Sample records for appalachian silvopasture pasture

  1. Calibration and use of plate meter regressions for pasture mass estimation in an Appalachian silvopasture (United States)

    A standardized plate meter for measuring pasture mass was calibrated at the Agroforestry Research and Demonstration Site in Blacksburg, VA, using six ungrazed plots of established tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) overseeded with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata). Each plot was interplanted with b...

  2. Annotated bibliography on the impacts of size and scale of silvopasture in the Southeastern U.S.A (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; Marcus M. Comer


    Silvopasture, the integration of trees and pasture for livestock, has numerous potential benefits for producers. However, size or scale of the operation may affect those benefits. A review of relevant research on the scale and size economies of silvopasture, general forestry, and livestock agriculture was undertaken to better understand potential silvopasture...

  3. Simulating runoff from small grazed pasture watersheds located at North Appalachian Experimental Watershed in Ohio (United States)

    Runoff from grazing pasture lands can impact water quality in receiving streams if not well managed. Management consists of conservation practices to reduce runoff and pollutants transport. Simulation models have been effectively used to design and implement these conservation practices. The Agricul...

  4. Soil carbon storage in silvopasture and related land-use systems in the brazilian cerrado. (United States)

    Tonucci, Rafael G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D; Garcia, Rasmo; Bernardino, Fernando S


    Silvopastoral management of fast-growing tree plantations is becoming popular in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna). To understand the influence of such systems on soil carbon (C) storage, we studied C content in three aggregate size classes in six land-use systems (LUS) on Oxisols in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The systems were a native forest, a treeless pasture, 24- and 4-yr-old eucalyptus ( sp.) plantations, and 15- and 4-yr-old silvopastures of fodder grass plus animals under eucalyptus. From each system, replicated soil samples were collected from four depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-50, and 50-100 cm), fractionated into 2000- to 250-, 250- to 53-, and <53-μm size classes representing macroaggregates, microaggregates, and silt + clay, respectively, and their C contents determined. Macroaggregate was the predominant size fraction under all LUS, especially in the surface soil layers of tree-based systems. In general, C concentrations (g kg soil) in the different aggregate size fractions did not vary within the same depth. The soil organic carbon (SOC) stock (Mg C ha) to 1-m depth was highest under pasture compared with other LUS owing to its higher soil bulk density. The soils under all LUS had higher C stock compared with other reported values for managed tropical ecosystems: down to 1 m, total SOC stock values ranged from 461 Mg ha under pasture to 393 Mg ha under old eucalyptus. Considering the possibility for formation and retention of microaggregates within macroggregates in low management-intensive systems such as silvopasture, the macroaggregate dynamics in the soil seem to be a good indicator of its C storage potential. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  5. Trees and livestock together: silvopasture research and application for Virginia farms (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; John H. Fike; Adam K. Downing; Marcus M. Comer; Timothy A. Mize; Christopher D. Teutsch


    Silvopasture is the intentional combination of trees, forage, and livestock on a parcel of land to optimize multiple outputs and has been shown to have benefits for production in various parts of the world.  There is strong interest in silvopasture in the Southern United States, likely driven by multiple motivations.  However, silvopasture practices have not been...

  6. Economic Pasture-Based Cow-Calf Systems for Appalachia


    Emenheiser, Joseph Carl


    Pasture-based beef production is well-suited for the Appalachian region of the United States. This research investigated pasture, beef cattle, and economics components within the cow-calf sector of pasture beef production, and presents implications of their interplay for the vitality of the whole system. Samples of forage DM mass and CP, ADF, NDF, and ash contents in each paddock of a rotational stocking system were collected monthly for 4 grazing seasons. Effects of month, stockpiling, hay f...

  7. Soil carbon storage in silvopastoral systems and a treeless pasture in northwestern Spain. (United States)

    Howlett, David S; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio


    Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have considerable influence on carbon (C) storage in soils, but such information is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths to 100 cm under silvopastoral plots of radiata pine ( D. Don) and birch ( Roth) in comparison to treeless pasture in Galicia, Spain. Soils were fractionated into three size classes (<53, 53-250, and 250-2000 μm), and C stored in them and in the whole (nonfractionated) soil was determined. Overall, the C stock to 1 m ranged from 80.9 to 176.9 Mg ha in these soils. Up to 1 m depth, 78.82% of C was found in the 0- to 25-cm soil depth, with 12.9, 4.92, and 3.36% in the 25- to 50-, 50- to 75-, and 75- to 100-cm depths, respectively. Soils under birch at 0 to 25 cm stored more C in the 250- to 2000-μm size class as compared with those under radiata pine; at that depth, pasture had more C than pine silvopasture in the smaller soil fractions (<53 and 53-250 μm). In the 75- to 100-cm depth, there was significantly more storage of C in the 250- to 2000-μm fraction in both silvopastures as compared with the pasture. The higher storage of soil C in larger fraction size in lower soil depths of silvopasture suggests that planting of trees into traditional agricultural landscapes will promote longer-term storage of C in the soil. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  8. The potential of L. scoparium, K. robusta and P. radiata to mitigate N-losses in silvopastural systems. (United States)

    Esperschuetz, J; Balaine, N; Clough, T; Bulman, S; Dickinson, N M; Horswell, J; Robinson, B H


    Silvopastoral systems aim to enhance economic, cultural and social principles by sustainably combining forest management with agriculture. In these typically high-nitrogen (N) environments, plant species selection can profoundly influence N fluxes. For grazed pastures, plants may be exposed to urine patches that have received the equivalent of up to 1000 kg N ha -1 . We aimed to determine the growth and N fluxes in three potential trees that may be used in silvopastoral systems: L. scoparium, K. robusta and P. radiata. Plants were grown in a greenhouse lysimeter experiment, with controlled irrigation and temperature and exposed to N at rates of 200 kg ha -1 equiv. for 15 weeks, followed by the addition of 800 kg ha -1 N equiv, to simulate a urine patch. Urea produced a positive growth response of all plant species. Treatments containing L. scoparium and K. robusta leached lower amounts of nitrate (NO 3 - ) (2 kg ha -1 NO 3 - ) compared to P. radiata (53 kg ha -1 ). Measurements of N 2 O over 20 days after the application of 800 kg N ha -1 indicated an inhibitory effect of L. scoparium and K. robusta on denitrification, hence loss of N via N 2 O. Both L. scoparium and K. robusta demonstrated that they have potential to reduce N-losses in silvopastural systems, while producing valuable biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental quality improvement of agricultural lands through silvopasture in southeastern United States Melhoria da qualidade ambiental de terras agricultáveis por meio da silvopastagem no sudeste dos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair


    Full Text Available We hypothesized that, because of the ability of trees to sequester carbon (C in the deep soil profile and remove excess nutrients from soils, the silvopastoral agroforestry system could enhance the environmental quality of the agricultural lands. To test this hypothesis, two sets of experiments were conducted in two soil orders in Florida, Spodosols and Ultisols, with two major objectives: i determining the soil C accumulation and tracing the plant sources of C in soil fractions, and ii quantifying water soluble phosphorus (WSP and estimating the Soil P Storage Capacity (SPSC. Total C in both soil orders was greater under silvopasture than in treeless pastures, particularly at lower depths. Stable-isotope signature analysis suggested that C3 plants (in this case, slash pine, Pinus elliotii contributed to a more stable C fraction than C4 plants (in this case, bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum at soil depths up to 1 m. WSP was consistently higher in treeless pastures, while the remaining SPSC was lower in this land-use system, suggesting the greater likelihood of P moving out of the soil under treeless pasture than in silvopasture. Thus, the presence of trees in pastures contributed to more stable C within the soil profiles, lower WSP, and greater SPSC, indicating more environmental benefits provided by silvopastoral systems as compared to treeless pastures under similar ecological settings.Nossa hipótese é de que devido à habilidade das árvores seqüestrarem carbono (C no perfil profundo do solo e remover o excesso de nutrientes dos solos, o sistema de silvopastagem agroflorestal poderia melhorar a qualidade ambiental de terras agricultáveis. Para testar esta hipótese, dois grupos de experimentos foram conduzidos em duas ordens de solos na Florida, Espodossolos e Ultissolos, com dois objetivos principais: i determinar a acumulação de C do solo e investigar as fontes de C para as plantas nas frações dos solos, e ii quantificar o fósforo sol

  10. Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain. (United States)

    Howlett, David Scott; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera Losada, Maria Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D


    The extent of carbon (C) stored in soils depends on a number of factors including soil characteristics, climatic and other environmental conditions, and management practices. Such information, however, is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 cm) under a Dehesa cork oak (Quercus suber L.) silvopasture at varying distances (2, 5, and 15 m) to trees. Soil C in the whole soil and three soil fractions (silvopastoral systems. The results also demonstrate the use of soil aggregate characteristics as better indicators of soil C sequestration potential and thus a tool for environmental monitoring.

  11. Public invited to Appalachian Studies Film Series


    Elliott, Jean


    The Appalachian Studies Program at Virginia Tech is hosting a series of notable artistic and documentary films. The films deal with themes or issues covered in Appalachian Studies courses and are organized historically, touching upon issues common to all Appalachians.

  12. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O' Neill; Harry W. Godwin


    Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial...

  13. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  14. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  15. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan


    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  16. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  17. Chapter 1: The Appalachian regional reforestation initiative (United States)

    Patrick Angel; Vic Davis; Jim Burger; Don Graves; Carl. Zipper


    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian region with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) to encourage restoration of high-quality forests on reclaimed coal mines in the eastern United States. The goals of ARRI are to communicate...

  18. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1982 Annual Report. (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Fiscal year 1982 was transitional for the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), as it was the last year of the broad economic development program and a year of reduced funding and new limits on programs. In 1981, Congress had requested that ARC prepare a plan for completion of the Appalachian highway system and for a 3 to 5 year ARC finish-up…

  19. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  20. Pasture types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Vuitton, Dominique A; Xiao, Yongfu; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Yang, Wen; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.

  1. Pasture improvement in Spanish Dehesas (United States)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.


    In the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula, the dehesa is a widespread agro-silvo-pastoral land use system, characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. Many years of inappropriate management of dehesas (deforestation, overgrazing, excessive agricultural activities, etc.) has led to the degradation of vegetation and soils in extensive areas, causing reductions in biomass and biodiversity, affecting the permanence of plants and causing important losses of palatable species. As there is growing interest in these wooded rangeland ecosystems due to their economic importance and high environmental value, the recovery of the original pasture biodiversity and the increase of productivity, together with the conservation of the environment, are the main goals in these areas of low productive potential, degraded and subject to soil erosion. Soil and climate conditions have a great influence on grassland production, with rainfall producing strong seasonal and interannual variations. These natural pastures, mainly composed of summer withering annual species, reach maximum productions in spring and register low values in autumn, slowing down in winter. During the summer dry season, the wilting pastures can offer a good forage for animals. Autochthonous annual legumes play an important role because they are well adapted to local edaphic and climatic conditions and produce hard seeds which germinate in autumn. This helps them to survive the frequent droughts and offer a high quality forage, which is a valuable complement to other pasture plants with lower protein content. Therefore, for several decades, legume seeding combined with the application of phosphate fertilizer has been the most common strategy used to improve pastures in SW Spain, where dehesas cover an area of about four million hectares. This paper examines the whole process of pasture improvement

  2. Diazotrophic Bacterial Community of Degraded Pastures


    João Tiago Correia Oliveira; Everthon Fernandes Figueredo; Williane Patrícia da Silva Diniz; Lucianne Ferreira Paes de Oliveira; Pedro Avelino Maia de Andrade; Fernando Dini Andreote; Júlia Kuklinsky-Sobral; Danúbia Ramos de Lima; Fernando José Freire


    Pasture degradation can cause changes in diazotrophic bacterial communities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the culturable and total diazotrophic bacterial community, associated with regions of the rhizosphere and roots of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures in different stages of degradation. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil were collected from slightly, partially, and highly degraded pastures. McCrady’s table was used to obtain the Most Probable Number (MPN) of bacteria per gram ...

  3. Use of FGD gypsum on a bermudagrass pasture in the Appalachian Plateau Region (United States)

    Addition of industrial by-products from coal fired power plants (FGD gypsum and FGD gypsum + fly ash) are thought to increase plant production. Thus, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of industrial by-products as a soil amendment on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) yield. The study was...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomaiací de Andrade


    Full Text Available Climate changes affect animals’ metabolism in a general way, resulting in an increase of heat stress and productivity decrease. Among viable alternatives to ameliote this situation, the most indicated is reforestation of pasture areas due to the great ecological benefit given to animals and the environment as a whole. The intercropping between trees and animals is called silvopastoral system, and represents a promising alternative to current means of production. For a correct deployment of this system it is necessary to consider some characteristics of the land and the environment concerned, to avoid loss and competition between members of the system, in other words, between tree and fodder species.

  5. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  6. Examining substance use among rural Appalachian and urban non-Appalachian individuals participating in drug court. (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa M; Perkins, Elizabeth B; Neal, Connie


    The study purpose was to examine differences in substance use among individuals in drug court (N = 583) in rural Appalachian (n = 301) and urban non-Appalachian areas (n = 282). A series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of cocaine, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report methamphetamine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Regarding past 30-day use, a series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to use marijuana, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report crack cocaine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Identifying differences which exist in substance use is the first step in generating evidence-based structural changes in treatment drug court programs. Future research should focus on better understanding context in terms of demographic, geographic, and economic conditions, which may be of critical influence on substance use and treatment planning.

  7. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn


    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  8. Synthetic rope applications in Appalachian logging (United States)

    Ben D. Spong; Jingxin Wang


    New ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene rope has shown good results as a replacement for wire rope in logging applications in the western United States. A single case study trial was performed in Appalachian forest conditions to assess the appropriateness of this technology for hardwood logging applications. The study focused on use of the rope in West Virginia...

  9. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain


    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  10. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers. (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G


    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  11. Oak Regeneration Guidelines for the Central Appalachians (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Peter J. Gould; Songlin Fei; Marc McDill


    This article presents the first explicit guidelines for regenerating oaks in the central Appalachians. The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the research foundation on which the guidelines are based and (2) to provide users with the instructions, data collection forms, supplementary tables, and decision charts needed to apply the guidelines in the field. The...

  12. Risk perception for diabetes in Appalachian women. (United States)

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet


    The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.

  13. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1979 Annual Report. (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    Narrative text, tables, maps, and photographs present an overview of the Appalachian Regional Commission's (ARC) activities in fiscal year 1979, past achievements, and future goals. Major accomplishments of 1979 include: utilization of the $233 million appropriation for highway construction; approval of over $143 million in ARC funds for 985…

  14. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions....... This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown...

  15. Restricting daily time at pasture at low and high pasture allowance: effects on pasture intake and behavioral adaptation of lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R


    In pasture-based dairy systems, daily time at pasture is restricted during several periods of the year. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of restricting time at pasture on milk yield, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows according to pasture allowance (PA), which partly defines pasture availability. The experiment was carried out in spring on strip-grazed perennial ryegrass pastures. The 6 treatments consisted of 3 durations of daily time at pasture [U: unrestricted day and night grazing (22 h at pasture); R9: 1 grazing session restricted to 9 h between the 2 milkings; R5: 2 grazing sessions of 2.75 h after each milking) compared at low and high PA (13 and 24 kg of DM/d per cow >5 cm, respectively). Eighteen mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were used according to a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square design replicated 3 times with four 14-d periods. Pasture DM intake was measured by the ytterbium-fecal index method and grazing behavior from portable devices. On average, restricting time at pasture from U to R (mean of R5 + R9) decreased pasture intake by 2.9 kg of DM, milk yield by 1.3 kg, and milk protein concentration by 0.11%, and increased milk fat concentration by 0.20%. Pasture intake and milk yield did not differ significantly between R9 and R5. The reduction of pasture intake and milk yield with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Grazing times were 536, 414, and 305 min, representing proportions of time spent grazing of 0.40, 0.77, and 0.93 for treatments U, R9, and R5, respectively. The reduction of grazing time with decreasing time at pasture was greater at high compared with low PA. Pasture intake rate greatly increased with decreasing time at pasture, but mainly on R5 (29.8, 31.6, and 42.1 g of DM/min for U, R9, and R5, respectively). The effect of time at pasture on pasture intake rate was unaffected by PA. In conclusion, the effect of restriction of time at pasture on

  16. GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx dataset was collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  17. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  18. Comparison of Pasture Vegetation in LFA Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Kecseiová


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare pasture vegetation in LFA areas located in two different altitudes. Pasture vegetation sampling was performed 1 month on two different farms (Těšov, Vlčí Jámy. The selected places were marked by three representative places at 10 m2. Dried samples were weighed and chemically analyzed by standard methods ÚKZÚZ.

  19. Diversidad zoológica asociada a un silvopastoreo leucaena-guinea con diferentes edades de establecimiento Zoological diversity associated to a silvopastural system leucaena-guinea grass with different establishment times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatnel Alonso Lazo


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad zoológica asociada a un silvopastoreo con leucaena-guinea, por medio de la caracterización de la composición y estructura de las aves, insectos y la macrofauna del suelo, en cuatro edades de establecimiento (3, 4, 5 y 6 años de explotación. Con las especies registradas en cada uno de estos grupos zoológicos, se calcularon los índices ecológicos: número de individuos, riqueza, diversidad y abundancia de especies, en diferentes edades del sistema. En todos los grupos, se apreció el aumento significativo en la riqueza de especies y en el índice de diversidad biológica de Shannon, en la medida que se desarrolló el sistema. Se observó incremento en la abundancia de insectos biorreguladores y, en relación con las aves, el horario de muestreo no mostró interacción con los distintos años de siembra. La macrofauna se incrementó, observándose dominancia de anélidos al 6º y 7º año de explotación, caracterizado por Polyferetrina elongata y Oligochaeta elegans. El desarrollo del silvopastoreo leucaena-guinea logra sistemas productivos pecuarios que aumentan la producción de biomasa y de otros componentes biológicos y contribuir para crear un sistema sostenible y compatible con el ambiente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the associated zoological diversity of a silvopastural system leucaena-guinea grass, by characterizing the composition and structures of the birds, insects and the macrofauna of the soil, in four establishment times of the silvopastural systems (3, 4, 5 and 6 years of exploitation. For the species recorded in each zoological group, the following ecological indices were determined: number of individuals, richness, diversity and abundance of species, in each establishment times of the system. A significant increase, in all the zoological groups, was observed for the richness of species and for the index of biological diversity of Shannon, as the system

  20. Conversion Disorder in an Appalachian Community. (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah; Holroyd, Suzanne


    Conversion disorder (CD) is believed to be the manifestation of physical and/or neurological symptoms for primary gain without an identifiable organic cause. Although it is believed to be more common in rural areas, the literature examining this claim is sparse. To our knowledge, no study has been published evaluating the prevalence of CD in a rural Appalachian population. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the prevalence of CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria in a rural Appalachian psychiatric consultation service and to compare this population with control patients from the same service. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed as having CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria on a psychiatric consultation service at a rural Appalachian academic medical center during a 13-month time period. For each case, two consecutive control patients were selected from the same service and time span. There were 21 cases and 42 controls in this study, with a CD prevalence rate of 6.0% (N = 21/351). Sociodemographic, comorbidity, and recent symptomatology data were obtained. Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse, seizure disorder, antiepileptic use, neurologic referral, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and history of CD. We found it interesting that fewer cases reported alcohol and drug use. The observed prevalence of 6.0% does not support the historical theory that CD is more prevalent in rural or lower socioeconomic populations. Our data add to the characterization of the Appalachian CD population.

  1. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents. (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana


    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  2. 7 CFR 1005.2 - Appalachian marketing area. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appalachian marketing area. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  3. Use and users of the Appalachian Trail: a geographic study (United States)

    Robert E. Manning; William Valliere; Jim Bacon; Alan Graefe; Gerard Kyle; Rita Hennessy


    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) is a public footpath that spans 2,160 miles of Appalachian Mountain ridgelines from Maine to Georgia. This paper describes the first comprehensive study of recreational use and users of the AT. The primary study method was a survey of visitors to the AT. The Trail was divided into 22 relatively homogeneous sections within four...

  4. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons


    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  5. The pasture-type approach for mountain pasture description and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti


    Full Text Available The study of pastoral resources can take different approaches with the main goal of characterizing pasture vegetation and its potential carrying capacity. In recent times, the pasture-type approach has been developed in several Alpine areas – on a regional and on a district scale – starting from sward surveys carried out taking the approach formerly developed by the French pastoral school. The pasture-type approach may play an important role in defining the management of mountain and marginal environments where grazing pressure reduction remarkably affects the agro-ecosystems functions (production, landscape, wildlife, recreation, etc.. This approach is based on the concept of pasture type, which could be defined as a semi-natural vegetation (mainly exploited by grazing animals, rather homogeneous in terms of botanic composition and influenced by environmental factors and agro-pastoral management. This paper presents the pasture-type approach by discussing the results of two large studies carried out in two areas of the south side of the Alps (Piedmont and Veneto. In order to identify pasture types, the vegetation composition was assessed with a point quadrat method. It allowed the computation of species-specific contribution, and of sward forage value and carrying capacity, after a multivariate statistical procedure for type classification and ordination. The site conditions (altitude, slope, aspect and other environmental variables were surveyed. Moreover, to characterize the pasture types from the point of view of the ecological and management factors affecting vegetation composition, the Landolt indicators were used. The results achieved in the two areas were synthesised and organised into reference technical tools with the aim of using the pasture-type approach for pastoral planning. For each study area an identification key to recognize pasture types was drafted, and a handbook containing the technical sheets for pasture type

  6. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture (United States)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.


    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  7. Diazotrophic Bacterial Community of Degraded Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Correia Oliveira


    Full Text Available Pasture degradation can cause changes in diazotrophic bacterial communities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the culturable and total diazotrophic bacterial community, associated with regions of the rhizosphere and roots of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures in different stages of degradation. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil were collected from slightly, partially, and highly degraded pastures. McCrady’s table was used to obtain the Most Probable Number (MPN of bacteria per gram of sample, in order to determine population density and calculate the Shannon-Weaver diversity index. The diversity of total diazotrophic bacterial community was determined by the technique of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the nifH gene, while the diversity of the culturable diazotrophic bacteria was determined by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (BOX-PCR technique. The increase in the degradation stage of the B. decumbens Stapf. pasture did not reduce the population density of the cultivated diazotrophic bacterial community, suggesting that the degradation at any degree of severity was highly harmful to the bacteria. The structure of the total diazotrophic bacterial community associated with B. decumbens Stapf. was altered by the pasture degradation stage, suggesting a high adaptive capacity of the bacteria to altered environments.

  8. Predicting the regeneration of Appalachian hardwoods: adapting the REGEN model for the Appalachian Plateau (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani


    The difficulty of achieving reliable oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration is well documented. Application of silvicultural techniques to facilitate oak regeneration largely depends on current regeneration potential. A computer model to assess regeneration potential based on existing advanced reproduction in Appalachian hardwoods was developed by David...

  9. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  10. Unpalatable plants facilitate tree sapling survival in wooded pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Ouden, den J.; Müller-Schärer, H.


    Summary 1. In endangered wooded pasture ecosystems established tree saplings are frequently found in spatial association with protective structures, suggesting nurse effects. This associational resistance is thought to be a driving force behind tree regeneration in wooded pastures. Experimental

  11. The management of pot experiments for fertility studies with pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of pot experiments for fertility studies with pasture crops. ... Discussions on soil preparation and potting procedure, rates and methods of nutrient addition, indicator crops and the ... species|pastures|crops|moisture gradients ...

  12. Carbon stocks and dynamics under improved tropical pasture and silvopastoral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.


    To evaluate the effect of land use change on soil organic carbon, the carbon contents and stocks of primary forest, degraded pasture, and four improved pasture systems in Colombian Amazonia were compared in a flat and a sloping landscape. The improved pastures were Brachiaria humidicola, and

  13. Monitoring the intake of pasture and concentrates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    was conducted to evaluate the potential of "excretal NIRS", a methodology that associates excretal spectral information in .... lucerne, respectively, and pasture intake was evaluated during the last two days of each grazing period ... excreta collection devices were coated with disposable diapers and were emptied every 6 h.

  14. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk. (United States)

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon


    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  15. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian


    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Romanian pastures are characterized by a multitude of functions that may be used for human benefit: food and habitat for animals, development of some connected activities (collection and processing of apicultural products, medicinal plants, etc., natural reservoir providing biodiversity for more than 70% of the plant species (the preservation of this may assure an important germplasm fund for the next cultivars, the most efficient method of soil protection against erosion, provider of unconventional energy, accomplishment of efficient biological cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and carbon dioxide (CO2, development of landscape tourism due to the plant and animal diversity that ennoble and beautify the environment. If only 60% of the permanent pasture area was used, with the application of minimal technological measures, it would provide the necessary food for at least 1.6 million cattle (57% of the current livestock and 12 million sheep and goats.

  17. Improvement of Selenium Status of Pasture Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel


    Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...

  18. Modeling and improving Ethiopian pasture systems (United States)

    Parisi, S. G.; Cola, G.; Gilioli, G.; Mariani, L.


    The production of pasture in Ethiopia was simulated by means of a dynamic model. Most of the country is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate with mild temperatures and precipitation mainly concentrated in the June-September period (main rainy season). The production model is driven by solar radiation and takes into account limitations due to relocation, maintenance respiration, conversion to final dry matter, temperature, water stress, and nutrients availability. The model also considers the senescence of grassland which strongly limits the nutritional value of grasses for livestock. The simulation for the 1982-2009 period, performed on gridded daily time series of rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature with a resolution of 0.5°, provided results comparable with values reported in literature. Yearly mean yield in Ethiopia ranged between 1.8 metric ton per hectare (t ha-1) (2002) and 2.6 t ha-1 (1989) of dry matter with values above 2.5 t ha-1 attained in 1983, 1985, 1989, and 2008. The Ethiopian territory has been subdivided in 1494 cells and a frequency distribution of the per-cell yearly mean pasture production has been obtained. This distribution ranges from 0 to 7 t ha-1 and it shows a right skewed distribution and a modal class between 1.5-2 t ha-1. Simulation carried out on long time series for this peculiar tropical environment give rise to as lot of results relevant by the agroecological point of view on space variability of pasture production, main limiting factors (solar radiation, precipitation, temperature), and relevant meteo-climatic cycles affecting pasture production (seasonal and inter yearly variability, ENSO). These results are useful to establish an agro-ecological zoning of the Ethiopian territory.

  19. Modeling and improving Ethiopian pasture systems (United States)

    Parisi, S. G.; Cola, G.; Gilioli, G.; Mariani, L.


    The production of pasture in Ethiopia was simulated by means of a dynamic model. Most of the country is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate with mild temperatures and precipitation mainly concentrated in the June-September period (main rainy season). The production model is driven by solar radiation and takes into account limitations due to relocation, maintenance respiration, conversion to final dry matter, temperature, water stress, and nutrients availability. The model also considers the senescence of grassland which strongly limits the nutritional value of grasses for livestock. The simulation for the 1982-2009 period, performed on gridded daily time series of rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature with a resolution of 0.5°, provided results comparable with values reported in literature. Yearly mean yield in Ethiopia ranged between 1.8 metric ton per hectare (t ha-1) (2002) and 2.6 t ha-1 (1989) of dry matter with values above 2.5 t ha-1 attained in 1983, 1985, 1989, and 2008. The Ethiopian territory has been subdivided in 1494 cells and a frequency distribution of the per-cell yearly mean pasture production has been obtained. This distribution ranges from 0 to 7 t ha-1 and it shows a right skewed distribution and a modal class between 1.5-2 t ha-1. Simulation carried out on long time series for this peculiar tropical environment give rise to as lot of results relevant by the agroecological point of view on space variability of pasture production, main limiting factors (solar radiation, precipitation, temperature), and relevant meteo-climatic cycles affecting pasture production (seasonal and inter yearly variability, ENSO). These results are useful to establish an agro-ecological zoning of the Ethiopian territory.

  20. Dropout and Functional Illiteracy Rates in Central Appalachia. Appalachian Data Bank Report #1. (United States)

    Crew, B. Keith; And Others

    Computerized analysis of 1980 Census data documented educational deficiencies in 85 Central Appalachian counties of Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Dropout rates among youth ages 16-19 were found to be higher in Central Appalachian counties than in non-Central Appalachian counties, the poorest counties had the highest dropout…

  1. Soil carbon under perennial pastures; benchmarking the influence of pasture age and management (United States)

    Orgill, Susan E.; Spoljaric, Nancy; Kelly, Georgina


    This paper reports baseline soil carbon stocks from a field survey of 19 sites; 8 pairs/triplet in the Monaro region of New South Wales. Site comparisons were selected by the Monaro Farming Systems group to demonstrate the influence of land management on soil carbon, and included: nutrient management, liming, pasture age and cropping history. Soil carbon stocks varied with parent material and with land management. The fertilised (phosphorus) native perennial pasture had a greater stock of soil carbon compared with the unfertilised site; 46.8 vs 40.4 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. However, the introduced perennial pasture which had been limed had a lower stock of soil carbon compared with the unlimed site; 62.8 vs 66.7 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. There was a greater stock of soil carbon under two of the three younger (35 yr old) pastures. Cropped sites did not have lower soil carbon stocks at all sites; however, this survey was conducted after three years of above average annual rainfall and most sites had been cropped for less than three years. At all sites more than 20% of the total carbon stock to 0.50 m was in the 0.30 to 0.50 m soil layer highlighting the importance of considering this soil layer when investigating the implications of land management on soil carbon. Our baseline data indicates that nutrient management may increase soil carbon under perennial pastures and highlights the importance of perennial pastures for soil carbon sequestration regardless of age.

  2. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn


    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  3. American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) Perspective of Alternative Poultry Production Practices (United States)

    The American Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA) is a nonprofit educational and networking organization dedicated to encouraging the production, processing, and marketing of poultry raised on pasture, and is the largest industry group focused on pastured poultry. APPPA passionately embr...

  4. Aspects of a two-pasture — herbivore model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åge Riseth


    Full Text Available Pastures for reindeer can be divided into green pastures (mainly herbs and grasses of summer time and more or less snow-covered lichen pastures of winter. Fall and spring pastures have a composition in-between these extremes, but for model purposes bisection is sufficient. For the animals the green-pasture season is an anabolic phase with a physiological building-up of protein reserves, while winter is a catabolic phase where food-intake is reduced and the animals to a considerable extent survive on the accumulated reserves from summer. While protein reserves are stored from summer to winter, lichen pastures are stored from year to year. Grasses and herbs not being grazed are wilting by the end of the growing season, while lichens not grazed can live for many years. This corresponds with fundamental differences in both growth pattern and resilience. The implications of the different features, and their interconnections, are not easy to survey without formal modeling. The point of departure is a simple pasture-herbivore model, well known from the literature building on a set of differential equations. A new two-pasture-herbivore model is developed. The model includes as basic elements the Klein (1968 hypothesis and that a residual lichen biomass is kept ungrazed due to snow-cover protection. Further the annual cycle is divided into four stylized seasons with herd rates of winter survival, spring calving, summer physiological growth and fall slaughtering. Isoclines are derived for summer pasture, winter pasture and herbivores. Stability properties are discussed in relation to various situations of seasonal pasture balance. Empirical examples, particularly that of changes in pasture balance and vegetation cover in Western Finnmark, Norway, are discussed. The article finds that the two-pasture model provides important features of reality, such as the stability aspects of pasture balance, which cannot be displayed by a one-pasture model. It is

  5. Struggling for Water and Pastures in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie

    inform natural resource struggles on the ground and reveals that points of contest between universalism and cultural relativism in regard to property, public authority and justice are reflected in both national legislation and in international development practices. On the basis of a sensitive study...... of struggles over water and pastures in Diffa, Signe Marie Cold-Ravnkilde accounts for the outcome of conflict and cooperation and explains why herders, like people in other cultures, conceive of their rights in a contradictory manner: as requiring adoption to cultural specific conditions and yet applies...

  6. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  7. Study seeks to boost Appalachian gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.


    Ashland Exploration Inc. and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are trying to find ways to increase gas recovery in the Appalachian basin. They are working together to investigate Mississippian Berea sandstone and Devonian shale in a program designed to achieve better understanding and improved performance of tight natural gas formations in the area. This paper reports that three wells on Ashland Exploration acreage in Pike County, Ky., are involved in the research program. Findings from the first two wells will be used to optimize evaluation and completion of the third well. The first two wells have been drilled. Drilling of the third well was under way at last report. Ashland Exploration has been involved with GRI's Devonian shale research since 1988. GRI's initial focus was on well stimulation because Devonian shale wells it reviewed had much lower recoveries than could be expected, based on estimated gas in place. Research during the past few years was designed to improve the execution and quality control of well stimulation

  8. Complex contaminant mixtures in multistressor Appalachian riverscapes. (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P; Maxwell, Aaron E; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F


    Runoff from watersheds altered by mountaintop mining in the Appalachian region (USA) is known to pollute headwater streams, yet regional-scale assessments of water quality have focused on salinization and selenium. The authors conducted a comprehensive survey of inorganic contaminants found in 170 stream segments distributed across a spectrum of historic and contemporary human land use. Principal component analysis identified 3 important dimensions of variation in water chemistry that were significantly correlated with contemporary surface mining (principal component 1: elevated dominant ions, sulfate, alkalinity, and selenium), coal geology and legacy mines (principal component 2: elevated trace metals), and residential development (principal component 3: elevated sodium and chloride). The combination of these 3 dominant sources of pollutants produced a complex stream-to-stream patchwork of contaminant mixtures. Seventy-five percent of headwater streams (catchments  5 km(2) ) were classified as having reference chemistries, and chemistries indicative of combined mining and development contaminants accounted for 47% of larger streams (compared with 26% of headwater streams). Extreme degradation of larger streams can be attributed to accumulation of contaminants from multiple human land use activities that include contemporary mountaintop mining, underground mining, abandoned mines, and untreated domestic wastewater. Consequently, water quality improvements in this region will require a multicontaminant remediation approach. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Community strategies to address cancer disparities in Appalachian Kentucky. (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Fields, Nell


    Central Appalachian residents suffer disproportionate health disparities, including an all-cancer mortality rate 17% higher than the general population. During 10 focus groups and 19 key informant interviews, 91 Appalachian residents identified cancer screening challenges and strategies. Challenges included (1) inadequate awareness of screening need, (2) insufficient access to screening, and (3) lack of privacy. Strategies included (1) witnessing/storytelling, (2) capitalizing on family history, (3) improving publicity about screening resources, (4) relying on lay health advisors, and (5) bundling preventive services. These insights shaped our community-based participatory research intervention and offered strategies to others working in Appalachia, rural locales, and other traditionally underserved communities.

  10. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  11. Productivity, botanical composition, and nutritive value of commercial pasture mixtures (United States)

    Pastures in the northeastern USA often are planted to mixtures of grasses and legumes. There is limited public sector information on the performance of commercial forage mixtures. We evaluated a range of commercial pasture mixtures to determine if the number of species in a mixture affected yield an...

  12. The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market-related beef production from semi-arid rangeland. ... Abstract. Rangeland condition is a decisive factor in determining the income/cost ratio of production hence in the profitability of any beef production enterprise. Cultivated pastures can play an important role in ...

  13. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  14. Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the southern Cape coastal region of naturalized rhizobia nodulating the strain specific Medicago ... The significance of naturalized strains of M. polymorpha in the production of medic pastures in some soils of the southern Cape coastal region is discussed.

  15. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures (United States)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  16. Biometrical applications in tropical pasture and agro-pastoral research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amézquita, M.C.


    "Biometrical Applications in Tropical Pasture and Agro-pastoral Research" illustrates, through selected Case Studies, the contribution of Biometry to pasture and agro-pastoral research in Tropical Latin America ( TLA ) in the last

  17. Development of Botanical Composition in Maribaya Pasture, Brebes, Central Java (United States)

    Umami, N.; Ngadiyono, N.; Panjono; Agus, F. N.; Shirothul, H. M.; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Hendrawati, Y.; Subroto, I.


    The research was aimed to observe the development of botanical composition in Maribaya pastures. The sampling method was cluster random sampling. The observed variables were the type of forages and the botanical composition in the pasture. Botanical composition was measured by using Line Intercept method and the production was measured by the estimation of botany production for each square meter using its dry matter measurement. The botani sampling was performed using square with size of 1×1 m2. The observation was performed before the pasture made (at 2015) and after the pasture made (at 2017). Based on the research result, it was found that there was significant difference between the forage type in the pasture at 2015 and at 2017. It happens due to the adjustment for the Jabres cattle feed.

  18. Sawlog sizes: a comparison in two Appalachian areas (United States)

    Curtis D. Goho; A. Jeff Martin


    Frequency distributions of log diameter and length were prepared for eight Appalachian hardwood species. Data obtained in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, were compared with information collected previously from West Virginia and New England. With the exception of red oak, significant regional differences were found.

  19. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin


    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  20. Taper and volume equations for selected Appalachian hardwood species (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin


    Coefficients for five taper/volume models are developed for 18 Appalachian hardwood species. Each model can be used to estimate diameter at any point on the bole, height to any preselected diameter, and cubic-foot volume between any two points on the bole. The resulting equations were tested on six sets of independent data and an evaluation of these tests is included,...

  1. Fuels management in the southern Appalachian Mountains, hot continental division (United States)

    Matthew J. Reilly; Thomas A. Waldrop; Joseph J. O’Brien


    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, Hot Continental Mountains Division, M220 (McNab and others 2007) are a topographically and biologically complex area with over 10 million ha of forested land, where complex environmental gradients have resulted in a great diversity of forest types. Abundant moisture and a long, warm growing season support high levels of productivity...

  2. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods (United States)

    Shortridge, Barbara G.


    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  3. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma


    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  4. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller


    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  5. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.


    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  6. Seismological Constraints on Lithospheric Evolution in the Appalachian Orogen (United States)

    Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.; Hawman, R. B.; Wagner, L. S.


    Crust and mantle structures beneath the Appalachian orogen, recently resolved by seismic data from the EarthScope SESAME Flexible Array and Transportable Array, provide new constraints on the scale and style of the Appalachian collision and subsequent lithospheric evolution. In the southern Appalachians, imaging with Sp and Ps phases reveals the final (Alleghanian) suture between the crusts of Laurentia and the Gondwanan Suwannee terrane as a low angle (Kellogg, 2017) isostatic arguments indicate crustal thicknesses were 15-25 km larger at the end of the orogeny, indicating a thick crustal root across the region. The present-day residual crustal root beneath the Blue Ridge mountains is estimated to have a density contrast with the mantle of only 104±20 kg/m3. This value is comparable to other old orogens but lower than values typical of young or active orogens, indicating a loss of lower crustal buoyancy over time. At mantle depths, the negative shear velocity gradient that marks the transition from lithosphere to asthenosphere, as illuminated by Sp phases, varies across the Appalachian orogen. This boundary is shallow beneath the northeastern U.S. and in the zone of Eocene volcanism in Virginia, where low velocity anomalies occur in the upper mantle. These correlations suggest recent active lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction.

  7. Population characteristics of a central Appalachian white tailed deer herd (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller


    Reliable estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population parameters are needed for effective population management. We used radiotelemetrv to compare survival and cause-specific mortality rates between male and female white-tailed deer and present reproductive data for a high-density deer herd in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during...

  8. Seed bank response to prescribed fire in the central Appalachians. (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas Van-Gundy; Mary B. Adams; W. Mark. Ford


    Pre- and post-treatment seed-bank characteristics of woody species were compared after two prescribed fires in a mesic mixed-oak forest in the central Appalachians. Nineteen woody species were identified from soil samples. Mean species richness declined but evenness did not after prescribed burning. The...

  9. Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians (United States)

    John M. Giuliano Tirpak; C. Allan Miller; Thomas J. Allen; Steve Bittner; David A. Buehler; John W. Edwards; Craig A. Harper; William K. Igo; Gary W. Norman; M. Seamster; Dean F. Stauffer


    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa urnbellus; hereafter grouse) populations in the central and southern Appalachians are in decline. However, limited information on the dynamics of these populations prevents the development of effective management strategies to reverse these trends. We used radiotelemetry data collected on grouse to parameterize 6 models of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Wilson da Silva


    Full Text Available In this review, we addressed issues that permeate discussions related to some factors to consider about milk production on pasture, since the viability of milk production on pasture until the nutritional value of pasture for dairy cows. Analyze the theme of milk production on pasture and how it is inserted within the perspective of the viability of exploiting the cattle dairy pastures in Brazil is the objective of this work. In general, it was observed that the responses of production with grazing animals are conditioned on the rational use of pasture, so this factor of production represents an economical feed source for livestock destined for milk production. For that, it is evident the need to use land intensively, in order to obtain forage quantity and quality necessary to fully meet the nutritional needs of cows, lactating or not. It was observed in this study the great demand for information on pasture as a resource for the production of milk, which justifies this work. It was concluded that grazing managed properly represent a viable, low cost, animal nutrition in the production of bovine milk.

  11. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows. (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm


    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard


    Walking whilst defaecating was most likely to occur when cows were simultaneously engaged in an ‘active’ state, such as going to drink or catching up with the herd. Overall, standing to defaecate and moving forward...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... within 30 s of an eliminative event. Intentional, incidental or no avoidance of faeces was also recorded for each event. Activity, characterised as static (lying, grazing or loafing), or active (moving to a different area of field, going to drink and catching up with herd) was also recorded. Of the 437...

  13. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy supplies over much of the last three centuries. Appalachian coal and petroleum resources are still available in sufficient quantities to contribute significantly to fulfilling the Nation’s energy needs. Although both conventional oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  14. Nutrition of intensive pastures in the summer rainfall areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Fertilizer nitrogen sources; Fertilizers; Grasses; Legumes; Lime; Nitrogen application responses; Phosphorous; Potassium; Soil acidity; cutting; fertilizer; grass; grazing; legume; minerals; nitrogen; persistence; phosphorus; productivity; soil test calibrations; utilization; soils; nutrition; pastures; summer rainfall area; ...

  15. Nitrogen uptake into unfertilized pasture of the Willem Pretorius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen uptake into unfertilized pasture of the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve, ... The herbage yield of five main types of grassland in the Willem Pretorius Game Reserve was measured by clipping five 0, 5 m ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Short Communication: Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, F.M. Jr.; Carneiro, R.F.V.; Leite, L.F.C.; Araujo, A.S.F.


    The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality. (Author)

  17. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  18. Planning countermeasures on pasture-milk pathway in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kanyar, B.; Kis, Z.


    The pasture → milk → human exposure pathway was modelled with respect to the countermeasures in a nuclear emergency situation. The measures included feed and milk substitution by non-contaminated material, and cost-benefit analysis and uncertainty analysis was performed. Comparison of the maximum benefit of the two kinds of intervention suggests that feed substitution is superior to milk substitution. The duration of the pasture substitution depends strongly on the initial concentration of iodine-131 in the pasture. For relatively low values of activity concentration, the optimum date of withdrawing the intervention increases linearly with the logarithm of the initial radionuclide concentration in the pasture, the maximum value, however, takes nearly 40 days. For milk or feed substitution, the effect of the excess cost of early intervention reduces the maximum value of the cost-benefit function. (P.A.)

  19. Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture for sheep. 1. Seasonal .... obtained by laboratory work, using in vitro techniques. (Engels et al. .... model that was used to explain 92,3% of the variance in. IVDOM content.

  20. About climate changes impact on the Kazakhstan pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.V.; Belenkova, Z.S.; Turbacheva, T.P.


    Assessment of arid pastures vulnerability situated under direct influence of regional climate change related with greenhouse effect is carried out on Northern Aral Sea area as example. Climate change variants calculated with future prospects for on Kazakhstan territory with use up-to-date models of GFDL (USA), CCCM (Canada) climate theory are used. Number of protective measures are proposed for mitigation of consequences of possible vulnerability of pastures during simultaneous impact of complex of anthropogenic and natural factors. (author)

  1. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrovsky


    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  2. Transfer of cesium-137 from pasture to milk after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, G.; Johansson, K.J.; Bertilsson, J.


    During 1986, the year of the Chernobyl accident, the Cs-137 activity concentration in the milk and pasture of some dairy farms in the northern part of the county of Uppsala was studied. In 1987, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was investigated on 11 dairy farms in the northern part of the county during the first month on pasture. These farms had been studied also during a previous period when the cows were kept in the stable. In 1988, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was followed intensively on 5 dairy farms in the same area during the first month on pasture. The Cs-137 activity concentration was measured continuously in feeds and milk during the study periods in 1987 and 1988. All feedstuffs fed in the stable were weighed twice a week, and the amount of forage grazed was calculated from the cows requirements of nutrients. Samples of all feed were taken for Cs-137 determination and chemical analyses. The transfer coefficient for 10 of the 11 dairy farms during the first month on pasture in 1987 was, on average, 0.005 d kg -1 . The Cs-137 activity concentration was significantly lower in the milk of the farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 than during the same period in 1987. The mean transfer coefficient for 4 of the 5 dairy farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 was 0.007 d kg -1 . (au) (27 refs.)

  3. Contamination of pasture by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio


    The reassessment of the experimental data on the transfer of iodine to aerial parts of rye-gras leads to the following significant findings: 1 - Water content of herbage depending markedly on time and location, the contamination of the vegetals has to be expressed on a dry weight basis. 2 - The value of the geometrical mean of the deposition velocity of iodine vapour as derived from 19 experiments carried out over 4 years is 0.76 cm/s. This value agrees very well with the value of V(d)=0.80 obtained in the USA during experiments comparable as to the number of tests and their duration. Consequently we propose a value of V(d)=0.76 cm/s for the evaluation of pasture land contamination by iodine resulting from routine releases. For accidental releases, however, we propose a value of V(d)=2 cm/s, which was the upper limit in about 90% of our experimental results. 3 - The analysis of data on wet deposition of iodine on the aerial parts of rye-grass shows that the initial retention when expressed as percent of the total deposit decreases with aspersion intensities. If expressed as retention factor, the initial retention is constant, for all aspersion intensities. The average initial iodine retention being lower by a factor of 2.3 than water retention the value of the latter will therefore be the upper limit for this radionuclide [fr

  4. Summertime elevation of radon in southern Appalachian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wilson, D.L.


    For houses in particular countries of the southern Appalachians, the atypical situation arises of higher indoor levels of radon during summertime rather than wintertime. Where such conditions prevail, it is recommended that houses be screened for elevated radon during warmer rather than colder seasons of the year. This paper discusses the materials and methods used for the screening, the results and conclusions, and presents some recommendations. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Correlation of Crustal Structures and Seismicity Patterns in Northern Appalachians (United States)

    Yang, X.; Gao, H.


    The earthquake distributions in northern Appalachians are bounded by major geologically-defined terrane boundaries. There is a distinct seismic gap within Taconic Belt between the Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) to the west and the seismically active Ganderia terrane to the east. It is not clear, however, what crustal structures control the characteristics of earthquake clustering in this region. Here we present a newly constructed crustal shear velocity model for the northern Appalachians using Rayleigh wave data extracted from ambient noises. Our tomographic model reveals strongly heterogeneous seismic structures in the crust. We observe multiple NW-dipping patches of high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the southeastern WQSZ. The upper crust shear velocities in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are generally lower than those beneath the WQSZ. The middle crust has relatively lower velocities in the study area. The earthquakes in the study area are constrained within the upper crust. Most of the earthquake hypocenters within the WQSZ are concentrated along the NW-dipping boundaries separating the high-velocity anomalies. In contrast, most of the earthquake hypocenters in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are diffusely distributed without clear vertical lineaments. The orientations of maximum compressive stresses change from W-E in the Ganderia and Avalonia region to SW-NE in the WQSZ. The contrasts in seismicity, velocity, and stress field across the Taconic Belt indicate that the Taconic Belt terrane may act as a seismically inactive buffer zone in northern Appalachians.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Torres-Rivera


    Full Text Available It was compared the amount of carbon (C sequestered in a pasture with trees (P+Ar and in conventional treeless pastures (P and deciduous forest (BC, typical of the region of Huatusco, Veracruz, Mexico. Total C sequestered by the systems evaluated was 49.9, 63.0 and 469.8 ton ha-1 for P, P+Ar and BC, respectively. The system with the highest amount of C sequestered was BC, with almost equal proportions in the aerial (268.4 ton ha-1 and belowground parts (201.4 ton ha-1. The amount of C sequestered in the livestock systems represented about one tenth of that sequestered in BC, being higher the proportion obtained in P+Ar (13.4 % compared to P (10.6 %. In both livestock systems, a significantly greater amount of C was sequestered in the soil organic matter than in the aerial biomass, with 59.7 and 3.29 ton ha-1 in P+Ar, and with 48.2 and 1.78 ton ha-1 in P, respectively. It is expected that as trees of the P+Ar system gain volume, C sequestration will increase, especially in the aerial biomass.

  7. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor


    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  8. 75 FR 82146 - Appalachian Community Bank, FSB, McCaysville, GA, Notice of Appointment of Receiver (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Appalachian Community Bank, FSB... contained in section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Appalachian Community Bank, FSB...

  9. The Role of Language in Interactions with Others on Campus for Rural Appalachian College Students (United States)

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.


    Dialects of English spoken in rural, Southern Appalachia are heavily stigmatized in mainstream American culture, and speakers of Appalachian dialects are often subject to prejudice and stereotypes which can be detrimental in educational settings. We explored the experiences of rural, Southern Appalachian college students and the role speaking a…

  10. Chapter 11: Reforestation to enhance Appalachian mined lands as habitat for terrestrial wildlife (United States)

    Petra Wood; Jeff Larkin; Jeremy Mizel; Carl Zipper; Patrick Angel


    Surface mining is widespread throughout the Appalachian coalfields, a region with extensive forests that are rich in wildlife. Game species for hunting, nongame wildlife species, and other organisms are important contributors to sustainable and productive ecosystems. Although small breaks in the forest canopy are important to wildlife diversity, most native Appalachian...

  11. Conservation and Environmental Education in Southern Appalachian Schools. A Report of a Needs Assessment. (United States)

    Bousquet, Woodward S.; Jarvis, Ralph W.

    An assessment of conservation and environmental education needs in southern Appalachian schools is provided in this survey. Superintendents of school districts and teachers within the southern Appalachian region responded to a questionnaire which was designed to determine: (1) the current status of conservation and environmental education; (2)…

  12. State Appalachian Development Plans and Investment Programs for Fiscal Year 1980. ABSTRACTS. (United States)

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), established by Congress in 1965 as a means of relieving the chronic economic and social distresses of the Appalachian region, is composed of the governors of the 13 states that comprise Appalachia. Local development plans, based upon needs and priorities, are presented to ARC every year by the governor of…

  13. Distribution of Diverse Escherichia coli between Cattle and Pasture. (United States)

    NandaKafle, Gitanjali; Seale, Tarren; Flint, Toby; Nepal, Madhav; Venter, Stephanus N; Brözel, Volker S


    Escherichia coli is widely considered to not survive for extended periods outside the intestines of warm-blooded animals; however, recent studies demonstrated that E. coli strains maintain populations in soil and water without any known fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the niche partitioning of E. coli occurs between cattle and their pasture. We attempted to clarify whether E. coli from bovine feces differs phenotypically and genotypically from isolates maintaining a population in pasture soil over winter. Soil, bovine fecal, and run-off samples were collected before and after the introduction of cattle to the pasture. Isolates (363) were genotyped by uidA and mutS sequences and phylogrouping, and evaluated for curli formation (Rough, Dry, And Red, or RDAR). Three types of clusters emerged, viz. bovine-associated, clusters devoid of cattle isolates and representing isolates endemic to the pasture environment, and clusters with both. All isolates clustered with strains of E. coli sensu stricto, distinct from the cryptic species Clades I, III, IV, and V. Pasture soil endemic and bovine fecal populations had very different phylogroup distributions, indicating niche partitioning. The soil endemic population was largely comprised of phylogroup B1 and had a higher average RDAR score than other isolates. These results indicate the existence of environmental E. coli strains that are phylogenetically distinct from bovine fecal isolates, and that have the ability to maintain populations in the soil environment.

  14. Solar radiation in forest and pasture areas in the Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, J.R.P.; Costa, R.F. da; Fisch, G.; Souza, S.S. de; Nobre, C.A.


    The average daytime behavior of the global incident radiation (Rg) over grassland (NS) and forest (RJ) in Rondonia State during dry and wet seasons were analyzed. The data set originated from the ABRACOS Project’s automatic meteorological stations in years 1992 through 1996. Results showed that incident radiation is smaller in pasture than in forest (17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 pasture versus 18.3M Jm -2 dia -1 forest) during the dry season. In the wet season, incident radiation is smaller than dry season, with 16.9MJ m -2 dia -1 for pasture and 17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 for forest. Atmospheric transmittance in pasture was smaller than forest (0.58 versus 0.66) in the dry season. This difference is equivalent a reduction of 2.8M Jm -2 dia -1 in the surface incident radiation. In the wet season the transmittances were 0.52 for the pasture and 0.50 for the forest. (author) [pt

  15. Desmodium: A low-cost pasture for the eastern Cape coastal region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Animal production; Beef production; botany; Desmodium intortum; dryland; east london; Eastern Cape; economic evaluation; fertilizer; grasses; gross margin; Growth requirements; livestock; Management; maximum production; pasture; Pastures; Production costs; south africa; star grass; stocking rate; stocking ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima


    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  17. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.


    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PASTURE ffPROVEMENT POSSIBILTTIES IN EFFECTIVE AI{IMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. P. de V. Booysen. University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban. (Key words: .... inherent in biotic simplification is the danger of increased susceptibility of the abiotic component to degradation. So as the agriculturalist ...

  19. Planning pastures: taking species attributes to the landscape (United States)

    Winter hardiness limits the use of the productive forage grass perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the northeastern United States. Both efforts to breed more cold-tolerant varieties and the changing climate increase the potential of this grass in pastures. Growth chamber studies of thirteen co...

  20. Nutritive value of Medicago truncatula (ev. Jemalong) as pasture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indication of total feacal output in white tailed deer. J. Range Mgmt. 30,61. RUSSEL, AJ.F., 1984. Means of assessing the adequacy of nutrition in pregnant ewes. Livest. Prod. Sci. 11,429. SMITH, A.M. & REID, J.T., 1955. Use of chromic oxide as an indicator of feacal output for the purpose of determining the intake of pasture.

  1. Survival and development of chicken ascarid eggs in temperate pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt


    Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil...

  2. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock) (United States)


    ..., who suggested an intake level that would be attainable on productive pastures of farming operations in... animals.'' Most types or species of livestock animals (beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats..., goats, swine, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fiber, feed, or other...

  3. Tiller diversity on Brachiaria decumbens pasture managed under continuos stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos


    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out aiming to classify and quantify tiller categories of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk from different heights found on the same pasture. Four different plant heights (10; 20; 30 and 40 cm living at the same pasture were evaluated. Randomized block design with three replications was used. Tillers were classified according to their stage of development, growth origin, defoliation level and size. The number of vegetative tillers reduced linearly, while the number of reproductive tillers and dead tillers increased linearly according to the plant height. The number of aerial tillers showed a quadratic response in relation to the plant height. The pastures having grasses of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm in height had respectively 292, 408, 496 and 344 aerial tillers/m2. The population density of defoliated tillers reduced linearly according to the plant height. The population density of tillers without the apical shoot showed quadratic response to the signal grass height, being the smallest values found for places having grasses of 10 cm (176 tillers/m2 and 40 cm (180 tillers/m2 in height. The number of tillers without defoliation quadratic responded to the plant height, being the highest values found for places having grasses extremely high. The areas with the highest grasses also showed the highest numbers of tallest tillers. There is indeed a spatial variability of the vegetation and a high morphological diversity of tillers on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures managed under the continuous stocking system.

  4. Alfalfa and pastures: sources of pests or generalist natural enemies? (United States)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine and almond leaf scorch disease are both caused by the bacterial pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. In the Central Valley of California, the green sharpshooter is the most common vector of X. fastidiosa. As alfalfa fields and pastures are considered source habitats for green s...

  5. Managing cultivated pastures for improving soil quality in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are concerns that soils under pastures in certain regions of South Africa are degrading as a result of mismanagement, which include practising continuous tillage, improper grazing management, injudicious application of fertilisers and poor irrigation management. Soil quality indicators, which include physical, ...

  6. Surface - atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.


    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.
    Ammonia exchange


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in the total annual livemass per hectare can be achieved by ... the specific component of the animal production system and the ... native grassland through the application of fertilizen ... By comparison. maintenance costs are low (ca ... this principle is as follows: .... a grass pasture in the sarne productive condition.

  8. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  9. Soil quality effects on regeneration of annual Medicago pastures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual medic (Medicago spp.) pastures are widely used as the forage component of crop rotation systems in the Mediterranean region of South Africa. Reliable establishment of medics can be challenging. This may be related to poor soil quality, an inherent problem of soils in the region often aggravated by poor ...

  10. Transpiration efficiency of three Mediterranean annual pasture species and wheat. (United States)

    Bolger, T P; Turner, N C


    Attempts to improve water use efficiency in regions with Mediterranean climates generally focus on increasing plant transpiration relative to evaporation from the soil and increasing transpiration efficiency. Our aim was to determine if transpiration efficiency differs among key species occurring in annual pastures in southern Australia. Two glasshouse experiments were conducted with three key pasture species, subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), capeweed [Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns] and annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Transpiration efficiency was assessed at the levels of␣whole-plant biomass and water use (W), leaf gas exchange measurements of the ratio of CO 2 assimilation to leaf conductance to water vapour (A/g), and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in leaf tissue. In addition, Δ was measured on shoots of the three pasture species growing together in the field. In the glasshouse studies, annual ryegrass had a consistently higher transpiration efficiency than subterranean clover or capeweed by all methods of measurement. Subterranean clover and capeweed had similar transpiration efficiencies by all three methods of measurement. Wheat had W values similar to ryegrass but A/g and Δ values similar to subterranean clover or capeweed. The high W of annual ryegrass seems to be related to a conservative leaf gas exchange behaviour, with lower assimilation and conductance but higher A/g than for the other species. In contrast to the glasshouse results, the three pasture species had similar Δ values when growing together in mixed-species swards in the field. Reasons for these differing responses between glasshouse and field-grown plants are discussed in terms of the implications for improving the transpiration efficiency of mixed-species annual pasture communities in the field.

  11. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; White, R.E.; Chen, D.


    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017 (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Dulong, Frank T.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  13. Comparisons of Spatial Predictions of Conductivity on a Stream Network in an Appalachian Watershed (United States)

    We made spatial predictions of specific conductance based on spatial stream network (SSN) modeling to compare conductivity measurements of components of the network, such as headwaters, tributaries, and mainstem, which have different spatial extents in a study Appalachian watersh...

  14. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report) (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate g...

  15. Two countries, one forest: Working beyond political boundaries in the Northern Appalachian/Acadian Forest (United States)

    James Sullivan


    Two Countries, One Forest (2C1Forest) is a collaboration of conservation organizations and researchers committed to the long-term ecological health of the Northern Appalachian/ Acadian ecoregion of the United States and Canada.

  16. An Appalachian portrait : black and white in Montgomery County, Virginia, before the Civil War


    Grant, Charles L.


    Montgomery County, Virginia, is a southern Appalachian county founded in 1776. Throughout the county's antebellum history, as with most other regions of the South, four major population groups were visibly present. There were slaves, free blacks, white slaveowners, and white non-slaveowners. Little research has previously been conducted on the antebellum people of the Appalachian South. This work is a social history consisting of cross tabulations of data found in the county...

  17. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia. (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent


    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr -1 . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha -1 ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha -1 ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha -1  yr -1 while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Timing of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization: Relation to Appalachian orogenic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; van der Pluijm, B.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))


    Although Mississippi Valley-type deposits in Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks of the Appalachian orogen are commonly interpreted to have been precipitated by basinal brines, the timing of brine migration remains poorly known. Late Paleozoic K-Ar isotopic ages on authigenic K-feldspar, which is widespread in Appalachian carbonate rocks, as well as evidence of paleomagnetic overprints of similar age, have focused attention on the possibility that these Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed as a result of late Paleozoic deformation. Geologic and geochemical similarities among most of these deposits, from Georgia to Newfoundland, including unusually high sphalerite/galena ratios, isotopically heavy sulfur, and relatively nonradiogenic lead, suggest that they are coeval. Sphalerite sand that parallels host-rock layering in many of the deposits indicates that mineralization occurred before regional deformation. Although the late Paleozoic age of deformation in the southern Appalachians provides little constraint on the age of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, deformation of these deposits in the Newfoundland Appalachians is early to middle Paleozoic in age. Thus, if Ordovician-hosted, Appalachian Mississippi Valley-type deposits are coeval, they must have formed by middle Paleozoic time and cannot be the product of a late Paleozoic fluid-expulsion event. This hypothesis has important implications for basin evolution, fluid events, and remagnetization in the Appalachians.

  19. Rumen conditions that predispose cattle to pasture bloat. (United States)

    Majak, W; Howarth, R E; Cheng, K J; Hall, J W


    Rumen contents from the dorsal sac were examined before alfalfa ingestion to determine factors that predispose cattle to pasture bloat. Chlorophyll concentration, buoyancy of particulate matter, and rates of gas production were significantly higher in cattle that subsequently bloated than in those that did not. Higher chlorophyll in bloat cases indicated accumulation of suspended chloroplast particles in the dorsal sac, perhaps due to increased buoyancy of the particulate matter. The higher fermentation rates (in the presence of glucose) suggested that the latent capacity for gas production was due to microbial colonization of suspended feed particles. Chlorophyll 4 h after feeding was also higher in bloated as compared to unbloated animals. In short, the microbial colonization and retention of particulate matter provided active inocula for promoting rapid legume digestion. Consequently, gas production was enhanced when feeding commenced, but the fermentation gases were trapped by the buoyant, frothy ingesta, resulting in the condition of pasture bloat.

  20. Pasture cows nutrition in submounteens condition in Sumava region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Quality of from meadow and grazing herbage were evaluated. Dry matter, crude protein, ash, fat and fibre were analyzed. Herbage sampling was realized on three pastures of cattle with higher altitudes. Grass and herbage are the most natural and optimal feedstuff for cattle in fresh and as silage feed. Grazing management should notably regulate the pasture composition, i.e. support dominance of soft stoloniserous strains of grasses and decrease occurrence of weed and less value strain of gramineous grasses.The impact of grazing on milk performance and health of dairy cows was surveyed on sub-mountain farms. The higher milk, fat and protein yields were found in grazing season in comparison with winter confinement period.

  1. Milk production and in sacco disappearance of pasture NDF in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding low (2.4 kg/d), medium (4.8 kg/d) and high (7.2 kg/d) levels of a barley-based concentrate on milk production and in sacco ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in Jersey cows grazing a Westerwold ryegrass pasture.

  2. Dairy farming: indoor v. pasture-based feeding




    The current situation of volatile milk prices and rising costs of, e.g. grain and labour, suggests that it is worth studying productivity and efficiency in dairy farming. The objective of the current whole-system study, carried out in lowland Central Switzerland from 2007 to 2010, was to compare the performance, efficiency, land productivity and profitability of indoor-feeding (IF) dairy production with that of pasture-based feeding (PF) dairy production. An IF herd consisting of 11 Holstein-...

  3. Distribution of Diverse Escherichia coli between Cattle and Pasture


    NandaKafle, Gitanjali; Seale, Tarren; Flint, Toby; Nepal, Madhav; Venter, Stephanus N.; Brözel, Volker S.


    Escherichia coli is widely considered to not survive for extended periods outside the intestines of warm-blooded animals; however, recent studies demonstrated that E. coli strains maintain populations in soil and water without any known fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the niche partitioning of E. coli occurs between cattle and their pasture. We attempted to clarify whether E. coli from bovine feces differs phenotypically and genotypically from isola...

  4. Predicting the Diffusion of Improved Pastures in Uruguay


    Lovell S. Jarvis


    Research suggests the logistic curve is the characteristic diffusion path for new technologies. Econometric analysis of fertilized grass-legume pastures in Uruguay indicated that their diffusion during the first years following introduction also followed a logistic path. Some departure from a simple logistic shape was explained by including beef and fertilizer prices within the diffusion framework. Both the rate and limit of diffusion were positively related to changes in the technology's pro...

  5. Social isolation and cognitive function in Appalachian older adults. (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Wu, Bei; Scogin, Forrest


    Investigating the relation between social isolation and cognitive function will allow us to identify components to incorporate into cognitive interventions. Data were collected from 267 Appalachian older adults (M = 78.5, range 70-94 years). Overall cognitive functioning and specific cognitive domains were assessed from data of a self-assembled neuropsychological battery of frequently used tasks. Social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation were measured from the Lubben Social Network scale-6. Results indicated a significant positive association between all predictor variables (e.g., social isolation, social disconnectedness, and perceived isolation) and outcome variables (e.g., overall cognitive function, memory, executive functioning, attention, and language abilities). Perceived isolation accounted for nearly double the amount of variance in overall cognitive functioning than social disconnectedness (10.2% vs. 5.7%). Findings suggest that social isolation is associated with poorer overall cognitive functioning and this remains true across varied cognitive domains. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Assessing soil carbon stocks under pastures through orbital remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Gyula Julius Szakács


    Full Text Available The growing demand of world food and energy supply increases the threat of global warming due to higher greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural activity. Therefore, it is widely admitted that agriculture must establish a new paradigm in terms of environmental sustainability that incorporate techniques for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This article addresses to the scientific demand to estimate in a fast and inexpensive manner current and potential soil organic carbon (SOC stocks in degraded pastures, using remote sensing techniques. Four pastures on sandy soils under Brazilian Cerrado vegetation in São Paulo state were chosen due to their SOC sequestration potential, which was characterized for the soil depth 0-50 cm. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was performed between SOC and Leaf Area Index (LAI measured in the field (LAIfield and derived by satellite (LAIsatellite as well as SOC and pasture reflectance in six spectra from 450 nm - 2350 nm, using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ sensor of satellite Landsat 7. A high correlation between SOC and LAIfield (R² = 0.9804 and LAIsatellite (R² = 0.9812 was verified. The suitability of satellite derived LAI for SOC determination leads to the assumption, that orbital remote sensing is a very promising SOC estimation technique from regional to global scale.

  7. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi


    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  8. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  9. The Battle over Pastures: The Hidden War in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Alden Wily


    Full Text Available Rangelands (‘pastures’ constitute a large and valuable natural resource in Afghanistan. Millions of rural people shape their agro-pastoral or pastoral livelihoods around this asset. In many ways, the territorial history of Afghanistan may be written through the lens of ancient and continuing battles between ethnic groups for possession of alpine pastures. In more recent times, this battle has centred on control of the Hindu Kush, the rich highland pastures of central Afghanistan. This paper focuses on the worsening conflict over this resource and the diminishing opportunities for its resolution, as new pressures mount. Despite numerous government initiatives, the Karzai Administration has failed to get to grips with the ownership issues underpinning this contestation and the associated seasonal armed conflict. As rangelands are made more available for purchase in the marketplace and as a surge in mining developments eats into pastures, more conflict may be expected, deepening divisions not only between ethnicities, but also between rich and poor, and between the people and the state.

  10. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin


    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  11. Geology of the Devonian black shales of the Appalachian Basin (United States)

    Roen, J.B.


    Black shales of Devonian age in the Appalachian Basin are a unique rock sequence. The high content of organic matter, which imparts the characteristic lithology, has for years attracted considerable interest in the shales as a possible source of energy. The recent energy shortage prompted the U.S. Department of Energy through the Eastern Gas Shales Project of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center to underwrite a research program to determine the geologic, geochemical, and structural characteristics of the Devonian black shales in order to enhance the recovery of gas from the shales. Geologic studies by Federal and State agencies and academic institutions produced a regional stratigraphic network that correlates the 15 ft black shale sequence in Tennessee with 3000 ft of interbedded black and gray shales in central New York. These studies correlate the classic Devonian black shale sequence in New York with the Ohio Shale of Ohio and Kentucky and the Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic markers in conjunction with gamma-ray logs facilitated long-range correlations within the Appalachian Basin. Basinwide correlations, including the subsurface rocks, provided a basis for determining the areal distribution and thickness of the important black shale units. The organic carbon content of the dark shales generally increases from east to west across the basin and is sufficient to qualify as a hydrocarbon source rock. Significant structural features that involve the black shale and their hydrocarbon potential are the Rome trough, Kentucky River and Irvine-Paint Creek fault zone, and regional decollements and ramp zones. ?? 1984.

  12. Acid deposition and water use efficiency in Appalachian forests (United States)

    Malcomb, J.


    Multiple studies have reported increases in forest water use efficiency in recent decades, but the drivers of these trends remain uncertain. While acid deposition has profoundly altered the biogeochemistry of Appalachian forests in the past century, its impacts on forest water use efficiency have been largely overlooked. Plant ecophysiology literature suggests that plants up-regulate transpiration in response to soil nutrient limitation in order to maintain sufficient mass flow of nutrients. To test the impacts of acid deposition on forest eco-hydrology in central Appalachia, we integrated dendrochronological techniques, including tree ring δ13C analysis, with catchment water balance data from the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. Tree cores from four species were collected in Fernow Watershed 3, which has received experimental ammonium sulfate additions since 1989, and Watershed 7, an adjacent control catchment. Initial results suggest that acidification treatments have not significantly influenced tree productivity compared to a control watershed, but the effect varies by species, with tulip poplar showing greatest sensitivity to acidification. Climatic water balance, defined as the difference between growing season precipitation and evapotranspiration, is significantly related to annual tree ring growth, suggesting that climate may be driving tree growth trends in chronically acidified Appalachian forests. Tree ring 13C analysis from Fernow cores is underway and these data will be integrated with catchment hydrology data from five other sites in central Appalachia and the U.S. Northeast, representing a range of forest types, soil base saturations, and acid deposition histories. This work will advance understanding of how climate and acid deposition interact to influence forest productivity and water use efficiency, and improve our ability to model carbon and water cycling in forested ecosystems impacted by acid deposition.

  13. Transplantation of subalpine wood-pasture turfs along a natural climatic gradient reveals lower resistance of unwooded pastures to climate change compared to wooded ones. (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre


    Climate change could impact strongly on cold-adapted mountain ecosystems, but little is known about its interaction with traditional land-use practices. We used an altitudinal gradient to simulate a year-round warmer and drier climate for semi-natural subalpine grasslands across a landscape of contrasting land-use management. Turf mesocosms from three pasture-woodland land-use types-unwooded pasture, sparsely wooded pasture, and densely wooded pasture-spanning a gradient from high to low management intensity were transplanted downslope to test their resistance to two intensities of climate change. We found strong overall effects of intensive (+4 K) experimental climate change (i.e., warming and reduced precipitation) on plant community structure and function, while moderate (+2 K) climate change did not substantially affect the studied land-use types, thus indicating an ecosystem response threshold to moderate climate perturbation. The individual land-use types were affected differently under the +4 K scenario, with a 60% decrease in aboveground biomass (AGB) in unwooded pasture turfs, a 40% decrease in sparsely wooded pasture turfs, and none in densely wooded ones. Similarly, unwooded pasture turfs experienced a 30% loss of species, advanced (by 30 days) phenological development, and a mid-season senescence due to drought stress, while no such effects were recorded for the other land-use types. The observed contrasting effects of climate change across the pasture-woodland landscape have important implications for future decades. The reduced impact of climate change on wooded pastures as compared to unwooded ones should promote the sustainable land use of wooded pastures by maintaining low management intensity and a sparse forest canopy, which buffer the immediate impacts of climate change on herbaceous vegetation.

  14. Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom F. O’Callaghan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR system on the (a rumen microbiome; (b rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time. In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets

  15. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.


    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  16. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan


    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  17. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period


    Randi A. Black; Peter D. Krawczel


    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastu...

  18. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures


    Ambus, P.


    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  19. Fertilization and oversowing on natural grassland: effects on pasture characteristics and yearling steers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tonet Ferreira


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetal and animal production of a natural pasture on a Mollisol soil in the region of Campanha, in RS. The experimental design consisted of complete randomized blocks with three replicates, which enables the comparison between natural unfertilized pastures with fertilized pastures and pastures fertilized and overseeded with Lolium multiflorum, Lotus corniculatus cv. São Gabriel and Trifolium repens cv. Lucero (NPO. Data were submitted to the analyses of variance considering seasons of the year as time repeated measurements. Aberddeen Angus calves of about nine months of age were used in continuous stocking with variable stocking rate in order to maintain forage offer at 13% of live weight. Data were collected between July 7th (2007 and May 3rd (2008, totaling 302 days. Fertilized and oversown pastures showed higher green forage mass mainly in the spring, as result of higher dry matter (DM accumulation rate. Average daily live-weight gain for fertilized pasture (0.581 kg/day was higher than for natural pasture (0.473 kg/day. Higher live-weight gains were obtained in the fall (0.869 kg/day. Stocking rate showed interaction with the seasons of the year, with higher stocking rates obtained in oversown pasture (701 kg of LW/ha and fertilized pasture (667 kg of LW/ha during the spring. Live-weight gain per hectare from natural pasture (224 kg LW/ha was lower than on fertilized (310 kg LW/ha and over-sown pasture (287 kg LW/ha. Forage mass, dry matter content, forage allowance and pasture height explained 61% of the average live weight gain. Despite the good performance of native grasslands in this region in its natural condition, the utilization of different inputs as fertilization and oversowing of winter cultivated species promoted positive differences in forage production and its distribution along the year and in animal yield.

  20. Pasture shade and farm management effects on cow productivity in the tropics


    Ainsworth, Justin A.W.; Moe, Stein R.; Skarpe, Christina


    This is the postprint version of the article. The published article can be located at the publisher's webpage Shade, provided by trees within pastures, can affect cattle productivity through mitigating heat stress and by altering understorey pasture growth and cattle behaviour. Models for daily milk yield and body condition were used to evaluate the effect of pasture shade on dual purpose cow productivity within a silvopastoral system in a dry tropical province of Nicaragua. Daily milk yie...

  1. Pasture establishment and fertiliser requirements on rehabilitated land after opencast coal mining in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, R.D.; O`Connor, M.B.; Toxopeus, M.R.J. [Ruakura Agricultural Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)


    Existing pasture establishment practices to rehabilitate land after opencast mining in the Waikato coal fields area of New Zealand were examined and compared with an alternative method involving different pasture mixtures, seeding rates, and lime and fertiliser requirements. Pasture establishment and production, botanical composition changes, and plant and soil nutrient status were measured during a 2-year field trial. Highly significant pasture responses were obtained to increased fertiliser inputs. An improved seed mixture, containing superior pasture cultivars, established more quickly and out-yielded the existing seed mixture by 58%. The two seed mixtures responded differently to sowing rates; the higher rate increased pasture yields of the improved pasture species but decreased the existing seed mix yields. Liming at 5 t ha{sup -1} significantly increased soil pH and clover content and reduced pasture manganese concentrations from possibly toxic levels. Nitrogen concentrations in pastures were below optimum throughout the trial and the strategic use of nitrogen fertiliser is recommended as a useful management option.

  2. White Infant Mortality in Appalachian States, 1976-1980 and 1996-2000: Changing Patterns and Persistent Disparities (United States)

    Yao, Nengliang; Matthews, Stephen A.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.


    Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian…

  3. Abundance of large old trees in wood-pastures of Transylvania (Romania). (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; Moga, Cosmin I; Holban, Lucian; Szapanyos, Árpád; Tamás, Réka; Hováth, Csaba; Réti, Kinga-Olga


    Wood-pastures are special types of agroforestry systems that integrate trees with livestock grazing. Wood pastures can be hotspots for large old tree abundance and have exceptional natural values; but they are declining all over Europe. While presence of large old trees in wood-pastures can provide arguments for their maintenance, actual data on their distribution and abundance are sparse. Our study is the first to survey large old trees in Eastern Europe over such a large area. We surveyed 97 wood-pastures in Transylvania (Romania) in order to (i) provide a descriptive overview of the large old tree abundance; and (ii) to explore the environmental determinants of the abundance and persistence of large old trees in wood-pastures. We identified 2520 large old trees belonging to 16 taxonomic groups. Oak was present in 66% of the wood-pastures, followed by beech (33%), hornbeam (24%) and pear (22%). For each of these four species we constructed a generalized linear model with quasi-Poisson error distribution to explain individual tree abundance. Oak trees were most abundant in large wood-pastures and in wood-pastures from the Saxon cultural region of Transylvania. Beech abundance related positively to elevation and to proximity of human settlements. Abundance of hornbeam was highest in large wood-pastures, in wood-pastures from the Saxon cultural region, and in places with high cover of adjacent forest and a low human population density. Large old pear trees were most abundant in large wood-pastures that were close to paved roads. The maintenance of large old trees in production landscapes is a challenge for science, policy and local people, but it also can serve as an impetus for integrating economic, ecological and social goals within a landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial variability of chemical properties of soil under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ferreira da Silva


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil chemical attributes under pasture, as well as lime and fertilizer recommendations based on the interpretation of soil chemical analysis from two sampling methods: conventional and systematic depths of 0 to 10 and 10 to 20 cm. The study was conducted at IFES-campus Alegre-ES. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and geostatistics. Results indicate that the spatial method enabled the identification of deficit areas and excessive liming and fertilization, which could not be defined by the conventional method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ


    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  6. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers. (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura


    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught.

  7. Soil organic (14)C dynamics : Effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, P.F A M; Hassink, J; van der Plicht, Johannes


    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size- and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from

  8. Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot finished cattle (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus high-concentrate finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred (n = 24) steers. Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingr...

  9. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  10. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.


    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  11. Facilitative and competitive interactions between sympatric cattle, red deer and wild boar in Dutch woodland pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Lammertsma, D.R.


    Use of cattle-grazed and ungrazed woodland pastures by red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 and wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated monthly by measuring dung-deposition rates. Cattle Bos taurus grazed pastures year-round, with peak intensities during the growing season

  12. the utilisation of ctnchrus and paivicum pastures or lucerne hay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At lhis rate the Panit'um pasture farled to provide an adequate mainlenance diet for the entire period of the trraf, but the Cenchrus pasture produccd ... season sheep were grazed in rotation around paddocks, being moved at 3 to 4-day intervals ... was possible to skip certain paddocks in the rotation and surplus growth was ...



    Tozer, Peter R.; Huffaker, Ray G.


    Deregulation of the Australian dairy industry could effect the utilization of resources by milk producers. In this study we examine the feed input mix dairy producers use, both pastures and supplements, prior to and after deregulation. We are particularly interested in the interaction of pasture utilization and farm profitability.

  14. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  15. Research on the Vegetation Structure of the Pastures in Silvan District, Diyarbakır

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyithan SEYDOŞOĞLU


    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the vegetation structures of the native pastures in the six villages of district Silvan, Diyarbakır, in the year of 2014 .Vegetations of the pastures were studied by the Loop Method. In each pasture 400 loop measurements in 4 lines were made. Plant-covered area rate, botanical composition in the plant covered area was calculated from the loop measurements. 43 plant species of 35 genus from 11 families were determined on the vegetation of the pastures. Plant cover percentages varied between 46.2% to 72.0% and botanical composition rate of grasses, legumes and other family plants in the total plant cover varied between 30.81%, and 72.92%, 16.89%, and 48.25%, 10.19%, and 39.74%, respectively, as depending on the pastures. From the results of the research, it was concluded that vegetations of the pastures were generally composed of invader plants. Therefore the pastures have poor condition. The research on the determination of proper improvement methods for the pastures must be conducted.

  16. Soil organic 14C dynamics: effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.


    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size-and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from

  17. Unraveling the origin of the Appalachian gametophyte, Vittaria appalachiana. (United States)

    Pinson, Jerald B; Schuettpelz, Eric


    Ferns and lycophytes are distinct among plants in producing two free-living life stages: a long-lived sporophyte phase and a (usually) short-lived gametophyte phase. Notably, however, some species have perennial, vegetatively reproducing gametophytes. Vittaria appalachiana is one of just three species in which mature sporophytes are unknown. It has a wide range throughout the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau, where it reproduces asexually via gemmae. The origin of V. appalachiana, however, has long been a mystery, with most previous studies suggesting it may have resulted from hybridization of two closely related Vittaria species (V. graminifolia and V. lineata). A four-gene plastid data set including 32 samples of six Vittaria species, plus samples of five outgroup species, was analyzed to uncover phylogenetic relationships. Additional analyses of nuclear DET1 gene sequences allowed for the examination of hypotheses involving a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana. In the plastid phylogeny, V. appalachiana is well supported as monophyletic, but is embedded within V. graminifolia. With the exception of a single aberrant allele, this result is mirrored in the nuclear tree. Through analyses of plastid and nuclear data sets, this study demonstrates that a hybrid origin for V. appalachiana is unlikely. Instead, it appears that this species emerged from within the V. graminifolia lineage. Further work is needed to fully elucidate the genetic structure within this group. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.


    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  19. A Müllerian mimicry ring in Appalachian millipedes (United States)

    Marek, Paul E.; Bond, Jason E.


    Few biological phenomena provide such an elegant and straightforward example of evolution by natural selection as color mimicry among unrelated organisms. By mimicking the appearance of a heavily defended aposematic species, members of a second species gain protection from predators and, potentially, enhanced fitness. Mimicking a preexisting warning advertisement is economical because a potentially costly novel one can be avoided; simultaneously, the addition of more aposematic individuals enhances the overall warning effect. The better-known mimetic systems comprise tropical taxa, but here, we show a remarkable example of color mimicry in 7 species of blind, cyanide-generating millipedes endemic to the Appalachian Mountains of temperate North America. Because these millipedes lack eyes, there is no sexual selection or intraspecific signaling for coloration, providing an ideal system for mimicry studies. We document a Müllerian symbiosis where unrelated species vary in color and pattern over geographical space but appear identical where they co-occur. By using spectral color data, estimations of evolutionary history, and detailed field observations of species abundance, we test 4 predictions of Müllerian mimicry theory and begin to unravel the story of an elaborate mimetic diversification in the forests of Appalachia. PMID:19487663

  20. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests (United States)

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.


    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. IYA Outreach Plans for Appalachian State University's Observatories (United States)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Pollock, J. T.; Saken, J. M.


    Appalachian State University will provide a variety of observing opportunities for the public during the International Year of Astronomy. These will be focused at both the campus GoTo Telescope Facility used by Introductory Astronomy students and the research facilities at our Dark Sky Observatory. The campus facility is composed of a rooftop deck with a roll-off roof housing fifteen Celestron C11 telescopes. During astronomy lab class meetings these telescopes are used either in situ or remotely by computer control from the adjacent classroom. For the IYA we will host the public for regular observing sessions at these telescopes. The research facility features a 32-inch DFM Engineering telescope with its dome attached to the Cline Visitor Center. The Visitor Center is still under construction and we anticipate its completion for a spring opening during IYA. The CVC will provide areas for educational outreach displays and a view of the telescope control room. Visitors will view celestial objects directly at the eyepiece. We are grateful for the support of the National Science Foundation, through grant number DUE-0536287, which provided instrumentation for the GoTO facility, and to J. Donald Cline for support of the Visitor Center.

  2. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  3. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.


    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  4. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.


    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  5. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wick


    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  6. Hydrologic budget and conditions of Permian, Pennsylvanian, and Mississippian aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province (United States)

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Yager, Richard M.; Nelms, David L.; Ladd, David E.; Monti,, Jack; Kozar, Mark D.


    In response to challenges to groundwater availability posed by historic land-use practices, expanding development of hydrocarbon resources, and drought, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers in 2013 that incorporated a hydrologic landscape approach to estimate all components of the hydrologic system: surface runoff, base flow from groundwater, and interaction with atmospheric water (precipitation and evapotranspiration). This assessment was intended to complement other Federal and State investigations and provide foundational groundwater-related datasets in the Appalachian Plateaus.

  7. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.


    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  8. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash


    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  9. Measuring larval nematode contamination on cattle pastures: Comparing two herbage sampling methods. (United States)

    Verschave, S H; Levecke, B; Duchateau, L; Vercruysse, J; Charlier, J


    Assessing levels of pasture larval contamination is frequently used to study the population dynamics of the free-living stages of parasitic nematodes of livestock. Direct quantification of infective larvae (L3) on herbage is the most applied method to measure pasture larval contamination. However, herbage collection remains labour intensive and there is a lack of studies addressing the variation induced by the sampling method and the required sample size. The aim of this study was (1) to compare two different sampling methods in terms of pasture larval count results and time required to sample, (2) to assess the amount of variation in larval counts at the level of sample plot, pasture and season, respectively and (3) to calculate the required sample size to assess pasture larval contamination with a predefined precision using random plots across pasture. Eight young stock pastures of different commercial dairy herds were sampled in three consecutive seasons during the grazing season (spring, summer and autumn). On each pasture, herbage samples were collected through both a double-crossed W-transect with samples taken every 10 steps (method 1) and four random located plots of 0.16 m(2) with collection of all herbage within the plot (method 2). The average (± standard deviation (SD)) pasture larval contamination using sampling methods 1 and 2 was 325 (± 479) and 305 (± 444)L3/kg dry herbage (DH), respectively. Large discrepancies in pasture larval counts of the same pasture and season were often seen between methods, but no significant difference (P = 0.38) in larval counts between methods was found. Less time was required to collect samples with method 2. This difference in collection time between methods was most pronounced for pastures with a surface area larger than 1 ha. The variation in pasture larval counts from samples generated by random plot sampling was mainly due to the repeated measurements on the same pasture in the same season (residual variance

  10. Effects of Bio solids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.; Butler, C.; Cody, J.; Warne, M.S.J.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Heemsbergen, D.; Broos, K.; Bell, M.; Barry, G.; Pritchard, D.; Penny, N.; Penny, N.


    Bio solids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with bio solids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Bio solids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, bio solids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did bio solids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Bio solids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the bio solids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that bio solids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  11. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Foken, T.; Biermann, T.; Babel, W.; Ma, Y.


    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of Carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  12. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark


    Full Text Available Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov. pasture (pasture or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation. Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages.

  13. Spatio-temporal modelling of biomass of intensively grazed perennial dairy pastures using multispectral remote sensing (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Asoka; Clark, Dave; Waugh, Deanne


    Pasture biomass is a vital input for management of dairy systems in New Zealand. An accurate estimate of pasture biomass information is required for the calculation of feed budget, on which decisions are made for farm practices such as conservation, nitrogen use, rotational lengths and supplementary feeding leading to profitability and sustainable use of pasture resources. The traditional field based methods of measuring pasture biomass such as using rising plate metres (RPM) are largely inefficient in providing the timely information at the spatial extent and temporal frequency demanded by commercial environments. In recent times remote sensing has emerged as an alternative tool. In this paper we have examined the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from medium resolution imagery of SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 satellite sensors to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures. In the space and time domain analysis we have found a significant dependency of time over the season and no dependency of space across the scene at a given time for the relationship between NDVI and field based pasture biomass. We have established a positive correlation (81%) between the two variables in a pixel scale analysis. The application of the model on 2 selected farms over 3 images and aggregation of the predicted biomass to paddock scale has produced paddock average pasture biomass values with a coefficient of determination of 0.71 and a standard error of 260 kg DM ha-1 in the field observed range between 1500 and 3500 kg DM ha-1. This result indicates a high potential for operational use of remotely sensed data to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures.

  14. Grazing alters net ecosystem C fluxes and the global warming potential of a subtropical pasture. (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; DeLucia, Nicholas J; Bernacchi, Carl J; Boughton, Elizabeth H; Sparks, Jed P; Chamberlain, Samuel D; DeLucia, Evan H


    The impact of grazing on C fluxes from pastures in subtropical and tropical regions and on the environment is uncertain, although these systems account for a substantial portion of global C storage. We investigated how cattle grazing influences net ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange in subtropical pastures using the eddy covariance technique. Measurements were made over several wet-dry seasonal cycles in a grazed pasture, and in an adjacent pasture during the first three years of grazer exclusion. Grazing increased soil wetness but did not affect soil temperature. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing decreased ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and gross primary productivity (GPP). As the decrease in R eco was larger than the reduction in GPP, grazing consistently increased the net CO 2 sink strength of subtropical pastures (55, 219 and 187 more C/m 2 in 2013, 2014, and 2015). Enteric ruminant fermentation and increased soil wetness due to grazers, increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions in grazed relative to ungrazed pasture (27-80%). Unlike temperate, arid, and semiarid pastures, where differences in CH 4 emissions between grazed and ungrazed pastures are mainly driven by enteric ruminant fermentation, our results showed that the effect of grazing on soil CH 4 emissions can be greater than CH 4 produced by cattle. Thus, our results suggest that the interactions between grazers and soil hydrology affecting soil CH 4 emissions play an important role in determining the environmental impacts of this management practice in a subtropical pasture. Although grazing increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions and removed aboveground biomass, it increased the net storage of C and decreased the global warming potential associated with C fluxes of pasture by increasing its net CO 2 sink strength. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  16. Phosphorus, carbon- and nitrogen interactions in productive and degraded tropical pastures (United States)

    Oberson, A.; Hegglin, D. D.; Nesper, M.; Rao, I.; Fonte, S.; Ramirez, B.; Velasquez, J.; Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Frossard, E.


    Pastures are the main land use in deforested areas of tropical South America. The highly weathered soils of these regions usually have low total and available phosphorus (P) contents. Low P availability can strongly limit plant and animal productivity and other soil ecosystem functions. Most introduced pastures of Brachiaria spp. are grass-alone (GA) while some are grass-legume (GL) pastures. The majority of the introduced pastures, particularly the grass-alone are at some state of degradation (GD). Pasture degradation induces severe loss of plant biomass production, with drastic ecological and economic implications. Although the importance of P deficiency in pasture degradation has been recognized, the knowledge generated on stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P along pathways of the nutrient cycles of pastures, with different botanical composition and productivity, has been very limited. We will present results of a case study realized during 2010 to 2011 in the forest margins agro-ecosystem of the department of Caquetá, Colombia. Our objectives were to determine: i) whether P availability is lower in degraded compared to productive pastures, and ii) whether the introduction of legumes in the pasture increases P availability through enhanced biological P cycling through plant growth, plant litter decomposition and the soil microbial biomass; and iii) whether pasture types (GA vs GL) and the state of pasture degradation affect the C:N:P ratios in nutrient pools of the soil-plant system. An on-farm study was conducted on nine farms in the department of Caquetá, Colombia. On every farm three different pasture types were studied: degraded grass alone pastures (GD), productive grass-alone pastures (GA) and productive grass-legume pastures (GL). Basic soil characteristics and indicators on soil P status, microbial P cycling, plant biomass production, plant litter deposition and nutrient concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Analysis of P, C and N

  17. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures. (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G


    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P CSR treatment reduced the probability (P CSR and RP treatments in the stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P CSR treatments. Results show that time spent by cattle near pasture streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby decreasing risks of sediment and nutrient loading of pasture streams even during periods of increased BGTHI.

  18. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller


    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  19. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005 (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.


    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  20. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  1. 77 FR 39733 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [WASO-NRSS-10750; 2490-STC] Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey AGENCY: National Park Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a currently approved information collection (1024-0259...

  2. Using hyperdocuments to manage scientific knowledge: the prototype Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor


    Despite the overwhelming body of research available on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian forests, a gap exists between what scientists know and what the management community is able to apply on the ground. Most research knowledge still resides in highly technical, narrowly focused research publications housed in libraries. The internet, combined with...

  3. Fuels and predicted fire behavior in the southern Appalachian Mountains and fire and fire surrogate treatments (United States)

    Thomas Waldrop; Ross J. Phillips; Dean A. Simon


    This study tested the success of fuel reduction treatments for mitigating wildfire behavior in an area that has had little previous research on fire, the southern Appalachian Mountains. A secondary objective of treatments was to restore the community to an open woodland condition. Three blocks of four treatments were installed in a mature hardwood forest in western...

  4. Plant succession and community restoration following felling and burning in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose


    Recent declines in the yellow pine component of pine-hardwood stands in the Southern Appalachian Mountains has prompted managers to increase the use of fire as a silvicultural tool. The fell and burn treatment is designed to remove competing vegetation (hardwoods and mountain laurel...

  5. Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation 20 years after clear-cutting a southern Appalachian watershed (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; Lindsay R. Boring; Wayne T. Swank


    In 1975, we initiated a long-term interdisciplinary study of forest watershed ecosystem response to clear- cutting and cable logging in watershed 7 at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. This paper describes ~20 years of change in species composition, aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI),...

  6. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major


    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  7. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye


    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  8. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton


    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  9. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton


    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The...

  10. Imidacloprid movement in soils and impacts on soil microarthropods in southern Appalachian eastern hemlock stands (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Jerry L. Michael; Barbara C. Reynolds


    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide effective in controlling the exotic pest Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees. Concerns over imidacloprid impacts on nontarget species have limited its application in southern Appalachian ecosystems. We quantified the movement and adsorption of imidacloprid in forest soils after soil...

  11. Vegetation response to large scale disturbance in a southern Appalachian forest: Hurricane Opal and salvage logging (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie L. Hitchcock; Lisa Krueger


    Disturbance such as catastrophic windthrow can play a major role in the structure and composition of southern Appalachian forests. We report effects of Hurricane Opal followed by salvage logging on vegetation dynamics (regeneration, composition, and diversity) the first three years after disturbance at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western North Carolina. The...

  12. Why Individuals Hike the Appalachian Trail: A Qualitative Approach to Benefits (United States)

    Goldenberg, Marni; Hill, Eddie; Freidt, Barbara


    The Appalachian Trail (AT) is a 2,175 mile-long National Scenic Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Since its inception in the early 1920s, individuals, families, schools, and other organizations, just to name a few, have used the AT. Approximately 3 to 4 million visitors hike a portion of the AT each year (ATC, 2006). Throughout its 80-year…

  13. Modeling and simulating two cut-to-length harvesting systems in central Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Yaoxiang Li


    The production rates and costs of two cut-to-length harvesting systems was simulated using a modular ground-based simulation model and stand yield data from fully stocked, second growth even aged central Appalachian hardwood forests. The two harvesters simulated were a modified John Deere 988 tracked excavator with a model RP 1600 single grip sawhead and an excavator...

  14. Productivity and cost of manual felling and cable skidding in central Appalachian hardwood forests (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Charlie Long; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras


    A field production study was conducted for a manual harvesting system using a chainsaw and cable skidder in a central Appalachian hardwood forest site. A partial cut was performed on a 50-acre tract with an average slope of 25 percent. Felling time pre tree was most affected by diameter at breast height and the distance between harvested trees while skidding cycle time...

  15. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Chris B. LeDoux; Jingxin Wang


    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand...

  16. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations. (United States)

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe


    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  17. Effects of prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    A prescribed fire in a central Appalachian mixed hardwood stand caused considerable damage to the butt logs of many overstory trees. Although there were increases in the abundance and distribution of several species of hardwoods, advanced red and chestnut oaks were poorly distributed 5-years after burning. An abundance of striped maple and other shrubs in the...

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA. (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph


    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  19. 78 FR 57373 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water... (United States)


    ... License Article 202 and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, Protests, and Recommendations Take..., protests, comments, or recommendations using the Commission's eFiling system at pursuant to article 202. b. Project No: 2376-048. c. Date Filed: July 31, 2013. d. Applicant: Appalachian...

  20. The Impact of International Students on American Students and Faculty at an Appalachian University (United States)

    Jourdini, My Mustapha


    This study examined the effects of exposure to international students on American student and faculty perceptions at a regional Appalachian University. A revised and improved version of Jaleh Shabahang's (1993) "International Education Opinionnaire" was used to survey American students and faculty regarding their perceptions of the…

  1. Denitrification potential in sediments of headwater streams in the southern appalachian mountains, USA (United States)

    Lara A. Martin; Patrick J. Mulholland; Jackson R. Webster; H. Maurice Vallett


    We investigated variations in resource availability (NOa-N and labile organic C [LOCJ] as determinants of potential denitrification in stream sediments in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. stream-water and sediments were sampled seasonally in 2 streams of contrasting NO3,-N availability, Noland Creek (high NO

  2. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene


    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  3. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.


    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  4. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell


    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  5. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswalt, Ch.M.; Oswalt, S.N.


    Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood hereafter dogwood) populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees) across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1) quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian eco region, (2) quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3) identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian eco region. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (ρ<.05) were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent) sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  6. Nitrogen deposition and cycling across an elevation and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian forests (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank


    We studied nitrogen (N) cycling pools and processes across vegetation and elevation gradients in. the southern Appalachian Mountains in SE USA. Measurements included bulk deposition input, watershed export, throughfall fluxes, litterfall, soil N pools and processes, and soil solution N. N deposition increased with elevation and ranged from 9.5 to 12.4 kg ha-...

  7. Using hyperdocuments for knowledge management: an encyclopedia of southern appalachian forest ecosystems (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe; J.B. Jordin; W.G. Hubbard; M.C. Covington; N. Rushton


    Land managers increasingly need improved access to research knowledge that is thoroughly organized, condensed, and presented in a form that is useful for problem solving. In this paper, we describe the application of hyperdocuments for knowledge management, using an example of a newly developed hypertext encyclopedia on the southern Appalachians. The Encyclopedia of...

  8. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt


    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  9. New methods for estimating non-timber forest product output: an Appalachian case study (United States)

    Steve Kruger; James. Chamberlain


    Assessing the size and structure of non-timber forest product (NTFP) markets is difficult due to a lack of knowledge about NTFP supply chains. Harvesting ginseng and other wild medicinal plants has long provided a source of income and cultural identity in Appalachian communities in the eastern United States. With the exception of ginseng, the extent of the harvest of...

  10. Adaptation and validation of the REGEN expert system for the Central Appalachians (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani


    REGEN is an expert system that predicts future species composition at the onset of stem exclusion using preharvest stand conditions. To extend coverage into hardwood stands of the Central Appalachians, we developed REGEN knowledge bases for four site qualities (xeric, subxeric, submesic, mesic) based on relevant literature and expert opinion. Data were collected from...

  11. Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area (United States)

    Katherine Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson


    Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...

  12. Evaluating relationships between natural resource management, land use changes, and flooding in the Appalachian region (United States)

    Nicolas P. Zegre; Samuel J. Lamont


    Th e Appalachian Region has a long history of natural resource management and recurrent history of frequent and large-scale floods. Land use activities such as urbanization, mining, forest harvesting, and agriculture can have a noticeable effect on the volume, magnitude, timing, and frequency of floods. Determining the effects of land use on flooding is difficult for...

  13. Tailoring Retention Theories to Meet the Needs of Rural Appalachian Community College Students (United States)

    Hlinka, Karen R.


    Objective: Traditional-age students attending a rural community college in Kentucky's Appalachian region were interviewed, along with faculty members and administrators, to identify phenomena serving as sources of encouragement or as barriers to retention from the point of entry to the point of transfer. Method: Students' perspectives were…

  14. Establishing perennial seed-based energy crops on reclaimed surface mine soils in the central Appalachians (United States)

    Jamie L. Schuler; Shawn Grushecky; Jingxin. Wang


    Renewable energy has been at the forefront of the United States' energy policies. Cellulosic feedstocks have received considerable interest in the Appalachian region because of their abundance and availability, but cost competition from other energy sectors has limited their use in the region. Some other bioenergy feedstocks, such as corn and soybeans, are not a...

  15. Evolutionary history of two endemic Appalachian conifers revealed using microsatellite markers (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) and intermediate fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill. var. phanerolepis Fern.) exist in small populations in the Appalachian highlands of the southeastern United States. We used ten nuclear microsatellite markers to quantify genetic variation within Fraser fir and intermediate...

  16. Proceedings: Wildland Fire in the Appalachians: Discussions Among Managers and Scientists (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop


    Many challenges face fire managers and scientists in the Appalachian Mountains because of the region’s diverse topography and limited research supporting prescribed burning. This conference was designed to promote communication among managers, researchers, and other interested parties. These proceedings contain 30 papers and abstracts that describe ongoing research,...

  17. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose


    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  18. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  19. Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species (United States)

    Steven T. Brantley; Chelcy Ford Miniat; Katherine J. Elliott; Stephanie H. Laseter; James M. Vose


    Few studies have examined how insect outbreaks affect landscape-level hydrologic processes. We report the hydrologic effects of the invasive, exotic hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) in a headwater catchment in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The study watershed experienced complete mortality of an evergreen tree species, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (...

  20. Fish Habitat and Fish Populations in a Southern Appalachian Watershed before and after Hurricane Hugo (United States)

    C. Andrew Dolloff; Patricia A. Flebbe; Michael D. Owen


    Habitat features and relative abundance of all fish species were estimated in 8.4 km of a small mountain stream system before and 11 months after Hurricane Hugo crossed the southern Appalachians in September 1989. There was no change in the total amount (area) of each habitat type but the total number of habitat units decreased and average size and depth of habitat...

  1. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe


    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  2. Managing Appalachian hardwood stands using four regeneration practices--34 year results (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller


    Adjacent Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia established on excellent growing sites were managed for a 34-year period using four regeneration practices. These practices included a commercial clearcut, 15.5-in diameter-limit, and two single-tree selection practices. An uncut area was maintained as a control. Stand development, growth response, and some stumpage...

  3. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests (United States)

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet


    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  4. Silvicultural and integrated pest management strategies for restoring eastern hemlock to degraded southern Appalachian mountain ecosystems. (United States)

    W.A. Whittier; A.E. Mayfield III; R.M. Jetton


    The ecologically foundational species eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, is being functionally eliminated from southern Appalachian forests by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae). The management of HWA has focused on chemical and biological control, conservation of hemlock genetic resources, and host resistance...

  5. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr, mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; James M. Vose


    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers...

  6. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Mac. A. Callaham; Paul F. Hendrix; Ross J. Phillips


    This study documents the occurrence of an aggressive invasive earthworm species in undisturbed forest soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia, USA. Earthworms were sorted from samples collected in pitfall traps that had been set in mature, mesic oak-hickory forests in remote, high elevation, locations across northern Georgia. Specimens were...

  7. Successional dynamics and restoration implications of a montane coniferous forest in the central Appalachians, USA (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; Rachel J. Collins


    Central Appalachian montane red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) communities have been greatly reduced in extent and functional quality over the past century. This community decline has put several plant and animal species, such as the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus Shaw), at risk from habitat...

  8. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians (United States)

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins


    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  9. Review of the relationship between nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattle. (United States)

    Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J


    Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.

  10. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia. (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern


    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  11. Phosphorus bioavailability in soybean grown after pasture under different fertility regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Néia Eberhardt


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of phosphorus (P fertilizer applied to an Urochloa decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture on the P bioavailability to the following soybean crop. Low-productivity pasture, planted on an Oxisol in an experimental field at Embrapa Cerrados, was divided into three strips, each of 1.5 ha and fertilized by broadcasting annual applications of 0, 20 and 40 kg ha-1 of P2O5 for four years. After the pasture was desiccate with herbicide, soybeans were sown and fertilized with 0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of P2O5 applied within each strip, making a total of nine (3x3 P treatments. Residual available P content (Mehlich-1 and resin from the pasture fertilization was lower than from soybean fertilization. However, the bioavailable residual P from the pasture, determined by P accumulated in plants, production of dry matter and grain yield, had similar availability to inorganic P applied to the soybean. Early P fertilization applied to pasture is technically feasible and can be used to maintain the pasture: it is recommended to replace corrective fertilization for following soybean crops.

  12. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir


    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  13. Land Change in Eastern Mediterranean Wood-Pasture Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaich, Harald; Kizos, Thanasis; Schneider, Stefan


    In Mediterranean Europe, wood-pasture landscapes with oak woodlands as emblematic ecosystems are undergoing rapid land-use change, which may threaten their legacy as hotspots of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to quantify land cover changes...... and transitions as well as the dynamics of oak woodland patterns and densities over 50 years in two municipalities at the center and edges of Quercus macrolepis distribution in Northern Lesvos (Greece). We used aerial photographs from 1960 and WorldView-2 satellite images from 2010 to process land cover maps...... and metrics, and to calculate oak canopy cover with a point-grid sampling approach. Spatiotemporal dynamics of land cover change were generally high—especially between oak woodlands and grass- and shrub-lands, resulting in a more heterogeneous and fragmented landscape in 2010. Surprisingly, oak woodland area...

  14. Stakeholder perspectives of wood-pasture ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Pablo; Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per


    respondents showed more appreciation for regulating and supporting services, which included biodiversity conservation and climate regulation. Private and public sector respondents appreciated provisioning services more, whereas the civil sector mentioned supporting and regulating services more. For instance......, water regulation was only mentioned by civil and public sector respondents, while genetic resource preservation was only expressed by the private sector. All sectors noted cultural services as key ES. We discuss most mentioned ES by respondents, the co-production nature of ES in wood-pastures, as well...... to describe stakeholders' appreciation of ES from dehesa landscapes in northern Extremadura, Spain. A total of 45 ES were mentioned, and compared among different sectors and levels of governance. At the local level, people appreciated especially provisioning and cultural services. In contrast, regional level...

  15. Using remotely sensed vegetation indices to model ecological pasture conditions in Kara-Unkur watershed, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Masselink, Loes; Baartman, Jantiene; Verbesselt, Jan; Borchardt, Peter


    Kyrgyzstan has a long history of nomadic lifestyle in which pastures play an important role. However, currently the pastures are subject to severe grazing-induced degradation. Deteriorating levels of biomass, palatability and biodiversity reduce the pastures' productivity. To counter this and introduce sustainable pasture management, up-to-date information regarding the ecological conditions of the pastures is essential. This research aimed to investigate the potential of a remote sensing-based methodology to detect changing ecological pasture conditions in the Kara-Unkur watershed, Kyrgyzstan. The relations between Vegetation Indices (VIs) from Landsat ETM+ images and biomass, palatability and species richness field data were investigated. Both simple and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses, including terrain attributes, were applied. Subsequently, trends of these three pasture conditions were mapped using time series analysis. The results show that biomass is most accurately estimated by a model including the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI) and a slope factor (R2 = 0.65, F = 0.0006). Regarding palatability, a model including the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Northness Index, Near Infrared (NIR) and Red band was most accurate (R2 = 0.61, F = 0.0160). Species richness was most accurately estimated by a model including Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Eastness Index and estimated biomass (R2 = 0.81, F = 0.0028). Subsequent trend analyses of all three estimated ecological pasture conditions presented very similar trend patterns. Despite the need for a more robust validation, this study confirms the high potential of a remote sensing based methodology to detect changing ecological pasture conditions.

  16. Canopy seed banks as time capsules of biodiversity in pasture-remnant tree crowns. (United States)

    Nadkarni, Nalini M; Haber, Willam A


    Tropical pastures present multiple barriers to tree regeneration and restoration. Relict trees serve as "regeneration foci" because they ameliorate the soil microclimate and serve as safe spots for dispersers. Here, we describe another mechanism by which remnant trees may facilitate pasture regeneration: the presence of seed banks in the canopy soil that accumulates from decomposing epiphytes within the crowns of mature remnant trees in tropical cloud forest pastures. We compared seed banks of canopy soils (histosols derived from fallen leaves, fruits, flower, and twigs of host trees and epiphytes, dead bryophytes, bark, detritus, dead animals, and microorganisms, and dust that accumulate on trunks and the upper surfaces of large branches) in pastures, canopy soils in primary forest trees, and soil on the forest floor in Monteverde, Costa Rica. There were 5211 epiphytic and terrestrial plant seeds in the three habitats. All habitats were dominated by seeds in a relatively small number of plant families, most of which were primarily woody, animal pollinated, and animal dispersed. The density of seeds on the forest floor was greater than seed density in either pasture-canopy or forest-canopy soils; the latter two did not differ. Eight species in 44 families and 61 genera from all of the habitats were tallied. There were 37 species in the pasture-canopy soil, 33 in the forest-canopy soil, and 57 on the forest floor. Eleven species were common to all habitats. The mean species richness in the pasture canopy was significantly higher than the forest canopy (F =83.38; p banks of pasture trees can function as time capsules by providing propagules that are removed in both space and time from the primary forest. Their presence may enhance the ability of pastures to regenerate more quickly, reinforcing the importance of trees in agricultural settings.

  17. Impacts of sugarcane agriculture expansion over low-intensity cattle ranch pasture in Brazil on greenhouse gases. (United States)

    Bento, Camila Bolfarini; Filoso, Solange; Pitombo, Leonardo Machado; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; do Carmo, Janaina Braga


    Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture. Results show that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes increased significantly in pasture and sugarcane with tillage, fertilizer use, or both combined. Emissions were highly variable for all GHGs, yet, cumulatively, it was clear that annual emissions in CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) were higher in management-intense pasture and sugarcane than in unmanaged pasture. Surprisingly, tilled pasture with fertilizer (management-intensive pasture) resulted in higher CO 2 -eq emissions than conventional sugarcane. We concluded that intensification of pasture management and the conversion of pasture to sugarcane can increase the emission factor (EF) estimated for sugarcane produced in Brazil. The role of management practices and environmental conditions and the potential for reducing emissions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Paasikallio


    Full Text Available A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and serai-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasture; the activity concentration of plants reached a maximum in June, a lesser increase occurred later in the autumn. In 1993, which was considered an average year with respect to 137Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively.

  19. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems. (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G


    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  20. Appalachian Piedmont landscapes from the Permian to the Holocene (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.


    Between the Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers and from the Blue Ridge to the Fall Zone, landscapes of the Piedmont are illustrated for times in the Holocene, Late Wisconsin, Early Miocene, Early Cretaceous, Late Triassic, and Permian. Landscape evolution took place in tectonic settings marked by major plate collisions (Permian), arching and rifting (Late Triassic) and development of the Atlantic passive margin by sea floor spreading (Early Cretaceous). Erosion proceeded concurrently with tectonic uplift and continued after cessation of major tectonic activity. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf sediments record three major erosional periods: (1) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic; (2) Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous; and (3) Middle Miocene-Holocene. The Middle Miocene-Holocene pulse is related to neotectonic activity and major climatic fluctuations. In the Piedmont upland the Holocene landscape is interpreted as an upland surface of low relief undergoing dissection. Major rivers and streams are incised into a landscape on which the landforms show a delicate adjustment to rock lithologies. The Fall Zone has apparently evolved from a combination of warping, faulting, and differential erosion since Late Miocene. The periglacial environment of the Late Wisconsin (and earlier glacial epochs) resulted in increased physical erosion and reduced chemical weathering. Even with lowered saprolitization rates, geochemical modeling suggests that 80 m or more of saprolite may have formed since Late Miocene. This volume of saprolite suggests major erosion of upland surfaces and seemingly contradicts available field evidence. Greatly subdued relief characterized the Early Miocene time, near the end of a prolonged interval of tropical morphogenesis. The ancestral Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers occupied approximately their present locations. In Early Cretaceous time local relief may have been as much as 900 m, and a major axial river draining both the Piedmont and Appalachians flowed southeast

  1. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.


    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  2. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Atlas Davidson


    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  3. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since...

  4. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since conversion...

  5. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight...

  6. Phyto-oestrogens and their metabolites in milk produced on two pastures with different botanical compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S. A.; Purup, S.; Hansen-Møller, J.


    . The objective of this study was to assess the effects of grazing a recently established pasture containing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and an older pasture containing a variety of sown and unsown plant species on milk concentrations of phyto-oestrogens. Sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard......Phyto-oestrogens are a group of secondary plant metabolites that may bind to oestrogen receptors and exert oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects in humans and can protect against cancer diseases. When ingested by dairy cows, phyto-oestrogens can be metabolised and transferred to the milk...... deviation); body weight 599 (45.1). kg, stage of lactation 73 (15.0) d in milk, milk yield 29.9 (2.90) kg/d at the start of the experiment] were divided into two groups and grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). The SP was representative of organically managed leys in Norway...

  7. Phosphorus fertilizer and grazing management effects on phosphorus in runoff from dairy pastures. (United States)

    Dougherty, Warwick J; Nicholls, Paul J; Milham, Paul J; Havilah, Euie J; Lawrie, Roy A


    Fertilizer phosphorus (P) and grazing-related factors can influence runoff P concentrations from grazed pastures. To investigate these effects, we monitored the concentrations of P in surface runoff from grazed dairy pasture plots (50 x 25 m) treated with four fertilizer P rates (0, 20, 40, and 80 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) for 3.5 yr at Camden, New South Wales. Total P concentrations in runoff were high (0.86-11.13 mg L(-1)) even from the control plot (average 1.94 mg L(-1)). Phosphorus fertilizer significantly (P pasture biomass (P dairy pastures should be the maintenance of soil P at or near the agronomic optimum by the use of appropriate rates of P fertilizer.

  8. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows. (United States)

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F


    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil organic matter dynamics during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures (United States)

    Erika Marin-Spiotta; Whendee L. Silver; Christopher W. Swanston; Rebecca. Ostertag


    Our research takes advantage of a historical trend in natural reforestation of abandoned tropical pastures to examine changes in soil carbon (C) during 80 years of secondary forest regrowth. We combined a chronosequence...

  10. Executive summary: Chapter A.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy needs over much of the last three centuries. Early records indicate that Appalachian coal was first mined in the middle 1700s (Virginia and Pennsylvania) and was used sparingly to fuel colonial settlements and, later, a fledgling industrial-based economy along the eastern seaboard of the United States (de Witt and Milici, 1989). In 2011, central Appalachian basin coal production accounted for approximately 77 percent of all U.S. metallurgical (or coking) coal and 29 percent of total U.S. production (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013). Following initial discoveries and commercial use in western New York (1821) and Ohio and West Virginia (mid-1830s), the Appalachian petroleum (oil and gas) industry began in earnest in 1859 with the discovery of oil at the Drake well in northwestern Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1989, the Appalachian basin produced more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) from more than 500,000 wells (de Witt and Milici, 1989). Although both oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  11. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi A. Black


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined on: (1 lying behaviour and activity; (2 feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3 intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14 or pasture ( n = 14 using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d, lying bouts (bouts/d, steps (steps/d and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum, close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum, calving (calving date and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum. Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less

  12. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period. (United States)

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D


    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  13. Carbon sequestration in Himalaya's alpine meadows: Mitigating cropping encroachment on pastures in Northern Pakistan


    Rueff, Henri; Syed Rehman, Aziz; Rahim, Inam; Maselli, Daniel; Nafees, Mohammad; Wiesmann, Urs


    Rangelands store about 30% of the world’s carbon and support over 120 million pastoralists globally. Adjusting the management of remote alpine pastures bears a substantial climate change mitigation potential that can provide livelihood support for marginalized pastoralists through carbon payment. Landless pastoralists in Northern Pakistan seek higher income by cropping potatoes and peas over alpine pastures. However, tilling steep slopes without terracing exposes soil to erosion. Moreover, yi...

  14. Evaluation of a whole-farm model for pasture-based dairy systems. (United States)

    Beukes, P C; Palliser, C C; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Levy, G; Thorrold, B S; Wastney, M E


    In the temperate climate of New Zealand, animals can be grazed outdoors all year round. The pasture is supplemented with conserved feed, with the amount being determined by seasonal pasture growth, genetics of the herd, and stocking rate. The large number of factors that affect production makes it impractical and expensive to use field trials to explore all the farm system options. A model of an in situ-grazed pasture system has been developed to provide a tool for developing and testing novel farm systems; for example, different levels of bought-in supplements and different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application, to maintain sustainability or environmental integrity and profitability. It consists of a software framework that links climate information, on a daily basis, with dynamic, mechanistic component-models for pasture growth and animal metabolism, as well as management policies. A unique feature is that the component models were developed and published by other groups, and are retained in their original software language. The aim of this study was to compare the model, called the whole-farm model (WFM) with a farm trial that was conducted over 3 yr and in which data were collected specifically for evaluating the WFM. Data were used from the first year to develop the WFM and data from the second and third year to evaluate the model. The model predicted annual pasture production, end-of-season cow liveweight, cow body condition score, and pasture cover across season with relative prediction error pasture and supplement intake were predicted with acceptable accuracy, suggesting that the metabolic conversion of feed to fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland needs to be refined. Because feed growth and intake predictions were acceptable, economic predictions can be made using the WFM, with an adjustment for milk yield, to test different management policies, alterations in climate, or the use of genetically improved animals, pastures, or crops.

  15. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators.




    Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded p...

  16. How to determine the GHG budget of a pasture field with grazing animals (United States)

    Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht; Felber, Raphael


    Up to now the scientific investigation and description of the agriculture related greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange has been largely separated into (i) direct animal related and (ii) ecosystem area related processes and measurement methods. An overlap of the two usually separated topics occurs for grazed pastures, where direct animal and pasture area emissions are relevant. In the present study eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements on the field scale were combined with a source location attribution (footprint) model and with GPS position measurements of the individual animals. The experiment was performed on a pasture field in Switzerland under a rotational full grazing regime with dairy cows. The exchange fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O were measured simultaneously over the entire year. The observed CH4 emission fluxes correlated well with the presence of cows in the flux footprint. When converted to average emission per cow, the results agreed with published values from respiration chamber experiments with similar cows. For CO2 a sophisticated partitioning algorithm was applied to separate the pasture and animal contributions, because both were in the same order of magnitude. The N2O exchange fully attributable to the pasture soil showed considerable and continuous emissions through the entire seasonal course mainly modulated by soil moisture and temperature. The resulting GHG budget shows that the largest GHG effect of the pasture system was due to enteric CH4 emissions followed by soil N2O emissions, but that the carbon storage change was affected by a much larger uncertainty. The results demonstrate that the EC technique in combination with animal position information allows to consistently quantify the exchange of all three GHG on the pasture and to adequately distinguish between direct animal and diffuse area sources (and sinks). Yet questions concerning a standardized attribution of animal related emissions to the pasture GHG budget still need to be resolved.

  17. Management and productive aspects of a dairy herd in a Valle d’Aosta alpine pasture

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    M. Bianchi


    Full Text Available In Western Italia Alps pasture areas utilization ratio is sensibly getting lower both as to surfaces and to mountain livestock resources. Recent researches show that in the valley bottom areas transhumance is progressively being abandoned for a permanent and intensive livestock breeding often made up with non local breeds and anyway no more fit to high altitude grazing (Battaglini et al.,2001. This trend is leading to lose local pastures (referred as to exploitable surfaces and fertility and livestock resources.......

  18. Sparse trees and shrubs confers a high biodiversity to pastures: Case study on spiders from Transylvania. (United States)

    Gallé, Róbert; Urák, István; Nikolett, Gallé-Szpisjak; Hartel, Tibor


    The integration of food production and biodiversity conservation represents a key challenge for sustainability. Several studies suggest that even small structural elements in the landscape can make a substantial contribution to the overall biodiversity value of the agricultural landscapes. Pastures can have high biodiversity potential. However, their intensive and monofunctional use typically erodes its natural capital, including biodiversity. Here we address the ecological value of fine scale structural elements represented by sparsely scattered trees and shrubs for the spider communities in a moderately intensively grazed pasture in Transylvania, Eastern Europe. The pasture was grazed with sheep, cattle and buffalo (ca 1 Livestock Unit ha-1) and no chemical fertilizers were applied. Sampling sites covered the open pasture as well as the existing fine-scale heterogeneity created by scattered trees and shrub. 40 sampling locations each being represented by three 1 m2 quadrats were situated in a stratified design while assuring spatial independency of sampling locations. We identified 140 species of spiders, out of which 18 were red listed and four were new for the Romanian fauna. Spider species assemblages of open pasture, scattered trees, trees and shrubs and the forest edge were statistically distinct. Our study shows that sparsely scattered mature woody vegetation and shrubs substantially increases the ecological value of managed pastures. The structural complexity provided by scattered trees and shrubs makes possible the co-occurrence of high spider diversity with a moderately high intensity grazing possible in this wood-pasture. Our results are in line with recent empirical research showing that sparse trees and shrubs increases the biodiversity potential of pastures managed for commodity production.

  19. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard


    The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were reco......-exposed pastures. A comparable relationship was found for Haematobia irritans. With Haematobosca stimulans (Mg.) and Morellia spp. no relation between grassland environment and fly density was detected....

  20. The influence of feedback on hay pastures. | N.F.G. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding of hay to sheep or cattle on an Eragrostis curvula pasture during the winter months has a most beneficial effect on the response of the pasture to fertilization in subsequent seasons. Low rates of feedback (10 t/ha) had an effect for two seasons whilst the effect of 30 t/ha lasted for at least three seasons and was ...

  1. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  2. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  3. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and semi-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137 Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137 Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasturerespect to 137 Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively.;

  4. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasikallio, Arja; Sormunen-Cristian, Riitta


    A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and semi-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137 Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137 Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasturerespect to 137 Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively

  5. Horse Welfare and Natural Values on Semi-Natural and Extensive Pastures in Finland: Synergies and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen


    Full Text Available In several regions in Europe, the horse is becoming a common grazer on semi-natural and cultivated grasslands, though the pasturing benefits for animals and biodiversity alike are not universally appreciated. The composition of ground vegetation on pastures determines the value of both the forage for grazing animals as well as the biodiversity values for species associated with the pastoral ecosystems. We studied three pastures, each representing one of the management types in southern Finland (latitudes 60–61: semi-natural, permanent and cultivated grassland. All have been grazed exclusively by horses for several decades. We aimed to evaluate feeding values and horses’ welfare, on the one hand, and impacts of horses on biodiversity in boreal conditions, on the other. Though there were differences among the pastures, the nutritional value of the vegetation in all three pastures met the energy and protein needs of most horse categories through the whole grazing season. Some mineral concentrations were low compared to the requirements, and supplementation of Cu, Zn and Na is needed to balance the mineral intake. Only minor injuries or health problems were observed. All metrics of biological values, as well as number of species eaten by horses, were particularly high in a semi-natural pasture compared to other pasture types. The highest ratio of species cover preferred by horses to the total cover was found in the permanent pasture, while at the regularly re-seeded pasture, there was a particularly high cover of species, indicating low biodiversity values on grassland. There was, therefore, a trade-off between the quantity of forage and biological values in pastures, but not in quality. The results provide clear indication both for the suitability of the studied pasture types to horses and for grazing of horses for biodiversity management. In each pasture type, specific management is needed to simultaneously achieve objectives of adequate

  6. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.


    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  7. Effects of pasture renovation on hydrology, nutrient runoff, and forage yield. (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Moore, P A; Formica, J; Van Eps, M; DeLaune, P B


    Proper pasture management is important in promoting optimal forage growth and reducing runoff and nutrient loss. Pasture renovation is a management tool that improves aeration by mechanically creating holes or pockets within the soil. Pasture renovation was performed before manure application (poultry litter or swine slurry) on different pasture soils and rainfall simulations were conducted to identify the effects of pasture renovation on nutrient runoff and forage growth. Renovation of small plots resulted in significant and beneficial hydrological changes. During the first rainfall simulation, runoff volumes were 45 to 74% lower for seven out of eight renovated treatments, and infiltration rates increased by 3 to 87% for all renovated treatments as compared with nonrenovated treatments. Renovation of pasture soils fertilized with poultry litter led to significant reductions in dissolved reactive P (DRP) (74-87%), total P (TP) (76-85%), and total nitrogen (TN) (72-80%) loads in two of the three soils studied during the first rainfall simulation. Renovation did not result in any significant differences in forage yields. Overall, beneficial impacts of renovation lasted up to 3 mo, the most critical period for nutrient runoff following manure application. Therefore, renovation could be an important best management practice in these areas.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Araújo de Freitas


    Full Text Available Environmental degradation in grassland areas is a major constraint for the performance of ranching, which dominates the extensive grazing system on pasture. Therefore, this study aimed to carry out environmental assessment of pasture degradation areas in the municipality of Gurupi-TO. An environmental diagnosis was conducted in four properties: farm “Morada do Boi III”, farm “Jatobá”, and farm “Nova Esperança”. The environmental degradation was evaluated according to the following methods: (a Interview structured in a questionnaire in order to survey: formation, degradation, rehabilitation and maintenance of pastures; (B Soil sample collecting, 0-20 cm; and (c Visual assessment of the environmental degradation level. With regard to the third method, five different parameters such as: Strength and Quality of pasture, Plant population, Weeds, Ground cover, and Erosion were utilized in this evaluation. According to this, individual keys were set up for each parameter, keys that range from 1 to four 4, in which 1 was 75%. It was observed that the four properties are in degradation, but each at a different level. It was found moderate to very strong degradation, as is the case of farm “Jatobá”. It was observed, in all properties, that the soil fertility in decline is related to pasture degradation. Thus, environmental recovery strategies in the four properties are required. Keywords: soil fertility; degradation of pastures; Brachiaria brizantha.

  9. Ingestive behavior, performance and forage intake by beef heifers on tropical pasture systems

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    Renato Alves de Oliveira Neto


    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate forage intake, performance and ingestive behavior of beef heifers. Productive, structural and chemical characteristics of the pasture were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three pasture systems (Alexandergrass [Urochloa plantaginea Link.] with and without supplement to heifers and Coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] and two phenological stages: vegetative and flowering. The grazing method was put-and-take stocking. Grazing, ruminating and idle activities, feeding stations, displacement patterns, bite mass and bite rate were evaluated. The forage intake was estimated using chromic oxide as an indicator of fecal output. The heifers modified the use of feeding stations and displacement patterns between phenological stages and pasture systems. Heifers consumed more forage in the vegetative stage (2.81% of body weight in dry matter than in the flowering stage (1.92% of body weight in dry matter. Average daily gain, body condition and stocking rate were similar for heifers in the evaluated systems. Beef heifers receiving protein supplement on Alexandergrass pasture consumed more forage than heifers fed Coastcross exclusively. Regardless of the species, no difference was observed when the heifers were exclusively on pasture. Pasture systems on Alexandergrass or Coastcross provide suitable nutrient intake for heifers to be mated at 18 months of age.

  10. Trophic structure of macroinvertebrates in tropical pasture streams

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    Bruna Neves da Silveira-Manzotti

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to describe the diet of stream macroinvertebrates and to determine their trophic groups. Methods Invertebrates were sampled with D nets in three pasture streams. They were identified to genus level and submitted to gut content analysis, except for fluid feeders such as hemipterans, to which diet data was obtained from the literature. Trophic groups were determined based on a similarity analysis using the Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. Results Five trophic groups were defined: fine-detritivores (feed mostly on fine particulate organic matter - FPOM, coarse-detritivores/herbivores (feed mostly on coarse particulate organic matter - CPOM - and plant material, omnivores, specialist-predators (prey upon aquatic insects only, and generalist-predators. Ephemeroptera, Diptera (except Tanypodinae, Coleoptera, and Trichoptera (except Smicridea were detritivores. The caddis Macronema (Trichoptera fed exclusively on plant detritus and Tanypodinae and Smicridea were classified as omnivores. The odonate families Calopterygidae and Gomphidae were classified as specialist-predators, while Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Belostoma, and Limnocoris (Hemiptera were generalist-predators. Conclusions The great quantity and frequency of occurrence of FPOM consumed by most taxa highlight the importance of this food resource for macroinvertebrate communities from tropical streams. Furthermore, observed variations on trophic group assignment for some taxa indicate the generalist and opportunistic nature of these aquatic invertebrates. Such findings reinforce the importance of conducting gut content analysis on macroinvertebrates to understand their role in the structure and functioning of tropical streams.

  11. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

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    Denise Baptaglin Montagner


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  12. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

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    Woźny, Marek


    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  13. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  14. A Contextual Analysis of Land-Use and Vegetation Changes in Two Wooded Pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Chételat


    The most important changes in tree density occurred during World War II and resulted in a more open landscape. The intensive use of wooded pastures during the war was the consequence of a high demand for wood and food resources. Postwar protectionist regulations, agricultural subsidies, and technical improvements maintained considerable pressure on wooded pastures. Storms and drought episodes further exacerbated this process in some areas. The trend then reversed from the 1970s onwards because of the limitations put on milk production and the falling price of wood. This resulted in a more extensive use of pastures, leading to tree encroachment. However, remote sites were more impacted than pastures closer to inhabited areas, which exhibited a trend towards more segregation between grassland and densely wooded pastures. With both extensification and segregation of land use, the complex vegetation mosaic and the landscape diversity that characterize wooded pastures are threatened but still offer good economic opportunities that call for differentiated management strategies.

  15. Identifying Communication Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Appalachian Kentuckians. (United States)

    Bachman, Audrey Smith; Cohen, Elisia L; Collins, Tom; Hatcher, Jennifer; Crosby, Richard; Vanderpool, Robin C


    Utilizing data from 40 in-depth interviews, this article identifies both barriers and facilitators to colorectal screening guideline adherence among Appalachian Kentucky adults recruited through a community-based research network. Key findings identify (a) varying levels of knowledge about screening guidelines, (b) reticence to engage in screening processes, and (c) nuanced communication with healthcare providers and family members regarding screening adherence. What participants knew about the screening process was often derived from personal stories or recalled stories from family members about their screening experiences. Reticence to engage in screening processes reflected reports of cumbersome preparation, privacy issues, embarrassment, medical mistrust, fear of receiving a cancer diagnosis, and lack of symptoms. Participants cited many ways to enhance patient-centered communication, and the findings from this study have implications for health communication message design and communication strategies for healthcare practices in Appalachian Kentucky clinics.

  16. Appalachian States Compact Low-Level Radioactive Waste management survey, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.N.


    Since the enactment of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act in February 1988, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has undertaken major steps to develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Disposal Facility within its borders for the exclusive use of radioactive material licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. In order to adequately plan for the design and development of that facility, it is essential to obtain accurate data on LLRW being generated in the Compact. To that end, the Division of Nuclear Safety of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) conducted a survey to determine volume and activity of LLRW shipped and stored in 1987 by the licensees in the Appalachian States Compact. The 1986 LLRW survey included licensees in Pennsylvania and Maryland, while surveys conducted prior to 1986 involved only Pennsylvania licensees. So this is the first survey conducted by BRP that has included all four states of the Compact

  17. Bat activity following restoration prescribed burning in the central Appalachian Upland and riparian habitats (United States)

    Austin, Lauren V.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Muthersbaugh, Michael; Powers, Karen E.


    After decades of fire suppression in eastern North America, land managers now are prioritizing prescribed fire as a management tool to restore or maintain fire-adapted vegetation communities. However, in long—fire-suppressed landscapes, such as the central and southern Appalachians, it is unknown how bats will respond to prescribed fire in both riparian and upland forest habitats. To address these concerns, we conducted zero-crossing acoustic surveys of bat activity in burned, unburned, riparian, and non-riparian areas in the central Appalachians, Virginia, USA. Burn and riparian variables had model support (ΔAICc fire differently between upland and riparian forest habitats, but overall, large landscape-level prescribed fire has a slightly positive to neutral impact on all bats species identified at our study site post—fire application.

  18. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth. (United States)

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R


    Rates of overweight among US children have been rising over the past three decades. Changes in lifestyle behaviors, including dietary and physical activity habits, have been examined thoroughly to identify correlates of weight status in children. Youth in rural US Appalachia are at a disproportionately greater risk for obesity and related health complications. Inadequate physical activity and poor dietary habits are two primary causes of obesity that have been noted in West Virginia adolescents. Few existing data describes the decisional balance in performing lifestyle behaviors, nor the perceptions of these youth regarding their beliefs about weight. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of a healthy weight in rural Appalachian adolescents. Ninth grade students were recruited from classroom presentations in four high schools throughout West Virginia. Interested parent-caregiver pairs returned forms to indicate interest in participation. Separate focus group interviews were conducted concurrently with adolescent and parents or caregivers to identify the cultural perceptions of a healthy weight. Questions were developed using grounded theory to explore how a healthy weight was defined, what factors dictate body weight, the perceived severity of the obesity issue, and the social or health ramifications of the condition. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify dominant themes, and content analysis provided text segments to describe the themes. This article describes the data obtained from the adolescent focus groups. When asked what defined a healthy weight, the adolescents who participated in the focus groups placed great value on physical appearance and social acceptability. Students believed there was a particular number, either an absolute weight or body mass index value that determined a healthy weight. These numbers were usually conveyed by a physician; however, there was also a general acceptance of being 'thick' or a reliance on

  19. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble


    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  20. Adult tooth loss for residents of US coal mining and Appalachian counties. (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Ducatman, Alan M; Zullig, Keith J; Ahern, Melissa M; Crout, Richard


    The authors compared rates of tooth loss between adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas and other areas of the nation before and after control for covariate risks. The authors conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis that merged 2006 national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (BRFSS) (N = 242 184) with county coal-mining data and other county characteristics. The hypothesis tested was that adult tooth loss would be greater in Appalachian mining areas after control for other risks. Primary independent variables included main effects for coal-mining present (yes/no) residence in Appalachia (yes/no), and their interaction. Data were weighted using the BRFSS final weights and analyzed using SUDAAN Proc Multilog to account for the multilevel complex sampling structure. The odds of two measures of tooth loss were examined controlling for age, race\\ethnicity, drinking, smoking, income, education, supply of dentists, receipt of dental care, fluoridation rate, and other variables. After covariate adjustment, the interaction variable for the residents of Appalachian coal-mining counties showed a significantly elevated odds for any tooth loss [odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.38], and greater tooth loss measured by a 4-level edentulism scale (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.36). The main effect for Appalachia was also significant for both measures, but the main effect for coal mining was not. Greater risk of tooth loss among adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas is present and is not explained by differences in reported receipt of dental care, fluoridation rates, supply of dentists or other behavioral or socioeconomic risks. Possible contributing factors include mining-specific disparities related to access, behavior or environmental exposures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Predicting climate change extirpation risk for central and southern Appalachian forest tree species (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; William W. Hargrove; Frank H. Koch


    Climate change will likely pose a severe threat to the viability of certain forest tree species, which will be forced either to adapt to new conditions or to shift to more favorable environments if they are to survive. Several forest tree species of the central and southern Appalachians may be at particular risk, since they occur in limited high-elevation ranges and/or...

  2. Constraints on seismic anisotropy beneath the Appalachian Mountains from Love-to-Rayleigh wave scattering (United States)

    Servali, A.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M.


    The eastern margin of North America has been affected by a series of mountain building and rifting events that have likely shaped the deep structure of the lithosphere. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insight into lithospheric deformation associated with these past tectonic events, as well as into present-day patterns of mantle flow beneath the passive margin. Previous work on SKS splitting beneath eastern North America has revealed fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian orogen in the central and southern Appalachians. A major challenge to the interpretation of SKS splitting measurements, however, is the lack of vertical resolution; isolating anisotropic structures at different depths is therefore difficult. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves. In this study, we analyze the scattering of Love wave energy to Rayleigh waves, which is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the ray path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depend on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the angle between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. We analyze data collected by the dense MAGIC seismic array across the central Appalachians. We examine teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and greater over a range of backazimuths, and isolate surface waves at periods between 100 and 500 seconds. We compare the data to synthetic seismograms generated by the Princeton Global ShakeMovie initiative to identify anomalous QL arrivals. We find evidence significant QL arrivals at MAGIC stations, with amplitudes depending on propagation azimuth and station location. Preliminary results are consistent with a sharp lateral gradient in seismic anisotropy across the Appalachian Mountains in the depth range between 100-200 km.

  3. Production and cost analysis of a feller-buncher in central Appalachian hardwood forest (United States)

    Charlie Long; Jingxin Wang; Joe McNeel; John Baumgras; John Baumgras


    A time study was conducted to evaluate the productivity and cost of a feller-buncher operating in a Central Appalachian hardwood forest. The sites harvested during observation consisted of primarily red maple and black cherry. Trees felled in the study had an average diameter at breast height (DBH) of 16.1 in. and a total merchantable height of 16 ft. A Timbco 445C...

  4. Prescribed Burning For Laurel and Rhodendron Control in the Southern appalachians (United States)

    Ralph M. Hooper


    Prescribed fire shows promise as a tool for the control of laurel and rhododendron in the Southern Appalachian mountains. A recent prescribed fire killed the tops of 70 percent of ail laurel under 0.5 inch d.b.h. and 70 percent of the rhododendron under 1 inch d.b.h. Seventeen months after the bum, almost all of the top-killed laurel and rhododendron have...

  5. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  6. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States. (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D


    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. MODIS Time Series to Detect Anthropogenic Interventions and Degradation Processes in Tropical Pasture

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    Daniel Alves Aguiar


    Full Text Available The unavoidable diet change in emerging countries, projected for the coming years, will significantly increase the global consumption of animal protein. It is expected that Brazilian livestock production, responsible for close to 15% of global production, be prepared to answer to the increasing demand of beef. Consequently, the evaluation of pasture quality at regional scale is important to inform public policies towards a rational land use strategy directed to improve livestock productivity in the country. Our hypothesis is that MODIS images can be used to evaluate the processes of degradation, restoration and renovation of tropical pastures. To test this hypothesis, two field campaigns were performed covering a route of approximately 40,000 km through nine Brazilian states. To characterize the sampled pastures, biophysical parameters were measured and observations about the pastures, the adopted management and the landscape were collected. Each sampled pasture was evaluated using a time series of MODIS EVI2 images from 2000–2012, according to a new protocol based on seven phenological metrics, 14 Boolean criteria and two numerical criteria. The theoretical basis of this protocol was derived from interviews with producers and livestock experts during a third field campaign. The analysis of the MODIS EVI2 time series provided valuable historical information on the type of intervention and on the biological degradation process of the sampled pastures. Of the 782 pastures sampled, 26.6% experienced some type of intervention, 19.1% were under biological degradation, and 54.3% presented neither intervention nor trend of biomass decrease during the period analyzed.

  8. Mapping of macro and micro nutrients of mixed pastures using airborne AisaFENIX hyperspectral imagery (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Yule, I. J.


    On-farm assessment of mixed pasture nutrient concentrations is important for animal production and pasture management. Hyperspectral imaging is recognized as a potential tool to quantify the nutrient content of vegetation. However, it is a great challenge to estimate macro and micro nutrients in heterogeneous mixed pastures. In this study, canopy reflectance data was measured by using a high resolution airborne visible-to-shortwave infrared (Vis-SWIR) imaging spectrometer measuring in the wavelength region 380-2500 nm to predict nutrient concentrations, nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn) copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) in heterogeneous mixed pastures across a sheep and beef farm in hill country, within New Zealand. Prediction models were developed using four different methods which are included partial least squares regression (PLSR), kernel PLSR, support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR) algorithms and their performance compared using the test data. The results from the study revealed that RFR produced highest accuracy (0.55 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.78; 6.68% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 26.47%) compared to all other algorithms for the majority of nutrients (N, P, K, Zn, Na, Cu and Mg) described, and the remaining nutrients (S and Mn) were predicted with high accuracy (0.68 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.86; 13.00% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 14.64%) using SVR. The best training models were used to extrapolate over the whole farm with the purpose of predicting those pasture nutrients and expressed through pixel based spatial maps. These spatially registered nutrient maps demonstrate the range and geographical location of often large differences in pasture nutrient values which are normally not measured and therefore not included in decision making when considering more effective ways to utilized pasture.

  9. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators

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    Cristiane Alcantara dos Santos


    Full Text Available Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded pasture withUrochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. R.D. Webster, a trial with threeP. maximum (cv. Massai, Tanzânia, or Mombaça was conducted. Lime and phosphate were applied at set-up, and mineral N and K as topdressing. A remnant of degraded pasture adjacent to the trial was used as control. Twenty-three chemical, physical, microbiological and biochemical attributes were assessed for the 0-10 cm topsoil. The procedures for reclamation improved most of the indicators of soil health in relation to the degraded pasture, such as soil P, mineral N, microbial biomass C, ammonification rate, dehydrogenase activity and acid phosphatase. CO2 evolution decreased, whereas microbial biomass C increased in the pasture under reclamation, resulting in a lower metabolic quotient (qCO2 that points to a decrease in metabolic stress of the microbial community. The reclamation of the pasture withP. maximum, especially cv. Mombaça, were evidenced by improvements in the microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators, showing a recovery of processes related to C, N and P cycling in the soil.

  10. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures. (United States)

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y


    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.

  11. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry. (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan


    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  12. The Challenges of Bottom-up Approach of Natural-Social Integration in China Highland Pasture Management (United States)

    Ai, Likun


    The pasture land covers two fifth of total Chinese land area, which is mainly distributed in western highland of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan Provinces. China pasture land is not only in charge of providing food resource to regional people, but also plays important role in highland ecosystem services and biodiversity. Along with global warming and enhanced grazing activity, 90% of China pasture land is facing the threat of land degradation. From middle 1990's, Chinese government has released a series of pasture land conservation policies to prevent further environmental degradation. In the same time, lots of pasture ecosystem and environment change researches are supported by national and regional funding agencies. In this study, by monitoring and investigating this top-down approach of pasture land research and policy making processes, we would like to find out the gaps and problems of current research and policy making on China pasture land conservation, especially focusing on the possibility of establishing the bottom-up approach of natural-social sciences integration to support the pasture land conservation and sustainable pasture land management in highland China.

  13. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson


    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  14. Ecosystem services from converted land: the importance of tree cover in Amazonian pastures (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Valentim, Judson; Turner, B. L.


    Deforestation is responsible for a substantial fraction of global carbon emissions and changes in surface energy budgets that affect climate. Deforestation losses include wildlife and human habitat, and myriad forest products on which rural and urban societies depend for food, fiber, fuel, fresh water, medicine, and recreation. Ecosystem services gained in the transition from forests to pasture and croplands, however, are often ignored in assessments of the impact of land cover change. The role of converted lands in tropical areas in terms of carbon uptake and storage is largely unknown. Pastures represent the fastest-growing form of converted land use in the tropics, even in some areas of rapid urban expansion. Tree biomass stored in these areas spans a broad range, depending on tree cover. Trees in pasture increase carbon storage, provide shade for cattle, and increase productivity of forage material. As a result, increasing fractional tree cover can provide benefits land managers as well as important ecosystem services such as reducing conversion pressure on forests adjacent to pastures. This study presents an estimation of fractional tree cover in pasture in a dynamic region on the verge of large-scale land use change. An appropriate sampling interval is established for similar studies, one that balances the need for independent samples of sufficient number to characterize a pasture in terms of fractional tree cover. This information represents a useful policy tool for government organizations and NGOs interested in encouraging ecosystem services on converted lands. Using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery, fractional tree cover in pasture is quantified for the municipality of Rio Branco, Brazil. A semivariogram and devolving spatial resolution are employed to determine the coarsest sampling interval that may be used, minimizing effects of spatial autocorrelation. The coarsest sampling interval that minimizes spatial dependence was about 22 m. The

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from forests and pastures of various ages in the Brazilian Amazon (United States)

    Melillo, J. M.; Steudler, P. A.; Feigl, B. J.; Neill, C.; Garcia, D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Cerri, C. C.; Tian, H.


    Nitrous oxide emissions from tropical forest soils are thought to account for 2.2-3.7 Tg N yr-1 of the total annual global production of 10-17 Tg N yr-1. Recent research suggests that clearing of tropical forest for pasture can increase N2O emissions but that the period of elevated emissions may be limited and fluxes from older pastures may be lower than from the original forest. Here we report N2O emissions from two land-use sequences in the Brazilian Amazon's state of Rondônia. Each sequence includes a forest and a set of pastures of different ages. One sequence contains a newly created pasture that we studied intensively through its first 2 years, including forest cutting, burning, and the planting of forage grasses. Emissions from the newly created pasture were about two and one half times the forest emissions during the first 2 years (5.0 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 versus 1.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). Nitrous oxide fluxes from pastures older than 3 years were on average about one third lower than fluxes from uncut forest (1.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 versus 1.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). The best predictor of N2O flux across the chronosequences was the magnitude of the NO3 pool in the upper 10 cm of soil measured at the time of gas sampling. Using a simple cohort model combined with deforestation rates estimated from satellite images by Brazil's Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) for the period 1978 through 1997, we estimate that for the Brazilian Amazon the basin-wide flux of N2O-N from pasture soils was 0.06 Tg in 1997. This is ˜8% of the combined forest plus pasture flux of 0.78 Tg N2O-N we estimate for the Brazilian part of the basin in 1997. In the absence of any forest-to-pasture conversion in the Brazilian part of the basin, we estimate that the basin-wide flux of N2O-N would have been only slightly larger: 0.80 Tg in 1997. Through a second modeling analysis we estimate that for the whole of the Amazon Basin, including parts of the basin outside of Brazil, the N2O

  16. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

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    Karlize Prigol


    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  17. Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Silvis, Alexander; Johnson, Joshua B.; Edwards, John W.; Karp, Milu


    The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trovessart) is a cavity-roosting species that forages in cluttered upland and riparian forests throughout the oak-dominated Appalachian and Central Hardwoods regions. Common prior to white-nose syndrome, the population of this bat species has declined to functional extirpation in some regions in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, including portions of the central Appalachians. Our long-term research in the central Appalachians has shown that maternity colonies of this species form non-random assorting networks in patches of suitable trees that result from long- and short-term forest disturbance processes, and that roost loss can occur with these disturbances. Following two consecutive prescribed burns on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA, in 2007 to 2008, post-fire counts of suitable black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.; the most selected species for roosting) slightly decreased by 2012. Conversely, post-fire numbers of suitable maple (Acer spp. L.), primarily red maple (Acer rubrum L.), increased by a factor of three, thereby ameliorating black locust reduction. Maternity colony network metrics such as roost degree (use) and network density for two networks in the burned compartment were similar to the single network observed in unburned forest. However, roost clustering and degree of roost centralization was greater for the networks in the burned forest area. Accordingly, the short-term effects of prescribed fire are slightly or moderately positive in impact to day-roost habitat for the northern long-eared bat in the central Appalachians from a social dynamic perspective. Listing of northern long-eared bats as federally threatened will bring increased scrutiny of immediate fire impacts from direct take as well as indirect impacts from long-term changes to roosting and foraging habitat in stands being returned to historic fire-return conditions. Unfortunately, definitive

  18. Pasture degradation modifies the water and carbon cycles of the Tibetan highlands

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    W. Babel


    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau has a significant role with regard to atmospheric circulation and the monsoon in particular. Changes between a closed plant cover and open bare soil are one of the striking effects of land use degradation observed with unsustainable range management or climate change, but experiments investigating changes of surface properties and processes together with atmospheric feedbacks are rare and have not been undertaken in the world's two largest alpine ecosystems, the alpine steppe and the Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau. We connected measurements of micro-lysimeter, chamber, 13C labelling, and eddy covariance and combined the observations with land surface and atmospheric models, adapted to the highland conditions. This allowed us to analyse how three degradation stages affect the water and carbon cycle of pastures on the landscape scale within the core region of the Kobresia pygmaea ecosystem. The study revealed that increasing degradation of the Kobresia turf affects carbon allocation and strongly reduces the carbon uptake, compromising the function of Kobresia pastures as a carbon sink. Pasture degradation leads to a shift from transpiration to evaporation while a change in the sum of evapotranspiration over a longer period cannot be confirmed. The results show an earlier onset of convection and cloud generation, likely triggered by a shift in evapotranspiration timing when dominated by evaporation. Consequently, precipitation starts earlier and clouds decrease the incoming solar radiation. In summary, the changes in surface properties by pasture degradation found on the highland have a significant influence on larger scales.

  19. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

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    Jyldyz Shigaeva


    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  20. Carbon turnover in two soils with contrasting mineralogy under long-term maize and pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, R.L.; Parshotam, A.; Salt, G.J.


    Total organic carbon (C) and natural 13 C abundance were measured in adjacent allophanic soils (Andisols) and non-allophanic soils (Inceptisols) under maize (Zea mays L.) and ryegrass pasture (Lolium perenne L.) to assess the C turnover rate in soils of contrasting mineralogy and specific surface area. The allophanic soil contained more total C than the non-allophanic soil (139v.101t C/ha in the upper 0-35 cm) but neither soil showed a significant difference in C content between pasture and maize, provided maize residue was retained and incorporated. The gross annual inputs under maize and pasture were both estimated to be about 9 t C/ha, consistent with the similar soil total C contents. Since the soil total C content did not appear to change with time, the gross C mineralisation was about 9 t C/ha each year. The proportion of old pasture C remaining in the soil after maize cropping for 25 years was about 78% in the allophanic soils and about 69% in the non-allophanic soils, reflecting the influence of both Al and allophane, with its high specific surface area, on the retention of old C. The maize C retained in 25 years was similar in both the allophanic soil and the non-allophanic soil (29 t/ha). Therefore, the higher total C content of the allophanic soil would appear to arise from stabilisation of old pasture and forest C by Al and allophane. Copyright (2002) CSIRO Publishing

  1. [Claw size of Scottish Highland Cows after pasture and housing periods]. (United States)

    Nuss, K; Kolp, E; Braun, U; Weidmann, E; Hässig, M


    The claws of pastured Scottish Highland Cattle are large and this may raise the question if regular claw trimming is necessary. Therefore, the claws of the right thoracic and pelvic limbs were measured in 22 Scottish Highland cows 4 times 8 weeks apart. The cows were kept on various alpine pastures before the first measurement, on a two-hectare low-land pasture before the second measurement, in a welfare-compliant straw-bedded free stall before the third measurement and on alpine pasture before the fourth measurement. Housing conditions significantly affected claw dimensions. The claws were composed of dry, hard horn during pasture periods, and had prominent weight-bearing hoof-wall borders and soles with a natural axial slope. Long dorsal walls and heels and a greater symmetry were common. Claw lesions were absent. In contrast, free-stall housing was associated with shorter toes and steeper toe angles, but white line deterioration, heel horn erosion, wearing of the axial slope and hoof wall edges were common.

  2. Management of microbial contamination in storm runoff from California coastal dairy pastures. (United States)

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Lennox, Michael S; Pereira, Maria D G; Miller, Woutrina A; Conrad, Patricia A; Tate, Kenneth W


    A survey of storm runoff fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from working farm and ranch pastures is presented in conjunction with a survey of FCB in manure management systems (MMS). The cross-sectional survey of pasture runoff was conducted on 34 pastures on five different dairies over 2 yr under varying conditions of precipitation, slope, manure management, and use of conservation practices such as vegetative filter strips. The MMS cross-sectional survey consisted of samples collected during 1 yr on nine different dairies from six loafing barns, nine primary lagoons, 12 secondary lagoons, and six irrigation sample points. Pasture runoff samples were additionally analyzed for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia duodenalis, whereby detectable concentrations occurred sporadically at higher FCB concentrations resulting in poor correlations with FCB. Prevalence of both parasites was lower relative to high-use areas studied simultaneously on these same farms. Application of manure to pastures more than 2 wk in advance of storm-associated runoff was related to a > or =80% reduction in FCB concentration and load compared to applications within 2 wk before a runoff event. For every 10 m of buffer length, a 24% reduction in FCB concentration was documented. A one-half (75%), one (90%), and two (99%) log10 reduction in manure FCB concentration was observed for manure holding times in MMS of approximately 20, 66, and 133 d, respectively. These results suggest that there are several management and conservation practices for working farms that may result in reduced FCB fluxes from agricultural operations.

  3. Community-based management: under what conditions do Sami pastoralists manage pastures sustainably?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera H Hausner

    Full Text Available Community-based management (CBM has been implemented in socio-ecological systems (SES worldwide. CBM has also been the prevailing policy in Sámi pastoral SES in Norway, but the outcomes tend to vary extensively among resource groups ("siidas". We asked why do some siidas self-organize to manage common pool resources sustainably and others do not? To answer this question we used a mixed methods approach. First, in the statistical analyses we analyzed the relationship between sustainability indicators and structural variables. We found that small winter pastures that are shared by few siidas were managed more sustainably than larger pastures. Seasonal siida stability, i.e., a low turnover of pastoralists working together throughout the year, and equality among herders, also contributed to more sustainable outcomes. Second, interviews were conducted in the five largest pastures to explain the relationships between the structural variables and sustainability. The pastoralists expressed a high level of agreement with respect to sustainable policies, but reported a low level of trust and cooperation among the siidas. The pastoralists requested siida tenures or clear rules and sanctioning mechanisms by an impartial authority rather than flexible organization or more autonomy for the siidas. The lack of nestedness in self-organization for managing pastures on larger scales, combined with the past economic policies, could explain why CBM is less sustainable on the largest winter pastures. We conclude that the scale mis-match between self-organization and the formal governance is a key condition for sustainability.

  4. Production and use of the pastures of the Colombia high Andean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotero Cadavid, J.


    A relationship of the most common pastures is made in the Andean high area between the 2000 and 3000 m.s.n.m. and of their native vegetable associations, as well as of the invaders plants and overgrowths. The gramineae germoplasm and leguminous is indicated that has been proven lower those conditions. Data of yield average of dry matter are presented for native and introduced grasses of cold climate in Colombia. Equally it is indicated the daily earnings by animal, the load capacity and the animal production with different fertilization systems and some parameters of productivity are shown of gramineous and leguminous introduced in the high areas of Colombia. The nutritious value of gramineous and leguminous of cold climate and its chemical composition are made. A description is made of the ecological areas of the Andean high area and the pastures types that prevail in them. The factors are described that they impact in the degree of deterioration of the pastures like the environment, the same grass, the handling, the livestock, the type of exploitation, the holding of the earth and the administration. The agricultural production systems are mentioned that are associate the Andean pastures, as well as the main obstacles to increase the production of the systems and pastures and their possible solutions

  5. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

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    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  6. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi. (United States)

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela


    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance.

  7. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. (Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)


    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  8. Application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. Progress report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutina, J.


    This report is concerned with the application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the U.S. It reviews analyses presented in previous reports which suggest that the basement of the Central and Eastern U.S. consists of large crustal blocks separated by major zones of tectonic weakness. The curvature of the Appalachian Fold Belt appears to be related to the east-west boundaries caused by subsiding and uplifting at these zones. A plot of epigenetic uranium occurrences reveals that they tend to cluster along the greater curvatures of the Appalachian orogeny. These findings have led to a systematic study of the regularities in the distribution of ore deposits in the Appalachians presented in this report. They include a description of geologic and geographic base maps, preparation of maps showing distribution of individual minerals, and regularities in the distribution of uranium in the Appalachians. Comments on the segmentation of the Appalachian orogeny by transverse lineaments are presented. The report contains seventeen maps of the eastern half of the U.S. showing specific mineral deposits in relation to geologic formations

  9. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

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    Matthew L. Niemiller


    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  10. Environmental determinants of the old oaks in wood-pastures from a changing traditional social-ecological system of Romania. (United States)

    Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Samoilă, Ciprian; Öllerer, Kinga; Băncilă, Raluca I; Réti, Kinga-Olga; Craioveanu, Cristina; Poszet, Szilárd; Rákosy, László; Hartel, Tibor


    Large, old trees are keystone ecological structures, their decline having disproportional ecological consequences. There is virtually no information available regarding the status and occurrence of old trees in traditional cultural landscapes from Eastern Europe. In this study, we explore the environmental determinants of the old oaks found in wood-pastures from a changing traditional rural landscape from Central Romania. Both the old oaks and the wood-pastures harboring them have exceptional cultural, historical, and ecological values, yet are vulnerable to land-use change. We surveyed 41 wood-pastures from Southern Transylvania and counted the old oaks in them. We then related the number of old oaks from these wood-pastures to a set of local and landscape level variables related to wood-pastures. We found 490 old oaks in 25 wood-pastures. The number of old oaks was positively related to the size of the wood-pasture and the amount of pasture and forest around it (500 m buffer), and negatively related to the proximity of the village. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between the effects of sheepfolds in the wood-pasture and the size of the wood-pasture on the number of old trees, indicating a negative influence of sheepfolds on the number of old trees in smaller sized wood-pastures. There is an increasing risk for losing old trees in the traditional cultural landscapes due to the lack of formal recognition of these trees. Therefore, while presenting the positive example of local initiatives and citizen science, we argue for an urgent development and implementation of conservation policies along with education strategies targeting the old trees and rural communities from the changing traditional cultural landscapes of Eastern Europe.

  11. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  12. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  13. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard


    recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude......The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... site variables explained 65-98% of the variation in densities of horn flies and sheep head flies observed between pastures. Highest densities of Hydrotaea irritans were primarily associated with permanent, low-lying, fairly sheltered grassland sites, whereas the density was low in temporary, dry, wind...

  14. Effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of dairy farms

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    Flávio de Moraes


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of 20 demonstrative units participating in the “Balde Cheio” Program in the state of Rio de Janeiro from January to December 2011. The following variables were obtained: dam/labor ratio, herd size/labor ratio, milk yield/labor ratio, animals/production area, percentage of lactating cows, and milk yield. Return was analyzed considering gross margin, net margin, outcome (profit or loss, and profitability. The data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 software. Pasture irrigation did not significantly alter the indicators studied. The greater profitability and return of farms using pasture irrigation were the consequence of better animal production rates/day and per ha/year. When gross margin, net margin and outcome using total revenue are considered, there is decapitalization of the farms. 

  15. Natural Radionuclides in Meadow and Pasture land in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Klas; Villanueva, José - Luis Gutiérrez; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information...... for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture...... grass –cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural...

  16. Soil 137Cs activity in a tropical deciduous ecosystem under pasture conversion in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Oliva, F.; Maass, J.M.


    Soil profiles of 137 Cs were measured in a tropical deciduous ecosystem under pasture conversion on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Soil samples were taken from unperturbed forest, and from pasture plots following forest conversion. The average total 137 Cs areal activity of non-eroded forest sites indicated a base level of 5 315 ± 427 Bq m -2 . On average, total areal activity on hill-tops was significantly higher (range 10-47%) in the forest than in the pastures. A significant correlation was found between the total 137 Cs areal activity and soil organic matter content (r 2 = 0.16). This correlation can be explained by a soil physical-protection hypothesis. The redistribution of 137 Cs in the landscape is explained by soil erosion processes. (author)

  17. Determination of 90Sr Abundance in Different Kind of Pasture at PPTN Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyati; Murdahayu Makmur; Agus Gindo S


    The determination of 90 Sr abundance in the pasture grass around Serpong had been done. The aim of the research is to determine 90 Sr abundance in the pasture which could be used to estimate the dose received by human in food chain pathways. The mean of 90 Sr mean activities in pasture around PPTN Serpong is 14.14 ± 3.7 mBq/kg, this result is insignificantly different compared to its control (off-site), i.e. 14.18 ± 6.9 mBq/kg. Elephant grass (Penisettum Purpureum) has the highest abundance of 90 Sr which is 24.8 ± 15.6 mBq/kg, followed by teki grass (Setaria Spha Celata) and ilalang grass (Imperata Cylinrica) which are 14.9 ± 6.0 mBq/kg and 8.0 ± 4.8 mBq/kg, respectively. (author)

  18. Soil organic carbon in riparian forests, rice fields, and pastures in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jair Andrade-Castañeda


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in the interface between riparian forests and a matrix of rice fields and pastures with organic management. The study took place in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia. Two plots in production (rice and pasture were selected and SOC was estimated in these areas and in the edge and the interior of adjacent riparian forests at a depth of 0 to 20 cm. Bulk density and SOC concentration were quantified between May and July, 2013. Potential change in SOC storage due to land use change among rice fields, pastures, and riparian forests was estimated. The interfaces rice field-riparian forest and pasture-riparian forest stored an average of 65.6 and 61.3 t C/ha, respectively, with no statistical differences (p>0.05. Statistical differences were not detected (p>0.05 between agricultural matrices (rice fields and pastures in any of the variables. The sampling position (matrix and the edge and interior of forests had a significant impact (p<0.05 just in bulk density: 1.7 vs 1.1 vs 1.0 g/cm3 in interior and edge of the riparian forests and the matrix, respectively. SOC was not statistically affected (p>0.05 by the position in the riparian forest-matrix interface. Conversion from riparian forests to rice fields or pastures with organic management is not emitting greenhouse gases, on the contrary, it is increasing SOC in 3.2 t C/ha. 

  19. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

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    Gunter Stacey A


    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  20. Floristic and phytosociology of weeds in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaílson Penha Costa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of weed floristic composition and phytosociology are key factors for improving weed management in pastures. Information on weed species that occur in pastures in Northeast Brazil, particularly in Maranhão State is very limited. It is, therefore, important, to search for information to help farmers to control weeds in livestock farming. This paper describes the weed flora diversity and community structure parameters, including density, frequency, abundance and importance value for each weed species found in five pastures of same age and management in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil. The weed survey was carried out using a wooden frame (80 cm x 30 cm placed randomly on the soil surface 30 times in each pasture (n = 150. Weeds were pulled out, separated by species and counted. The weed flora was represented by 996 individuals, from nine families, 15 genera and 19 species. Weed density within pastures was of 44.3 plants m-2. The weed flora was dominated by species of the Cyperaceae and Poaceae families. The most important weed species based on Importance Value were Eragrostis ciliaris (IV = 32.97, Cyperus rotundus (IV = 31,95, Cyperus luzulae (IV = 27,50, Cyperus sphacelatus (IV = 27,42, Pycreus lanceolatus (IV = 27,33 Cyperus haspan (IV = 25,72 and Eleusine indica (IV = 23,49. Weed diversity, based on Shannon Diversity Index was very high (H' = 4.37 nats ind-1. Our results could lead to improved weed management in pastures in Maranhão State, Northeast Brazil.

  1. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures. (United States)

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R


    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Health Care Needs among Children with Special Health Care Needs in Ohio's Metropolitan and Appalachian Counties. (United States)

    Earley, Elizabeth; Asti, Lindsey; Chisolm, Deena


    The study assessed whether children with special health care needs (CSHCN) living in Appalachian Ohio have differential health care utilization, unmet needs, and health outcomes compared with CSHCN in Ohio's metropolitan counties using a statewide Ohio survey. Based on this survey, an estimated 28% of children in Appalachian Ohio counties have special health care needs compared with 25% of children in metropolitan counties. In Appalachia, CSHCN are poorer and more likely to have Medicaid than their metropolitan counterparts, but had no reported significant differences in health outcomes or unmet needs. Data suggested a trend toward higher use of emergency department care and inpatient services and lower use of well-child visits but these differences did not reach significance. We conclude that CSHCN in Appalachian and metropolitan areas face similar levels of health status and unmet needs but results suggest a need for additional research on access to primary care services.

  3. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  4. The role of rodents in the seed fate of a thorny shrub in an ancient wood pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, Jeroen; Smit, Christian


    Thorny shrubs play a crucial role for the diversity and dynamics in wood pastures: they protect non-defended plants from large herbivores and thus facilitate tree establishment in the landscape through associational resistance. How thorny shrubs themselves establish in wood pastures - the main

  5. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe


    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  6. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms. (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R


    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received 30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat

  7. Rationally Managed Pastures Stock More Carbon than No-Tillage Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizumi L. S. Seó


    Full Text Available A significant share of Greenhouse Gases (GHG produced from agriculture comes from cattle farming. The reduction in GHG emissions from ruminants fed with grains has led some researchers to recommend such a diet as a means of mitigating emissions in the sector. A more accurate balance of emissions, however, must include the carbon (C stocked by feed crops. Within the grain production system, no-tillage (NT cultivation systems have a greater capacity to increase and store soil organic carbon (SOC. Within grazing management systems, the rotation used in Voisin's Rational Grazing (VRG allows the accumulation of SOC through root growth. The objective of this study was to assess the C stock of pasture under VRG and compare soil C stock between VRG pasture and fields under no-tillage management, in two seasons over a period of 1 year. The study included five dairy farms in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In each property, we collected soil to quantify SOC from VRG pasture and NT fields, in summer and winter. In the pasture, to determine the total stock, we also collected samples from the aerial parts of plants and the roots. Further, we estimated how efficient would be producing milk from those pastures or from those crops. The VRG pasture showed a greater capacity to stock C in the soil than the no-tillage fields (VRG = 115.0 Mg C ha−1; NT = 92.5 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00009, with the greatest difference at a depth of 0–10 cm (VRG = 41 Mg C ha−1; NT = 32 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00008. In VRG, 95% of C was in the soil, 1% in the aerial part of plants, and 4% in the roots. On pasture was produced 0.15 kg of−1 of C stored, and on NT system 0.13 kg of−1 of C stored. In this study, we conclude that independent of season, the soil in well managed pastures had a greater stock of C, produced more milk and produced more−1 of stored C than fields under NT management. Therefore, when comparing GHG emissions of ruminants with different

  8. Transfer of iodine-131 from deposition-to-milk : estimation of pasture intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.


    In assessments of radiological transport of I-131 from fallout deposition to cow's milk, knowledge of the fraction of the dairy cow's diet that is due to fresh pasture is essential because it is the only portion of the feed that may be contaminated to a substantial extent. For studies involving past fallout events covering large geographic areas, such as the current effort by the National Cancer Institute to assess the exposure to I-131 received by the American people during the Nevada Test Site atmospheric weapons tests conducted during the 1950's, it is necessary to derive this estimate of pasture consumption from past records

  9. Transfer of 131I and sup(95m)Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.


    The purpose of this research was to compare the behaviour of 131 I (Tsub(1/2)=8.0d) and sup(95m)Tc (Tsub(1/2)=61d), which were sprayed on to pasture that was subsequently grazed by a herd of dairy goats. The transfer of 131 I to goats milk was about 5600 times more than that of sup(95m)Tc after 5 d of grazing contaminated pasture. Most of the difference appeared to be explained by a progressive immobilisation of technetium on vegetation, which occurred during the first few days of the experiment. (UK)

  10. Methods for assessing the impact of avermectins on the decomposer community of sheep pastures. (United States)

    King, K L


    This paper outlines methods which can be used in the field assessment of potentially toxic chemicals such as the avermectins. The procedures focus on measuring the effects of the drug on decomposer organisms and the nutrient cycling process in pastures grazed by sheep. Measurements of decomposer activity are described along with methods for determining dry and organic matter loss and mineral loss from dung to the underlying soil. Sampling methods for both micro- and macro-invertebrates are discussed along with determination of the percentage infection of plant roots with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. An integrated sampling unit for assessing the ecotoxicity of ivermectin in pastures grazed by sheep is presented.

  11. Contamination dynamics in fallouts, pasturable vegetation and milk in Leningrad distrist after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedbaevskaya, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Blinova, L.D.; Kryshev, I.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.


    Radiation monitoring of individual elements of agroecosystem in the area of the Leningrad NPP is carried out with the purpose of studying the concentration dynamics of radioisotopes in the atmosphere resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. The γ-radiation dose rate on the terrain, content and radionuclide composition of atmospheric fallout, content of γ-emitting isotopes in the soil and plants at pastures is monitored from April up to September 1986; radioisotope content in cow milk by pasturing is determined

  12. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan


    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  13. Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Kniowski, Andrew B.; Ford, W. Mark


    In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer

  14. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Moran


    Full Text Available Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  15. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available


    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  16. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.


    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  17. The role of catastrophic geomorphic events in central Appalachian landscape evolution (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Miller, A.J.; Smith, J.A.


    Catastrophic geomorphic events are taken as those that are large, sudden, and rare on human timescales. In the nonglaciated, low-seismicity central Appalachians, these are dominantly floods and landslides. Evaluation of the role of catastrophic events in landscape evolution includes assessment of their contributions to denudation and formation of prominent landscape features, and how they vary through space and time. Tropical storm paths and topographic barriers at the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Front create significant climatic variability across the Appalachians. For moderate floods, the influence of basin geology is apparent in modifying severity of flooding, but for the most extreme events, flood discharges relate mainly to rainfall characteristics such as intensity, duration, storm size, and location. Landslide susceptibility relates more directly to geologic controls that determine what intensity and duration of rainfall will trigger slope instability. Large floods and landslides are not necessarily effective in producing prominent geomorphic features. Large historic floods in the Piedmont have been minimally effective in producing prominent and persistent geomorphic features. In contrast, smaller floods in the Valley and Ridge produced erosional and depositional features that probably will require thousands of years to efface. Scars and deposits of debris slide-avalanches triggered on sandstone ridges recover slowly and persist much longer than scars and deposits of smaller landslides triggered on finer-grained regolith, even though the smaller landslides may have eroded greater aggregate volume. The surficial stratigraphic record can be used to extend the spatial and temporal limits of our knowledge of catastrophic events. Many prominent alluvial and colluvial landforms in the central Appalachians are composed of sediments that were deposited by processes similar to those observed in historic catastrophic events. Available stratigraphic evidence shows two

  18. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan


    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  19. The effects of altitude and harvest time on the feed value of extensive mountain pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukolova, Veronika; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Homolka, Petr


    Twenty-four samples of Czech pasture forages were harvested in the region of Sumava National Park and the Protected Landscape Area from three different altitudes (650, 700 and 850 m above sea level). The samples were analysed for chemical composition, in vitro digestibilities and rumen degradabil...

  20. Soil Microbial Community Changes in Wooded Mountain Pastures due to Simulated Effects of Cattle Grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, F.; Hamelin, J.; Gillet, F.; Gobat, J.M.; Buttler, A.


    The effect of cattle activity on pastures can be subdivided into three categories of disturbances: herbage removal, dunging and trampling. The objective of this study was to assess separately or in combination the effect of these factors on the potential activities of soil microbial communities and

  1. Effect of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella on pasture contamination with gastrointestinal nematodes from goats. (United States)

    Lopes, Suzana G; Barros, Lilyan B G; Louvandini, Helder; Abdalla, Adibe L; Costa Junior, Livio M


    Tannin-rich plants have been examined as an alternative for controlling the gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. In vivo assays typically examine the anthelmintic activity in female fecundity and/or the adult worm burden, without considering other life-cycle stages or the impact on pasture contamination. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tanniniferous food from Bauhinia pulchella in goats and the potential impact on pasture contamination with the infective larval stage of gastrointestinal nematodes. Sixteen cross breed Boer goats that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were fed tanniniferous concentrate from the leaves of B. pulchella and compared to a separate paddock of control animals without condensed tannin supplementation. A range of parasite characteristics were monitored throughout the 63 days of experimentation, including faecal egg count (FEC), egg hatching and relative numbers of hatched helminth larvae on herbage. Worm free tracer animals were used to assess the infective larval stage load of the contaminated pasture. The tanniniferous food did not reduce the combined FEC values, but egg hatching was significantly affected (p food from B. pulchella showed reduced contamination through infective larval stages. Tracer goats maintained in paddocks grazed with animals fed with tanniniferous food had lower numbers of Trichostrongylus colubriformis than did those in the control group (86 % reduction). Condensed tannin from B. pulchella showed anthelmintic activity, affected egg viability and reduced pasture contamination, which led to the reduced infection of the animals by T. colubriformis.

  2. Comparison of Vegetation Indices from Rpas and SENTINEL-2 Imagery for Detecting Permanent Pastures (United States)

    Piragnolo, M.; Lusiani, G.; Pirotti, F.


    Permanent pastures (PP) are defined as grasslands, which are not subjected to any tillage, but only to natural growth. They are important for local economies in the production of fodder and pastures (Ali et al. 2016). Under these definitions, a pasture is permanent when it is not under any crop-rotation, and its production is related to only irrigation, fertilization and mowing. Subsidy payments to landowners require monitoring activities to determine which sites can be considered PP. These activities are mainly done with visual field surveys by experienced personnel or lately also using remote sensing techniques. The regional agency for SPS subsidies, the Agenzia Veneta per i Pagamenti in Agricoltura (AVEPA) takes care of monitoring and control on behalf of the Veneto Region using remote sensing techniques. The investigation integrate temporal series of Sentinel-2 imagery with RPAS. Indeed, the testing area is specific region were the agricultural land is intensively cultivated for production of hay harvesting four times every year between May and October. The study goal of this study is to monitor vegetation presence and amount using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and the Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI). The overall objective is to define for each index a set of thresholds to define if a pasture can be classified as PP or not and recognize the mowing.

  3. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  4. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling behaviour lona B. Stewart. and B.P. Louw. Department of Agricultural Development: Natal Region, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg,. 3200 Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science and Poultry Science, University ol Natal, ...

  5. Productivity and nutritive quality of three brassica varieties for use in pasture-based systems (United States)

    Brassicas are gaining popularity among pasture-based livestock producers to extend grazing during the ‘summer slump’ and throughout the fall. A 2-yr study was conducted to compare biomass production and nutrient composition of ‘Barisca’ rapeseed (RAP; Brassica napus L.), ‘Inspiration’ canola (CAN; B...

  6. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but

  7. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  8. Least limiting water range of Udox soil under degraded pastures on different sun-exposed faces (United States)

    Passos, Renato Ribeiro; Marciano da Costa, Liovando; Rodrigues de Assis, Igor; Santos, Danilo Andrade; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Guimarães, Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata; Andrade, Felipe Vaz


    The efficient use of water is increasingly important and proper soil management, within the specificities of each region of the country, allows achieving greater efficiency. The South and Caparaó regions of Espírito Santo, Brazil are characterized by relief of `hill seas' with differences in the degree of pasture degradation due to sun exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the least limiting water range in Udox soil under degraded pastures with two faces of exposure to the sun and three pedoenvironments. In each pedoenvironment, namely Alegre, Celina, and Café, two areas were selected, one with exposure on the North/West face and the other on the South/East face. In each of these areas, undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth to determine the least limiting water range. The exposed face of the pasture that received the highest solar incidence (North/West) presented the lowest values in least limiting water range. The least limiting water range proved to be a physical quality indicator for Udox soil under degraded pastures.

  9. Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Bødker, Rene; Enøe, Claes


    Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants which reached Denmark in 2007. We present a process-based stochastic simulation model of vector-borne diseases, where host animals are not confined to a central geographic farm coordinate, but can be distributed onto pasture areas. Furthermore vectors fly freely...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Piragnolo


    Full Text Available Permanent pastures (PP are defined as grasslands, which are not subjected to any tillage, but only to natural growth. They are important for local economies in the production of fodder and pastures (Ali et al. 2016. Under these definitions, a pasture is permanent when it is not under any crop-rotation, and its production is related to only irrigation, fertilization and mowing. Subsidy payments to landowners require monitoring activities to determine which sites can be considered PP. These activities are mainly done with visual field surveys by experienced personnel or lately also using remote sensing techniques. The regional agency for SPS subsidies, the Agenzia Veneta per i Pagamenti in Agricoltura (AVEPA takes care of monitoring and control on behalf of the Veneto Region using remote sensing techniques. The investigation integrate temporal series of Sentinel-2 imagery with RPAS. Indeed, the testing area is specific region were the agricultural land is intensively cultivated for production of hay harvesting four times every year between May and October. The study goal of this study is to monitor vegetation presence and amount using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI, and the Normalized Difference Built Index (NDBI. The overall objective is to define for each index a set of thresholds to define if a pasture can be classified as PP or not and recognize the mowing.

  11. Effects of large herbivores on wood pasture dynamics in a European wetland system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, P.; Bokdam, J.; Sykora, K.V.; Berendse, F.


    Whether self-regulating large herbivores play a key role in the development of wood-pasture landscapes remains a crucial unanswered question for both ecological theory and nature conservation. We describe and analyse how a ‘partly self-regulating’ population of cattle, horses and red deer affected

  12. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures (United States)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...




    Conversion of abandoned cattle pastures to secondary forests and plantations in the tropics has been proposed as a means to increase rates of carbon (C) sequestration from the atmosphere and enhance local biodiversity. We used a long-term tropical reforestation project (55–61 yr) to estimate rates of above- and belowground C sequestration and to investigate the impact...

  14. Salmonella enterica isolates from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons. (United States)

    Melendez, S N; Hanning, I; Han, J; Nayak, R; Clement, A R; Wooming, A; Hererra, P; Jones, F T; Foley, S L; Ricke, S C


    While considerable foodborne pathogen research has been conducted on conventionally produced broilers and turkeys, few studies have focused on free-range (organic) or pastured poultry. The current surveillance study was designed to isolate, identify and genetically characterize Salmonella from pastured poultry farm environment and from retail samples. In this study, 59 isolates were collected from two pastured poultry farms (n = 164; pens, feed, water and insect traps) and retail carcasses (n = 36) from a local natural foods store and a local processing plant. All isolates were serotyped and analysed phenotypically (antimicrobial resistance profiles) and genotypically (DNA fingerprints, plasmid profiles and integron analysis). Salmonella enterica was detected using standard microbiological methods. Salmonella Kentucky was the most prevalent serotype detected from the sampled sources (53%), followed by Salmonella Enteritidis (24%), Bareilly (10%), Mbandaka (7%), Montevideo (5%) or Newport (2%). All isolates were resistant to sulfisoxazole and novobiocin, and the majority (40/59) possessed class I integrons shown by PCR detection. Each Salmonella serotype elicited a distinct pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprint profile, and unique differences were observed among the serotypes.  The findings of this study show that Salmonella serotypes isolated from pasture-raised poultry exhibit antimicrobial resistance and class I integrons.  This study demonstrates that despite the cessation of antibiotic usage in poultry production, antibiotic resistant Salmonella may still be recovered from the environment and poultry products. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, A.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as

  16. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period




    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  17. Genome Sequence of “Pedosphaera parvula” Ellin514, an Aerobic Verrucomicrobial Isolate from Pasture Soil▿ (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; van Passel, Mark W. J.; Sangwan, Parveen; Palva, Airi; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Lapidus, Alla; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Chertkov, Olga; Larimer, Frank W.; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren; Brettin, Thomas S.; Detter, John C.; Han, Shunsheng; de Vos, Willem M.; Janssen, Peter H.; Smidt, Hauke


    “Pedosphaera parvula” Ellin514 is an aerobically grown verrucomicrobial isolate from pasture soil. It is one of the few cultured representatives of subdivision 3 of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. Members of this group are widespread in terrestrial environments. PMID:21460084

  18. Projecting land use changes in the Neotropics: the geography of pasture expansion into forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.; Gerber, P.; Verburg, P.H.; Rosales, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Steinfeld, H.


    In tropical Latin America, pasture land for extensive grazing continues to expand, mostly at the expense of forest cover. Until now, scientists and policy makers tackling this issue had no geographically exhaustive information at the continental level about the spatial dynamics of this process. On

  19. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems (United States)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...

  20. Pasture-Based Swine Management: Behaviour and Performances of Growing-Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Fortina


    Full Text Available A pasture-based swine management (PBSM trial was conducted in Piemonte (N-W Italy to study the performances and the carcass yield of 16 hybrid pigs (8 castrated males and 8 females; average initial weight: 90 kg. Animals were allowed to forage pea, clover, beet and alfalfa pastures for 170 days in a crop-pasture rotation on different paddocks. A concentrate was fed to supply 50% of estimated energy requirements. Forage dry matter intake (DMI ranged from 0.32 kg/day (alfalfa to 2.85 kg/day (pea, depending on the period and forage type. Pigs were weighted every 30 days and at slaughtering; average daily gain (ADG was 0.29 kg. The stocking rate (SR ranged from 109 kg/ha LW (clover to 2347 kg/ha LW (pea. Data collected at slaughtering (average final weight: 141 kg were: hot carcass weight and yield, lean and fat cuts weight, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24. The statistical analysis (ANOVA of SPSS did not show differences between males and females. Results showed that PBSM should be especially appealing to limited-resource farmers due to low inputs needed; pasture can be used to replace 50% of the nutritional needs, helping to save on grain costs, without affecting carcass characteristics.

  1. Distributional patterns of fall armyworm parasitoids in a corn field and pasture field in Florida (United States)

    An assessment of parasitoids and their selective patterns among Spodoptera frugiperda corn and rice host strains was performed from August 2008-August 2010 in a corn crop and a grass pasture in northern Florida under different seasonal conditions (spring and fall). Sentinel larvae from our laborator...



    Ekboir, Javier M.; Jarvis, Lovell S.; Rey, Carlos


    The depreciation rate for capital assets may have endogenous and exogenous components. Change in the exogenous component depends on technological change and/or environmental factors, shifts the production function, and independently affects profitability and investment. Change in the endogenous component does not. These hypotheses are tested using data on Uruguayan grass-legume pastures.

  3. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures. (United States)

    Romanzin, Alberto; Corazzin, Mirco; Piasentier, Edi; Bovolenta, Stefano


    During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows' diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion) and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion) alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH) to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  4. Mineral content in soil and pasture in bovine dairy herds of the Andean region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Rodrigo Balarezo Urresta


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize the mineral status of the soil and pasture in of the Andean Ecuadorian region, during the rainy and dry periods, three dairy farms were used as study cases investigated him three dairy farms of the El Carchi province. They determined the chemical indicators of the soil and the pasture, the descriptive statisticians were calculated themselves and it was used a multifactorial ANOVA to determine the main factors affecting them on them, comparing means with Bonferroni and Duncan test. The soil classified as acid lightly, 100 % of the samples presented elevated levels of organic matter, NH4+, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The farm had a significant effect on the pH, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mg and P, and the climatic period on the organic matter, NH4+, S, Cu and P. Pasture presented deficiencies of Mg, Zn and Na, the other minerals were above the critical limits. The farm affected the Ca, P, Mg, Na and Mn, and the climatic period the levels of Ca, K, Cu y Zn. In conclusion, 100 % soil samples presented high OM, slight acidity, low levels of Ca and high concentrations of NH4+, S, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn. In pastures, there were diagnosed deficiencies of P, Cu and Zn, and their concentrations differed among farms and the two climatic periods of the year.

  5. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romanzin


    Full Text Available During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows’ diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  6. Soil physical attributes in forms of sowing the annual winter pasture and intervals between grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    Full Text Available The sowing of winter pastures in areas used for summer grain production and their management under direct cattle grazing can cause changes in soil physical attributes, whose intensity depends on the degree of soil mobilization, grazing interval, stocking rate and weather. To study these aspects it was conducted over four years an experiment in a randomized block with split plots design and four replications. In the main plots were applied two forms of sowing the annual winter pasture (direct seeding and seeding + harrowing and, in the subplots, four intervals between grazing (7, 14 and 28 days and ungrazed. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled at the end of each grazing cycle, in the 0-0.05 m layer to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability and in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15 and 0.15-0.20 m depth to determine bulk density and classes of soil pores. The direct seeding of annual winter pasture increases hydraulic conductivity and reduces soil bulk density in relation to seeding + harrowing while dairy cows trampling increases soil density and reduces macroporosity in the most superficial soil layer. The variation in climatic conditions among grazing cycles affects the soil physical attributes more markedly than forms of sowing and intervals between grazing of the annual winter pasture.

  7. Empirical Models to Quantify the Nutritive Value of Annual Pastures in South-West Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Gherardi, S.G.; Wood, D.A.


    The objective of this paper is to quantify the magnitude of the major sources of variation, which affect in vitro digestibility (DMD) and concentrations of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and crude protein (CP) of annual pastures in Mediterranean-type climate zones. Four

  8. Phosphorus, iron, and aluminum losses in runoff from a rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia, USA (United States)

    Pastures can be a source of phosphorus (P) contributing to eutrophication and impairment of water resources. Phosphorus is tightly held in soils that are highly weathered, acidic, and with high iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) content like the Ultisols of southeastern USA. We used 11-yr (1999-2009) of da...

  9. Ammonia emissions from urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.


    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, deriving mainly from livestock urine and manures, but fertilizer applications to pastures and crops also represent an important source. In Chile, where agriculture and cattle production are important activities (accounting for 4.5% of GDP along with the forestry sector), there are very few published data regarding NH3 emissions from pasture and crop fertilization. This study aimed to provide the first empirical field data for Chile on N losses due to NH3 volatilization following urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil and to assess the influence of environmental conditions on emissions. Four field experiments were carried out on a volcanic acid soil using the micrometeorological integrated horizontal flux (IHF) mass balance method. Measurements were made in winter 2005 and 2007, and spring 2007 and 2008 following urea N fertilization to a permanent pasture at a rate equivalent to 100 kg N ha-1. Cumulative NH3 emissions over the measurement period were 1.4 and 7.7 kg N ha-1 for winter applications, and 12.2 and 26.7 kg N ha-1 for spring dressings. These N losses due to NH3 volatilization are within the range of emissions reported elsewhere. Consideration of urea application timing in Chile, with regards to weather and soil conditions, could have important consequences on minimising potential N losses via volatilization with associated financial benefits to farmers.

  10. Assessment of the disc pasture meter on natural veld in the False ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of the standard disc pasture meter is found to be a reliable technique for estimating the yield of the densely tufted grass swards found in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Province. It compares favourably with traditional methods of yield estimation in the veld type and its attractiveness lies in the rapidity with which ...

  11. Estimating grass fuel loads with a disc pasture meter in the Kruger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to assess the efficiency of a new calibration procedure for the disc pasture meter, used for estimating the fuel load available for combustion during fires; The major portion of the fuel load in the savanna areas comprises surface fuels in the form of the standing grass sward. The disc ...

  12. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.


    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  13. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T; Hyman, Glenn


    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  14. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  15. Changes and continuity of wood-pastures in the lowland landscape in Czechia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, Michal; Skalos, Jan; Pereponova, Anna


    The term wood-pastures is usually applied to areas with trees or other woody vegetation, scattered through a mainly grazed grassland area, and reflects one of the oldest land use types in Europe, which plays important ecological, agricultural and socio-cultural roles. However, a rapid decline...

  16. Greenhouse gas balances of Frisian peat pastures. Long term effects of land use options.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Elisabeth


    SUMMARY Peat pastures in the Dutch province of Friesland emit high amounts of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, and CH4). These high emissions are the results of deep drainage of the peat for agricultural purposes and consequently oxidation of the peat. Other

  17. Carbon sequestration potential of grazed pasture depends on prior management history (United States)

    Grazed pastures are often assumed to be net sinks for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus, are promoted as a management practice that can help mitigate climate change. The ability to serve as a C sink is especially pronounced following a history of tillage and row crop production. I...

  18. Yield and soil carbon sequestration in grazed pastures sown with two or five forage species (United States)

    Increasing plant species richness is often associated with an increase in productivity and associated ecosystem services such as soil C sequestration. In this paper we report on a nine-year experiment to evaluate the relative forage production and C sequestration potential of grazed pastures sown to...

  19. Soil organic matter dynamics after the conversion of arable land to pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.


    Conversion of arable land (maize) to pasture will affect the soil organic matter (SOM) content. Changes in the SOM content were studied using a size- and density-fractionation method and 13C analysis. Twenty-six years of maize cropping had resulted in a depletion of carbon stored in the

  20. Intake and ingestive behavior of goats on marandu-grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernando de Oliveira Macedo


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Marandu-grass (Brachiaria brizantha pasture height (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm on the canopy structural traits and grazing behavior and forageingestion process by goats. Six goats were used to evaluate behavior during grazing, and four were used to evaluate the ingestion process - all goats were Anglo-Nubian. The adopted experimental design was completely randomized, with two replicates in space and two replicates in time. Increase in the canopy height resulted in an increase in the masses of forage, leaves, stem, and dead material and tiller density, and reduction in leaf/stem ratio. Grazing time increased and idle time reduced as the canopy height was elevated. The correlation between canopy height and bite depth was positive and linear (r = 0.99. The mass of consumed forage, the intake rate, and the bite mass were higher at 60 cm. The correlation between pasture height and bite rate was negative, whereas the correlation between pasture height and the time per bite was positive. On Marandu-grass pastures, the greatest efficiency in forage harvesting by goats occurs at a canopy height of 60 cm.

  1. Genetic strain and diet effects on grazing behavior, pasture intake, and milk production. (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kolver, E S; Roche, J R


    Understanding how dairy cows adjust their grazing behavior in response to feed supplements is important for the development of management strategies that optimize profit from supplementation. New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows have been selected for milk production on a predominantly pasture-based diet; in comparison, HF cows of North American (NA) ancestry have been selected almost exclusively for milk yield and fed diets high in nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC). We hypothesized, therefore, that supplementation would have differing effects on grazing behavior, pasture dry matter intake (DMI), and milk production in these genetic strains at peak, mid, and late lactation. A study was conducted over 2 consecutive lactations, with NA and NZ cows randomly allocated at calving to 0, 3, or 6 kg of dry matter/day concentrate plus unrestricted access to pasture. Pasture DMI, milk production, and grazing behavior were recorded at peak, mid, and late lactation. Concentrates were fed in equal amounts at morning and afternoon milking. The NA cows produced more milk and milk components, and had a greater pasture DMI, despite spending less time grazing. Declines in time spent grazing and pasture DMI were associated with increasing concentrate DMI. Grazing behavior following morning supplementation was different from that recorded following afternoon supplementation. Grazing ceased following morning supplementation before rumen fill could be a limiting factor, and the length of the grazing interval was inversely proportional to the amount of concentrate offered; these results suggest that physiological rather than physical stimuli were responsible for grazing cessation. The decrease in time spent grazing with increasing concentrate DMI is consistent with changes in neuroendocrine factors secreted in response to the presence of food in the digestive tract or with circulating products of digestion. After afternoon supplementation, sunset signaled the end of grazing irrespective of

  2. Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems. (United States)

    Washburn, S P; Mullen, K A E


    Pasture-based dairy systems use grazing to supply significant percentages of the dry matter intake of cows and heifers. Such systems vary from those for which pasture is used only as a supplemental feed for cows primarily fed a total mixed ration to those for which pasture is the primary source of dry matter for the herd. Cows that are optimal in a pasture system share many general characteristics with cows that are appropriate for a nonpasture system, including feed efficiency, maintenance of body condition, reproductive fitness, udder health, longevity, and the ability to adapt to various management systems. However, in such divergent feeding systems, the relative importance of various traits can differ. In pasture systems where cow nutrient demand intentionally coincides with seasonal forage availability, the focus of selection has emphasized fertility and other fitness traits, as well as yields of milk or milk components. Breeds or strains with higher yields of protein and fat typically have advantages in grazing systems that supply milk to solids-based or cheese markets. Holstein cows with high percentages of North American ancestry can work well in grazing systems that include supplemental concentrates or partial mixed rations, particularly if calving intervals are less restrictive. Crossbred cows can be selected for use in specific grazing systems as well as for specific milk markets, with the added advantage of heterosis. Breeds and crosses with high fertility are important for seasonal breeding and calving. The ability of cattle to both milk and maintain sufficient body condition for reproduction is important for any dairy production system but is critical in a seasonal system. Dairy farms that depend on pasture for most of dry matter for cows typically have lower production per cow than nongrazing dairies but have the potential to be economically competitive because of lower operating and overhead costs. Although the principles of selection are similar

  3. Factors associated with profitability in pasture-based systems of milk production. (United States)

    Hanrahan, L; McHugh, N; Hennessy, T; Moran, B; Kearney, R; Wallace, M; Shalloo, L


    The global dairy industry needs to reappraise the systems of milk production that are operated at farm level with specific focus on enhancing technical efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with costs of production, profitability, and pasture use, and the effects of pasture use on financial performance of dairy farms using an internationally recognized representative database over an 8-yr period (2008 to 2015) on pasture-based systems. To examine the associated effects of several farm system and management variables on specific performance measures, a series of multiple regression models were developed. Factors evaluated included pasture use [kg of dry matter/ha and stocking rate (livestock units/ha)], grazing season length, breeding season length, milk recording, herd size, dairy farm size (ha), farmer age, discussion group membership, proportion of purchased feed, protein %, fat %, kg of milk fat and protein per cow, kg of milk fat and protein per hectare, and capital investment in machinery, livestock, and buildings. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated costs of production per hectare differed by year, geographical location, soil type, level of pasture use, proportion of purchased feed, protein %, kg of fat and protein per cow, dairy farm size, breeding season length, and capital investment in machinery, livestock, and buildings per cow. The results of the analysis revealed that farm net profit per hectare was associated with pasture use per hectare, year, location, soil type, grazing season length, proportion of purchased feed, protein %, kg of fat and protein per cow, dairy farm size, and capital investment in machinery and buildings per cow. Pasture use per hectare was associated with year, location, soil type, stocking rate, dairy farm size, fat %, protein %, kg of fat and protein per cow, farmer age, capital investment in machinery and buildings per cow, breeding season length

  4. Water and nitrogen in crop and pasture systems in southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.F.; Peoples, M.B.; Herwaarden, A.F. van


    Recent research on water and N for dryland crops in southern Australia has addressed the need for more efficient and sustainable production. Water-use efficiency is well below the potential and N-use efficiency well below optimum on farms. Excess water and N cause on-site and off-site environmental damage. The most effective means of illustrating these inefficiencies to growers is to present simple benchmarks of water and N-use efficiencies with which farmers can assess and improve the performance of their own crops. The practices shown by our recent research that best support the goals of more efficient and sustainable production are those that maximize extraction of soil water and mineral N, and increase biological N 2 fixation. Wheat growing after a brassica break-crop extract more water and mineral N from the soil than when grown as a continuous cereal, apparently because of a 'biofumigation' effect that reduces the numbers of soil-borne pathogens of wheat and produces a stronger root system. In the case of phased pasture-crop systems, annual pastures do not fully extract subsoil water or mineral N. However, when the grasses are removed from annual pastures with a selective herbicide, the remaining pure clover rapidly decomposes after maturity, leaving a large amount of mineral N for the following crop. Perennial pastures containing lucerne produce more forage and fix more N 2 than do annual pastures, but they dry the soil profile. After removal of the lucerne, the soil may be so dry that mineralization is slow, with the risk of water deficit for the subsequent crop. (author)

  5. Detecting Dewatering of Peatland Pastures Using Sentinel-1 Satellite Radar Interferometry. (United States)

    Heuff, F.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; van Leijen, F. J.; Hanssen, R. F.


    The Netherlands are famous for their polders and the draining of soils to be used as pastures. Around 30% of the pastures are situated on peat soils, mostly in the western part of the Netherlands. Peat is composed of organic materials that oxidize and emit greenhouse gases when exposed to air. Oxidation of peat soils results in volume reduction and subsequent subsidence. As a result, the groundwater level rises relative to the surface. Consequently, the soil needs to be dewatered to keep it sufficiently dry for farming, resulting in more oxidation, and therefore more subsidence. This process is bound to continue until the peat soils have disappeared completely. The societal cost of land subsidence due to peat soils are estimated to be 5200 million euro for urban areas and 200 million euro for peatland pastures, for a period until 2050. Measuring the subsidence is not straightforward, if not impossible, with conventional geodetic means as soft soils make it impossible to install fixed benchmarks for repeated surveying. Also, due to the very fast temporal decorrelation over pastures, conventional InSAR approaches cannot measure a signal due to loss of coherence. Here we deploy a complete set of available SAR data from Sentinel-1, Radarsat-2 and TerraSAR-X to estimate the spatio-temporally varying subsidence signal due to the dewatering of peatland pastures over the western part of the Netherlands. We compute the InSAR coherence matrix for all possible interferometric combination, and compute an equivalent single-master stack to estimate the subsidence. Using terrain and land-use defined coherence estimation areas we optimize the phase estimation over areas severely affected by temporal decorrelation. This leads to a first estimate of deformation signals correlated with ancient shallow soil structures due to fluviatile structures. We use the methodology to investigate the effect of advanced local drainage schemes to slow down the subsidence phenomena.

  6. Distribution and Population Dynamics of Nematodes in a Rice Field and Pasture in India (United States)

    Mishra, C. C.; Dash, M. C.


    Ecological studies on soil nematodes were made in a tropical rice field and pasture. Parasitic species were more diversified in the pasture than in the rice field. Eighty-six and sixty percent of total nematodes occurred in the top 10 cm in rice field and pasture, respectively. Nematodes were not randomly or uniformly dispersed but aggregated. Parasitic forms were most abundant and correlated with root biomass in the 0-15-cm soil layer, the greatest number usually occurring at the 10-15-cm depth at both sites. In summer, however, they were densest at the 15-30-cm depth. Microbivores were most frequent in the top 5 cm of both sites. Micellaneous feeders (food sources uncertain) usually occurred in highest densities at the 15-30-cm depth. Predators showed no distinct depth preference. Temperature and moisture of the soil apparently played an important role in regulating nematode population. Peak densities of 31.3 × 10⁴/m² and 21.6 × 10⁴/m² at a 30-cm depth occurred in January, while minimum densities of 5.0-5.3 × 10⁴/m² and 4.1 × 10⁴/m² occurred in July-October and April in rice field and pasture, respectively. Monthly mean biomass of nematodes was 23.8 ± 4.5 mg/m² in rice field and 11.5 ± 1.5 mg/m² in pasture. PMID:19300801

  7. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  8. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Duval

    Full Text Available Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1. Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  9. The GEOGLAM Rangelands and Pasture Productivity Activity: Recent Progress and Future Directions (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.


    Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands

  10. Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs. (United States)

    Willems, Helen; Leiber, Florian; Kohler, Martina; Kreuzer, Michael; Liesegang, Annette


    This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption.

  11. Analysis of evapotranspiration and biomass in pastures with degradation indicatives in the Upper Tocantins River Basin, in Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to apply the Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER with MODIS images together with meteorological data to analyze evapotranspiration (ET and biomass production (BIO according to indicative classes of pasture degradation in Upper Tocantins River Basin. Indicative classes of degraded pastures were obtained from the NDVI time-series (2002-2012. To estimate ET and BIO in each class, MODIS images and data from meteorological stations of the year 2012 were used. The results show that compared to not-degraded pastures, ET and BIO were different in pastures with moderate to strong degradation, mainly during water stress period. Therefore, changes in energy balance partition may occur according to the degradation levels, considering that those indicatives of degradation processes were identified in 24% of the planted pasture areas. In this context, ET and BIO estimates using remote sensing techniques can be a reliable indicator of forage availability, and large-scale aspects related to the degradation of pastures. It is expected that this knowledge may contribute to initiatives of public policies aimed at controlling the loss of production potential of pasture areas in the Upper Tocantins River Basin in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

  12. Hypoglycin A concentrations in seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus trees growing on atypical myopathy-affected and control pastures. (United States)

    Unger, L; Nicholson, A; Jewitt, E M; Gerber, V; Hegeman, A; Sweetman, L; Valberg, S


    Hypoglycin A, found in seeds of Acer negundo, appears to cause seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM) in North America and is implicated in atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe. Acer negundo is uncommon in Europe. Thus, the potential source of hypoglycin A in Europe is unknown. We hypothesized that seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus were the source of hypoglycin A in Europe. Our objective was to determine the concentration of hypoglycin A in seeds of A. pseudoplatanus trees located in pastures where previous cases of AM had occurred. None. University of Berne records were searched to retrospectively identify 6 farms with 10 AM cases and 11 suspected AM deaths between 2007 and 2011. During October 2012, A. pseudoplatanus seeds were collected from 2 to 6 trees per pasture on 6 AM farms (7 pastures) from trees in or close to 2 pastures on 2 control farms where AM had not been previously reported. Hypoglycin A in seeds was analyzed by GC-MS. Acer pseudoplatanus trees were identified on all AM pastures. Hypoglycin A was detected in all A. pseudoplatanus seeds in highly variable concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 2.81 μg/mg (mean 0.69) on AM farms and 0.10 to 9.12 μg/mg (mean 1.59) on control farms. Preventing horses from grazing pastures containing A. pseudoplatanus seeds during late fall and early spring might be the best means to prevent AM. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. (United States)

    Schwarte, Kirk A; Russell, James R; Kovar, John L; Morrical, Daniel G; Ensley, Steven M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Cornick, Nancy A; Cho, Yong Il


    Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater ( CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, and O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces of one cow in August of 2008. Erosion of cut-banks was the greatest contributor of sediment and P loading to the stream; contributions from surface runoff and grazing animals were considerably less and were minimized by grazing management practices that reduced congregation of cattle by pasture streams. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Population isolation results in low genetic variation and high differentiation in Carolina hemlock (tsuga caroliniana), an imperiled southern Appalachian conifer (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Lia Campbell; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson; Robert M. Jetton


    Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana) is a rare conifer species that grows in small, isolated populations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia. The species is additionally imperiled by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an invasive insect that can...

  15. T-H-A-T-S: timber-harvesting-and-transport-simulator: with subroutines for Appalachian logging (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin


    A computer program for simulating harvesting operations is presented. Written in FORTRAN IV, the program contains subroutines that were developed for Appalachian logging conditions. However, with appropriate modifications, the simulator would be applicable for most logging operations and locations. The details of model development and its methodology are presented,...

  16. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates


    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  17. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre


    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  18. Origin, development, and impact of mountain laurel thickets on the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose


    Throughout forests of the northern hemisphere, some species of ericaceous shrubs can form persistent understories that interfere with forest regeneration processes. In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) may interfere in the regeneration of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests. To...

  19. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean... (United States)


    ..., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202... recognizes the importance of this guidance to its Federal and state partners, to the regulated community, and... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental...

  20. Age-class differences in shoot photosynthesis and water relations of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri), southern Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson; William K. Smith


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) is an endemic tree species found only in refugial mountain-top forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Very few studies have investigated the ecophysiology of this species in its natural environment. We measured and compared photosynthetic gas exchange and water relations of understory germinant...

  1. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region (United States)

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett


    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  2. Ecophysiology of seedling establishment in contrasting spruce-fir forests of southern Appalachian and Rocky Mountain ecotones, USA (United States)

    William K. Smith; Keith N.C. Reinhardt; Daniel M. Johnson


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poiret) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) occur as codominant trees in six relic, mountain-top populations that make up the high-elevation forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (SA). These two relic species of the former boreal forest have experienced a significant decline over the past...

  3. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang


    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  4. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  5. Regeneration response to midstory control following long-term single tree selection management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    Jason R. Lewis; John W. Groninger; David L. Loftis


    Sustainability of the single tree selection system in the mixed hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians is compromised by insufficient recruitment of oak species. In 1986, portions of a stand at Bent Creek Experimental Forest that have been under single tree selection management since 1945 were subjected to a midstory herbicide treatment in an effort to improve...

  6. Effects of prescribed fire on the buried seed bank in mixed-hardwood forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Tracy L. Roof; Jacquelyne L. Adams; Dean Simon; Gordon Warburton


    This study characterizes the seed bank prior to and immediately following dormant-season prescribed fire in mature, mixed-Quercus spp. (oak) forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Thirty samples from the litter/duff (LD) and the top 5 cm of the mineral soil (MS) were collected from five 5-ha burn units (6 plots per experimental unit) before...

  7. Two-age silviculture: an innovative tool for enhancing species diversity and vertical structure in Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Petra B. Wood; Jeffrey V. Nichols; Jeffrey V. Nichols


    Silvicultural practices that promote a two-age stand structure provide an opportunity to maintain diversity of woody species and vertical structure for extended periods of time in Appalachian hardwoods. Data from four two-age stands initiated by deferment cutting in West Virginia are summarized for the first 10 to 15 years after treatment. Results indicated that 15...

  8. Cost of and soil loss on "minimum-standard" forest truck roads constructed in the central Appalachians (United States)

    J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith


    A "minimum-standard" forest truck road that provides efficient and environmentally acceptable access for several forest activities is described. Cost data are presented for eight of these roads constructed in the central Appalachians. The average cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,119. The range was $5,048 to $14,424. Soil loss was measured from several...

  9. Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae:Digenea) Infection in pleurocerid snails and Desmognathus quadramaculatus salamander larvae in southern Appalachian streams (United States)

    Lisa K. Belden; William E. Peterman; Stephen A. Smith; Lauren R. Brooks; E.F. Benfield; Wesley P. Black; Zhaomin Yang; Jeremy M. Wojdak


    Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae) is a little-known digenetic trematode that uses raccoons and possibly mink as definitive hosts, and stream snails and amphibians as intermediate hosts. Some variation in the life cycle and adult morphology in western and eastern populations has been previously noted. In the southern Appalachians, Pleurocera snails and stream...

  10. Response of Planted Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.) to Mechanical Release, Competition, and Drought in the Southern Appalachians (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne T. Swank


    Conversion of low-quality, natural mixed pine hardwood ecosystems, containing a mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) dominated understory, to more productive eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.)/mixed-hardwood systems is a common prescription on relatively xeric southern Appalachian forest sites. We examined the effects of...

  11. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe


    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  12. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis


    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  13. Science delivery is a two-way street – development of the Consortium Of Appalachian Fire Managers and Scientists (CAFMS) (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Zoe Hoyle


    The Appalachian region stretches along the Blue Ridge Mountains from Pennsylvania south into Georgia and Alabama. The region’s lands shelter some of the greatest biological diversity in the United States. The heavily forested public lands are in great need of science-based fire management after decades of fire suppression. Fire-related research is relatively new to the...

  14. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Andrew M. Evans; Richard H. Odom; Jane L. Rodrigue; Christine A. Kelly; Nicole Abaid; Corinne A. Diggins; Douglas Newcomb


    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy...

  15. Overview of Appalachian Basin high-angle and horizontal air and mud drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yost, A.B. III; Javins, B.H.


    The United States Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center has been investigating the potential of using high angle and horizontal drilling technology to improve gas production from low permeability reservoirs for more than 20 years. A chronology of 45 high angle and horizontal wells have been identified to show the date, type well, type build curve, location, formation and the type of application. The historical well drilling events that have taken place since the first well are discussed to evaluate the progress in developing the technology. Detailed discussion about how the drilling technology developed in the Appalachian Basin for directional drilling and completion was provided. A discussion of the types of applications for high and horizontal drilling in the Appalachian Basin were identified. A summary of four jointly funded DOE/Industry horizontal wells were discussed to illustrate how the air horizontal drilling technology developed and learning curves for drilling cost and feet per day were provided to illustrate the improvement in the technology and equipment reliability

  16. Heat flow at the proposed Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) Site: Tectonic implications (United States)

    Costain, John K.; Decker, Edward R.

    The heat flow in northwestern South Carolina at the Appalachian Ultradeep Core Hole (ADCOH) site area is approximately 55 mW/m². This data supplements other data to the east in the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain provinces where heat flows > 55 mW/m² are characteristic of post- and late-synmetamorphic granitoids. Piedmont heat flow and heat generation data for granites, metagranites, and one Slate Belt site, in a zone approximately parallel to major structural Appalachian trends, define a linear relation. Tectonic truncation of heat-producing crust at a depth of about 8 km (a depth equal to the slope of the heat flow-heat production line) is proposed to explain the linear relation. Using the value of reduced heat flow estimated from this empirical relation, and assuming thicknesses of heat-producing crust defined by new ADCOH seismic data, the heat flow and heat production at the ADCOH site are consistent with a depth to the base of the Inner Piedmont crystalline allochthon of about 5.5 km. Seismic data at the ADCOH site confirm that the Inner Piedmont is tectonically truncated at about 5.5 km by the Blue Ridge master decollement. Temperatures at 10 km at the ADCOH site are predicted to be less than 200 °C.

  17. Chronic cardiovascular disease mortality in mountaintop mining areas of central Appalachian states. (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael


    To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for counties in 4 Appalachian states where MTM occurs (N = 404) were linked with county coal mining data. Three groups of counties were compared: MTM, coal mining but not MTM, and nonmining. Covariates included smoking rate, rural-urban status, percent male population, primary care physician supply, obesity rate, diabetes rate, poverty rate, race/ethnicity rates, high school and college education rates, and Appalachian county. Linear regression analyses examined the association of mortality rates with mining in MTM areas and non-MTM areas and the association of mortality with quantity of surface coal mined in MTM areas. Prior to covariate adjustment, chronic CVD mortality rates were significantly higher in both mining areas compared to nonmining areas and significantly highest in MTM areas. After adjustment, mortality rates in MTM areas remained significantly higher and increased as a function of greater levels of surface mining. Higher obesity and poverty rates and lower college education rates also significantly predicted CVD mortality overall and in rural counties. MTM activity is significantly associated with elevated chronic CVD mortality rates. Future research is necessary to examine the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of MTM on health to reduce health disparities in rural coal mining areas. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions. (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Zullig, Keith J


    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N=235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.14-1.30), angina or CHD (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  19. Fungal Communities and Functional Guilds Shift Along an Elevational Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. (United States)

    Veach, Allison M; Stokes, C Elizabeth; Knoepp, Jennifer; Jumpponen, Ari; Baird, Richard


    Nitrogen deposition alters forest ecosystems particularly in high elevation, montane habitats where nitrogen deposition is greatest and continues to increase. We collected soils across an elevational (788-1940 m) gradient, encompassing both abiotic (soil chemistry) and biotic (vegetation community) gradients, at eight locations in the southern Appalachian Mountains of southwestern North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. We measured soil chemistry (total N, C, extractable PO 4 , soil pH, cation exchange capacity [ECEC], percent base saturation [% BS]) and dissected soil fungal communities using ITS2 metabarcode Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Total soil N, C, PO 4 , % BS, and pH increased with elevation and plateaued at approximately 1400 m, whereas ECEC linearly increased and C/N decreased with elevation. Fungal communities differed among locations and were correlated with all chemical variables, except PO 4 , whereas OTU richness increased with total N. Several ecological guilds (i.e., ectomycorrhizae, saprotrophs, plant pathogens) differed in abundance among locations; specifically, saprotroph abundance, primarily attributable to genus Mortierella, was positively correlated with elevation. Ectomycorrhizae declined with total N and soil pH and increased with total C and PO 4 where plant pathogens increased with total N and decreased with total C. Our results demonstrate significant turnover in taxonomic and functional fungal groups across elevational gradients which facilitate future predictions on forest ecosystem change in the southern Appalachians as nitrogen deposition rates increase and regional temperature and precipitation regimes shift.

  20. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine


    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  1. Cardiovascular risk in minority and underserved women in Appalachian Tennessee: a descriptive study. (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera Lea


    The purposes of this study were to translate current knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors, screening, and prevention to a disparate population of women and to ascertain the cardiovascular health status and risk factors in a sample of minority and underserved Appalachian women. Demographic data were collected from a voluntary sample of women from a disparate population living in Appalachian Tennessee. A coronary risk profile recorded family health history, personal health history, and lifestyle habits affecting risk for cardiovascular disease. Physiologic measurements included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol levels, ankle brachial index, and carotid artery stenosis. Women in Appalachia Tennessee from a disparate population have high risks for heart disease and stroke. This is a critical time to address any modifiable risk factors and aggressively treat underlying cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide primary care to women who may not be aware of their cardiovascular risks or actual disease. NPs can ensure that their practice incorporates primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention through screening, individual health education, and aggressive evidence-based treatment plans for women.

  2. Effects of exurban development and temperature on bird species in the southern Appalachians. (United States)

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M


    Land-use dynamics and climatic gradients have large effects on many terrestrial systems. Exurban development, one of the fastest growing forms of land use in the United States, may affect wildlife through habitat fragmentation and building presence may alter habitat quality. We studied the effects of residential development and temperature gradients on bird species occurrence at 140 study sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains (North Carolina, U.S.A.) that varied with respect to building density and elevation. We used occupancy models to determine 36 bird species' associations with building density, forest canopy cover, average daily mean temperature, and an interaction between building density and mean temperature. Responses varied with habitat requirement, breeding range, and migration distance. Building density and mean temperature were both included in the top occupancy models for 19 of 36 species and a building density by temperature interaction was included in models for 8 bird species. As exurban development expands in the southern Appalachians, interior forest species and Neotropical migrants are likely to decline, but shrubland or edge species are not likely to benefit. Overall, effects of building density were greater than those of forest canopy cover. Exurban development had a greater effect on birds at high elevations due to a greater abundance of sensitive forest-interior species and Neotropical migrants. A warming climate may exacerbate these negative effects. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Effect of supplement level on herbage intake and feeding behaviour of Italian Brown cows grazing on Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Villa


    Full Text Available Summer grazing of dairy cows on mountain pastures often leads to a fall in production or in body condition when the pasture is not adequately supplemented with concentrate feeds (Malossini et al., 1992; Bovolenta et al., 1998. An abundant use of concentrates may result into a reduction of herbage intake according to a substitution rate mechanism (Faverdin et al., 1991. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the supplementation level on herbage intake, milk yield and feeding behaviour (time spent grazing and ruminating of dairy cows at pasture, combining the use of an electronic bitemeter and a double marker method for the estimation of intake.

  4. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet in a rural Appalachian food desert. (United States)

    Hardin-Fanning, F


    Rural Appalachian food deserts have disproportionately high cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates. The Mediterranean diet, consisting of plant-based dishes prepared with unsaturated fatty acids, contributes to decreased risk of CVD. Several factors can affect dietary choices in rural food deserts. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors that affect eating a Mediterranean diet in a rural Appalachian food desert with disproportionately high rates of cardiovascular disease. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model was used as an assessment framework in this study. Volunteers (n=43) were recruited from four churches in a rural Appalachian county to participate in this mixed methods convergent parallel design study. During each of four sessions with 8-12 participants each, a Mediterranean-style meal was prepared by a local caterer and included plant-based dishes prepared with unsaturated fatty acids. The nature of a Mediterranean diet was explained to participants using an illustrated pamphlet. Nominal group process was used to determine predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors that would affect adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Multivariate ANOVA and t-tests, using SPSS 18, were performed to determine factors associated with potential future adoption and adherence to a Mediterranean diet among a sample of rural residents and assess whether the factors varied based on age, gender and socioeconomic status. All p values of ≤0.05 were considered significant. Factors affecting future adherence to a Mediterranean diet included difficulty changing personal habits, limited access to healthy foods, cost, difficulty of preparation, limited knowledge of the health benefits of foods, family attitudes toward food and difficulty determining how to incorporate healthy foods into meals. Younger participants and those with lower incomes were more likely to identify food cost as a barrier to adherence compared to those who were older

  5. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  6. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011 (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  7. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011 (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  8. Arsenic distribution in a pasture area impacted by past mining activities. (United States)

    Abad-Valle, P; Álvarez-Ayuso, E; Murciego, A; Muñoz-Centeno, L M; Alonso-Rojo, P; Villar-Alonso, P


    Former mine exploitations entail a serious threat to surrounding ecosystems as after closure of mining activities their unmanaged wastes can be a continuous source of toxic trace elements. Quite often these mine sites are found within agricultural farming areas, involving serious hazards as regards product (feed/food) quality. In this work a grazing land impacted by the abandoned mine exploitation of an arsenical deposit was studied so as to evaluate the fate of arsenic (As) and other trace elements and the potential risks involved. With this aim, profile soil samples (0-50cm) and pasture plant species (Agrostis truncatula, Holcus annus and Leontodon longirostris) were collected at different distances (0-100m) from the mine waste dump and analyzed for their trace element content and distribution. Likewise, plant trace element accumulation from impacted grazing soils and plant trace element translocation were assessed. The exposure of livestock grazing animals to As was also evaluated, establishing its acceptability regarding food safety and animal health. International soil guideline values for As in grazing land soils (50mgkg -1 ) resulted greatly exceeded (up to about 20-fold) in the studied mining-affected soils. Moreover, As showed a high mobilization potential under circumstances such as phosphate application or establishment of reducing conditions. Arsenic exhibited relatively high translocation factor (TF) values (up to 0.32-0.89) in pasture plant species, reaching unsafe concentrations in their above-ground tissues (up to 32.9, 16.9 and 9.0mgkg -1 in Agrostis truncatula, Leontodon longirostris and Holcus annus, respectively). Such concentrations represent an elevated risk of As transfer to the high trophic-chain levels as established by international legislation. The limited fraction of arsenite found in plant roots should play an important role in the relatively high As root-to-shoot translocation shown by these plant species. Both soil ingestion and

  9. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward. (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C


    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  10. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within the state of...

  11. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within the...

  12. Analysis of farmers' willingness to participate in pasture grazing programs: Results from a discrete choice experiment with German dairy farmers. (United States)

    Danne, M; Musshoff, O


    Over the last decades, the usage of pasture for grazing of dairy cows has decreased considerably. Pasture grazing programs initiated by dairy companies try to counteract this trend. The present paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in such grazing programs. A special aim was to quantify the price premiums farmers require for program participation and to identify determinants influencing the premium level. The empirical analysis is based on a discrete choice experiment with 293 German dairy farmers. Models are estimated in terms of willingness to accept. It was found that farmers have no substantial preference for whether the pasture grazing program is financed by the food industry, a governmental scheme, or the dairy company. However, an extension of the annual or daily grazing period results in a decreasing willingness of farmers to participate in a pasture grazing program. In addition, farmers decline the option of a feeding standard prescribing the use of only green fodder when offered an alternative program that merely reduces the amount of concentrated feed or maize silage in the diet. Farmers' with an aversion toward program participation have a significant higher price demand for fulfilling the program requirements. Furthermore, the required price premiums increase with growing milk yields and a greater number of cows kept on the farm. However, if the availability of pasture is high, farmers are more likely to participate. The estimated price premiums and factors influencing farmers' willingness to participate found by this study should be considered by dairies and policymakers to gain insights into the design of possible pasture grazing programs from the perspective of farmers. Thereby, paying price premiums to farmers may increase the attractiveness of pasture grazing, which could finally result in an extended usage of pasture grazing. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatile compounds and sensory properties of Montasio cheese made from the milk of Simmental cows grazing on alpine pastures. (United States)

    Bovolenta, S; Romanzin, A; Corazzin, M; Spanghero, M; Aprea, E; Gasperi, F; Piasentier, E


    The aim of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds, physicochemical characteristics, and sensory properties of Montasio, a semicooked pressed cheese, produced from the milk of the dual-purpose Italian Simmental cows grazing on alpine pastures. A total of 72 cows grazing on 2 pastures, which differed in botanical composition (nutrient-rich pasture vs. nutrient-poor pasture), received 2 different levels of supplementation (3.0 vs 1.5 kg/head per day). The experimental cheeses were produced from whole, raw milk and ripened for 60 d. Sixty-one volatile compounds, including alcohols (11), aldehydes (6), ketones (10), lactones (2), esters (6), hydrocarbons (3), carboxylic acids (6), phenolic compounds (4), monoterpenes (7), sesquiterpenes (1), sulfur compounds (4), and amines (1), were detected. The main families in terms of relative weight appeared to be carboxylic acids, esters, and alcohols. A panel of trained assessors described the experimental cheeses as having an intense color; small and evenly distributed eyes; an intense odor and flavor of milk-sour, milk, and cow; and a tender and creamy texture. The pasture type affected the volatile fraction, particularly ketones, phenolic compounds, and terpenes, which are overall higher in nutrient-poor pastures. A slight effect on the sensory analyses, in particular the effect of the cow attribute on odor and flavor, was perceived by the panelists. The cheeses produced on nutrient-rich pasture had higher b* (yellowness) index. These results were consistent with the color evaluation of the sensory panel. In addition, the pasture affected some textural attributes (adhesivity, creaminess, and granules) as perceived by the panelists. Concentrate supplementation, which is required to meet the feeding requirements of grazing cows, had no clear effect on either the volatile compounds or the sensory properties of the cheeses. Thus, at least within levels of integration adopted, it is expected not to alter the organoleptic

  14. Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoker, J.W.


    The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing the natural-gas resources of these rocks, and patterns of organic-matter distribution convey information on sedimentary processes and depositional environment. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs using the equation: phi 0 = (γ/sub B/ - γ)/1.378A, where phi 0 is the organic-matter content of the shale (fractional volume), γ the gamma-ray intensity (API units), γ/sub B/ the gamma-ray intensity if no organic matter is present (API units), and A the slope of the crossplot of gamma-ray intensity and formation density (API units/(g/cm 3 )). Organic-matter contents estimated using this equation are compared with organic-matter contents determined from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The organic-matter content of these intervals ranges from near zero to about 20% by volume. The gamma-ray intensity of the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale and the lower part of the Olentangy Shale is anomalously low compared to other Devonian shales of similar richness, so that organic-matter content computed for each of these units from gamma-ray logs is likely to be too low. Wire-line methods for estimating organic-matter content have the advantages of economy, readily available sources of data, and continuous sampling of the vertically heterogenous shale section. The gamma-ray log, in particular, is commonly run in the Devonian shale, its response characteristics are well known, and the cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs forms a large and geographically broad data base. The quantitative computation of organic-matter content from gamma-ray logs should be of practical value in studies of the Appalachian Devonian shale. 16 figures

  15. Pasture practices, milk distribution, and consumption in the continental U.S. in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.


    Determining the consumption of milk contaminated with 131I, resulting from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site, by the United States population during the 1950s constitutes one part of the methodology used by the National Cancer Institute to assess radiation exposures to Americans. In order to make these estimates for locations throughout the United States, it is necessary to determine the pasture intake by cows and the distribution of the milk produced for human consumption at times when the weapons were tested. Since the milk industry has undergone many changes during the past 35 y, historical records and information must be used. The methodology developed to estimate the intake of contaminated pasture by dairy cows, milk production, and milk distribution on a county basis for the continental U.S. during the 1950s is described in detail. The relevant data on milk consumption by humans are also discussed

  16. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality. (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N


    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sampling methods for pasture, soil and deposition for radioactivity emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.


    The aim of this work was to compare sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition, planned for radioactivity surveillance in emergency situations in the Nordic countries. The basis of the survey was a questionnaire, sent to radiation protection authorities and laboratories. Sampling of pasture is performed with a cutting height between 1 and 5 cm above the ground from an area of about 1 m 2 . The sampling plots are usually randomly positioned. Soil samples, 3 to 20 cores in various patterns, are generally taken by a corer of varying diameter. For deposition sampling, precipitation collectors of different sizes are used. When comparing results, the differences between laboratories should be borne in mind so that proper corrections can be made. It is, however, important to consider that, especially in an emergency situation, the use of standardised methods may worsen the results if these methods are not part of the daily work. (orig.)

  18. Relationship between gross nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-cliver pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.


    between 82 and 136 mu g N(2)O-N m(-2) d(-1), independent of pasture age. The (15)N labelling indicated that at least 50% of the N(2)O was derived from the soil NH(4)(+) pool, approaching 100% in June. In the two year old pasture the NH(4)(+) pool contributions to N(2)O emissions varied significantly...... with sampling time. Emission rates of N(2)O correlated positively with soil NH(4)(+) concentrations and the NH(4)(+) supply as expressed by gross mineralization. The N(2)O emissions showed a significant inverse relationship with soil NO(3)(-), but was not correlated with the supply of NO(3)(-) as expressed...

  19. Transfer of 131I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.


    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of 131 I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of 131 I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to 131 I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  20. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.


    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  1. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  2. The applications of rare earth elements in enhancement of crop and pasture production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peverill, K.; Maheswaran, J.; Meehan, B.; Buckingham, S.


    Full text: The use of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) as trace nutrients in agriculture is widely practised in the People's Republic of China. Since 1972, results of Chinese research trials involving applications of small amounts of REEs to a wide range of crops and livestock have been reported. Experimental work on the effect of REEs on plant growth has received very limited attention outside China. In 1993, a collaborative research program initiated by the State Chemistry Laboratory and RMIT University in Victoria, Australia began to investigate the physiological and biochemical effects of REEs on a number of crops and pastures. The program has involved extensive pot trials on inert substrates and soils, together with several field trials on crops and pastures; the trials have shown clearly that under certain conditions REEs can have a pronounced positive effect on plant growth. This paper reviews the work carried out over the past five years under this program

  3. Ingestive Behavior of Heifers Supplemented with Glycerin in Substitution of Corn on Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. A. M. Facuri


    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers finished on a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture receiving four levels of glycerin in their supplementation. Thirty-six crossbred heifers with average initial weight of 264.83±3.83 kg and 20 months of age were distributed into a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replications: control (0%, 4.82%, 10.12%, and 15.56% glycerin in the dry matter. The grazing time reduced linearly (p0.05. The number of rumination periods reduced linearly (p0.05 whereas the feed efficiency of neutral detergent fiber reduced linearly (p<0.05. Addition of glycerin in substitution of corn in supplements for animals managed on pastures does not influenced feed intake, but reduces the grazing time and increases the idle time. The supplementation also improves feed and rumination efficiencies.

  4. Ingestive Behavior of Heifers Supplemented with Glycerin in Substitution of Corn on Brachiaria brizantha Pasture. (United States)

    Facuri, L M A M; Silva, R R; da Silva, F F; de Carvalho, G G P; Sampaio, C B; Mendes, F B L; Lisboa, M M; Barroso, D S; Carvalho, V M; Pereira, M M S


    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers finished on a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture receiving four levels of glycerin in their supplementation. Thirty-six crossbred heifers with average initial weight of 264.83±3.83 kg and 20 months of age were distributed into a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replications: control (0%), 4.82%, 10.12%, and 15.56% glycerin in the dry matter. The grazing time reduced linearly (p0.05). The number of rumination periods reduced linearly (p0.05) whereas the feed efficiency of neutral detergent fiber reduced linearly (p<0.05). Addition of glycerin in substitution of corn in supplements for animals managed on pastures does not influenced feed intake, but reduces the grazing time and increases the idle time. The supplementation also improves feed and rumination efficiencies.

  5. A Global Assessment of Long-Term Greening and Browning Trends in Pasture Lands Using the GIMMS LAI3g Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I. Cook


    Full Text Available Pasture ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to land degradation due to the high risk of human disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, burning, etc., especially when compared with natural ecosystems (non-pasture, non-cultivated where direct human impacts are minimal. Using maximum annual leaf area index (LAImax as a proxy for standing biomass and peak annual aboveground productivity, we analyze greening and browning trends in pasture areas from 1982–2008. Inter-annual variability in pasture productivity is strongly controlled by precipitation (positive correlation and, to a lesser extent, temperature (negative correlation. Linear temporal trends are significant in 23% of pasture cells, with the vast majority of these areas showing positive LAImax trends. Spatially extensive productivity declines are only found in a few regions, most notably central Asia, southwest North America, and southeast Australia. Statistically removing the influence of precipitation reduces LAImax trends by only 13%, suggesting that precipitation trends are only a minor contributor to long-term greening and browning of pasture lands. No significant global relationship was found between LAImax and pasture intensity, although the magnitude of trends did vary between cells classified as natural versus pasture. In the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, the median rate of greening in pasture cells is significantly higher than for cells dominated by natural vegetation. In the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, conversely, greening of natural areas is 2–4 times the magnitude of greening in pasture areas. This analysis presents one of the first global assessments of greening and browning trends in global pasture lands, including a comparison with vegetation trends in regions dominated by natural ecosystems. Our results suggest that degradation of pasture lands is not a globally widespread phenomenon and, consistent with much of the terrestrial biosphere, there have been widespread

  6. Hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture in the Atlantic rain forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli


    Full Text Available The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously covered by tropical rain forest. To reach this goal we measured the precipitation, soil matric potential, discharge, surface runoff and water table levels during one year. The results indicated that there is a decrease in surface soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, as low intensity rainfall prevails, the lower water conductivity does not necessarily leads to a substantially higher surface runoff generation. Regarding soil water matric potential, the pasture presented higher moisture levels than forest during the dry season. This increase in soil moisture implies in higher water table recharge that, in turn, explain the higher runoff ratio. This way, land-use change conversion from forest to pasture implies a higher annual streamflow in pasture catchments. Nonetheless, this increase in runoff due to forest conversion to pasture implies in losses of biological diversity as well as lower soil protection.

  7. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions (United States)

    Moir, Jim; Cameron, Keith; Di, Hong


    Nitrogen (N) cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS) dicyandiamide (DCD). A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha−1 in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha−1, with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer) at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited. PMID:27304974

  8. Evapotranspiration from a Mediterranean evergreen oak savannah: The role of trees and pasture (United States)

    Paço, Teresa A.; David, Teresa S.; Henriques, Manuel O.; Pereira, João S.; Valente, Fernanda; Banza, João; Pereira, Fernando L.; Pinto, Clara; David, Jorge S.


    SummaryMediterranean evergreen oak woodlands of southern Portugal ( montados) are savannah-type ecosystems with a widely sparse tree cover, over extensive grassland. Therefore, ecosystem water fluxes derive from two quite differentiated sources: the trees and the pasture. Partitioning of fluxes according to these different sources is necessary to quantify overall ecosystem water losses as well as to improve knowledge on its functional behaviour. In southern Iberia, these woodlands are subjected to recurrent droughts. Therefore, reaction/resilience to water stress becomes an essential feature of vegetation on these ecosystems. Long-term tree transpiration was recorded for 6 years from a sample of holm oak ( Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia) trees, using the Granier sap flow method. Ecosystem transpiration was measured by the eddy covariance technique for an 11-month period (February to December 2005), partly coincident with a drought year. Pasture transpiration was estimated as the difference between ecosystem (eddy covariance) and tree (sap flow) transpiration. Pasture transpiration stopped during the summer, when the surface soil dried up. In the other seasons, pasture transpiration showed a strong dependence on rainfall occurrence and on top soil water. Conversely, trees were able to maintain transpiration throughout the summer due to the deep root access to groundwater. Q. ilex trees showed a high resilience to both seasonal and annual drought. Tree transpiration represented more than half of ecosystem transpiration, in spite of the low tree density (30 trees ha -1) and crown cover fraction (21%). Tree evapotranspiration was dominated by transpiration (76%), and interception loss represented only 24% of overall tree evaporation.

  9. Resilience as a framework for analyzing the adaptation of mountain summer pasture systems to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Nettier


    Full Text Available Social-ecological resilience is defined by Brian Walker and colleagues as "the capacity of a social-ecological system (SES to absorb disturbances and reorganize while undergoing change so as to continue to retain essentially the same function, structure, feedbacks, and therefore identity." It is an increasingly widespread concept whose success depends, among other things, on the promise of its rapid transfer from science into practice and its operational character for the sustainable management of SESs. However, tangible examples of management methods based on resilience remain limited in the scientific literature. Here, we test the resilience management framework proposed by Brian Walker and David Salt by applying it to the case of mountain summer pastures in the French Alps, which are complex SESs in which human and ecological dimensions are closely linked and subject to substantial perturbations due to climate change. Three steps were implemented: (1 building a conceptual model based on expert knowledge of the functioning of summer pastures; (2 building, from the model, a template for summer pasture resilience analysis; and (3 testing the operational character of the model and the template for two pairs of contrasting cases. This heuristic tool enables understanding the ways in which farmers and herders manage the resilience of their system but does not aim to quantify resilience. The method developed, together with the resilience concept, provide insights into the functioning of summer pastures from both biophysical and management perspectives. The modeling process constitutes a learning process, which will support the implementation of adaptive management. We identified three critical points for making the method truly operational: basing modeling on an equal consideration of social and ecological dimensions, defining the boundaries of the modeled system based on the social dimension, and selecting a scale of analysis coherent with the type

  10. Strategic grazing management towards sustainable intensification at tropical pasture-based dairy systems. (United States)

    Congio, Guilhermo F S; Batalha, Camila D A; Chiavegato, Marília B; Berndt, Alexandre; Oliveira, Patrícia P A; Frighetto, Rosa T S; Maxwell, Thomas M R; Gregorini, Pablo; Da Silva, Sila C


    Agricultural systems are responsible for environmental impacts that can be mitigated through the adoption of more sustainable principles. Our objective was to investigate the influence of two pre-grazing targets (95% and maximum canopy light interception during pasture regrowth; LI 95% and LI Max , respectively) on sward structure and herbage nutritive value of elephant grass cv. Cameroon, and dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, stocking rate, enteric methane (CH 4 ) emissions by Holstein × Jersey dairy cows. We hypothesized that grazing strategies modifying the sward structure of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) improves nutritive value of herbage, increasing DMI and reducing intensity of enteric CH 4 emissions, providing environmental and productivity benefits to tropical pasture-based dairy systems. Results indicated that pre-sward surface height was greater for LI Max (≈135 cm) than LI 95% (≈100 cm) and can be used as a reliable field guide for monitoring sward structure. Grazing management based on LI 95% criteria improved herbage nutritive value and grazing efficiency, allowing greater DMI, milk yield and stocking rate by dairy cows. Daily enteric CH 4 emission was not affected; however, cows grazing elephant grass at LI 95% were more efficient and emitted 21% less CH 4 /kg of milk yield and 18% less CH 4 /kg of DMI. The 51% increase in milk yield per hectare overcame the 29% increase in enteric CH 4 emissions per hectare in LI 95% grazing management. Thereby the same resource allocation resulted in a 16% mitigation of the main greenhouse gas from pasture-based dairy systems. Overall, strategic grazing management is an environmental friendly practice that improves use efficiency of allocated resources through optimization of processes evolving plant, ruminant and their interface, and enhances milk production efficiency of tropical pasture-based systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.


    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  12. Impact of an invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, on a pasture community in south east Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Belgeri, Amalia; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve


    Parthenium weed is a highly invasive alien species in more than 40 countries around the world. Along with severe negative effects on human and animal health and crop production, it also causes harm to ecosystem functioning by reducing the native plant species biodiversity. However, its impacts on native plant species, especially in pasture communities, are less known. Given parthenium weed causes substantial losses to Australian pastures' productivity, it is crucial to estimate its impact on pasture communities. This study evaluates the impact of parthenium weed upon species diversity in a pasture community at Kilcoy, south east Queensland, Australia. Sub-sites containing three levels of parthenium weed density (i.e. high, low and zero) were chosen to quantify the above- and below-ground plant community structure. Species richness, diversity and evenness were all found to be significantly reduced as the density of parthenium weed increased; an effect was evident even when parthenium weed was present at relatively low densities (i.e. two plants m -2 ). This trend was observed in the summer season as well as in winter season when this annual weed was absent from the above-ground plant community. This demonstrates the strong impact that parthenium weed has upon the community composition and functioning throughout the year. It also shows the long-term impact of parthenium weed on the soil seed bank where it had displaced several native species. So, management options used for parthenium weed should also consider the reduction of parthenium weed seed bank along with controlling its above-ground populations.

  13. Soil, water, and nutrient losses from management alternatives for degraded pasture in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biome. (United States)

    Rocha Junior, Paulo Roberto da; Andrade, Felipe Vaz; Mendonça, Eduardo de Sá; Donagemma, Guilherme Kangussú; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves; Bhattharai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta Kumar


    The objective of this study was to evaluate sediment, water and nutrient losses from different pasture managements in the Atlantic Rainforest biome. A field study was carried out in Alegre Espiríto Santo, Brazil, on a Xanthic Ferralsol cultivated with braquiaria (Brachiaria brizantha). The six pasture managements studied were: control (CON), chisel (CHI), fertilizer (FER), burned (BUR), plowing and harrowing (PH), and integrated crop-livestock (iCL). Runoff and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon contents. Soil physical attributes and above and below biomass were also evaluated. The results indicated that higher water loss was observed for iCL (129.90mm) and CON (123.25mm) managements, and the sediment losses were higher for CON (10.24tha -1 ) and BUR (5.20tha -1 ) managements when compared to the other managements. Majority of the nutrients losses occurred in dissolved fraction (99% of Ca, 99% of Mg, 96% of K, and 65% of P), whereas a significant fraction of organic carbon (80%) loss occurred in a particulate form. Except for P, other nutrients (Ca, Mg and K) and organic carbon losses were higher in coarse sediment compared to fine sediment. The greater losses of sediment, organic carbon, and nutrients were observed for CON followed by BUR management (plosses from various practices, to reduce pasture degradation, farmers should adopt edaphic practices by applying lime and fertilize to improve pasture growth and soil cover, and reducing soil erosion in the hilly Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos


    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  15. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems


    Clair Jorge Olivo; Carlos Alberto Agnolin; Priscila Flôres Aguirre; Cláudia Marques de Bem; Tiago Luís da Ros de Araújo; Michelle Schalemberg Diehl; Gilmar Roberto Meinerz


    The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant gra...

  16. Effects of Climate and Social Change on Pasture Productivity and Area in the Alay Valley, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Smithwick, E. A. H.


    The high elevation Alay Valley, located in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan, has experienced substantial socio-political and environmental changes in recent decades, resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and an increase in average annual temperature from 1.8 C to 2.7 C between 1990 and 2014. However, the consequences of these changes on pastureland productivity and area has not been previously assessed, despite the critical cultural and economic importance of pasturelands for sustaining livelihoods in this region. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture, pasture productivity and pasture area in the Alay Valley. Supervised classification was performed on Landsat imagery over the study region to distinguish pastures and agricultural land in order to relate changes in soil moisture to specific land classes. Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) was estimated between May 2015 and June 2017 from Soil Moisture Active Passive L4 RZSM product. Average monthly NDVI for 2016 was calculated to obtain seasonal patterns in productivity of the pasturelands in the region. Results show that annual RZSM trends closely matched those of precipitation, as RZSM peaks during May (the wettest month) and decreases during the dry summer. The NDVI trend is also notable as it peaks very early in June before declining due to limited precipitation and grazing practices. There has been a sharp increase in pasturelands encompassing the bank of the Kyzyl Suu river from 1993 to 2016. Likely due to turmoil from collapse of the USSR, the area of pasturelands decreased slightly from 59.98 to 55.99 km^2 from 1993-1994, corresponding with a decline in livestock count and GDP per capita. The area of pasturelands has since recovered and is hovering around 104.47 - 107.95 km^2 between 2009-2016. Overall results highlight both sensitivity and resilience of high elevation pasture to coupled socio-environmental drivers.

  17. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils. (United States)

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S; Mueller, Rebecca C; Jesus, Ederson da C; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L M


    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils.

  18. Genetic parameters for type classification of Nelore cattle on central performance tests at pasture in Brazil. (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini Neto, José; Machado, Carlos Henrique Cavallari; McManus, Concepta


    The objective of this study was to characterize Nelore cattle on central performance tests in pasture, ranked by the visual classification method EPMURAS (structure, precocity, muscle, navel, breed, posture, and sexual characteristics), and to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations between these parameters, including visual as well as production traits (initial and final weight on test, weight gain, and weight corrected for 550 days). The information used in the study was obtained on 21,032 Nelore bulls which were participants in the central performance test at pasture of the Brazilian Association for Zebu Breeders (ABCZ). Heritabilities obtained were from 0.19 to 0.50. Phenotypic correlations were positive from 0.70 to 0.97 between the weight traits, from 0.65 to 0.74 between visual characteristics, and from 0.29 to 0.47 between visual characteristics and weight traits. The genetic correlations were positive ranging from 0.80 to 0.98 between the characteristics of structure, precocity and musculature, from 0.13 to 0.64 between the growth characteristics, and from 0.41 to 0.97 between visual scores and weight gains. Heritability and genetic correlations indicate that the use of visual scores, along with the selection for growth characteristics, can bring positive results in selection of beef cattle for rearing on pasture.

  19. Cattle production supplemented on signal grass pastures during the rainy season

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    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos


    Full Text Available The effects of four supplement doses (0, 1, 2 and 3 kg animal-1 day-1 on pasture characteristics and on cattle production on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pastures in continuous stocking with variable stocking rate were assessed. Experimental design comprised completely randomized blocks with two replications. Concentrate supplementation did not influence mass (4141 kg ha-1 of DM and production rate of forage (97.6 kg ha-1 day-1 of DM, morphological components and nutrition value in hand-plucked forage. Similarly, the number of live (1.607 tillers m-² and dead (636 tillers m-² tillers was not affected by concentrate supplementation. There were linear increases in animal performance (from 0.70 to 1.13 kg animal-1 day-1, stocking rate (1.9 to 3.8 animal unit ha-1 and animal production per area (1.8 to 6.2 kg ha-1 body weight with supplementation doses. Concentrate supplementation does not change the structural characteristics of signal grass pastures managed in continuous stocking at 20 cm high, but increases animal production.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos


    Full Text Available The understanding of relationship between the numbers of tillers categories allows the identification of compensatory mechanisms that ensure plants adaptation to grazing. Thus, this work was conducted to evaluate the associations between densities of various tillers categories in same Brachiaria decumbens pasture under continuous stocking with cattle. The tillers were measured with different growth sources, developmental stages, and defoliation and sizes levels in sites of same pasture with plants of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm. Pearson linear correlation between the different tillers categories were estimated. The vegetative tillers number (VTN correlated positively with percentage of tillers with up to 20 cm. The response pattern opposite occurred with reproductive (RTN and dead (DTN tillers numbers. The correlations of number of leafless tillers were positive with the percentage of tillers with less than 20 cm and negative with the percentage of tillers with more than 20 cm. The VTN correlated positively with numbers of tillers with and without defoliation, and negatively with the RNT and DNT. The number of aerial tiller was positively correlated with the number of tillers without apical meristem. In B. decumbens pasture there are tradeoffs between percentage of longer tillers and VNT, between numbers of vegetative and leafless tillers, and between VNT and RNT.

  1. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources (United States)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.


    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  2. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

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    M. Decandia


    Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.

  3. Validating a model that predicts daily growth and feed quality of New Zealand dairy pastures. (United States)

    Woodward, S J


    The Pasture Quality (PQ) model is a simple, mechanistic, dynamical system model that was designed to capture the essential biological processes in grazed grass-clover pasture, and to be optimised to derive improved grazing strategies for New Zealand dairy farms. While the individual processes represented in the model (photosynthesis, tissue growth, flowering, leaf death, decomposition, worms) were based on experimental data, this did not guarantee that the assembled model would accurately predict the behaviour of the system as a whole (i.e., pasture growth and quality). Validation of the whole model was thus a priority, since any strategy derived from the model could impact a farm business in the order of thousands of dollars per annum if adopted. This paper describes the process of defining performance criteria for the model, obtaining suitable data to test the model, and carrying out the validation analysis. The validation process highlighted a number of weaknesses in the model, which will lead to the model being improved. As a result, the model's utility will be enhanced. Furthermore, validation was found to have an unexpected additional benefit, in that despite the model's poor initial performance, support was generated for the model among field scientists involved in the wider project.

  4. Evaluating Nitrogen Management Options for Reducing Nitrate Leaching from Northeast U.S. Pastures

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    William L. Stout


    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of nitrate nitrogen NO3-N can leach from intensively grazed pasture in the northeast U.S. where there is about 30 cm of groundwater recharge, annually. Management options for reducing NO3-N leaching were evaluated for this environment using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System Model and a recently developed nitrogen leaching index. Management options utilizing energy supplementation of grazing dairy cows could improve nitrogen efficiency within the cow, but would not necessarily reduce NO3-N leaching at the pasture scale if stocking rate was not controlled. The management option of using white clover to supply nitrogen to the pasture decreased NO3-N leaching, but produced less dry matter yield, which in turn reduced stocking rate. The economic returns of reducing NO3-N with these options need to be evaluated in light of milk prices and commodity and fertilizer nitrogen costs. At current prices and costs, the economic benefit from the energy supplementation options is substantial.

  5. Acacia sieberiana Effects on Soil Properties and Plant Diversity in Songa Pastures, Rwanda

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    C. P. Mugunga


    Full Text Available Effects of A. sieberiana trees on soil properties and plant diversity were investigated in Songa pastures, Rwanda. Tree characteristics and crown architecture of A. sieberiana were studied. Soil properties were assessed and plants were identified under and away from tree crowns. Counts of individual plants/species were done only under tree crowns. Nitrogen, P, and K were analysed in the soil, grass, and A. sieberiana leaves. Plant diversity was determined using Simpson's diversity index. Data were subjected to ANOVA. Soil organic carbon (SOC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, Ca2+, N and pH, and plant diversity were higher in soils under tree canopies than in open areas. Tree leaves were significantly richer in N and poorer in P and K as compared to grasses. Tree crowns grew wider and horizontal and developed intertwined secondary branching, reducing light intensity to as low as 38% under tree canopies compared to the open pasture. At 3 trees/ha stocking, A. sieberiana trees shaded 0.18 ha and herbaceous plants and grasses unpalatable to livestock dominated under tree canopies. A tradeoff of A. sieberiana tree value versus the loss of palatable grass due to tree presence needs to be assessed to decide whether the trees should be included in pastures and if yes, the apporpriate stocking identified.

  6. Anylisis of botanical composition and nutrient content on natural pastures in Samosir Island of Samosir Regency (United States)

    Hanafi, N. D.; Tafsin, M.; Hutasuhut, U.; Lubis, E.


    Samosir regency is one of the areas that have large grazing area. The potential of grazing production in the area plays an important role for the development of livestock, especially on ruminant livestock.The study aims to know the botanical composition and the nutritional content of forage on natural pasture at the Samosir Island. Animal feed assessment method on natural pastures in Samosir regency includes the determination of research location points based on the altitude through the survey method. Location of the study amounted to 15 locations. The result showed that at altitude 905 - 1200 meters above sea level had a botanical composition were 31 species with ratio of grass 80.58 %, legumes 9.14 % and weeds 9.63 % and the most dominant forage is Imperata cylindrica l. The botanical composition at altitude more than 1205 meters above sea level is 15 species with ratio of grass 92.72 %, legumes 2.87 % and weeds 4.39 % and the most dominant forage is Axonopus compressus. The forage which has the highest crude protein is Starkuak 15.13 %. The conclusion that the altitude in pastures give effect on the botanical composition of forages.

  7. Pasture research in the wet and dry tropics of Nigeria with particular reference to isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegbola, A.A.; Adepoju, A.


    Pasture research in western Nigeria, which typifies the wet and dry tropics of Nigeria, is discussed fully. Interest in pasture research in the area was kindled in 1930 with the introduction of Cynodon nlemfuensis var. robusta, but systematic work did not start until the 1950s. Early agronomic studies centred on easy means of establishing the adapted species from cuttings, sprigs or seeds. The most important species in the dry tropics is Andropogon gayanus, while in the wet tropics it is Panicum maximum. Later, investigations on yield of dry matter, intervals and height of cutting and response to fertilizer applications were carried out. Radioactive fertilizer 32 P- and 15 N-urea were also used to study the yield response of pasture to fertilizer application and to determine the percentage uptake of nutrients by plants. The results of such trials in different locations in the area are discussed extensively. Also, 32 P was used to determine the depth of active absorption of the root system of Andropogon gayanus and Panicum maximum, thus establishing their rooting pattern. (author)

  8. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems. (United States)

    Butler, S T


    The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility.

  9. Forage mass and stocking rate of elephant grass pastures managed under agroecological and conventional systems

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    Clair Jorge Olivo


    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. pastures, under the agroecological and conventional systems, as forage mass and stocking rate. In the agroecological system, the elephant grass was established in rows spaced by 3.0 m from each other. During the cool season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was established between these rows, which allowed the development of spontaneous growth species during the warm season. In the conventional system the elephant grass was established singularly in rows spaced 1.4 m from each other. Organic and chemical fertilizers were applied at 150 kg of N/ha/year with in the pastures under agroecological and conventional systems, respectively. Lactating Holstein cows which received 5.0 kg/day supplementary concentrate feed were used for evaluation. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two treatments (agroecological and conventional systems two replications (paddocks and independent evaluations (grazing cycles. The pastures were used during the whole year for the agroecological system and for 195 days in the conventional year. The average values of forage mass were 3.5 and 4.2 t/ha and the stocking rates were 2.08 and 3.23 AU/ha for the respective systems. The results suggest that the use of the elephant grass under the agroecological system allows for best distribution of forage and stocking rate to be more uniform throughout the year than the use of elephant grass in conventional system.

  10. Studies of Growth Rate of Limousine Calves Maintained on Pasture and Free Stabulation

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    Monica Parvu


    Full Text Available The aim was to monitor the growth process from birth to weaning (six months old of the females and males Limousine calves maintained on pasture or free stabulation. The research was performed in a private farm situated in Covasna County. In this farm, the rearing of the calves was done without there being a technological guide. The calves had been grown along with the mother cows. The introduction of vegetal food into the calves ration is done at 3 weeks old. In the first period (one month old, all calves were housed in stabulation, having free access to the paddock. The daily gain was 666.7 g at females and 800 g at males. In the second period (from one month old until weaning, a group was maintained on pasture, and the other group in free stabulation. The daily gain was 1120 g at females and 1200 g at males on pasture; 1067 g and respectively 1140 g in stabulation. The stress of weaning was present only to the young females; for ten days, these were restlessness, having the desire for sucking and the appetite for food has decreased. Their bodyweight has decreased with 12%, the differences being significant (p≤0.05.

  11. Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region (United States)

    Veissier, Isabelle; Van laer, Eva; Palme, Rupert; Moons, Christel P. H.; Ampe, Bart; Sonck, Bart; Andanson, Stéphane; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.


    Under temperate climates, cattle are often at pasture in summer and are not necessarily provided with shade. We aimed at evaluating in a temperate region (Belgium) to what extent cattle may suffer from heat stress (measured through body temperature, respiration rate and panting score, cortisol or its metabolites in milk, and feces on hot days) and at assessing the potential benefits of shade. During the summer of 2012, 20 cows were kept on pasture without access to shade. During the summer of 2011, ten cows had access to shade (young trees with shade cloth hung between them), whereas ten cows had no access. Climatic conditions were quantified by the Heat Load Index (HLI). In animals without access to shade respiration rates, panting scores, rectal temperatures, and milk cortisol concentrations increased as HLI increased in both 2011 and 2012. Fecal cortisol metabolites varied with HLI in 2011 only. When cattle had access to shade, their use of shade increased as the HLI increased. This effect was more pronounced during the last part of the summer, possibly due to better acquaintance with the shade construction. In this case, shade use increased to 65% at the highest HLI (79). Shade tempered the effects on respiration, rectal temperature, and fecal cortisol metabolites. Milk cortisol was not influenced by HLI for cows using shade for > 10% of the day. Therefore, even in temperate areas, cattle may suffer from heat when they are at pasture in summer and providing shade can reduce such stress.

  12. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle

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    Silvana Arrighi


    Full Text Available Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 458–464

  13. Ingestive behavior of supplemented Nellore heifers grazing palisadegrass pastures managed with different sward heights. (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno Ramalho; Azenha, Mariana Vieira; Casagrande, Daniel Rume; Costa, Diogo Fleury Azevedo; Ruggieri, Ana Cláudia; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha; Reis, Ricardo Andrade


    Three sward heights (15, 25 and 35 cm) and three supplement types (energy, energy-protein, and a mineral mix supplement) were evaluated in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement distributed in a completely randomized design to study changes in forage search patterns in Nellore heifers in a continuous grazing system. Pasture data were collected using two replicates (paddocks) per treatment over four periods during the rainy season. The behavior assessments were made in the first and fourth grazing seasons. It was hypothesized that supplements and pasture management would modify ingestive behavior, considering that animals would require less time grazing if they had energy requirements met through higher digestibility of better managed paddocks, or use of supplements high in energy. Total and green forage masses along with green : dead material ratio were greater in treatments managed with higher sward heights. Sward managed with 35 cm height resulted in lower leaf : stem ratio compared with 15 cm sward height treatments. The animals on the 15 cm pastures spent more time grazing overall and during each meal, but there were no differences observed in meal numbers in comparison to 35 cm treatments. Heifers fed protein and/or energy supplements spent less time grazing in the early afternoon, but overall grazing time was the same for all animals. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  15. The Role of Remote Sensing in Assessing Forest Biomass in Appalachian South Carolina (United States)

    Shain, W.; Nix, L.


    Information is presented on the use of color infrared aerial photographs and ground sampling methods to quantify standing forest biomass in Appalachian South Carolina. Local tree biomass equations are given and subsequent evaluation of stand density and size classes using remote sensing methods is presented. Methods of terrain analysis, environmental hazard rating, and subsequent determination of accessibility of forest biomass are discussed. Computer-based statistical analyses are used to expand individual cover-type specific ground sample data to area-wide cover type inventory figures based on aerial photographic interpretation and area measurement. Forest biomass data are presented for the study area in terms of discriminant size classes, merchantability limits, accessibility (as related to terrain and yield/harvest constraints), and potential environmental impact of harvest.

  16. Explanatory models of black lung: understanding the health-related behavior of Appalachian coal miners. (United States)

    Friedl, J


    Many retired coal miners who are eligible for care in a black lung treatment center at little or no cost to themselves do not enter into available programs or discontinue soon after beginning therapy. Reasons for this behavior are related to the prevalent beliefs among Appalachians concerning the course of black lung and the appropriate treatment for it. The miners' health beliefs are clearly at odds with those of the health care providers who work in the centers. Using the concept of explanatory model, popular and professional health cultures are analyzed, focusing on course of disease, sick role, appropriate treatment, and expected outcome. Differences in explanatory models are discussed with regard to implications for the organization and delivery of care to retired coal miners with black lung.

  17. Modelling streambank erosion potential using maximum entropy in a central Appalachian watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pitchford


    Full Text Available We used maximum entropy to model streambank erosion potential (SEP in a central Appalachian watershed to help prioritize sites for management. Model development included measuring erosion rates, application of a quantitative approach to locate Target Eroding Areas (TEAs, and creation of maps of boundary conditions. We successfully constructed a probability distribution of TEAs using the program Maxent. All model evaluation procedures indicated that the model was an excellent predictor, and that the major environmental variables controlling these processes were streambank slope, soil characteristics, bank position, and underlying geology. A classification scheme with low, moderate, and high levels of SEP derived from logistic model output was able to differentiate sites with low erosion potential from sites with moderate and high erosion potential. A major application of this type of modelling framework is to address uncertainty in stream restoration planning, ultimately helping to bridge the gap between restoration science and practice.

  18. Visitor evaluations of management actions at a highly impacted Appalachian Trail camping area. (United States)

    Daniels, Melissa L; Marion, Jeffrey L


    Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors' reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area's natural resources and improving social conditions.

  19. Depositional facies mosaics and their time lines in Lower Ordovician carbonates of central Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.; Goldhammer, R.K.; Hardie, L.A.


    A comparative sedimentology and facies stratigraphy study of the Lower Ordovician carbonate of the central Appalachians (Beekmantown Group and equivalents) has been carried out. Our approach used subfacies (rock record of subenvironments) as the basin units of section measurement. The authors differentiated related sets of subfacies into larger facies units (rock record of environments). Facies were then correlated from section to section using fossils and lithostratigraphy to make a 3-dimensional facies mosaic. Within this mosaic, time lines were constructed using onlap-offlap tongues and cyclic sequences. These time lines cut across facies boundaries. Using this approach, the authors have established that the lower 600 m of the Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence is made up of 4 main facies: (1) cyclic laminite facies composed of a package of shoaling-upward shelf lagoon-peritidal cycles, (2) thin-bedded grainstone facies deposited in a shelf lagoon, (3) Renalcis bioherm facies recording a shelf lagoon patch-reef environment, and (4) Epiphyton bioherm facies recording a shelf-edge reef system. The distribution of these facies along time lines across the strike of the central Appalachians is markedly zoned. Epiphyton bioherm facies dominate the eastern margin while cyclic laminite facies dominate the western margin, with thin-bedded grainstone and Renalcis bioherm facies making up the central belt. This zonation of facies is a typical shallow carbonate shelf system with fringing reefs along the eastern, seaward margin and tidal flats along the western, landward margin. Vertical distribution of these facies across strike records 3 major sea level changes during deposition of the lower 600 m of this extensive Lower Ordovician carbonate shelf.

  20. Appalachian mine soil morphology and properties: Effects of weathering and mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, K.C.; Daniels, W.L.; Galbraith, J.M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    Surface coal mining and reclamation methods in the Appalachians have changed dramatically since the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 and subsequent improvements in mining and reclamation technology. In this study, 30 pre-SMCRA mine soil profiles (4-20 yr old) were examined and sampled in 1980 and compared with 20 mine soil profiles (8-13 yr old) described in the same area in 2002 after it had been completely remined by modern deep cut methods. Mine soils in both sampling years had high rock fragment content (42-81%), relatively well-developed A horizons, and generally exhibited A-C or A-AC-C horizonation. Although six Bw horizons were described in 1980, only two met all requirements for cambic horizons. The 1980 mine soils developed in overburden dominated by oxidized, preweathered material due to relatively shallow mining cuts. The 1980 mine soils had lower rock fragment content, finer textures, lower pH, and tended to be more heterogeneous in horizonation, morphology, and texture than soils observed in 2002, which had formed primarily in unweathered overburden from deeper cuts. Half the pedons sampled in both years had densic materials within 70 cm of the surface. Four poorly to very poorly drained soil profiles were described in each sampling year containing distinct hydric soil indicators in surface horizons. While older pre-SMCRA mine soils do have many properties in common with newer mine soils, their properties are highly influenced by the fact that they generally have formed in more weathered overburden from higher in the geologic column. Overall, Appalachian mine soils are much more complex in subsoil morphology than commonly assumed, and differential compaction greatly complicates their internal drainage and limits their overall productivity potential.