, and 870 μm. The peak of the emission from 8 to 70 μm, attributed to the protostar associated with FIR 4, is displaced relative to the peak of the extended emission; the latter represents the large molecular core the protostar is embedded within. We determine that the protostar has a bolometric luminosity of 37 L {sub ☉}, although including more extended emission surrounding the point source raises this value to 86 L {sub ☉}. Radiative transfer models of the protostellar system fit the observed spectral energy distribution well and yield a total luminosity of most likely less than 100 L {sub ☉}. Our models suggest that the bolometric luminosity of the protostar could be as low as 12-14 L {sub ☉}, while the luminosity of the colder (∼20 K) extended core could be around 100 L {sub ☉}, with a mass of about 27 M {sub ☉}. Our derived luminosities for the protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 are in direct contradiction with previous claims of a total luminosity of 1000 L {sub ☉}. Furthermore, we find evidence from far-infrared molecular spectra and 3.6 cm emission that FIR 4 drives an outflow. The final stellar mass the protostar will ultimately achieve is uncertain due to its association with the large reservoir of mass found in the cold core.

  20. ASSESSING PROTECTING EFFICIENCY OF SOME SURFACE TREATMENTS ON FIR WOOD AFTER 7 YEARS OUTDOOR EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela BELDEAN; Maria Cristina TIMAR; Anca Maria VARODI

    2015-01-01

    Performance of wood preservatives or coatings as surface treatments products is closely connected to different needs and requirements. This paper investigated the protective efficiency of such products, on fir wood exposed outdoors for 7 years, in a modified L-joint test. The evaluation refers to degradation as result of the combined action of the biotic and non-biotic factors, active in use class 3. Two common non-destructive methods were used to evaluate the wood exposed outdoor...

  1. Submm/FIR astronomy in Antarctica: Potential for a large telescope facility

    OpenAIRE

    Minier, Vincent; Minier, V.; Olmi, L.; Lagage, P. -O.; Spinoglio, L; Durand, G.A.; Daddi, E.; Galilei, D.; Gallee, H; Kramer, C.; Marrone, D.; Pantin, E.; Sabbatini, L.; Schneider, N; Tothill, N.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary site testing datasets suggest that Dome C in Antarctica is one of the best sites on Earth for astronomical observations in the 200 to 500 micron regime, i.e. for far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) astronomy. We present an overview of potential science cases that could be addressed with a large telescope facility at Dome C. This paper also includes a presentation of the current knowledge about the site characterics in terms of atmospheric transmission, stability, sky nois...

  2. Spectral Factorization, Whitening- and Estimation Filter -- Stability, Smoothness Properties and FIR Approximation Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Boche, Holger; Pohl, Volker

    2005-01-01

    A Wiener filter can be interpreted as a cascade of a whitening- and an estimation filter. This paper gives a detailed investigates of the properties of these two filters. Then the practical consequences for the overall Wiener filter are ascertained. It is shown that if the given spectral densities are smooth (Hoelder continuous) functions, the resulting Wiener filter will always be stable and can be approximated arbitrarily well by a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Moreover, the smoothn...

  3. Low temperature FIR and submm mass absorption coefficient of interstellar silicate dust analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Coupeaud, A.; Demyk, K.; Meny, C.; Nayral, C; Delpech, F.; Leroux, H.; Depecker, C.; Creff, G.; Brubach, J. B.; Roy, P.

    2011-01-01

    Cold dust grains emission in the FIR/submm is usually expressed as a modified black body law in which the dust mass absorption coefficient (MAC), is described with a temperature- and wavelength-independent emissivity spectral index, beta. However, numerous data from space and balloon-born missions and recently from Herschel and Planck show that dust emission is not well understood, as revealed by the observed anti-correlation of beta with the grain temperature. In order to give astronomers th...

  4. Design and Efficiency Analysis of one Class of Uniform Linear Phase FIR Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Pantić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One class of uniform linear phase filter banks with different numbers of band-pass channels will be considered in this study, concentrating on 5, 9 and 17-band filter banks and their mutual comparison concerning delay and implementation complexity. Designed banks are based on the FIR filters and frequency response masking technique and are also compared to the banks with direct realization considering complementarity and delay.

  5. Effect of light regime on the natural regeneration of silver fir (Abies alba, Calabria, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercurio R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to analyse the effect of light environment on dynamics of natural regeneration of silver fir. The study areas were located in natural silver fir (Abies alba Mill. stands of Serra San Bruno Forests (Archiforo in the Calabrian Apennine. Measurements of the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR - radiation in the 0.4-0.7 µm waveband were collected with a ceptometer (AccuPAR Decagon Devices, USA. PAR was measured monthly during the growing season. Measurements were taken: under canopy, inside natural gaps and in correspondence of escarps along forestry roads. After each measurement for each sampling point the PAR transmittance was calculated. Seedlings density was estimated in each position. Each of these seedlings was identified by species, total height was measured and the age was visually determined. Seedlings were distributed in three classes: (a class 0: to natural regeneration absence and height 10 seedlings m-2 and height between 0.30 and 1 m; (c class 2: to density > 10 seedlings m-2 and height > 1 m. Level of PAR transmittance was higher inside the gaps where a good seedlings density was observed. Further seedling density was higher in correspondence of escarps. Under canopy, seedlings were absent due to low levels of light (1.3 < T < 3.7. The results showed a diverse ecological behaviour to light environment of silver fir of Serra San Bruno compared with central-northern Abies alba population. Some comments about silvicultural treatment of silver fir stand in the Calabrian Apennine are provided, according to dynamics of natural regeneration.

  6. Investigating Differences in Douglas-fir and Southern Yellow Pine Bonding Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mirabile, Kyle Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Differences in southern yellow pine (represented by Pinus taeda) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mature and juvenile wood were examined in terms of density, chemical composition, surface energy, shear stress, % wood failure, and delamination. Density was measured using a QTRS density scanner. Loblolly pine contained a higher average density. Chemical composition was measured using the NREL standard for identifying the chemical composition of biomass. Southern yellow pine contained a h...

  7. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W L; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  8. Nitrogen nutrition and rhizosphere pH of Douglas-fir

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsman, Arjan Jacobus

    1990-01-01

    The increased aerial input of NHx to forests leads to a large supply of nitrogen to trees and - depending on the rate of nitrification - to a change in the amrnonium/nitrate ratio in the soil. In this study the effect of these changes in nitrogen availability on growth and funccioning of Douglas-fir, and in the rhizosphere pH along its roots was investigated.... Zie: Summary

  9. Frequency-Based Optimization Design for Fractional Delay FIR Filters with Software-Defined Radio Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Jovanovic-Dolecek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency-designed fractional delay FIR structure, which is suitable for software radio applications, is presented. The design method is based on frequency optimization of a combination of modified Farrow and mutirate structures. As a result the optimization frequency range is made only in half of desired total bandwidth. According to the obtained results the proposed fractional delay structure allows online desired fractional delay update, with a high fractional delay value resolution.

  10. Effect of modification with phenol formaldehyde resin on the mechanical properties of wood from Chinese fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Huang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Chinese fir were treated with either low-molecular-weight or commercial phenol-formaldehyde (PF resins. The macro- and micromechanical properties of the treated and untreated samples were determined. The average longitudinal tensile modulus of elasticity (MOE was 30.88% larger for the samples treated with the low-molecular-weight PF resin than it was for the untreated samples. The average MOE of the samples treated with the commercial PF resin was 29.84% less than that of the untreated samples. The micromechanical properties of the samples were investigated through nanoindentation studies. For the samples modified with low-molecular-weight PF resin, the values of average MOE and hardness were 32.94 and 32.93%, respectively, greater than those of the untreated samples. In contrast, the average MOE and hardness values were 11.99 and 18.14%, respectively, greater for the samples modified with commercial PF resin compared to the untreated samples. It could be inferred that the low-molecular-weight PF resin was able to diffuse into the nanopores in the S2 layer of the tracheid cell wall of the Chinese fir, thereby improving its macromechanical properties. Modification with low-molecular-weight PF resin was an effective way to enhance the longitudinal macromechanical properties of wood from the Chinese fir.

  11. High angular resolution observations towards OMC-2 FIR 4: Dissecting an intermediate-mass protocluster

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sepulcre, A; Sánchez-Monge, Á; Ceccarelli, C; Dominik, C; Kama, M; Caux, E; Fontani, F; Fuente, A; Ho, P T P; Neri, R; Shimajiri, Y

    2013-01-01

    OMC-2 FIR 4 is one of the closest known young intermediate-mass protoclusters, located at a distance of 420 pc in Orion. This region is one of the few where the complete 500-2000 GHz spectrum has been observed with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board the Herschel satellite, and unbiased spectral surveys at 0.8, 1, 2 and 3 mm have been obtained with the JCMT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. In order to investigate the morphology of this region, we used the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to image OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 2-mm continuum emission, as well as in DCO+(2-1), DCN(2-1), C34S(3-2), and several CH3OH lines. In addition, we analysed observations of the NH3(1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the Very Large Array of the NRAO. The resulting maps have an angular resolution which allows us to resolve structures of 5", equivalent to 2000 AU. Our observations reveal three spatially resolved sources within OMC-2 FIR 4, of one or several solar masses each, with hints of further unresolved substructure w...

  12. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media. PMID:26330225

  13. FIR Filter Design Using An Adjustable Novel Window and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishi Rakshit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of adjustable window function, based on combination of tangent hyperbolic function and a weighted cosine series, is proposed to design an FIR filter. The proposed window is adjustable since the spectral characteristics of the window vary with the change of a simple window’s controlling parameter. The spectral characteristic of the proposed window is studied and its performance is compared with Hamming and Kaiser windows. Simulation results show that the proposed window yields better ripple and side-lobe roll-off ratios compare to the mentioned windows. Moreover, the paper represents the application of the proposed window in finite impulse response (FIR filter design. The results confirm that the filter designed by the proposed window provides 11.5607 dB better ripple ratio than Kaiser windows. In side-lobe roll-off ratio measurement, the proposed window based FIR low-pass filter attains 95.75 dB and 14.4534 dB better result than Hamming and Kaiser windows respectively. Moreover, the filter designed using the proposed window method reduces additive white Gaussian noise from the ECG signal more precisely than Kaiser window.

  14. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook under Aluminum Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    Full Text Available Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration and longer periods of aluminum stress, the H+ ion flow gradually changed from influx into efflux; there was a large variation in the K+ efflux, which gradually decreased with increasing duration of aluminum stress; and 1 h of aluminum stress uniformly resulted in Ca2+ influx, but it changed from influx to efflux after a longer period of aluminum stress. Changes in the different concentrations of aluminum had the largest influence on Mg2+.

  15. An advanced strategy for wind speed forecasting using expert 2-D FIR filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGHADDAM, A. A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies such as wind and solar have become the most attractive means of electricity generation nowadays. Social and environmental benefits as well as economical issues result in further utilization of such these energy resources. In this regard, wind energy plays an important roll in operation of small-scale power systems like Micro Grid. On the other hand, wind stochastic nature in different time and place horizons, makes accurate forecasting of its behavior an inevitable task for market planners and energy management systems. In this paper an advanced strategy for wind speed estimation has been purposed and its superior performance is compared to that of conventional methods. The model is based on linear predictive filtering and image processing principles using 2-D FIR filters. To show the efficiency of purposed predictive model different FIR filters are designed and tested through similar data. Wind speed data have been collected during the period January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009 from Casella automatic weather station at Plymouth. It is observed that 2-D FIR filters act more accurately in comparison with 1-D conventional representations; however, their prediction ability varies considerably through different filter sizing.

  16. Needle anatomy changes with increasing tree age in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Martha; Tiekotter, Ken; Snow, Michael; Young, James; Soeldner, Al; Phillips, Donald; Tingey, David; Bond, Barbara J

    2002-02-01

    Morphological differences between old-growth trees and saplings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross sections of previous-year needles of old-growth Douglas-fir trees and saplings at the Wind River Canopy Crane site in Washington and at three sites in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. We also compared needle anatomy across a chronosequence of 10-, 20-, 40- and 450-year-old Douglas-fir trees from the Wind River site. Anatomy differed significantly between needles of old-growth trees and saplings at all sites, suggesting a developmental change in needle anatomy with increasing tree age. Compared with needles of old-growth trees, needles of saplings were longer and had proportionately smaller vascular cylinders, larger resin canals and few hypodermal cells. Astrosclereids, which sequester lignin in their secondary cell walls and occupy space otherwise filled by photosynthetic cells, were scarce in needles of saplings but abundant in needles of old-growth trees. Needles of old-growth trees had an average of 11% less photosynthetic mesophyll area than needles of saplings. The percentage of non-photosynthetic area in needles increased significantly with increasing tree age from the chronosequence of 10-, 20-, 40- and 450-year-old trees at the Wind River site. This reduction in photosynthetic area may contribute to decreased growth rates in old trees. PMID:11830409

  17. Hybrid method for designing digital FIR filters based on fractional derivative constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baderia, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar Singh, Girish

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript, a hybrid approach based on Lagrange multiplier method and cuckoo search (CS) optimization technique is proposed for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters using fractional derivative constraints. In the proposed method, FIR filter is designed by optimizing the integral squares in passband and stopband from ideal response such that the fractional derivatives of designed filter response become zero at a given frequency point. Lagrange multiplier method is exploited for finding the optimized filter coefficients. Optimal value of fractional derivative constraints for optimized filter coefficients are determined by minimizing the objective function constructed using a sum of maximum passband ripple and maximum stopband ripple in frequency domain using CS algorithm. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕ(p)), stopband error (ϕ(s)), stopband attenuation (A(s)), maximum passband ripple (MPR), maximum stopband ripple (MSR) and CPU time. A comparative study of the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) for designing FIR filters using the proposed method is also made. PMID:26142984

  18. Artificial and natural radionuclides in spruce needles in Upper Austria from 1983 to 2008 : an application for radioecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 25 years, spruce needles have successfully been used as bioindicator for identifying nutrient imbalances and the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric pollutants in Austria. The radioecological interest in spruce needle analyses grew instantly after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, because of the possibility to study the mechanisms of deposition as well as the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in forest ecosystems. For this thesis 782 spruce needle samples from the Austrian Bioindicator Grid of the last 22 years were analysed by gammaspectrometry for the following artificial and natural radionuclides: Cs-137, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Ra-228 and U-238 focusing on the radioactive contamination before and after the Chernobyl fallout of 1986. The spatial and temporal distribution of activity concentrations in spruce needles were comprehensively analysed and illustrated. Further on, the relation between natural and artificial radionuclides in spruce needles was determined. To estimate the long-term behaviour of Cs-137, ecological half-lives were calculated for the compartment spruce needles. Additionally, soil samples were taken at selected sites and analysed radiometrically to determine the radionuclide inventory in soil and to study the soil-to-plant transfer. Based on these results, detection limits for additional deposits were calculated to pursue the question, whether it is possible to use the bioindicator spruce needle for environmental radioactivity monitoring. (author)

  19. Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: An experiment was established in 1966 to compare the growth and development of 50: 50 mixtures of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis with either Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi or tamarack (L. laricina with that found in pure plots of Sitka spruce. The site was one of moderate nitrogen availability where the presence of heather (Calluna vulgaris could be expected to limit the growth ofSitka spruce.Area of the study: North-east Scotland.Material and methods: There were different patterns of spruce growth in the pure plots and in the mixtures, with faster spruce growth in mixture in the years approaching and immediately following canopy closure (i.e. ages 15-25. Foliage analysis suggested that this was linked with improved nitrogen status of spruce trees in the mixed compared to the pure plots.Main results: At years 20 and 25 there were significant differences in height, diameter, and basal area between treatments, with the largest basal area being found in the Japanese larch/Sitka spruce mixtures, indicative of overyielding in the mixed plots. However, when the experiment was clearfelled at 41 years of age, all treatments had self-thinned to produce spruce dominated stands of similar height with only an occasional larch tree surviving in plots that were originally 50:50 mixtures.Research highlights: There were no differences between treatments in basal area, harvested volume or sawlog outturn after 41 years. These results can be interpreted as showing facilitation between the larch and the spruce during the establishment phase followed by competition for light once canopy closure had occurred.Keywords: Mixed stand dynamics; facilitation; nitrogen status; product outturn.

  20. Analysis of carbohydrates isolated from Norway spruce needles by asymmetrical FlFFF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef; Wahlund, K. G.

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, 2005. P28. [FFF 2005. International Symposium on Field- Flow Fractionation. 28.08.2005-30.08.2005, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Keywords : carbohydrates * Norway spruce * AsFlFFF Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  1. Tolerance of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) embryogenic tissue to penicillin, carbapenem and aminoglycoside antibiotics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malá, J.; Pavingerová, Daniela; Cvrčková, H.; Bříza, Jindřich; Dostál, J.; Šíma, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 156-161. ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71290 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : somatic embryogenesis * Norway spruce * penicillin antibiotics * Agrobacterium tumefaciens * carbapenem antibiotics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. Internal spatial and temporal heterogeneity of soil microbial communities in spruce swamp forest (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Bárta, J.; Picek, T.

    Dijon : INRA, 2014. s. 322. [Global Soil Biodiversity Conference. Assessing soil biodiversity and its role for ecosystem services /1./. 02.12.2014-05.12.2014, Dijon] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : spruce swamp forest * bacteria * archaea * fungi Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Diurnal and seasonal dynamics in temperature normalized stem CO2 efflux of Norway spruce

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dařenová, Eva; Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor

    Lancaster : New Phytologist Trust, 2010. s. 34-34. [24th New Phytologist Symposium. 11.04.2010-14.04.2010, Oxford] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : stem * respiration * Norway spruce * CO2 efflux Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mezei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetleIps typographus (L. catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region, from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone traps. The potential solar radiation was calculated with GIS tools for three different time periods in each year: with entire year, for main flight season of the spruce bark beetle and the spring swarming period. The relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and the spruce bark beetle catches was statistically significant for each year and each time period except for the spring warming in 2007, when the pheromone traps were not set up on time. 

  5. The relationship between potential solar radiation and spruce bark beetle catches in pheromone traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mezei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the relationship between the amount of potential solarradiation and spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. catches in pheromone traps in an unmanaged nature reserve in the Carpathians (middle Slovakia region, from 2006 through 2009. This relationship was analysed under outbreak conditions. The number of traps varied in different years from 70 to 92. The traps were installed in spruce-forest-dominated stands affected by a windstorm in 2004. A GPS device was used to mark the position of the pheromone traps. The potential solar radiation was calculated with GIS tools for three different time periods in each year:with entire year, for main flight season of the spruce bark beetle and the spring swarming period. The relationship between the amount of potential solar radiation and the spruce bark beetle catches was statistically significant for each year and each time period except for the spring swarming in 2007, when the pheromone traps were not set up on time.

  6. Films from spruce galactoglucomannan blended with poly(vinyl alcohol), corn arabinoxylan and konjac glucomannan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The improvement of mechanical properties of spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM)-based films was sought by blending GGM with each of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH), corn arabinoxylan (cAX), and konjac glucomannan (KGM). The blend ratios were 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3(w/w), and in addition films were made from each o...

  7. STAND HISTORY: AN ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATION OF RED SPRUCE RADIAL GROWTH REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites from northern Maine was classified by radial growth release history. wo major releases were apparent for a majority of the sites. he first was a reduction and subsequent increase in radial increment in 1920. he second was an increase in radia...

  8. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  9. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  10. Comparative Study of SPORL and Dilute Acid Pretreatments of Spruce for Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocellulose (SPORL) and Dilute Acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production under the same conditions of temperature (180°C), time (30 min), sulfuric acid loading...

  11. Forest pasturing of livestock in Norway:effects on spruce regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olav Hjeljord; Trond Histøl; Hilde Karine Wam

    2014-01-01

    Forest pasturing of free-roaming livestock is a common prac-tice in many parts of the world, but knowledge on how it affects tree regeneration in boreal forests is lacking. We mapped tree density, live-stock site use and accumulated damage to young trees of commercial interest (Norway spruce, Picea abies L. Karst.) on 56 clearcuts inside and outside a fenced forest area used for livestock pasturing in Ringsaker, Norway. Inside the fence 56±1.8% of spruce trees were damaged com-pared to 37±3.4%outside. Proportion of damaged spruce trees was posi-tively related to cattle use of the clearcut, but not so for sheep. On the most intensively used clearcuts, four out of five trees were damaged. The density of deciduous trees was five times lower inside compared to out-side of the fence (varying with plant species). While livestock grazing may reduce resource competition in favour of spruce, the current animal density clearly is impeding forest regeneration in the study area.

  12. INTERSPECIES VARIATION IN TERPENOID EMISSIONS FROM ENGELMANN AND SITKA SPRUCE SEEDLINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variation in response of terpenoid emmissions to light and temperature were studied for two closely related spruce species, Engelmann(Picea engelmannii) and Sitka(Picea sitchensis). Isoprene was the major terpenoid emitted, accounting for approximately 75 and 69 percent of th...

  13. New dimension analyses with error analysis for quaking aspen and black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, K. D.; Botkin, D. B.; Feiveson, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dimension analysis for black spruce in wetland stands and trembling aspen are reported, including new approaches in error analysis. Biomass estimates for sacrificed trees have standard errors of 1 to 3%; standard errors for leaf areas are 10 to 20%. Bole biomass estimation accounts for most of the error for biomass, while estimation of branch characteristics and area/weight ratios accounts for the leaf area error. Error analysis provides insight for cost effective design of future analyses. Predictive equations for biomass and leaf area, with empirically derived estimators of prediction error, are given. Systematic prediction errors for small aspen trees and for leaf area of spruce from different site-types suggest a need for different predictive models within species. Predictive equations are compared with published equations; significant differences may be due to species responses to regional or site differences. Proportional contributions of component biomass in aspen change in ways related to tree size and stand development. Spruce maintains comparatively constant proportions with size, but shows changes corresponding to site. This suggests greater morphological plasticity of aspen and significance for spruce of nutrient conditions.

  14. Project SPRUCE, Special Program of Rehabilitation for Unemployment Compensation Exhaustees. Vol. 2. Supplement to Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkin, Murray; Solomon, Herman S.

    The supplement to the final report of Project SPRUCE (a program to increase the employability of insured workers who experience long-term unemployment and seem likely to exhaust their benefit rights) summarizes in detail the problems encountered in the administering of the project, the operational procedures followed, and the training program…

  15. Project SPRUCE, Special Program of Rehabilitation for Unemployment Compensation Exhaustees. Volume 1. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkin, Murray; Solomon, Herman S.

    Project SPRUCE sought to increase employability of insurace claimants who seemed likely to exhaust their benefit rights without definite prospects of finding work. These persons were seen to be in need of special services because of some remediable inadequacy or problem but ineligible for the various programs intended primarily for the hardcore…

  16. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  17. Modelling long-term water yield effects of forest management in a Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, X.; Lamačová, A.; Duffy, Ch.; Krám, P.; Hruška, Jakub; White, T.; Bhatt, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 174-191. ISSN 0262-6667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Lysina critical zone observatory * PIHM * Norway spruce * forest management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2014

  18. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MIXTURES OF SPRUCE GALACTOGLUCOMANNANS AND KONJAC GLUCOMANNAN OR SOME OTHER POLYSACCHARIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Xu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Spruce galactoglucomannan is a wood-derived polysaccharide with a modest molar mass that has recently been made available in kg-scale for research and development of value-added products. To promote the application of spruce galactoglucomannans in, for example, food prod-ucts, it is vital to understand also the rheological behaviour of the mixtures of galactoglucomannans with other polysaccharides. Rheol-ogical measurements were applied to study the rheological properties of mixtures of spruce galactoglucomannans and high-molar-mass konjac glucomannan, xanthan, guar gum, locust bean gum, and carrageenan. Shear rate-dependence of viscosity and applicability of the Cox-Merz relationship of mixtures of spruce galactoglucomannans with the other polysaccharides were studied. Spray-dried and ethanol-precipitated galactoglucomannans were also prepared for comparison. The effects of polysaccharide mixture ratio, temperature, ionic strength, and deacetyl-ation are discussed. Mixtures of spray-dried galactogluco-mannans and konjac glucomannan showed lower elastic properties than those of ethanol precipitated galactoglucomannans and konjac glucomannan. The viscoelastic spectra of mixtures of both galactoglucomannans and deacetylated galactoglucomannans with konjac glucomannan showed temperature dependency throughout the cooling process. Ionic strength had an effect on the rheological properties of mixtures of galactogluco-mannans with konjac glucomannan. Deacetylation of galactoglucoman-nans did not affect the viscoelastic spectra significantly.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of soil microbial communities under dominant understory vegetation in spruce swamp forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Bárta, J.; Picek, T.

    Milan: University of Milan, 2015. s. 156. [BAGECO 13 - Symposium on Bacterial Genetics and Ecology, The Microbial Continuity Across Changing Ecosystems /13./. 14.06.2015-18.06.2015, Milan] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : seasonal dynamics * microbial communities * spruce swamp forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. The impact of disturbance and ensuing forestry practices on Collembola in spruce forest stands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čuchta, Peter

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology, BC CAS, 2015. s. 19. ISBN ISBN 978-80-86525-29-7. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /13./. 13.04.2015-15.04.2015, České Budějovice] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ensuing forestry practices * Collembola * spruce forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Canopy gas exchange of white spruce in contrasting habitats near the Arctic treeline in northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P.; Mcnown, R. W.; Sveinbjornsson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent work near the Arctic treeline has revealed that an increasing number of white spruce are showing negative growth responses to rising air temperatures. Researchers have speculated that these negative responders are experiencing warm temperature-induced drought stress. Measurements of white spruce needle gas exchange near the Arctic treeline are rare and, to our knowledge, measurements of whole canopy gas exchange have not been made. In this study, we measured sap flow to estimate whole canopy transpiration at hourly intervals for the entire growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 in white spruce growing on a riverside terrace, in a hillslope forest and at the treeline. We used weekly measurements of needle-scale photosynthesis, transpiration and needle δ13C to estimate water use efficiency at each site. We then applied these estimates of water use efficiency to our sap flow data in order to estimate hourly whole canopy photosynthesis at each site for the two growing seasons. Our results show evidence of stomatal control when the atmospheric vapor pressure deficit exceeds approximately 1.0 kPa, but no evidence of complete stomatal closure. Trees growing on the riverside terrace, where soils are relatively warm and dry, are more efficient in their water use, have greater leaf area and assimilate more carbon per unit basal diameter than trees in the forest and at the treeline. We found that the month of September, after growth has almost completely ceased, can be an important time for carbon uptake in white spruce near the Arctic treeline.

  2. Effect of ozone concentration on net ecosystem production: A case study in a Norway spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, Miloš; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Juráň, Stanislav; Urban, Otmar; Pokorný, Radek; Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Cudlín, Pavel

    Volume 1. 1. Brno: Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2015 - (Urban, O.; Klem, K.), s. 138-149 ISBN 978-80-87902-14-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : tropospheric ozone * ozone concentrations * air pollutants * Norway spruce forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics and lignin in Ascocalyx abietina infected Norway spruces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Eder, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 3 (2006), s. 563-570. ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ascocalyx abietina (Lagerberg) * Lignin * Norway spruce Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2006

  4. Haloperoxidase-like activity in spruce forest soil. A source of volatile halogenated organic compounds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laturnus, F.; Mehrtens, G.; Grøn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Haloperoxidase-like activity was monitored in samples from a podzol soil in an uncontaminated spruce forest at Klosterhede, Denmark. Activity for the oxidation of chloride and bromide was found. The pH optima for chlorination and bromination ranged between pH 2.5 and 4: Very high activity, up to ...

  5. Dendroclimatological investigations on Norway spruce under different levels of air pollution in northeastern Bavaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greve, U.; Eckstein, D.; Aniol, R.W.; Scholz, F.

    1986-09-01

    Spruce trees growing under different levels of air pollution were studied with regard to quantitative and qualitative alterations of the wood. The procedures used were dendroclimatology and X-ray densitometry. There was a growth reduction recognizable since the 1940s, the amount of which was in accordance with the measured pollution load. A reduction of the wood quality could not be proved.

  6. Estimation of biochemical and geochemical variables in Norway spruce forest stands from hyperspectral image data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Misurec, J.; Kopáčková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Hanuš, Jan

    Scotland : University of Edinburgh, 2011. s. 71-72. [Earsel workshop of the special interest group in imaging spectroscopy /7./. 11.04.-13.04.2011, Edinburgh] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : biochemical variables * geochemical variables * Norway spruce * hyperspectral image data Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    how drying and saturation procedures influence the differences between the 1st and the 2nd desorption curves for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) sapwood. The study establishes 1st and 2nd desorption isotherms for a variety of initial conditions and it covers the RH range from 60.1% to 99...

  8. Two spruce shoot candidate reference materials from the German environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new materials are introduced that might serve as useful aids for the harmonisation of analytical results. Spruce shoots, cryogenically homogenized and characterized for 50 elements from two sampling sites of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) are presented as possible third generation reference materials that might also act as calibrating materials in speciation analysis. (author)

  9. Turbulence parameter inside and above a tall spruce site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, T.; Staudt, K.; Serafimovich, A.; Foken, T.

    2009-04-01

    In the EGER (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions) project, different physical, chemical and biological processes in the soil-vegetation-boundary-layer system were investigated. Field experiments were performed at the BayCEER research site Waldstein/Weidenbrunnen, a spruce site located in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains in North-Eastern Bavaria, which are challenging for their heterogeneity and orographically structured terrain. Turbulence structure, advection, flux gradients of meteorological and chemical quantities were observed within the first intensive observation period (IOP 1) in September and October 2007. Observations of turbulence structure were obtained by a vertical profile of sonic anemometers covering all parts of the forest up to the lower part of the roughness sub layer. Field observations are complemented by simulations of ACASA model (Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm). Integral turbulence characteristics, the normalized standard deviation of a turbulent quantity, can be used to describe the structure of turbulence. A comparison between measured and predicted values shows whether turbulence is fully developed or not and is therefore used in quality assessment. For this quality control and as an input for models, when measurements are not available, parameterizations for profiles are needed. Since there is no uniform theory for those parameterizations inside a forest available, different approaches were tested with data collected during the EGER IOP1. In order to parameterize the integral turbulence characteristics of the wind components inside the roughness sub layer a dimensionless height ζ = hc L-1 should be used instead of ζ = z L-1, which is used above short vegetation. Profiles of integral turbulence characteristics from different ecosystems show that the decrease inside the roughness sub layer is similar but that parameterizations of profiles can not be generalized due to different stand structures. Selecting the profiles of the

  10. Comparing growth and fine root distribution in monocultures and mixed plantations of hybrid poplar and spruce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lahcen Benomar; Annie DesRochers; Guy R.Larocque

    2013-01-01

    Disease prevention,biodiversity,productivity improvement and ecological considerations are all factors that contribute to increasing interest in mixed plantations.The objective of this study was to evaluate early growth and productivity of two hybrid poplar clones,P.balsamifera x trichocarpa (PBT) and P.maximowiczii x balsamifera (PMB),one improved family of Norway spruce (Picea glauca (PA)) and one improved family of white spruce (Picea abies (PG)) growing under different spacings in monocultures and mixed plots.The plantations were established in 2003 in Abitibi-Témiscamingue,Quebec,Canada,in a split plot design with spacing as the whole plot factor (1 × 1 m,3 × 3 m and 5 × 5 m) and mixture treatments as subplot factor (pure:PBT,PMB,PA and PG,and 1:1 mixture PBT:PA,PBT:PG,PMB:PA and PMB:PG).Results showed a beneficial effect of the hybrid poplar-spruce mixture on diameter growth for hybrid poplar clones,but not for the 5 × 5 m spacing because of the relatively young age of the plantations.Diameter growth of the spruces decreased in mixed plantings in the 1 × 1 m,while their height growth increased,resulting in similar aboveground biomass per tree across treatments.Because of the large size differences between spruces and poplars,aboveground biomass in the mixed plantings was generally less than that in pure poplar plots.Leaf nitrogen concentration for the two spruce families and hybrid poplar clone PMB was greater in mixed plots than in monocultures,while leaf nitrogen concentration of clone PBT was similar among mixture treatments.Because of its faster growth rate and greater soil resources demands,clone PMB was the only one showing an increase in leaf N with increased spacing between trees.Fine roots density was greater for both hybrid poplars than spruces.The vertical distribution of fine roots was insensitive to mixture treatment.

  11. Variation and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and net primary production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    The gradients of elevations and latitudes in the Appalachian Mountains provide a unique regional perspective on landscape variations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. We reveal patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology, and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Global Production Efficiency Model datasets. We analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS), and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compare the results in different spatial contexts, including North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations, we analyze data and compare the results between the 30°-to-40°N and the 40°-to-50°N latitudes. The result reveal significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was a -0.0018 (R2=0.55, Punit decrease per year during 25 years from 1982 to 2006. The LOS was prolonged by 0.3 days per year-1 during the 25-year percent. The NPP increased by 2.68 g Cm-2 yr-2 from 1981 to 2000.

  12. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  13. Acidic deposition, cation mobilization, and biochemical indicators of stress in healthy red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, W.C.; Smith, K.T.; Minocha, R.; Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dendrochemical and biochemical markers link stress in apparently healthy red spruce trees (Picea rubens) to acidic deposition. Acidic deposition to spruce forests of the northeastern USA increased sharply during the 1960s. Previous reports related visible damage of trees at high elevations to root and soil processes. In this report, dendrochemical and foliar biochemical markers indicate perturbations in biological processes in healthy red spruce trees across the northeastern USA. Previous research on the dendrochemistry of red spruce stemwood indicated that under uniform environmental conditions, stemwood concentrations of Ca and Mg decreased with increasing radial distance from the pith. For nine forest locations, frequency analysis shows that 28 and 52% of samples of red spruce stemwood formed in the 1960s are enriched in Ca and Mg, respectively, relative to wood formed prior to and after the 1960s. This enrichment in trees throughout the northeastern USA may be interpretable as a signal of increased availability of essential cations in forest soils. Such a temporary increase in the availability of Ca and Mg could be caused by cation mobilization, a consequence of increased acidic deposition. During cation mobilization, essential Ca and Mg as well as potentially harmful Al become more available for interaction with binding sites in the soil and absorbing roots. As conditions which favor cation mobilization continue, Ca and Mg can be leached or displaced from the soil. A measure of the interaction between Ca and Al is the Al/Ca binding ratio (molar charge ratio of exchangeable Al to exchangeable Ca). As the Al/Ca binding ratio in the root zone increased from 0.3 to 1.9, the foliar concentration of the biochemical stress marker putrescine also increased from 45 to 145 nm g-1. The correlation of the putrescine concentration to the Al/Ca binding ratio (adj. r2 = 0.68, P < 0.027) suggests that foliar stress may be linked to soil chemistry.

  14. Ozone fumigation effects on the morphology and biomass of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stakenas V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined Norway spruce (Picea abies saplings morphological and biomass sensitivity to ozone fumigation using closed indoor chambers of controlled environment. 4-year-old potted saplings were exposed to three different ozone concentrations: 80 (microg/m3, 160 (microg/m3, and 240 (microg/m3 (7 h/day, 5 days/week. Half of the saplings were harvested after the exposure, and the second half of the saplings were left in the pots in open field until next autumn. The reaction of the saplings of different timing of bud burst was also investigated. The terminal shoot length and the total current year shoot length of Norway spruce saplings after one month of ozone fumigation were significantly (p < 0.05 suppressed in all the treatments comparing to the control saplings. The needles of saplings fumigated with ozone were smaller than the needles of control saplings. No significant changes of the biomass of different fractions of Norway spruce saplings were determined right after the fumigation, as well as, in 14 month after the cessation of the fumigation. Norway spruce saplings of early and late timing of bud burst reacted differently to ozone fumigation during the active growth period. The formation of new needles and shoots of the saplings of late bud burst stage was more suppressed comparing to the saplings of the early bud burst stage. The results suggest that the generatively younger organs during their formation are more susceptible to ozone stress. The differences of the needle age between ozone affected and control saplings decreased in one year after the end of fumigation keeping affected Norway spruce saplings in the open field and thus indicating the start of the recovery process.

  15. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) is an important TPS identified in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Appalachian basin province (Milici and others, 2003). The TPS is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the primary source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. Upper Cambrian through Upper Silurian petroleum-bearing strata that constitute the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS thicken eastward from about 2,700 ft at the western margin of the Appalachian basin to about 12,000 ft at the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin. The Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS covers approximately 170,000 mi2 of the Appalachian basin from northeastern Tennessee to southeastern New York and from central Ohio to eastern West Virginia. The boundary of the TPS is defined by the following geologic features: (1) the northern boundary (from central Ontario to northeastern New York) extends along the outcrop limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone; (2) the northeastern boundary (from southeastern New York, through southeastern Pennsylvania-western Maryland-easternmost West Virginia, to northern Virginia) extends along the eastern limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (3) the southeastern boundary (from west-central and southwestern Virginia to eastern Tennessee) extends along the eastern limit of the Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (4) the southwestern boundary (from eastern Tennessee, through eastern Kentucky, to southwestern Ohio) extends along the approximate facies change from the Trenton Limestone with thin black shale interbeds (on the east) to the equivalent Lexington Limestone without black shale interbeds (on the west); (5) the northern part of the boundary in southwestern Ohio

  16. Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

  17. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Coal resources of selected coal beds and zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Ruppert; Susan Tewalt; Linda Bragg

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a National Coal Resource Assessment of five coal-producing regions of the United States, including the Appalachian Basin. The USGS, in cooperation with the State geological surveys of Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, has completed a digital coal resource assessment of five of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions -- the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal zones, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. Of the 93 billion short tons of original coal in these units, about 66 billion short tons remain. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. An Innovations-Based Noise Cancelling Technique on Inverse Kepstrum Whitening Filter and Adaptive FIR Filter in Beamforming Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Jeong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acoustic noise cancelling technique using an inverse kepstrum system as an innovations-based whitening application for an adaptive finite impulse response (FIR filter in beamforming structure. The inverse kepstrum method uses an innovations-whitened form from one acoustic path transfer function between a reference microphone sensor and a noise source so that the rear-end reference signal will then be a whitened sequence to a cascaded adaptive FIR filter in the beamforming structure. By using an inverse kepstrum filter as a whitening filter with the use of a delay filter, the cascaded adaptive FIR filter estimates only the numerator of the polynomial part from the ratio of overall combined transfer functions. The test results have shown that the adaptive FIR filter is more effective in beamforming structure than an adaptive noise cancelling (ANC structure in terms of signal distortion in the desired signal and noise reduction in noise with nonminimum phase components. In addition, the inverse kepstrum method shows almost the same convergence level in estimate of noise statistics with the use of a smaller amount of adaptive FIR filter weights than the kepstrum method, hence it could provide better computational simplicity in processing. Furthermore, the rear-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure has shown less signal distortion in the desired signal than the front-end kepstrum method and the front-end inverse kepstrum method in beamforming structure.

  20. Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.

  1. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United Stat...

  2. Unexpected Rarity of the Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Muletz, Carly; Nicholas M Caruso; Fleischer, Robert C; Roy W McDiarmid; Lips, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central Amer...

  3. Vegetation Responses to Seven Silvicultural Treatments in the Southern Appalachians One-Year After Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Sharon M.

    2001-01-01

    The vegetation responses to seven silvicultural treatments one growing season after harvesting were examined on seven sites in the southern Appalachian mountains of Virginia and West Virginia. Treatments included: 1) control, 2) understory control by herbicide, 3) group selection, 4) high-leave shelterwood, 5) low-leave shelterwood, 6) leave tree, and 7) clearcut. The effects of harvesting were compared between treatments and between pre-harvest and post-harvest samplings. Species richness...

  4. Effects of alternative silvicultural practices on oak regeneration in the southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, Jean Herault

    2003-01-01

    EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES ON OAK REGENERATION IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS Jean H. Lorber Abstract The regeneration in oak-dominated stands following five silvicultural treatments was examined on four sites in the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia. Treatments included: silvicultural clearcut, leave-tree, commercial clearcut, shelterwood, and group selection. The effects of harvesting were compared among sites and among treatments. Oak regene...

  5. Effects of Alternative Silvicultural Treatments on Regeneration in the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Atwood, Chad Judson

    2008-01-01

    Harvesting practices in the southern Appalachians have moved away from clearcutting in favor of variable retention harvesting systems. A study was initiated in 1995-8 to investigate the effects of retaining varying numbers of residual trees on regeneration in seven silvicultural treatments. A second study specifically focused on stump sprouting in only three of those treatments. The treatments for first study included: a clearcut, commercial harvest, leave-tree, shelterwood, group selection, ...

  6. Appalachian Surface Mine Reforestation Techniques: Effects of Grading, Cultural Treatments and Species Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Fields-Johnson, Christopher Warren

    2011-01-01

    Surface mining for coal in the Appalachian region has removed over 0.6 million Ha of mixed mesophytic forest. Successful reforestation would be beneficial, but questions remain concerning application of reclamation and reforestation methods on operational scales. Four experiments were performed testing these methods on newly reclaimed and previously reclaimed, but unused, former mines. On newly reclaimed sites, loose grading during reclamation reduced erosion and increased plant community div...

  7. Survival and growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) rangewide provenances and their implications for climate change adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengxin; Parker, William H.; Cherry, Marilyn; Colombo, Steve; Parker, William C.; Man, Rongzhou; Roubal, Ngaire

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific assisted migration (ISAM) through seed transfer during artificial forest regeneration has been suggested as an adaptation strategy to enhance forest resilience and productivity under future climate. In this study, we assessed the risks and benefits of ISAM in white spruce based on long-term and multilocation, rangewide provenance test data. Our results indicate that the adaptive capacity and growth potential of white spruce varied considerably among 245 range-wide provenances sa...

  8. Rapid recovery of stem increment in Norway spruce at reduced SO2 levels in the Harz Mountains, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree-ring width of Picea abies was studied along an altitudinal gradient in the Harz Mountains, Germany, in an area heavily affected by SO2-related forest decline in the second half of the 20th century. Spruce trees of exposed high-elevation forests had earlier been shown to have reduced radial growth at high atmospheric SO2 levels. After the recent reduction of the SO2 load due to clean air acts, we tested the hypothesis that stem growth recovered rapidly from the SO2 impact. Our results from two formerly damaged high-elevation spruce stands support this hypothesis suggesting that the former SO2-related spruce decline was primarily due to foliar damage and not to soil acidification, as the deacidification of the (still acidic) soil would cause a slow growth response. Increasing temperatures and deposited N accumulated in the topsoil are likely additional growth-promoting factors of spruce at high elevations after the shortfall of SO2 pollution. - Highlights: ► SO2 pollution caused the decline of exposed mountain spruce forests in Europe. ► Soil acidification versus foliar damage were discussed as alternative mechanisms. ► Exposure to high SO2 levels reduced tree-ring width in Norway spruce. ► Recently, clean air acts caused a rapid decrease of SO2 pollution. ► Rapid recovery of stem growth suggests a key role of foliar damage in spruce decline. - Foliar SO2 damage rather than soil acidification is the likely cause of spruce decline in montane forests of central and northern Germany during the 20th century.

  9. Solute concentrations in water samples from clearfelled and standing Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest ecosystems, Kershope Forest: dataset documentation

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. Wood; Adamson, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes an associated dataset which consists of solute concentrations (Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Sodium, Aluminium, Phosphate, Nitrate, Ammonium, Chlorine, Sulphate), also pH and suspended solids, in waters sampled from clear felled and standing Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) forest ecosystems in Kershope Forest, Cumbria, UK. Water samples were collected from the ecosystem of a Sitka spruce plantation at weekly intervals for six years. The drainage system of the si...

  10. A critical analysis of the higher Pennsylvanian megafloras of the Appalachian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H.; Lyons, P.C. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)

    1997-01-01

    Published records of Stephanian megafloras in eastern North America are critically reviewed and the results of personal investigations in the Appalachian region are reported. The analysis despite incomplete megafloral records, allows the conclusion that the succession in the Appalachian area hides a large stratigraphic gap, at the base of the Upper Pennsylvanian Series. This gap is in the same position and of similar magnitude to that below the Rotliegend of northwestern Europe. Analysis of the floral records in the Southern Anthracite field shows evidence of a similar gap. Megafloral data from the Narragansett basin are analysed, but are found insufficient for determining if there is a stratigraphic gap. Published data from the Maritime Provinces of Canada are used to suggest that the same pre-Rotliegend gap exists in this area. Recognition of this important regional unconformity in eastern North America, which is similar to that in the British Isles and throughout northwestern Europe, strengthens the view that the Appalachian region and the paralic coal belt of northwestern Europe constitute a single, major palaeogeographic area.

  11. Southern Appalachian hillslope erosion rates measured by soil and detrital radiocarbon in hollows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T.C.; Scharer, K.M.; Wooten, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment generation and transport on hillslopes provides important constraints on the rate of sediment output from orogenic systems. Hillslope sediment fluxes are recorded by organic material found in the deposits infilling unchanneled convergent topographic features called hollows. This study describes the first hollow infilling rates measured in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Infilling rates (and bedrock erosion rates) were calculated from the vertical distribution of radiocarbon ages at two sites in the Coweeta drainage basin, western North Carolina. At each site we dated paired charcoal and silt soil organic matter samples from five different horizons. Paired radiocarbon samples were used to bracket the age of the soil material in order to capture the range of complex soil forming processes and deposition within the hollows. These dates constrain hillslope erosion rates of between 0.051 and 0.111mmyr-1. These rates are up to 4 times higher than spatially-averaged rates for the Southern Appalachian Mountains making creep processes one of the most efficient erosional mechanisms in this mountain range. Our hillslope erosion rates are consistent with those of forested mountain ranges in the western United States, suggesting that the mechanisms (dominantly tree throw) driving creep erosion in both the western United States and the Southern Appalachian Mountains are equally effective. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sensitivity of Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest Net Ecosystem Productivity to Seasonal Anomalies in Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolking, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. A process-oriented, daily time step model of a spruce/moss boreal ecosystem simulated 1994 and 1995 productivity for a Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study site near Thompson, Manitoba. Simulated black spruce net primary productivity (NPP) was 139 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 112 in 1995; feathermoss NPP was 13.0 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 9.7 in 1995; decomposition was 126 g C m(exp -2) in 1994 and 130 in 1995; net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was an uptake of 26.3 g C m(exp -2)in 1994 and 2.5 in 1995. A very dry period for the first half of the 1995 summer was the major cause of that year's lower productivity. Sensitivity simulations explored the impact of 2-month long warmer, cooler, wetter, and drier spells on ecosystem productivity. Warmer summers decreased spruce NPP, moss NPP, and NEP; cooler summers had the opposite effect. Earlier snowmelt (due to either warmer spring temperatures or reduced winter precipitation) increased moss and spruce NPP; later snowmelt had the opposite effect. The largest effect on decomposition was a 5% reduction due to a drier summer. One-month droughts (April through October) were also imposed on 1975 base year weather. Early summer droughts reduced moss annual NPP by -30-40%; summer droughts reduced spruce annual NPP by 10%; late summer droughts increased moss NPP by about 20% due to reduced respiration; May to September monthly droughts reduced heterotrophic respiration by about 10%. Variability in NEP was up to roughly +/- 35%. Finally, 1975 growing season precipitation was redistributed into frequent, small rainstorms and infrequent, large rainstorms. These changes had no effect on spruce NPP. Frequent rainstorms increased decomposition by a few percent, moss NPP by 50%, and NEP by 20%. Infrequent rainstorms decreased decomposition by 5%, moss NPP by 50% and NEP by 15%. The impact of anomalous weather patterns on productivity of this ecosystem depended on their timing during the year. Multiyear data sets are necessary to

  13. Optimized FPGA Implementation of Multi-Rate FIR Filters Through Thread Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jason Xin; Nguyen, Kayla; He, Yutao

    2010-01-01

    Multirate (decimation/interpolation) filters are among the essential signal processing components in spaceborne instruments where Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters are often used to minimize nonlinear group delay and finite-precision effects. Cascaded (multi-stage) designs of Multi-Rate FIR (MRFIR) filters are further used for large rate change ratio, in order to lower the required throughput while simultaneously achieving comparable or better performance than single-stage designs. Traditional representation and implementation of MRFIR employ polyphase decomposition of the original filter structure, whose main purpose is to compute only the needed output at the lowest possible sampling rate. In this paper, an alternative representation and implementation technique, called TD-MRFIR (Thread Decomposition MRFIR), is presented. The basic idea is to decompose MRFIR into output computational threads, in contrast to a structural decomposition of the original filter as done in the polyphase decomposition. Each thread represents an instance of the finite convolution required to produce a single output of the MRFIR. The filter is thus viewed as a finite collection of concurrent threads. The technical details of TD-MRFIR will be explained, first showing its applicability to the implementation of downsampling, upsampling, and resampling FIR filters, and then describing a general strategy to optimally allocate the number of filter taps. A particular FPGA design of multi-stage TD-MRFIR for the L-band radar of NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) instrument is demonstrated; and its implementation results in several targeted FPGA devices are summarized in terms of the functional (bit width, fixed-point error) and performance (time closure, resource usage, and power estimation) parameters.

  14. Time stamp generation with inverse FIR filters for Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon coincidence detection is the process by which Positron Emission Tomography (PET) works. This requires the determination of the time of impact of each coincident photon at the detector system, also known as time stamp. In this work, the timestamp was generated by means of digital time-domain deconvolution with FIR filters for a INa(Tl) based system. The detector deadtime was reduced from 350 ns to 175 ns while preserving the system's energy resolution and a direct relation between the amount of light collected and the temporal resolution was found.(author)

  15. The Beauty of Androgyny:Reading The Country of the Pointed Firs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Inhabited by women with male characteristics and men possessing female features, the Dunnet Landing in Sarah Orne Jewett’s masterpiece The Country of the Pointed Firs is depicted as a harmonious land of beauty, from which Jewett’s preference of androgyny is fully expressed. In this novel, androgyny is used as a means by Jewett to achieve her feministic idea of the equality between men and women and that neither of the sex has prejudice upon the other in this combination. Through a detailed textu⁃al analysis, this paper reveals the androgyny elements in this novel and discusses about the possibility of androgyny as a way out for feminism.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dimethyl sulfide laboratory um, mm & FIR spectra (Jabri+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, A.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Mouhib, H.; Tchana, F. K.; Manceron, L.; Stahl, W.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-02-01

    DMS was purchased from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Karlsruhe, Germany and used without further purification. The microwave spectrum was measured in the frequency range 2-40GHz using two Molecular Beam Fourier Transform MicroWave (MB-FTMW) spectrometers in Aachen, Germany. The millimeter spectrum was recorded in the 50-110GHz range. The FIR spectrum was measured for the first time at high resolution using the FT spectrometer and the newly built cryogenic cell at the French synchrotron SOLEIL. (3 data files).

  17. Big Bang–Big Crunch Optimization Algorithm for Linear Phase Fir Digital Filter Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Rashmi Singh Dr. H. K. Verma

    2012-01-01

    The Big Bang–Big Crunch (BB–BC) optimization algorithm is a new optimization method that relies on the Big Bang and Big Crunch theory, one of the theories of the evolution of the universe. In this paper, a Big Bang–Big Crunch algorithm has been used here for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters. Here the experimented fitness function based on the mean squared error between the actual and the ideal filter response. This paper presents the plot of magnitude response ...

  18. Design of broadly tuned FIR FEL based on a variable-period microwiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing-Xiang Liu [Institute of Applied Electronics, Sichuan (China)]|[Southwest Jiaotong Univ., Sichuan (China); Yong Xu [Southwest Jiatong Univ., Sichuan (China)

    1995-12-31

    A varible-period microwiggler is proposed and investigated. The fundamental period of the microwiggler is designed as {lambda}o=2mm, and the period of the microwiggler can be turned from {lambda}o to n{lambda}o (n=1,2,3,{hor_ellipsis}) The wiggler fields with the period 3{lambda}o, 4{lambda}o, and 5{lambda}o are measured and compared with the theoretical results. Finally, a broadly tuned FIR FEL is designed based on the performance of the variable-period microwiggler.

  19. Modified Particle Swarm Optimization for Blind Deconvolution and Identification of Multichannel FIR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanagha Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind identification of MIMO FIR systems has widely received attentions in various fields of wireless data communications. Here, we use Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as the update mechanism of the well-known inverse filtering approach and we show its good performance compared to original method. Specially, the proposed method is shown to be more robust against lower SNR scenarios or in cases with smaller lengths of available data records. Also, a modified version of PSO is presented which further improves the robustness and preciseness of PSO algorithm. However the most important promise of the modified version is its drastically faster convergence compared to standard implementation of PSO.

  20. Submm/FIR astronomy in Antarctica: Potential for a large telescope facility

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, Vincent; Olmi, L; Lagage, P -O; Spinoglio, L; Durand, G A; Daddi, E; Galilei, D; Gallee, H; Kramer, C; Marrone, D; Pantin, E; Sabbatini, L; Schneider, N; Tothill, N; Valenziano, L; Veyssière, C

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary site testing datasets suggest that Dome C in Antarctica is one of the best sites on Earth for astronomical observations in the 200 to 500 micron regime, i.e. for far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) astronomy. We present an overview of potential science cases that could be addressed with a large telescope facility at Dome C. This paper also includes a presentation of the current knowledge about the site characterics in terms of atmospheric transmission, stability, sky noise and polar constraints on telescopes. Current and future site testing campaigns are finally described.

  1. Lnear Phase FIR Filter on Measuring 3—D Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYunshan; YANGFujun; 等

    1997-01-01

    An optical technology for 3-D surface measurement is se up.The technology,based on a deformed projected grating pattern which carries the 3-D information of the measured object,can automatically and accurately obtain the phase map of a measured object by using a linear-phase FIR filter.In contrast to the 2-D fast Fourier transform technique,it's more than fast.Only one image pattern is sufficient for measuring .The phase map can be processed without assigning fringe orders and making distinction between a depression and an elevation.Theoretical analysis and experimental result are presented.

  2. Gyrotrons for High-Power Terahertz Science and Technology at FIR UF

    CERN Document Server

    Idehara, Toshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the recent progress in the development of a series of gyrotrons at FIR UF that have opened the road to many novel applications in the high-power Terahertz science and technology. The current status of the research in this actively developing field is illustrated by the most representative examples in which the developed gyrotrons are used as powerful and frequency tunable sources of coherent radiation operating in a CW regime. Among them are high-precision spectroscopic techniques (most notably DNP-NMR, ESR, XDMR, and studies of the hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of positronium), treatment and characterization of advanced materials, new medical technologies.

  3. Optimum Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Low-Pass Filtering of Market Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this contribution is to compare 9 cases of FIR (Finite Impulse Response) type filters, by using approximation theory based norms for the following output parameters: delay and correlation between input and output, and ''smoothness'' of the output derivative. It was found that the most commonly used rectangular shape of impulse response is in general not an optimum solution. Indications concerning the optimum shape of impulse response subject to the assumed criteria are shortly presented and the triangular shape of impulse response is recommended. (author)

  4. FIR 1 reactor in service for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The FIR 1-reactor, a 250 kW Triga reactor, has been in operation since 1962. The main purpose for the existence of the reactor is now the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The BNCT work dominates the current utilization of the reactor: three or four days per week are reserved for BNCT purposes and the rest for other purposes such as isotope production and neutron activation analysis. In the 1990's a BNCT treatment facility was build at the FiR1 reactor located at Technical Research Centre of Finland. A special new neutron moderator material FluentalTM (Al+AlF3+Li) developed at VTT ensures the superior quality of the neutron beam. Also the treatment environment is of world top quality. The ground floor of the reactor hall was provided with a new entrance, easily accessible by any patient vehicle, a radio therapy control room and rooms for patient preparation and laboratories. The top of the reactor tank was separated from the reactor hall in order to confine contamination in case of a leakage from irradiation samples or fuel elements. The ventilation of the building, emergency power supply system, heat exchangers and the secondary cooling circuit of the reactor including cooling towers were completely redesigned and rebuilt. The expenditure of designing and accomplishing the construction work described was about 4 million euros. The costs were partly financed with venture capital via Radtek Ltd., particularly established for this enterprise. Close to thirty patients have been treated at FiR 1 since May 1999, when the license for patient treatment was granted to the responsible BNCT treatment organization, Boneca Corporation. VTT as the reactor operator has a long term contract with the Boneca Corp. to provide the facility and irradiation services for the patient treatments. The BNCT facility has been licensed for clinical use and is being surveyed by several national public health authorities including the Finnish Nuclear and Radiation Safety

  5. Possible Breaking of the FIR-Radio Correlation in Tidally Interacting Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Donevski, Darko; Prodanovic, Tijana

    2015-01-01

    Far-infrared (FIR)--radio correlation is a well-established empirical connection between continuum radio and dust emission of star-forming galaxies, often used as a tool in determining star-formation rates. Here we expand the point made by Murphy (2013) that in the case of some interacting star-forming galaxies there is a non-thermal emission from the gas bridge in between them, which might cause a dispersion in this correlation. Galactic interactions and mergers have been known to give rise ...

  6. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.

    2014-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  7. Filtered Iterative Reconstruction (FIR) via Proximal Forward-Backward Splitting: A Synergy of Analytical and Iterative Reconstruction Method for CT

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This work is to develop a general framework, namely filtered iterative reconstruction (FIR) method, to incorporate analytical reconstruction (AR) method into iterative reconstruction (IR) method, for enhanced CT image quality. Specifically, FIR is formulated as a combination of filtered data fidelity and sparsity regularization, and then solved by proximal forward-backward splitting (PFBS) algorithm. As a result, the image reconstruction decouples data fidelity and image regularization with a two-step iterative scheme, during which an AR-projection step updates the filtered data fidelity term, while a denoising solver updates the sparsity regularization term. During the AR-projection step, the image is projected to the data domain to form the data residual, and then reconstructed by certain AR to a residual image which is in turn weighted together with previous image iterate to form next image iterate. Since the eigenvalues of AR-projection operator are close to the unity, PFBS based FIR has a fast convergenc...

  8. Greater accumulation of litter in spruce (Picea abies) compared to beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands is not a consequence of the inherent recalcitrance of needles

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Torsten W.; Berger, Pétra

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Replacement of beech by spruce is associated with changes in soil acidity, soil structure and humus form, which are commonly ascribed to the recalcitrance of spruce needles. It is of practical relevance to know how much beech must be admixed to pure spruce stands in order to increase litter decomposition and associated nutrient cycling. We addressed the impact of tree species mixture within forest stands and within litter on mass loss and nutritional release from litter. M...

  9. Preliminary Effects of Fertilization on Ecochemical Soil Condition in Mature Spruce Stands Experiencing Dieback in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki Mountains, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Małek, Stanisław; Januszek, Kazimierz; William S. Keeton; Barszcz, Józef; Kroczek, Marek; Błońska, Ewa; Wanic, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been the phenomena of spruce dieback in Europe. Significant areas of spruce low mortality now cover both sides of the Polish southern border. We evaluated ecochemical parameters influencing the heavy dieback occurring in mature spruce stands in the Polish Carpathian Mountains. Dolomite, magnesite and serpentinite fertilizers were applied to experimental plots located in 100-year-old stands in the autumn of 2008. The experimental plots were located in the mid-elevati...

  10. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  11. Formation of chloroform in spruce forest soil - results from laboratory incubation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Svensmark, B.; Grøn, C.

    2000-01-01

    The release of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene from an organic rich spruce forest soil was studied in laboratory incubation experiments by dynamic headspace analysis, thermodesorption and gas chromatography. Performance parameters are...... presented for the dynamic headspace system. For spruce forest soil, the results showed a significant increase in chloroform concentration in the headspace under aerobic conditions over a period of seven days, whereas the concentration of the other compounds remained fairly constant. A biogenic formation of...... chloroform is suggested, whereas for the other compounds anthropogenic sources are assumed. The addition of trichloroacetic acid to the soil increased the release of chloroform from the soil. It is, therefore, suggested that trichloroacetic acid also contributed to the formation of chloroform. Under the...

  12. Species-diagnostic and species-specific DNA sequences evenly distributed throughout pine and spruce chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehes-Smith, Melanie; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2010-10-01

    Genome organization in the family Pinaceae is complex and largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to develop and physically map species-diagnostic and species-specific molecular markers in pine and spruce. Five RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and one ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) species-diagnostic or species-specific markers for Picea mariana, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, or Pinus monticola were identified, cloned, and sequenced. In situ hybridization of these sequences to spruce and pine chromosomes showed the sequences to be present in high copy number and evenly distributed throughout the genome. The analysis of centromeric and telomeric regions revealed the absence of significant clustering of species-diagnostic and species-specific sequences in all the chromosomes of the four species studied. Both RAPD and ISSR markers showed similar patterns. PMID:20962883

  13. The hydrochemistry of plantation spruce forest catchments with brown earth soils, Vyrnwy in mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At Vyrnwy, in mid-Wales, a study of the hydrogeochemistry of two small spruce forested catchments, one a control and one felled midway through the study, shows a classic picture of rainfall inputs damped by the catchment and stream waters the chemistry of which varies as functions of flow and particularly of the supply of more acidic and aluminium-bearing soil water and of more basic and calcic ground waters from the zone where weathering reactions with the bedrock are high. The ground waters are most alkaline although pH may be depressed due to high dissolved carbon dioxide pressures. Nitrate concentrations increase in the first year after felling and decrease thereafter below those of the control. Water quality changes due to the dominant hydrogeochemical processes show that harvesting raises no significant water quality management issues. Keywords: Gran alkalinity, aluminium, spruce, harvesting, forestry, nutrients, trace elements, Vyrnwy, water quality

  14. FRACTIONATION OF PROCESSED SPRUCE WOOD OBTAINED IN THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Johansson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Fuel ethanol can be produced from pretreated spruce wood through enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Processed spruce wood samples (acid-catalyzed steam hydrolysis followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were fractionated into water-soluble products and residual solids. The dioxane/water soluble portions of the solids were fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction. A substantial portion of the processed wood (20-70 % was insoluble in both water and dioxane/water. An almost pure lignin fraction, corresponding to about 20 % of the total lignin of the wood, was isolated. Examinations by 1H NMR spectroscopy showed that the processes led to extensive cleavage of arylglycerol -aryl ethers in the lignin. The lignin content of other fractions could be estimated very roughly by IR spectroscopy. Purified lignin from SO2-catalyzed steam hydrolysis contained approx. 0.2 % sulphur.

  15. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  16. Elemental composition of annual growth rings in spruce and lime wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trees usually form visible annual growth rings. In order to get a chronological record of trace element pollution in the environment instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine element content (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sm, Sr, W and Zn) in 10-year-old segments of one hundred-old lime Tilia cordata Mill and in 90-old spruce wood Picea abies Karst originating from the area of Central Spis (Slovak Republic) known for the maximum level of pollution with heavy metals [1,2]. Samples were collected from two sides of a lime (SW and NW) and from one side of a spruce. No correlation of elements was observed between two sides of a lime. Correlation of elements in relevant rings of two types of wood was not evident

  17. The Variability of Cytoplasmic DNA Haplotypes of Norway Spruce in the Provenance Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Padutov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A genetic analysis of mitochondrial (mtDNA and chloroplast (cpDNA genomes of 27 climatypes of Norway spruce was conducted in the provenance (Cherikov forestry district, Republic of Belarus. It was found that the analyzed climatypes presented boreal and carpathian mtDNA haplotypes. The first of them is found in all regions of growth climatypes (Priuralsky, Northwest, Central, Baltic, Byelorussian, Southwest, the second – only in Belarusian and Southwest regions. It is shown that polymorphism cpDNA significantly higher in comparison with the mtDNA. For a number of alleles of loci cpDNA the clinal variation was found in the frequency of their occurrence. It was revealed that some cpDNA haplotypes, as haplotypes mtDNA, of Norway spruce can be represented as in all regions of the investigated part of the range as on certain of its territories.

  18. Carbon Dynamics of Forest Floor and Stem in Black Spruce Forest Soils, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongwon; Kim, Seong-Deog; Kim, Woongji

    2010-05-01

    Our automated open/close chamber system (AOCC) consists of eight chambers, a pump, CO2 gas analyzer, and a datalogger for CO2 data on the lichen, tussock, feather moss, and sphagnum moss of a black spruce forest, Interior Alaska, during the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008. During the observing periods of 2007 and 2008, the seasonal NEE was 0.127±0.049 and -0.039±0.025 mgCO2/m2/s in tussock regime, and 0.006±0.011 and 0.028±0.017 mgCO2/m2/s in sphagnum moss, respectively. Air temperature is a more significant regulator than soil temperature in determining the GPP and Re of forest floor vegetations. Air temperature explained 77-95% of the variability in GPP and Re of the floor vegetations. The contributions (%) of simulated seasonal GPP to the black spruce forest during non-growing periods (DOY 1-120 and 244-365) and during the growing period (DOY 121-243) of 2007 are 63-72%, 20-25%, and 8-18%, respectively. This indicates that the floor CO2 exchange, as well as the contribution of winter carbon emission, is a component of the regional carbon budget that cannot be neglected. As the result of simulated GPP and Re in tussock during 2007, tussocks are found to have on atmospheric CO2 release, similar to results of observation for 63-day of 2007. On the other hand of stem respiration rates of black spruce (Picea Mariana), the continuous measurement of stem respiration was conducted in black spruce stands of different ages (4.3 to 13.5 cm in DBH) in Interior Alaska during the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008, using a pump, CO2 analyzer, chambers, and data-logger. The averaged whole stem respiration rate is 0.011±0.005 mgCO2/m2/s (range 0.005±0.002 to 0.015±0.008 mgCO2/m2/s, CV 45%) in black spruce stands, indicating remarkably diurnal and seasonal variations of stem respiration among the stems during the growing season. It is found that metabolism exhibits 1.5-fold higher in the younger black spruce stand than in the older. Temperatures in the air and stem are

  19. Multi-factorial analysis of spruce forests decline in the Slovak part of Beskydy region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Hlásny

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with analysis of circumstances of so called "new type" of spruce forest decline in the Slovak part of Beskydy region (northern Slovakia. Stand damage level was visually assessed on more than 500 sample plots allocated along the sample transects across the Kysuce and the Orava region. Critical damage level was defined and probability of its occurrence was analysed by logistic regression in relation to 6 site-related, 5 stand-related and 2 anthropogenic factors. Cross validation of derived models showed correctness of classification about 80%, but only about 70% for critically damaged class 1. Some differences appeared between studied regions in circumstances of decline, but generally, it can be stated, that most affected by decline were older stands with higher proportion of spruce and located closer to the focus of biotic pests activity. Exploitability of the derived regression models for risk prediction in the forest management is discussed.

  20. Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible...

  1. Management intensity affects traits of soil microarthropod community in montane spruce forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Rusek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 75, March (2014), s. 71-79. ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA ČR GAP504/12/1218; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Oribatida * Collembola * spruce forest * trait * management intensity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2014

  2. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbohydrate content in Norway spruce needles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 99, S (2005), s552-s553. ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /3./. Brno, 20.09.2005-22.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : Norway spruce * needles * carbohydrates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2005

  3. Visual Recognition Software for Binary Classification and Its Application to Spruce Pollen Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Tcheng, David K.; Nayak, Ashwin K.; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W.

    2016-01-01

    Discriminating between black and white spruce (Picea mariana and Picea glauca) is a difficult palynological classification problem that, if solved, would provide valuable data for paleoclimate reconstructions. We developed an open-source visual recognition software (ARLO, Automated Recognition with Layered Optimization) capable of differentiating between these two species at an accuracy on par with human experts. The system applies pattern recognition and machine learning to the analysis of p...

  4. Carbon balance of a southern taiga spruce stand in European Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Milyukova, Irena M.; Kolle, Olaf; Varlagin, Andrej V.; Vygodskaya, Natalia N.; Schulze, E.-Detlef; Lloyd, Jon

    2002-01-01

    We present results from nearly three years of net ecosystem flux measurements above a boreal spruce stand growing in European Russia. Fluxes were measured by eddy covariance using conventional techniques. In all years examined (1998–2000), the forest was a significant source of carbon to the atmosphere. However, the magnitude of this inferred source depended upon assumptions regarding the degree of “flux loss” under conditions of low turbulence, such as typically occur at night. When correcti...

  5. Insect assemblages in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stumps in the Eastern Sudetes

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzecz, Iwona; Bulka, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of insect assemblages colonising stumps of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in mountain conditions. Investigations were carried out in the Eastern Sudetes (south –western Poland) in forest stands situated at 600– 700 m above sea level. The observations were conducted on stumps left behind after felling 70– 90 years old Norway spruces. The analysed stumps were colonised by insects from 21 families of 3 orders: Coleopt...

  6. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malenovský, Z.; Homolová, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukeš, Petr; Kaplan, Věroslav; Hanuš, Jan; Gastellu-Etchegory, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 131, APR (2013), s. 85-102. ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010007 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll retrieval * Imaging spectroscopy * Continuum removal * Radiative transfer * PROSPECT * DART * Optical indices * Norway spruce * High spatial resolution * AISA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.769, year: 2013

  7. Physiological response of Norway spruce foliage in the drought vegetation period 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Kmeť; Ľubica Ditmarová; Daniel Kurjak; Tibor Priwitzer

    2011-01-01

    Today, we are facing the threat of fast decay of forest stands (so called modern decline) differing from the "classic" decay scenarios. Responding to the progressive worsening health condition of forests, not limited only to our country, there are emerging efforts to identify and eliminate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. A frequently discussed issue in this context is the climate change -- one of the factors sharing in the decline of mostly the non-native, but also native spruce for...

  8. Infection of Engelmann-Spruce Seed by Geniculodendron pyriforme in Western North America

    OpenAIRE

    Wicklow-Howard, M W

    1980-01-01

    Geniculodendron pyriforme Salt was identified and characterized by Salt (1974) as the fungus responsible for germination failure of Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] seed in Canadian and British forest nurseries. It was confirmed that the fungus isolated by Epners (1964) from seed of Pinus resinosa Ait., P. sylvestris L., P. strobus L., and Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss. in Canadian nurseries was the same (Salt, 1974). In addition, Salt (1970) demonstrated that the pathogen can infe...

  9. Soil and soil cover changes in spruce forests after final logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lapteva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol and enlarges their ratio (up to 35–38 % in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5–10 years stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30–40 years after logging, soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.

  10. Biodiversity of types of ectomycorrhizae in a norway spruce stands on Pokljuka

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhar, Urša; Smolej, Igor; TROŠT SEDEJ, TADEJA; Kutnar, Lado; Kraigher, Hojka

    2004-01-01

    Types of ectomycorrhizae were studied in soil cores from a young regeneration center in an autochthonous Norway spruce stand on Pokljuka (Triglav National Park, 1200 m.a.s.l.). Soil cores of equal volume (274 ml, 0 - 18 cm deep) weretaken from 33 sampling plots. In the samples all the roots were counted and types of ectomycorrhizae briefly characterized. From these data diversity indices (species diversity (d) and Shannon- Weaver index of diversity (H)) were calculated. Interactions among myc...

  11. Multi-factorial analysis of spruce forests decline in the Slovak part of Beskydy region

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Hlásny; Ladislav Kulla

    2010-01-01

    Paper deals with analysis of circumstances of so called "new type" of spruce forest decline in the Slovak part of Beskydy region (northern Slovakia). Stand damage level was visually assessed on more than 500 sample plots allocated along the sample transects across the Kysuce and the Orava region. Critical damage level was defined and probability of its occurrence was analysed by logistic regression in relation to 6 site-related, 5 stand-related and 2 anthropogenic factors. Cross validation of...

  12. Studies of Cantharellus cibarius - a mycorrhizal fungus of pine and spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Pachlewski; Edmund Strzelczyk; Jadwiga Kermen

    2014-01-01

    Pure cultures of Cuntharellus cibarius wcrc isolaled in two forms: C. cibarius hardwood form (isolate No. 5400) and C. cibarius coniferous form (isolate No.5410). Artificial mycorrhization of pine (Pinus Sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) was applied in this work and wcre determinated mycorrhiza-forming properties in both isolates with differences in mycorrhiza-forming activity and in morphogenesis of ectomycorrhizas. The sporocarps of C. cibarius consistently contained bacteria probably be...

  13. Actin distribution in mitotic apparatus of somatic embryo cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cenklová, Věra; Binarová, Pavla; Havel, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2003), s. 167-174. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/99/D092; GA AV ČR IAA5020803; GA ČR GV522/96/K186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cytoskeleton * embryogenesis of spruce * mitosis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  14. Estimation of Spruce Needle-Leaf Chlorophyll Content Based on DART and PARAS Canopy Reflectance Models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yáñez-Rausell, L.; Malenovský, Z.; Rautiainen, M.; Clevers, J G P W.; Lukeš, Petr; Hanuš, Jan; Schaepman, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2015), s. 1534-1544. ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Chlorophyll a plus b estimation * CHRIS-PROBA * coniferous forest * continuum removal * discrete anisotropic radiative transfer model (DART) * needle-leaf * Norway spruce * optical indices * PARAS * PROSPECT * radiative transfer * recollision probability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.026, year: 2014

  15. The influence of moisture content on the water vapour resistance of surface coated spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, E.T.; Ulriksen, L.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Astrup, Thomas; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    Two series of cup tests are carried out. The first series is performed on spruce specimens having moisture transport in either radial direction (R-direction) or in tangential direction (T-direction). The T-direction tests are made as wet cup tests having 93 %RH inside the cups, while the R-direct...... permeability of the specimens are not reduced by the paint for the dry cup tests....

  16. Growth response of spruce saplings in relation to climatic conditions along a gradient of gap size

    OpenAIRE

    Drobyshev, Igor; Nihlgård, Bengt

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the relative importance of climatic factors and the level of natural canopy disturbance on sapling growth rates, terminal shoot increment of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) saplings was analyzed in old-growth Sphagnum-Myrtillus forests of the European southern boreal zone (Tver Region, Russia). For a 5-year period, terminal increments were retrospectively measured in 225 saplings in a range of naturally created canopy gaps. Climatic variability was estimated by Seljaninov ...

  17. Soil microarthropods in non-intervention montane spruce forest regenerating after bark-beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farská, Jitka; Prejzková, Kristýna; Starý, Josef; Rusek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2014), s. 1087-1096. ISSN 0912-3814 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/03/1259; GA ČR GAP504/12/1218; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) 143/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bark beetle * Collembola * disturbance * Oribatida * spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2014

  18. Knottiness of spruce stems from the Dolomites as the basis for distinguishing quality zones in roundwood

    OpenAIRE

    Barszcz, Anna; Sandak, Anna; Sandak, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted on 9 sample of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] trees, aged 150 years, from three upper subalpine stands in the region of the Dolomites. The knots were classified into three categories of healthiness and three categories of intergrowth with the surrounding wood. Differences in diameters and relative diameters of knots classified into three categories of healthiness and three categories of intergrowth with the surrounding wood was shown on a merchantable bol...

  19. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, Lucie; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Hanuš, Jan; Tomášková, Ivana; Dvořáková, Marcela; Pokorný, Radek

    2007 - (Schaepman, M.; Liang, S.; Groot, N.; Kneubühler, M.) ISSN 1682-1777. - (Intl. Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. 36). [10th Intl. Symposium on Physical Measurements and Spectral Signatures in Remote Sensing. Davos (CH), 12.03.2007-14.03.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : leaf area index * sampling strategy * PCA LAI-2000 * TRAC * hemispherical photograph * Norway spruce Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  20. The hydrochemistry of plantation spruce forest catchments with brown earth soils, Vyrnwy in mid-Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, C.; Reynolds, B; Neal, M.; Williams, B

    2002-01-01

    At Vyrnwy, in mid-Wales, a study of the hydrogeochemistry of two small spruce forested catchments, one a control and one felled midway through the study, shows a classic picture of rainfall inputs damped by the catchment and stream waters the chemistry of which varies as functions of flow and particularly of the supply of more acidic and aluminium-bearing soil water and of more basic and calcic ground waters from the zone where weathering ...

  1. Relationships between spruce plantation age, solute and soil chemistry in Hafren forest

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, P. A.; Reynolds, B; Hughes, S; Norris, D. A.; Dickinson, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Rain, throughfall, soil waters from surface peaty O horizon and deeper mineral B horizon, and stream water, were collected every four weeks for one year in a moorland catchment, and in four forested catchments. The four forested catchments represented an age sequence of first rotation Sitka spruce plantations, aged 14, 28, 37 and 53 years. All water samples were analysed for all major solutes, including dissolved organic nitrogen (DON-N); stream water and B horizon soil waters were also subje...

  2. Relationships between spruce plantation age, solute and soil chemistry in Hafren forest

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, P. A.; Reynolds, B.; Hughes, S; Norris, D A; A. L. Dickinson

    1997-01-01

    Rain, throughfall, soil waters from surface peaty O horizon and deeper mineral B horizon, and stream water, were collected every four weeks for one year in a moorland catchment, and in four forested catchments. The four forested catchments represented an age sequence of first rotation Sitka spruce plantations, aged 14, 28, 37 and 53 years. All water samples were analysed for all major solutes, including dissolved organic nitrogen (DON-N); stream water and B horizon soil waters were also subje...

  3. Oxyfluorfen safe to use engelmann spruce seedbeds. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, J.P.

    1993-06-01

    Oxyfluorfen, a diphenylether herbicide, can be applied to Engelmann spruce nursery beds without significant damage to seedlings. Oxyfluorfen, applied at 0.5 lb/acre with preemergence timing for two years, reduced seedling dry mass. When the rate of herbicide application was reduced, the timing was delayed, or the applications were discontinued the second year, there was little damage to seedlings. Five of 10 herbicide treatments significantly reduced seedling densities compared to the no-treatment plots.

  4. Ectomycorrhizae of Lactarius lignyotus on Norway spruce, characterized by anatomical and molecular tools

    OpenAIRE

    Kraigher, Hojka; Agerer, Reinhard; Javornik, Branka

    2015-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizae of Lactarius lignyotus on Norway spruce are comprehensively described by morphological and anatomical characteristics. Identification of ectomycorrhizae was performed by tracing mycelia to the fruitbodies and also by molecular tools, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the fungal DNA. The newly described ectomycorrhiza is compared to ectomycorrhiza of the related Lactarius picinus. The amplified DNA products of the two fungi and their ectomycorrhizae cou...

  5. Norway spruce crown structure changes under long-term multiple stress impact in Central European Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 252-255. ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Norway spruce * crown transformation * tree status Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  6. Fine root status element contents in three Norway spruce stands in the Krkonose Mts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goldbold, D.; Fritz, H.; Cudlín, Pavel; Bonifacio, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 91-94. ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Ca:Al ratios, fine roots, spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  7. Energy, carbon and economic balance of Norway spruce moncultures and near-natural forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plch, Radek; Pecháček, O.; Vala, V.; Pokorný, Radek; Bednář, V.; Cudlín, Pavel

    Brno : Global change research centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i, 2013 - (Stojanov, R.; Žalud, Z.; Cudlín, P.; Farda, A.; Urban, O.; Trnka, M.), s. 50-52 ISBN 978-80-904351-8-6. [Global Change and Resilience. Brno (CZ), 22.05.2013-24.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Norway spruce * forest management * energy-carbon-economic balances * life cycle assesment method Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. The Variability of Cytoplasmic DNA Haplotypes of Norway Spruce in the Provenance Trials

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Padutov; A. I. Sidor; D. I. Kagan; O. A. Kovalevich; S. N. Veras

    2014-01-01

    A genetic analysis of mitochondrial (mtDNA) and chloroplast (cpDNA) genomes of 27 climatypes of Norway spruce was conducted in the provenance (Cherikov forestry district, Republic of Belarus). It was found that the analyzed climatypes presented boreal and carpathian mtDNA haplotypes. The first of them is found in all regions of growth climatypes (Priuralsky, Northwest, Central, Baltic, Byelorussian, Southwest), the second – only in Belarusian and Southwest regions. It is shown that polymorph...

  9. Alteration of Water Absorption Coefficient of Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) due to Thermal Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Pfriem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the investigations was to evaluate the infl uence of a thermal modifi cation on the water absorption behaviour of spruce (Picea abies(L.) Karst.). After recording the water uptake of wood samples by partial immersion, a water absorption coefficient of the material could be determined according to EN ISO 15148:2002. The thermal modification results in an alteration of the water absorption behaviour in dependence on the sectional area. In radial and tangential direction the water abs...

  10. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) Based on Ecological Land Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Elisha Townshend; Bharat Pokharel; Art Groot; Doug Pitt; DECH, JEFFERY P.

    2015-01-01

    Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in...

  11. Regulation of Gene Expression during the Onset of Ligninolytic Oxidation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium on Spruce Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Korripally, Premsagar; Hunt, Christopher G.; Houtman, Carl J.; Jones, Don. C.; Kitin, Peter J.; Cullen, Dan; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Since uncertainty remains about how white rot fungi oxidize and degrade lignin in wood, it would be useful to monitor changes in fungal gene expression during the onset of ligninolysis on a natural substrate. We grew Phanerochaete chrysosporium on solid spruce wood and included oxidant-sensing beads bearing the fluorometric dye BODIPY 581/591 in the cultures. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of the beads showed that extracellular oxidation commenced 2 to 3 days after inoculation, coincident w...

  12. Assessment of soil calcium status in red spruce forests in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Bailey, S.W.; Shortle, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term changes in concentrations of available Ca in soils of red spruce forests have been documented, but remaining questions about the magnitude and regional extent of these changes have precluded an assessment of the current and future status of soil Ca. To address this problem, soil samples were collected in 1992-93 from 12 sites in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine to provide additional data necessary to synthesize all available research results on soil Ca in red spruce forests. Sites were chosen to encompass the range of environmental conditions experienced by red spruce. Concentrations of exchangeable Ca ranged from 2.13 to 21.6 cmol(c) kg-1 in the Oa horizon, and from 0.11 to 0.68 cmol(c) kg-1 in the upper 10 cm of the B horizon. These measurements expanded the range of exchangeable Ca reported in the literature for both horizons in northeastern red spruce forests. Exchangeable Ca was the largest Ca fraction in the forest floor at most sites (92% of acid-extractable Ca), but mineral Ca was the largest fraction at the three sites that also had the highest mineral-matter concentrations. The primary factor causing variability in Ca concentrations among sites was the mineralogy of parent material, but exchangeable concentrations in the B horizon of all sites were probably reduced by acidic deposition. Because the majority of Ca in the forest floor is in a readily leachable form, and Ca inputs to the forest floor from the mineral soil and atmospheric deposition have been decreasing in recent decades, the previously documented decreases in Ca concentrations in the forest floor over previous decades may extend into the future.

  13. The influence of climate change on stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily stomatal ozone flux to a mountain Norway spruce forest stand at the Bily Kriz experimental site in the Beskydy Mts. (Czech Republic) was modelled using a multiplicative model during the 2009 growing season. The multiplicative model was run with meteorological data for the growing season 2009 and ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ model data for the 2030 growing season. The exceedance of the flux-based critical level of O3 (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose) might be lower for Norway spruce at the Bily Kriz experimental site in a future climate (around 2030), due to increased stomatal closure induced by climate change, even when taking into account increased tropospheric background O3 concentration. In contrast, exceedance of the concentration-based critical level (AOT40) of O3 will increase with the projected increase in background O3 concentration. Ozone concentration and stomatal flux of ozone significantly decreased NEP under both present and future climatic conditions, especially under high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: ► We estimated stomatal ozone flux in a Norway spruce forest using a multiplicative model. ► The model was run with meteorological data for the 2009 and 2030 growing seasons. ► The exceedance of the flux-based critical level of O3 will decrease in a predicted future climate. ► The exceedance of AOT40 will increase. Stomatal flux significantly negatively affected NEP values. - Though the exceedance of the flux-based critical level of O3 might be lower for Norway spruce, stomatal flux will have negative effect on NEP values in a future climate.

  14. Utilization of hyperspectral image optical indices to assess the Norway spruce forest health status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mišurec, J.; Kopáčková, V.; Lhotáková, Z.; Hanuš, Jan; Weyermann, J.; Entcheva-Campbel, P.; Albrechtová, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, JUN 2012 (2012), 063545-1-063545-25. ISSN 1931-3195 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : chlorophyll * optical indices * Norway spruce * continuum removal * HyMap * actual physiological status * Sokolov basin * forest management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.876, year: 2012

  15. Using the Resistograph®to distinguish different types of wood rot on living silver fir in Molise (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre B; Motta E; D'Amico L.; Scirè M; Marchetti M

    2010-01-01

    he study was performed in two silver-fir forests (Abies alba Mill.) located in Alto Molise, Province of Isernia: Collemeluccio, near Pescolanciano and Abeti Soprani near Capracotta. The aim of this work was to distinguish different types of wood rot on living silver fir individuals by using the Resistograph® (IML-RESI E400), a device that allows to estimate the variation of wood density by measuring the resistance to micro-perforation. The occurrence of different types of wood rot (white...

  16. Application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. Progress report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is concerned with the application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the U.S. It reviews analyses presented in previous reports which suggest that the basement of the Central and Eastern U.S. consists of large crustal blocks separated by major zones of tectonic weakness. The curvature of the Appalachian Fold Belt appears to be related to the east-west boundaries caused by subsiding and uplifting at these zones. A plot of epigenetic uranium occurrences reveals that they tend to cluster along the greater curvatures of the Appalachian orogeny. These findings have led to a systematic study of the regularities in the distribution of ore deposits in the Appalachians presented in this report. They include a description of geologic and geographic base maps, preparation of maps showing distribution of individual minerals, and regularities in the distribution of uranium in the Appalachians. Comments on the segmentation of the Appalachian orogeny by transverse lineaments are presented. The report contains seventeen maps of the eastern half of the U.S. showing specific mineral deposits in relation to geologic formations

  17. A Method for Designing FIR Filters with Arbitrary Magnitude Characteristic Used for Modeling Human Audiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZOPOS, E.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an iterative method for designing FIR filters that implement arbitrary magnitude characteristics, defined by the user through a set of frequency-magnitude points (frequency samples. The proposed method is based on the non-uniform frequency sampling algorithm. For each iteration a new set of frequency samples is generated, by processing the set used in the previous run; this implies changing the samples location around the previous frequency values and adjusting their magnitude through interpolation. If necessary, additional samples can be introduced, as well. After each iteration the magnitude characteristic of the resulting filter is determined by using the non-uniform DFT and compared with the required one; if the errors are larger than the acceptable levels (set by the user a new iteration is run; the length of the resulting filter and the values of its coefficients are also taken into consideration when deciding a re-run. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method a tool for designing FIR filters that match human audiograms was implemented in LabVIEW. It was shown that the resulting filters have smaller coefficients than the standard one, and can also have lower order, while the errors remain relatively small.

  18. ALMA WILL DETERMINE THE SPECTROSCOPIC REDSHIFT z > 8 WITH FIR [O III] EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A. K.; Shimizu, I. [College of General Education, Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1 Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan); Tamura, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Matsuo, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Okamoto, T. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, N10 W8, Kitaku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Yoshida, N., E-mail: akinoue@las.osaka-sandai.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the potential use of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) for determining spectroscopic redshift of z > 8 galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). After making a line emissivity model as a function of metallicity, especially for the [O III] 88 μm line which is likely to be the strongest FIR line from H II regions, we predict the line fluxes from high-z galaxies based on a cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation. Since the metallicity of galaxies reaches at ∼0.2 Z {sub ☉} even at z > 8 in our simulation, we expect the [O III] 88 μm line as strong as 1.3 mJy for 27 AB objects, which is detectable at a high significance by <1 hr integration with ALMA. Therefore, the [O III] 88 μm line would be the best tool to confirm the spectroscopic redshifts beyond z = 8.

  19. Chemical analysis of volatile oils from West Himalayan Pindrow Fir Abies pindrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2014-08-01

    The essential oil composition of needle and stem oils of Abies pindrow (Royle ex D.Don) Royle, commonly known as Pindrow or West Himalayan Fir, were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-six constituents, accounting for 96.0% of needle and 83.5% of stem oil composition, were identified. The oils were characterized by a high content of monoterpenoids (68.9%-79.9%), mainly comprised by limonene (21.0%-34.4%), camphene (0.5%-19.9%), alpha-pinene (13.8%-16.8%), myrcene (6.7%-8.3%) and beta-pinene (6.5%-8.6%). Monoterpene hydrocarbons were predominant in both oils, but the quantitative and qualitative composition of the volatile constituents was specific for each part of the tree; and considerable variations in their terpenoid production pattern were also noticed. Results were compared with earlier reported fir species from different geographic regions. PMID:25233604

  20. Role of canopy interception on water and nutrient cycling in Chinese fir plantation ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Wenxing; DENG Xiangwen; ZHAO Zhonghui

    2007-01-01

    The role of canopy interception on nutrient cycling in Chinese fir plantation ecosystem was studied on the basis of the position data during four years.Results indicate that the average canopy interception amount was 267.0 mm/year.Canopy interception play a significant role in water cycle and nutrient cycle processes in ecosystem,and was an important part of evaporation from the Chinese fir plantation ecosystem,being up to 27.2%.The evaporation from the canopy interception was an important way of water output from ecosystem,up to 19.9%.The flush-eluviation of branches and leaves caused by canopy interception brought nutrient input of 143.629 kg/(hm2·year),which was 117.2% of the input 63.924kg/(hm2·year)from the atmospheric precipitation.The decreased amount of 80.1 mm precipitation input caused by canopy interception reduced the amount of rainfall into the stand surface and infiltration into the soil,reduced the output with runoff and drainage,and decreased nutrient loss through output water.Therefore,the additional preserve of nutrient by canopy interception was 8.664 kg/(hm2·year).