Sample records for appalachian silvopasture pasture

  1. Annotated bibliography on the impacts of size and scale of silvopasture in the Southeastern U.S.A (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; Marcus M. Comer


    Silvopasture, the integration of trees and pasture for livestock, has numerous potential benefits for producers. However, size or scale of the operation may affect those benefits. A review of relevant research on the scale and size economies of silvopasture, general forestry, and livestock agriculture was undertaken to better understand potential silvopasture...

  2. Soil carbon storage in silvopasture and related land-use systems in the brazilian cerrado. (United States)

    Tonucci, Rafael G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D; Garcia, Rasmo; Bernardino, Fernando S


    Silvopastoral management of fast-growing tree plantations is becoming popular in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna). To understand the influence of such systems on soil carbon (C) storage, we studied C content in three aggregate size classes in six land-use systems (LUS) on Oxisols in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The systems were a native forest, a treeless pasture, 24- and 4-yr-old eucalyptus ( sp.) plantations, and 15- and 4-yr-old silvopastures of fodder grass plus animals under eucalyptus. From each system, replicated soil samples were collected from four depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-50, and 50-100 cm), fractionated into 2000- to 250-, 250- to 53-, and <53-μm size classes representing macroaggregates, microaggregates, and silt + clay, respectively, and their C contents determined. Macroaggregate was the predominant size fraction under all LUS, especially in the surface soil layers of tree-based systems. In general, C concentrations (g kg soil) in the different aggregate size fractions did not vary within the same depth. The soil organic carbon (SOC) stock (Mg C ha) to 1-m depth was highest under pasture compared with other LUS owing to its higher soil bulk density. The soils under all LUS had higher C stock compared with other reported values for managed tropical ecosystems: down to 1 m, total SOC stock values ranged from 461 Mg ha under pasture to 393 Mg ha under old eucalyptus. Considering the possibility for formation and retention of microaggregates within macroggregates in low management-intensive systems such as silvopasture, the macroaggregate dynamics in the soil seem to be a good indicator of its C storage potential. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  3. Trees and livestock together: silvopasture research and application for Virginia farms (United States)

    Gregory E. Frey; John H. Fike; Adam K. Downing; Marcus M. Comer; Timothy A. Mize; Christopher D. Teutsch


    Silvopasture is the intentional combination of trees, forage, and livestock on a parcel of land to optimize multiple outputs and has been shown to have benefits for production in various parts of the world.  There is strong interest in silvopasture in the Southern United States, likely driven by multiple motivations.  However, silvopasture practices have not been...

  4. Tree legumes: an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tree legumes are an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures. Perceived benefits of tree legumes include provisioning (browse/mast, timber, fuel, human food, natural medicines, and ornamentals, regulating (C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil erosion control and riparian buffers, shade, windbreaks, and habitat for pollinators, supporting (biological N2-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil fertility and soil health, photosynthesis, and primary productivity, and cultural ecosystem services. Tree legumes, however, have not been assessed to the same extent as herbaceous legumes. Once tree legumes are established, they are often more persistent than most herbaceous legumes. There are limitations for extended research with tree legume silvopastures, but extensive research has been done in Africa and Australia and recent efforts have been reported in South America. Economic benefits must be demonstrated to land managers to increase adoption. These benefits are apparent in the research and successes already available, but more long-term research, including the livestock component is necessary. Other factors that reduce adoption include paucity of domesticated germplasm, lag in research/technology, challenges of multipurpose trees and management complexity, challenges to mechanization, dangers of invasive weeds, and social and cultural barriers. In the current scenario of climate change and the need to increase food security, tree legumes are a key component for the sustainable intensification of livestock systems in warm-climate regions.

  5. Soil carbon storage in silvopastoral systems and a treeless pasture in northwestern Spain. (United States)

    Howlett, David S; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio


    Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have considerable influence on carbon (C) storage in soils, but such information is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths to 100 cm under silvopastoral plots of radiata pine ( D. Don) and birch ( Roth) in comparison to treeless pasture in Galicia, Spain. Soils were fractionated into three size classes (<53, 53-250, and 250-2000 μm), and C stored in them and in the whole (nonfractionated) soil was determined. Overall, the C stock to 1 m ranged from 80.9 to 176.9 Mg ha in these soils. Up to 1 m depth, 78.82% of C was found in the 0- to 25-cm soil depth, with 12.9, 4.92, and 3.36% in the 25- to 50-, 50- to 75-, and 75- to 100-cm depths, respectively. Soils under birch at 0 to 25 cm stored more C in the 250- to 2000-μm size class as compared with those under radiata pine; at that depth, pasture had more C than pine silvopasture in the smaller soil fractions (<53 and 53-250 μm). In the 75- to 100-cm depth, there was significantly more storage of C in the 250- to 2000-μm fraction in both silvopastures as compared with the pasture. The higher storage of soil C in larger fraction size in lower soil depths of silvopasture suggests that planting of trees into traditional agricultural landscapes will promote longer-term storage of C in the soil. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  6. The potential of L. scoparium, K. robusta and P. radiata to mitigate N-losses in silvopastural systems. (United States)

    Esperschuetz, J; Balaine, N; Clough, T; Bulman, S; Dickinson, N M; Horswell, J; Robinson, B H


    Silvopastoral systems aim to enhance economic, cultural and social principles by sustainably combining forest management with agriculture. In these typically high-nitrogen (N) environments, plant species selection can profoundly influence N fluxes. For grazed pastures, plants may be exposed to urine patches that have received the equivalent of up to 1000 kg N ha -1 . We aimed to determine the growth and N fluxes in three potential trees that may be used in silvopastoral systems: L. scoparium, K. robusta and P. radiata. Plants were grown in a greenhouse lysimeter experiment, with controlled irrigation and temperature and exposed to N at rates of 200 kg ha -1 equiv. for 15 weeks, followed by the addition of 800 kg ha -1 N equiv, to simulate a urine patch. Urea produced a positive growth response of all plant species. Treatments containing L. scoparium and K. robusta leached lower amounts of nitrate (NO 3 - ) (2 kg ha -1 NO 3 - ) compared to P. radiata (53 kg ha -1 ). Measurements of N 2 O over 20 days after the application of 800 kg N ha -1 indicated an inhibitory effect of L. scoparium and K. robusta on denitrification, hence loss of N via N 2 O. Both L. scoparium and K. robusta demonstrated that they have potential to reduce N-losses in silvopastural systems, while producing valuable biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental quality improvement of agricultural lands through silvopasture in southeastern United States Melhoria da qualidade ambiental de terras agricultáveis por meio da silvopastagem no sudeste dos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair


    Full Text Available We hypothesized that, because of the ability of trees to sequester carbon (C in the deep soil profile and remove excess nutrients from soils, the silvopastoral agroforestry system could enhance the environmental quality of the agricultural lands. To test this hypothesis, two sets of experiments were conducted in two soil orders in Florida, Spodosols and Ultisols, with two major objectives: i determining the soil C accumulation and tracing the plant sources of C in soil fractions, and ii quantifying water soluble phosphorus (WSP and estimating the Soil P Storage Capacity (SPSC. Total C in both soil orders was greater under silvopasture than in treeless pastures, particularly at lower depths. Stable-isotope signature analysis suggested that C3 plants (in this case, slash pine, Pinus elliotii contributed to a more stable C fraction than C4 plants (in this case, bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum at soil depths up to 1 m. WSP was consistently higher in treeless pastures, while the remaining SPSC was lower in this land-use system, suggesting the greater likelihood of P moving out of the soil under treeless pasture than in silvopasture. Thus, the presence of trees in pastures contributed to more stable C within the soil profiles, lower WSP, and greater SPSC, indicating more environmental benefits provided by silvopastoral systems as compared to treeless pastures under similar ecological settings.Nossa hipótese é de que devido à habilidade das árvores seqüestrarem carbono (C no perfil profundo do solo e remover o excesso de nutrientes dos solos, o sistema de silvopastagem agroflorestal poderia melhorar a qualidade ambiental de terras agricultáveis. Para testar esta hipótese, dois grupos de experimentos foram conduzidos em duas ordens de solos na Florida, Espodossolos e Ultissolos, com dois objetivos principais: i determinar a acumulação de C do solo e investigar as fontes de C para as plantas nas frações dos solos, e ii quantificar o fósforo sol

  8. The influence of litter quality and micro-habitat on litter decomposition and soil properties in a silvopasture system (United States)

    Tripathi, G.; Deora, R.; Singh, G.


    Studies to understand litter processes and soil properties are useful for maintaining pastureland productivity as animal husbandry is the dominant occupation in the hot arid region. We aimed to quantify how micro-habitats and combinations of litters of the introduced leguminous tree Colophospermum mopane with the grasses Cenchrus ciliaris or Lasiurus sindicus influence decomposition rate and soil nutrient changes in a hot desert silvopasture system. Litter bags with tree litter alone (T), tree + C. ciliaris in 1:1 ratio (TCC) and tree + L. sindicus 1:1 ratio (TLS) litter were placed inside and outside of the C. mopane canopy and at the surface, 3-7 cm and 8-12 cm soil depths. We examined litter loss, soil fauna abundance, organic carbon (SOC), total (TN), ammonium (NH4-N) and nitrate (NO3-N) nitrogen, phosphorus (PO4-P), soil respiration (SR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil adjacent to each litter bag. After 12 months exposure, the mean residual litter was 40.2% of the initial value and annual decomposition rate constant (k) was 0.98 (0.49-1.80). Highest (p < 0.01) litter loss was in the first four months, when faunal abundance, SR, DHA and humidity were highest but it decreased with time. These variables and k were highest under the tree canopies. The litter loss and k were highest (p < 0.01) in TLS under the tree canopy, but the reverse trend was found for litter outside the canopy. Faunal abundance, litter loss, k, nutrient release and biochemical activities were highest (p < 0.01) in the 3-7 cm soil layer. Positive correlations of litter loss and soil fauna abundance with soil nutrients, SR and DHA demonstrated the interactions of litter quality and micro-habitats together with soil fauna on increased soil fertility. These results suggest that a Colophospermum mopane and L. sindicus silvopasture system best promotes faunal abundance, litter decomposition and soil fertility. The properties of these species and the associated faunal resources may be

  9. Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain. (United States)

    Howlett, David Scott; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera Losada, Maria Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D


    The extent of carbon (C) stored in soils depends on a number of factors including soil characteristics, climatic and other environmental conditions, and management practices. Such information, however, is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 cm) under a Dehesa cork oak (Quercus suber L.) silvopasture at varying distances (2, 5, and 15 m) to trees. Soil C in the whole soil and three soil fractions (silvopastoral systems. The results also demonstrate the use of soil aggregate characteristics as better indicators of soil C sequestration potential and thus a tool for environmental monitoring.

  10. Public invited to Appalachian Studies Film Series


    Elliott, Jean


    The Appalachian Studies Program at Virginia Tech is hosting a series of notable artistic and documentary films. The films deal with themes or issues covered in Appalachian Studies courses and are organized historically, touching upon issues common to all Appalachians.

  11. Wood-pastures of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hartel, Tibor; Martín-López, Berta


    Wood-pastures are archetypes of High Nature Value Farmlands in Europe and hold exceptional ecological, social, and cultural values. Yet, wood-pastures have been through a sharp decline all over Europe, mainly due to processes of agricultural intensification and abandonment. Recently, wood......-pastures have found increasing attention from conservation science and policy across Europe. In this paper we (i) perform the first pan-European assessment of wood-pastures, considering individual countries and biogeographic regions, (ii) present the ecological and social-cultural values of a wide diversity...... of wood-pasture systems in Europe, (iii) outline management challenges around wood-pastures, and (iv) provide insights for the policy agenda targeting wood-pastures in Europe. We estimate that wood-pastures cover an area of approximately 203,000km2 in the European Union (EU...

  12. Global Agricultural Lands: Pastures, 2000 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Pastures dataset represents the proportion of land areas used as pasture land (land used to support grazing animals) in the year 2000. Satellite data from...

  13. Global Agricultural Lands: Pastures, 2000 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Pastures data set represents the proportion of land areas used as pasture land (land used to support grazing animals) in the year 2000. Satellite data...

  14. Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems (United States)

    Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O' Neill; Harry W. Godwin


    Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial...

  15. Appalachian Steward: Ed Bingham. Essay. (United States)

    Stanley, Tal


    As a writer and faculty member at Emory & Henry College (Virginia), Ed Bingham focused on land reform and the sustenance that came from the land. His concern for the damages caused by colonialism influenced the early days of Appalachian Studies. His work was interdisciplinary, with commitments to social justice, democracy, and racial equality.…

  16. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  17. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.


    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  18. Sustainable intensification of cultivated pastures using multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rangeland and wildlife parks) for guidelines to implementing this approach in cultivated pasture. In rangeland or natural grassland ... Keywords: animal production, biodiversity, cultivated pastures, foraging ecology, plant–herbivore interactions ...

  19. European wood-pastures in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions. T...... conservation policies and management approaches for wood-pastures....

  20. Pasture types and Echinococcus multilocularis, Tibetan communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Vuitton, Dominique A; Xiao, Yongfu; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Yang, Wen; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    Our study showed that open pastures had more small mammal burrows than fenced pastures in Tibetan pastoralist communities in 2003. This characteristic was linked to a higher prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs and indicates that pasture type may affect E. multilocularis transmission.

  1. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  2. Chapter 1: The Appalachian regional reforestation initiative (United States)

    Patrick Angel; Vic Davis; Jim Burger; Don Graves; Carl. Zipper


    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) is a cooperative effort by the States of the Appalachian region with the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) to encourage restoration of high-quality forests on reclaimed coal mines in the eastern United States. The goals of ARRI are to communicate...

  3. Pasture improvement in Spanish Dehesas (United States)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.


    In the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula, the dehesa is a widespread agro-silvo-pastoral land use system, characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. Many years of inappropriate management of dehesas (deforestation, overgrazing, excessive agricultural activities, etc.) has led to the degradation of vegetation and soils in extensive areas, causing reductions in biomass and biodiversity, affecting the permanence of plants and causing important losses of palatable species. As there is growing interest in these wooded rangeland ecosystems due to their economic importance and high environmental value, the recovery of the original pasture biodiversity and the increase of productivity, together with the conservation of the environment, are the main goals in these areas of low productive potential, degraded and subject to soil erosion. Soil and climate conditions have a great influence on grassland production, with rainfall producing strong seasonal and interannual variations. These natural pastures, mainly composed of summer withering annual species, reach maximum productions in spring and register low values in autumn, slowing down in winter. During the summer dry season, the wilting pastures can offer a good forage for animals. Autochthonous annual legumes play an important role because they are well adapted to local edaphic and climatic conditions and produce hard seeds which germinate in autumn. This helps them to survive the frequent droughts and offer a high quality forage, which is a valuable complement to other pasture plants with lower protein content. Therefore, for several decades, legume seeding combined with the application of phosphate fertilizer has been the most common strategy used to improve pastures in SW Spain, where dehesas cover an area of about four million hectares. This paper examines the whole process of pasture improvement


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomaiací de Andrade


    Full Text Available Climate changes affect animals’ metabolism in a general way, resulting in an increase of heat stress and productivity decrease. Among viable alternatives to ameliote this situation, the most indicated is reforestation of pasture areas due to the great ecological benefit given to animals and the environment as a whole. The intercropping between trees and animals is called silvopastoral system, and represents a promising alternative to current means of production. For a correct deployment of this system it is necessary to consider some characteristics of the land and the environment concerned, to avoid loss and competition between members of the system, in other words, between tree and fodder species.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first weeks of lactation reduced lamb profitr Oestrus activily of ewes was not suppressed by lactation in the pasture groupsr which were. gainirB rnas\\ but was ... The value of such pasture for fat lamb production has been demonstrated by Van ..... VAN NIEKERK, B.D.H. & BARNARD, H.H., 1969. Proc. S.Afr. S. Afr. Soc. Anim.

  6. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  7. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes (United States)

    Phillips, Tommy M.


    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  8. Struggling for Water and Pastures in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie

    of struggles over water and pastures in Diffa, Signe Marie Cold-Ravnkilde accounts for the outcome of conflict and cooperation and explains why herders, like people in other cultures, conceive of their rights in a contradictory manner: as requiring adoption to cultural specific conditions and yet applies...... the 1990s customary practices are increasingly recognised in legal frameworks. "Struggling for water and pastures in Niger" explores the philosophical assumptions behind the rules governing rights to water and pastures in the pastoral areas of the Diffa region in Niger. The book shows how these assumptions...

  9. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

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    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  10. Fatalism and cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky. (United States)

    Royse, David; Dignan, Mark


    Fatalism may play a role in Appalachians' views about cancer screening and contribute to high rates of cancer incidence and mortality, but few studies have explored this issue. A probability telephone survey was conducted of 696 adults living in 51 Appalachian Kentucky counties inquiring about intentions to obtain cancer screening. The Life Orientation Test-Revised as a surrogate measure for fatalism and logistic regression was used to predict screening activity. Insurance coverage was the best overall predictor variable. Fatalism was significant in one model possibly reflecting an appreciation of the costs and barriers associated with obtaining screening in rural counties.

  11. Examining substance use among rural Appalachian and urban non-Appalachian individuals participating in drug court. (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa M; Perkins, Elizabeth B; Neal, Connie


    The study purpose was to examine differences in substance use among individuals in drug court (N = 583) in rural Appalachian (n = 301) and urban non-Appalachian areas (n = 282). A series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of cocaine, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report methamphetamine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Regarding past 30-day use, a series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to use marijuana, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report crack cocaine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Identifying differences which exist in substance use is the first step in generating evidence-based structural changes in treatment drug court programs. Future research should focus on better understanding context in terms of demographic, geographic, and economic conditions, which may be of critical influence on substance use and treatment planning.

  12. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain) (United States)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya


    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  13. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain


    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  14. Risk perception for diabetes in Appalachian women. (United States)

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet


    The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.

  15. The pasture-type approach for mountain pasture description and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti


    Full Text Available The study of pastoral resources can take different approaches with the main goal of characterizing pasture vegetation and its potential carrying capacity. In recent times, the pasture-type approach has been developed in several Alpine areas – on a regional and on a district scale – starting from sward surveys carried out taking the approach formerly developed by the French pastoral school. The pasture-type approach may play an important role in defining the management of mountain and marginal environments where grazing pressure reduction remarkably affects the agro-ecosystems functions (production, landscape, wildlife, recreation, etc.. This approach is based on the concept of pasture type, which could be defined as a semi-natural vegetation (mainly exploited by grazing animals, rather homogeneous in terms of botanic composition and influenced by environmental factors and agro-pastoral management. This paper presents the pasture-type approach by discussing the results of two large studies carried out in two areas of the south side of the Alps (Piedmont and Veneto. In order to identify pasture types, the vegetation composition was assessed with a point quadrat method. It allowed the computation of species-specific contribution, and of sward forage value and carrying capacity, after a multivariate statistical procedure for type classification and ordination. The site conditions (altitude, slope, aspect and other environmental variables were surveyed. Moreover, to characterize the pasture types from the point of view of the ecological and management factors affecting vegetation composition, the Landolt indicators were used. The results achieved in the two areas were synthesised and organised into reference technical tools with the aim of using the pasture-type approach for pastoral planning. For each study area an identification key to recognize pasture types was drafted, and a handbook containing the technical sheets for pasture type

  16. GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Southern Appalachian Rain Gauge IPHEx dataset was collected during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  17. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language: English. Keywords: cenchrus ciliaris; cynodon dactylon; digitaria eriantha; distribution; ecotypes; environmental conditions; eragrostis curvula; geographical distribution; Geography; grasses; heteropogon contortus; morphological variation; Morphology; natal; northern cape; orange free state; pasture; pasture ...

  18. Carbon stocks and dynamics under improved tropical pasture and silvopastoral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.


    To evaluate the effect of land use change on soil organic carbon, the carbon contents and stocks of primary forest, degraded pasture, and four improved pasture systems in Colombian Amazonia were compared in a flat and a sloping landscape. The improved pastures were Brachiaria humidicola, and

  19. The influence of pasture fertilization on animal health | CAH | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health of animals grazing on pastures is affected by mineral content of fodder plants. The mineral content of any pasture species may vary within very wide limits and is profoundly influenced by fertilization. Some of the known facts about animal health in relation to the supply of mineral nutrients in pasture dry matter are ...

  20. Reflection os some aspects of pasture development in Australia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey is made of some pasture developments in Australia and New Zealand with particular reference to sod-seeding techniques, lucerne grazing management, aerial oversowing and overdrilling of natural veld, and pastures of African grasses associated with tropical legumes. Pasture development with special reference ...

  1. The evaluation of pastures and grazing management in terms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of pastures and grazing management in terms of livestock production. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Abstract. Grazing research in South Africa has been largely pasture oriented and consequently there is still a need to fully evaluate many of our more important pasture types and grazing ...

  2. Conversion Disorder in an Appalachian Community. (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah; Holroyd, Suzanne


    Conversion disorder (CD) is believed to be the manifestation of physical and/or neurological symptoms for primary gain without an identifiable organic cause. Although it is believed to be more common in rural areas, the literature examining this claim is sparse. To our knowledge, no study has been published evaluating the prevalence of CD in a rural Appalachian population. The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the prevalence of CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria in a rural Appalachian psychiatric consultation service and to compare this population with control patients from the same service. We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed as having CD per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition, criteria on a psychiatric consultation service at a rural Appalachian academic medical center during a 13-month time period. For each case, two consecutive control patients were selected from the same service and time span. There were 21 cases and 42 controls in this study, with a CD prevalence rate of 6.0% (N = 21/351). Sociodemographic, comorbidity, and recent symptomatology data were obtained. Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse, seizure disorder, antiepileptic use, neurologic referral, electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and history of CD. We found it interesting that fewer cases reported alcohol and drug use. The observed prevalence of 6.0% does not support the historical theory that CD is more prevalent in rural or lower socioeconomic populations. Our data add to the characterization of the Appalachian CD population.

  3. Nitrogen budgets on Appalachian forest catchments (United States)

    David R. DeWalle


    Variations in nitrogen losses in streamflow on catchments in the Appalachians suggests that the level of nitrogen retention in hardwood forests varies widely. Stream losses of dissolved nitrate-N on several small experimental forested catchments range from about 0.2 to 8.5 kg ha-1 y-1. This wide range of losses is equivalent to less than 10% to nearly 100% of measured...

  4. Diversidad zoológica asociada a un silvopastoreo leucaena-guinea con diferentes edades de establecimiento Zoological diversity associated to a silvopastural system leucaena-guinea grass with different establishment times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatnel Alonso Lazo


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad zoológica asociada a un silvopastoreo con leucaena-guinea, por medio de la caracterización de la composición y estructura de las aves, insectos y la macrofauna del suelo, en cuatro edades de establecimiento (3, 4, 5 y 6 años de explotación. Con las especies registradas en cada uno de estos grupos zoológicos, se calcularon los índices ecológicos: número de individuos, riqueza, diversidad y abundancia de especies, en diferentes edades del sistema. En todos los grupos, se apreció el aumento significativo en la riqueza de especies y en el índice de diversidad biológica de Shannon, en la medida que se desarrolló el sistema. Se observó incremento en la abundancia de insectos biorreguladores y, en relación con las aves, el horario de muestreo no mostró interacción con los distintos años de siembra. La macrofauna se incrementó, observándose dominancia de anélidos al 6º y 7º año de explotación, caracterizado por Polyferetrina elongata y Oligochaeta elegans. El desarrollo del silvopastoreo leucaena-guinea logra sistemas productivos pecuarios que aumentan la producción de biomasa y de otros componentes biológicos y contribuir para crear un sistema sostenible y compatible con el ambiente.The aim of this work was to evaluate the associated zoological diversity of a silvopastural system leucaena-guinea grass, by characterizing the composition and structures of the birds, insects and the macrofauna of the soil, in four establishment times of the silvopastural systems (3, 4, 5 and 6 years of exploitation. For the species recorded in each zoological group, the following ecological indices were determined: number of individuals, richness, diversity and abundance of species, in each establishment times of the system. A significant increase, in all the zoological groups, was observed for the richness of species and for the index of biological diversity of Shannon, as the system

  5. Perspectives on healthy eating among Appalachian residents. (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Swanson, Mark; Grosh, Christopher; Bardach, Shoshana


    Extensive attention has been focused on improving the dietary intake of Americans. Such focus is warranted due to increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and other dietary-related disease. To address suboptimal dietary intake requires an improved, contextualized understanding of the multiple and intersecting influences on healthy eating, particularly among those populations at greatest risk of and from poor diet, including rural residents. During 8 focus groups (N = 99) and 6 group key informant interviews (N = 20), diverse Appalachian rural residents were queried about their perceptions of healthy eating, determinants of healthy food intake, and recommendations for improving the dietary intake of people in their communities. Participants included church members and other laypeople, public health officials, social service providers, health care professionals, and others. Participants offered insights on healthy eating consistent with the categories of individual, interpersonal, community, physical, environmental, and society-level influences described in the socioecological model. Although many participants identified gaps in dietary knowledge as a persistent problem, informants also identified extraindividual factors, including the influence of family, fellow church members, and schools, policy, advertising and media, and general societal trends, as challenges to healthy dietary intake. We highlight Appalachian residents' recommendations for promoting healthier diets, including support groups, educational workshops, cooking classes, and community gardening. We discuss the implications of these findings for programmatic development in the Appalachian context. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Forest to pasture: development or destruction? (United States)

    Parsons, J J


    The expansion of artifical or planted pastures (repasto) at the expense of both natural forest and cropland has brought major changes to the landscape and economy of Central America in recent years. On the pioneer fronts at the forest margin agriculture is commonly a transitory stage between forest felling and the establishment of permanent pasture. In the past 15 years the area in planted pasture and the total numbers of beef cattle have nearly doubled in several Central American countries while the per capita consumption of beef has actually declined. The "grassland revolution" that is occuring in Central America and Panama has been based almost exclusively on grass species of African origin which have in most cases been introduced into Central America only in this century. Of these jaragua, guinea, pangola, and kikuyu are the most important. The ecologic consequences of the conversion of forest to pasture are little understood. Intensive management practices, including the application of high-cost and scarce fertilizers and carefully-manged rotational grazing, will probably be necessary to sustain the productivity of these lands under conditions of tropical climate.

  7. Feeding value of pastures for ruminants. (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Clark, D A


    Perennial ryegrass is the primary forage component of ruminant diets in New Zealand. It is persistent and palatable, and immature ryegrass has a high nutritive value (NV). However, seedhead development substantially lowers its feeding value (FV) as fibre concentration increases, the rate and extent of digestibility decreases, and voluntary intake declines. Ryegrass pastures are susceptible to accumulation of endophytic and saprophytic fungi in dead material at the base of the sward, especially when mature and laxly grazed. Feeding forage legumes to ruminants grazing grass-dominant pastures will improve animal performance and lessen the reliance on a single species to meet all nutritional requirements. The FV of forage is a function of intake and NV, measured by chemical analyses and animal feeding trials. Performance of individual animals grazing forages is usually limited by energy intake because structural fibre can slow digestion and clearance from the rumen and because of competition between individuals for available feed. The use of metabolisable energy (ME) content of forage to signify FV can give a reasonable indication of animal performance, but it should be used in conjunction with chemical analyses to improve the accuracy of predictions. The relationship between FV, pasture production, animal performance and profitability is complex. The importance of skilled management to maintain pasture quality and optimise animal performance under inconsistent climatic conditions should not be underestimated. Acceptable animal performance with minimal veterinary intervention requires good nutrition, but the genetic potential of livestock in New Zealand cannot be met solely by grazing pasture, especially when a high utilisation of pasture is required to maintain quality and profitability. Producers are responding to industry demands to reduce the seasonality in supply of milk and meat by changing lambing and calving dates, and extending lactation length in dairy cows

  8. 7 CFR 1005.2 - Appalachian marketing area. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appalachian marketing area. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  9. Rates of Physical Activity among Appalachian Adolescents in Ohio (United States)

    Hortz, Brian; Stevens, Emily; Holden, Becky; Petosa, R. Lingyak


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity behavior of high school students living in the Appalachian region of Ohio. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 1,024 subjects from 11 schools in Appalachian Ohio was drawn. Previously validated instruments were used to measure physical activity behavior over 7 days.…

  10. Creating Digital Scholarship Services at Appalachian State University (United States)

    Mitchem, Pamela Price; Rice, Dea Miller


    This article reviews literature related to building digital scholarship centers and explores the experience of Appalachian State University Libraries in planning and implementing a digital scholarship program. Appalachian surveyed its faculty, performed a gap analysis of existing services, compared programs at other universities, and inventoried…

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations (United States)

    Rebecca Hylton Keller; Lingtian Xie; David B. Buchwalter; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Theodore R Simons


    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope ä 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46...

  12. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard


    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P

  13. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Adrian Eng-Choon; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian


    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements. (paper)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Romanian pastures are characterized by a multitude of functions that may be used for human benefit: food and habitat for animals, development of some connected activities (collection and processing of apicultural products, medicinal plants, etc., natural reservoir providing biodiversity for more than 70% of the plant species (the preservation of this may assure an important germplasm fund for the next cultivars, the most efficient method of soil protection against erosion, provider of unconventional energy, accomplishment of efficient biological cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and carbon dioxide (CO2, development of landscape tourism due to the plant and animal diversity that ennoble and beautify the environment. If only 60% of the permanent pasture area was used, with the application of minimal technological measures, it would provide the necessary food for at least 1.6 million cattle (57% of the current livestock and 12 million sheep and goats.

  15. Improvement of Selenium Status of Pasture Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel


    Selenium was applied to pasture crops in a field experiment (1) by foliar application of 10 g Se/ha as selenite in the spring, (2) or by 5 g Se/ha in the spring plus 5 g in early August, (3) as selenite-enriched calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) at 4 g Se/ha after each cut, and (4) as 4 g Se after...

  16. Modeling and improving Ethiopian pasture systems. (United States)

    Parisi, S G; Cola, G; Gilioli, G; Mariani, L


    The production of pasture in Ethiopia was simulated by means of a dynamic model. Most of the country is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate with mild temperatures and precipitation mainly concentrated in the June-September period (main rainy season). The production model is driven by solar radiation and takes into account limitations due to relocation, maintenance respiration, conversion to final dry matter, temperature, water stress, and nutrients availability. The model also considers the senescence of grassland which strongly limits the nutritional value of grasses for livestock. The simulation for the 1982-2009 period, performed on gridded daily time series of rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature with a resolution of 0.5°, provided results comparable with values reported in literature. Yearly mean yield in Ethiopia ranged between 1.8 metric ton per hectare (t ha -1 ) (2002) and 2.6 t ha -1 (1989) of dry matter with values above 2.5 t ha -1 attained in 1983, 1985, 1989, and 2008. The Ethiopian territory has been subdivided in 1494 cells and a frequency distribution of the per-cell yearly mean pasture production has been obtained. This distribution ranges from 0 to 7 t ha -1 and it shows a right skewed distribution and a modal class between 1.5-2 t ha -1 . Simulation carried out on long time series for this peculiar tropical environment give rise to as lot of results relevant by the agroecological point of view on space variability of pasture production, main limiting factors (solar radiation, precipitation, temperature), and relevant meteo-climatic cycles affecting pasture production (seasonal and inter yearly variability, ENSO). These results are useful to establish an agro-ecological zoning of the Ethiopian territory.

  17. Potential of medic and lucerne pastures in the Ruens area of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of dryland lucerne and medic pastures was compared over a range of stocking rates. It was found that the animal production potential of lucerne pastures was higher than that of medic pasturesLanguage: English. Keywords: Average daily gain; Grazing capacity; Lucerne pastures; Meat yield; Medic pastures; ...

  18. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn


    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  19. Species composition of developing Central Appalachian hardwood stands following clearcutting (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas Fox


    This study examined the species composition of 47 paired stands on submesic sites on the Appalachian Plateau of West Virginia. Paired stands consisted of a mature stand adjacent to a young clearcut that was

  20. Oil and Gas Development in the Appalachian Basin (United States)

    EPA seeks applications for multidisciplinary research that will foster a better understanding of how the rapid increase of OGD activities in the Appalachian Basin may impact the surrounding environment and public health

  1. Aspects of a two-pasture — herbivore model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åge Riseth


    Full Text Available Pastures for reindeer can be divided into green pastures (mainly herbs and grasses of summer time and more or less snow-covered lichen pastures of winter. Fall and spring pastures have a composition in-between these extremes, but for model purposes bisection is sufficient. For the animals the green-pasture season is an anabolic phase with a physiological building-up of protein reserves, while winter is a catabolic phase where food-intake is reduced and the animals to a considerable extent survive on the accumulated reserves from summer. While protein reserves are stored from summer to winter, lichen pastures are stored from year to year. Grasses and herbs not being grazed are wilting by the end of the growing season, while lichens not grazed can live for many years. This corresponds with fundamental differences in both growth pattern and resilience. The implications of the different features, and their interconnections, are not easy to survey without formal modeling. The point of departure is a simple pasture-herbivore model, well known from the literature building on a set of differential equations. A new two-pasture-herbivore model is developed. The model includes as basic elements the Klein (1968 hypothesis and that a residual lichen biomass is kept ungrazed due to snow-cover protection. Further the annual cycle is divided into four stylized seasons with herd rates of winter survival, spring calving, summer physiological growth and fall slaughtering. Isoclines are derived for summer pasture, winter pasture and herbivores. Stability properties are discussed in relation to various situations of seasonal pasture balance. Empirical examples, particularly that of changes in pasture balance and vegetation cover in Western Finnmark, Norway, are discussed. The article finds that the two-pasture model provides important features of reality, such as the stability aspects of pasture balance, which cannot be displayed by a one-pasture model. It is

  2. Adubação nitrogenada em sistema silvipastoril álamo: pastagens de inverno Nitrogen addition in a poplar silvopasture system: winter crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Mira Otto


    Lam., in 2004 and 2005, submitted twice to direct grazing. The N application to the winter crop did not increase poplar growth (tree height and circumference at breast height after two years, suggesting a low residual effect of N. However, the N application promoted a linear increment of dry matter yield for both winter grazing pasture for three years. In addition, an increment of nutrient concentration in the forage was noticed, indicating an improvement in forage quality, especially N. The increment in dry matter yield and/or nutrient concentration in the winter forage increased the nutrient uptake and nutrient cycle. So, the earlier N addition to winter crop was not able to enhance poplar growth, at least in the initial years of evaluation, but the nutrient cycling and the weight gain of livestock with better pasture could bring benefits for poplar culture in the long run.

  3. Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the southern Cape coastal region of naturalized rhizobia nodulating the strain specific Medicago ... The significance of naturalized strains of M. polymorpha in the production of medic pastures in some soils of the southern Cape coastal region is discussed.

  4. Variation in important pasture grasses. II. Cytogenetic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses. II. Cytogenetic and reproductive variation. Spies J.J., Gibbs Russell G.E.. Abstract. The chromosome numbers and reproductive variation of seven important pasture grasses from South Africa are compared. This comparison indicates that all these species form polyploid complexes, ...

  5. The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complemental role of dryland cultivated pastures in market-related beef production from semi-arid rangeland. ... Abstract. Rangeland condition is a decisive factor in determining the income/cost ratio of production hence in the profitability of any beef production enterprise. Cultivated pastures can play an important role in ...

  6. Productivity, botanical composition, and nutritive value of commercial pasture mixtures (United States)

    Pastures in the northeastern USA often are planted to mixtures of grasses and legumes. There is limited public sector information on the performance of commercial forage mixtures. We evaluated a range of commercial pasture mixtures to determine if the number of species in a mixture affected yield an...

  7. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  8. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  9. Mineral element status of soils, native pastures and cattle blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the upland sites the effect of season on native pasture mineral element concentration was significant only for P (P<0.05) and K (P<0.01). Upland native pasture Zn concentrations in both wet and dry seasons and Cu and P in the dry season were below cattle requirements, but the remainding mineral elements were above ...

  10. Southern African pasture and forage science entering the 21st ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, the soil–plant– livestock complex can serve as a conceptual basis for more effective research together with pasture breeding and nutrition. Finally, researching pasture and forage sciences in an inter- and multi-disciplinary manner clearly supports the principles of holism applied by General JC Smuts, one of ...

  11. Pasture Distribution In The Derived Savanna Area Of Ogun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out to estimate the distribution of pastures in 30 villages in the derived savanna area of Ogun State. Ten villages were selected in each of Odeda, Abeokuta South and Abeokuta North Local Government Area. Odeda Local Government Area had the highest population of pasture plants (36.3%) followed ...

  12. Production of pasture species in the winter rainfall region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of this validation suggest that relatively simple models may be effective in predicting yield for the species tested.Language: English. Keywords: climatic data; Clover; cutting; Dry matter; dry matter production; evaporation; Kikuyu; Lucerne; Medics; models; pasture; Pasture species; production; south africa; ...

  13. Development of Botanical Composition in Maribaya Pasture, Brebes, Central Java (United States)

    Umami, N.; Ngadiyono, N.; Panjono; Agus, F. N.; Shirothul, H. M.; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Hendrawati, Y.; Subroto, I.


    The research was aimed to observe the development of botanical composition in Maribaya pastures. The sampling method was cluster random sampling. The observed variables were the type of forages and the botanical composition in the pasture. Botanical composition was measured by using Line Intercept method and the production was measured by the estimation of botany production for each square meter using its dry matter measurement. The botani sampling was performed using square with size of 1×1 m2. The observation was performed before the pasture made (at 2015) and after the pasture made (at 2017). Based on the research result, it was found that there was significant difference between the forage type in the pasture at 2015 and at 2017. It happens due to the adjustment for the Jabres cattle feed.

  14. Rob, Mary Call, and Me: The Search for Self in Appalachian Literature. (United States)

    Comer, Melissa


    Argues that Appalachian adolescents often have difficulty finding themselves in literature yet need to see their lives represented and validated. Discusses four young adult novels and the cultural and linguistic characteristics in them that realistically portray the lives of Appalachian teens. Lists 11 other young adult Appalachian novels. (SR)

  15. 75 FR 3224 - Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Appalachian Gateway Project (United States)


    ... Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Appalachian Gateway Project January 8, 2010. The... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Appalachian Gateway Project involving... east coast markets. The Appalachian Gateway Project would consist of the following facilities...

  16. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.


    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  17. Grazing methods and stocking rates for direct-seeded alfalfa pastures: II. Pasture quality and diet selection. (United States)

    Schlegel, M L; Wachenheim, C J; Benson, M E; Ames, N K; Rust, S R


    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the effects of two grazing methods (GM) and two stocking rates (SR) on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. var. WL225) pasture quality and diet selection by Holstein steers. Eight pasture plots (.76 ha) were seeded in 1988 and divided into two blocks of four pastures each. Pastures were managed to allow a 36-d rest period with an average grazing season of 105 d. Before steers entered the next paddock, canopy heights (CH) of alfalfa plants were determined and pasture-forage samples were collected. Forage samples were analyzed for DM, OM, CP, and in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD). At 12-d intervals beginning with the second grazing cycle, extrusa samples were collected from steers with esophageal fistulas. Extrusa samples were frozen, freeze-dried, and analyzed for OM, CP, IVOMD, in situ ruminal DM degradation, and ruminal undegradable protein. There were no effects of GM on alfalfa CH or pasture DM, OM, CP, and IVOMD. Increasing the SR increased pasture CP content in both years and increased DM, OM, and IVOMD in the 2nd yr. There was no effect of GM or SR on the quality of forage selected by esophageally fistulated steers. Esophageally fistulated steers selected forage that had greater OM, CP, and IVOMD than the average nutrient content of the forage. Although forage quality was greater when stocking rates were increased, the quantity of forage available per animal may have limited gains.

  18. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  19. The lithosphere of the Appalachian orogen and Atlantic passive margin (United States)

    Fischer, K. M.; MacDougall, J. G.; Hawman, R. B.; Parker, E. H.; Wagner, L. S.


    The lithosphere of the Appalachian orogen and Atlantic passive margin has recorded repeated episodes of continental collision and break-up. Improved resolution of crust and mantle structure in this region holds promise for better understanding of orogenesis, rifting and passive margin development. At a broad scale, tomographic models manifest a decrease in lithospheric thickness from the central U.S. craton into the Appalachian orogen. Migration of Sp scattered waves indicates that a significant drop in shear-wave velocity typically occurs at depths of 80-120 km in the eastern U.S., and where these phases fall within the transition from high velocity lid to lower velocity mantle obtained from tomography, they are interpretable as the seismological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Beneath the Appalachians and coastal plain, Sp-derived lithospheric thicknesses are larger than those found in the tectonically active western U.S. where values range from 40-90 km. The vertical shear velocity gradients required to produce the observed Sp phases are sharp (drops of 4-10% over Flexible Arrays. The goal of the Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment (SESAME) is to better understand lithospheric structures produced by accretion and rifting processes, with a particular focus on the Laurentia-Gondwana suture proposed in southern Georgia, adjacent regions of Mesozoic extension and magmatism, and the architecture of southern Appalachian orogenic crust. SESAME comprises 85 broadband EarthScope Flexible Array stations deployed in two N-S lines that cross the proposed Laurentia-Gondwana suture and extend into Florida; a third line is oriented roughly normal to Appalachian crustal terranes from northern Georgia to eastern Tennessee. Stations were installed in three phases from 2010-2012, and will remain in the field until 2014. Preliminary data analyses reveal significant shear-wave splitting in SKS and SKKS phases beneath the western SESAME stations. Fast

  20. Planning countermeasures on pasture-milk pathway in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kanyar, B.; Kis, Z.


    The pasture → milk → human exposure pathway was modelled with respect to the countermeasures in a nuclear emergency situation. The measures included feed and milk substitution by non-contaminated material, and cost-benefit analysis and uncertainty analysis was performed. Comparison of the maximum benefit of the two kinds of intervention suggests that feed substitution is superior to milk substitution. The duration of the pasture substitution depends strongly on the initial concentration of iodine-131 in the pasture. For relatively low values of activity concentration, the optimum date of withdrawing the intervention increases linearly with the logarithm of the initial radionuclide concentration in the pasture, the maximum value, however, takes nearly 40 days. For milk or feed substitution, the effect of the excess cost of early intervention reduces the maximum value of the cost-benefit function. (P.A.)

  1. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  2. Short Communication: Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, F.M. Jr.; Carneiro, R.F.V.; Leite, L.F.C.; Araujo, A.S.F.


    The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality. (Author)

  3. Nutrition of intensive pastures in the summer rainfall areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Fertilizer nitrogen sources; Fertilizers; Grasses; Legumes; Lime; Nitrogen application responses; Phosphorous; Potassium; Soil acidity; cutting; fertilizer; grass; grazing; legume; minerals; nitrogen; persistence; phosphorus; productivity; soil test calibrations; utilization; soils; nutrition; pastures; summer rainfall area; ...

  4. About climate changes impact on the Kazakhstan pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed', L.V.; Belenkova, Z.S.; Turbacheva, T.P.


    Assessment of arid pastures vulnerability situated under direct influence of regional climate change related with greenhouse effect is carried out on Northern Aral Sea area as example. Climate change variants calculated with future prospects for on Kazakhstan territory with use up-to-date models of GFDL (USA), CCCM (Canada) climate theory are used. Number of protective measures are proposed for mitigation of consequences of possible vulnerability of pastures during simultaneous impact of complex of anthropogenic and natural factors. (author)

  5. Research update: finishing lambs and meat goat kids on pasture (United States)

    Traditional sheep (Ovis aries), hair sheep and meat goat (Capra hircus) industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region to help produce meats for ethnic markets. This niche market offers an economic opportunity for owners of small farms. Control of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in goats...

  6. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrovsky


    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  7. Determination of pasture quality using airborne hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, Ian J.; Irwin, M. E.


    Pasture quality is a critical determinant which influences animal performance (live weight gain, milk and meat production) and animal health. Assessment of pasture quality is therefore required to assist farmers with grazing planning and management, benchmarking between seasons and years. Traditionally, pasture quality is determined by field sampling which is laborious, expensive and time consuming, and the information is not available in real-time. Hyperspectral remote sensing has potential to accurately quantify biochemical composition of pasture over wide areas in great spatial detail. In this study an airborne imaging spectrometer (AisaFENIX, Specim) was used with a spectral range of 380-2500 nm with 448 spectral bands. A case study of a 600 ha hill country farm in New Zealand is used to illustrate the use of the system. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, along with automatized georectification of the imagery using Digital Elevation Model (DEM), were applied to the raw images to convert into geocoded reflectance images. Then a multivariate statistical method, partial least squares (PLS), was applied to estimate pasture quality such as crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) from canopy reflectance. The results from this study revealed that estimates of CP and ME had a R2 of 0.77 and 0.79, and RMSECV of 2.97 and 0.81 respectively. By utilizing these regression models, spatial maps were created over the imaged area. These pasture quality maps can be used for adopting precision agriculture practices which improves farm profitability and environmental sustainability.

  8. Transfer of cesium-137 from pasture to milk after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, G.; Johansson, K.J.; Bertilsson, J.


    During 1986, the year of the Chernobyl accident, the Cs-137 activity concentration in the milk and pasture of some dairy farms in the northern part of the county of Uppsala was studied. In 1987, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was investigated on 11 dairy farms in the northern part of the county during the first month on pasture. These farms had been studied also during a previous period when the cows were kept in the stable. In 1988, the transfer of Cs-137 from fodder to milk was followed intensively on 5 dairy farms in the same area during the first month on pasture. The Cs-137 activity concentration was measured continuously in feeds and milk during the study periods in 1987 and 1988. All feedstuffs fed in the stable were weighed twice a week, and the amount of forage grazed was calculated from the cows requirements of nutrients. Samples of all feed were taken for Cs-137 determination and chemical analyses. The transfer coefficient for 10 of the 11 dairy farms during the first month on pasture in 1987 was, on average, 0.005 d kg -1 . The Cs-137 activity concentration was significantly lower in the milk of the farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 than during the same period in 1987. The mean transfer coefficient for 4 of the 5 dairy farms studied during the first month on pasture in 1988 was 0.007 d kg -1 . (au) (27 refs.)

  9. Erosion control on logging roads in the Appalachians (United States)

    James N. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer


    In the steep terrain of the Appalachian Mountains much damage to forest streams is caused by erosion on logging roads. Muddy water that is unsuitable for fish, swimming, or human consumption often can be traced to these eroding roads. This paper has been prepared to sum up what land managers know about preventing and controlling erosion on logging roads in the...

  10. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.


    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  11. Growth and Yield of Appalachian Mixed Hardwoods After Thinning (United States)

    Wade C. Harrison; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas E. Burk; Donald E. Beckand


    G-RAT (Growth of Hardwoods After Thinning) is a system of computer programs used to predict growth and yield of Appalachian mixed hardwoods after thinning. Given a tree list or stand table, along with inputs of stand age, site index, and stand basal area before thinning, G-RAT software uses species-specific individual tree equations to predict tree basal area...

  12. Ruffed grouse population dynamics in the central and southern Appalachians (United States)

    John M. Giuliano Tirpak; C. Allan Miller; Thomas J. Allen; Steve Bittner; David A. Buehler; John W. Edwards; Craig A. Harper; William K. Igo; Gary W. Norman; M. Seamster; Dean F. Stauffer


    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa urnbellus; hereafter grouse) populations in the central and southern Appalachians are in decline. However, limited information on the dynamics of these populations prevents the development of effective management strategies to reverse these trends. We used radiotelemetry data collected on grouse to parameterize 6 models of...

  13. Appalachian Literature for Young Adults: The Contributions of Rebecca Caudill. (United States)

    Warner, Mary


    Describes the life and work of Rebecca Caudill, an author of young adult and children's literature, and discusses how she captures major characteristics of Appalachian culture. Examines four young adult novels: (1) "Tree of Freedom"; (2) "The Far-Off Land"; (3) "Barrie and Daughter"; and (4) "Susan Cornish."…

  14. A whole stand basal area projection model for Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    John R. Brooks; Lichun Jiang; Matthew Perkowski; Benktesh Sharma


    Two whole-stand basal area projection models were developed for Appalachian hardwood stands. The proposed equations are an algebraic difference projection form based on existing basal area and the change in age, trees per acre, and/or dominant height. Average equation error was less than 10 square feet per acre and residuals exhibited no irregular trends.

  15. Seed bank response to prescribed fire in the central Appalachians. (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas Van-Gundy; Mary B. Adams; W. Mark. Ford


    Pre- and post-treatment seed-bank characteristics of woody species were compared after two prescribed fires in a mesic mixed-oak forest in the central Appalachians. Nineteen woody species were identified from soil samples. Mean species richness declined but evenness did not after prescribed burning. The...

  16. Influence of Markets on the Composition of Central Appalachian Forests (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Gary W. Miller; Gary W. Miller


    Timber harvesting has been disturbing Central Appalachian hardwood forests since colonial times, but its most profound influence on forest composition has occurred during the last 130 years. Between the end of the Civil War and the Great Depression, the lumber industry went from state to state harvesting relatively large portions of the timber resource. This...

  17. Sawlog sizes: a comparison in two Appalachian areas (United States)

    Curtis D. Goho; A. Jeff Martin


    Frequency distributions of log diameter and length were prepared for eight Appalachian hardwood species. Data obtained in Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, were compared with information collected previously from West Virginia and New England. With the exception of red oak, significant regional differences were found.

  18. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin


    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  19. Taper and volume equations for selected Appalachian hardwood species (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin


    Coefficients for five taper/volume models are developed for 18 Appalachian hardwood species. Each model can be used to estimate diameter at any point on the bole, height to any preselected diameter, and cubic-foot volume between any two points on the bole. The resulting equations were tested on six sets of independent data and an evaluation of these tests is included,...

  20. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods (United States)

    Shortridge, Barbara G.


    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  1. Stand structure and stocking control in Appalachian mixed hardwoods (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith


    Uneven-aged management using a "q" technique for structure control is discussed for Appalachian mixed hardwoods. The success in attaining stand structure goals with periodic selection cuts was evaluated. Where these goals had not been reached, the authors speculated, on the basis of current stand conditions, whether they would be reached, and if so, when. For...

  2. History, Uses, and Effects of Fire in the Appalachians (United States)

    David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop


    History of Fire in the Southern Appalachians Ecological and meteorological evidence suggests that lightning-caused fires were a major environmental force shaping the vegetation of the Southeastern United States for millions of years before Indians arrived in America. Lightning served as a mutagenic agent and as a factor in natural selection which forced species to...

  3. Species composition of regeneration after clearcutting Southern Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    David L. Loftis


    Regeneration after clearcutting of Southern Appalachian hardwood stands varies substantially in species composition not only among sites of different quality and previous-stand composition, but also among sites of similar quality and similar previous-stand composition. Severe competition from less desirable species for available growing space is cOllDlon in regenerated...

  4. Vegetation dynamics after a prescribed fire in the southern Appalachians (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank


    In April 1995, the USDA Forest Service conducted a prescribed burn along with a south-facing slope of Southern Appalachian watershed, Nantahala National Forest, western NC. Fire had been excluded for over 70 years and the purpose of the burn was to create a mosaic of fire intensities to restore a degraded pine/hardwood community and to stimulate forage production and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Torres-Rivera


    Full Text Available It was compared the amount of carbon (C sequestered in a pasture with trees (P+Ar and in conventional treeless pastures (P and deciduous forest (BC, typical of the region of Huatusco, Veracruz, Mexico. Total C sequestered by the systems evaluated was 49.9, 63.0 and 469.8 ton ha-1 for P, P+Ar and BC, respectively. The system with the highest amount of C sequestered was BC, with almost equal proportions in the aerial (268.4 ton ha-1 and belowground parts (201.4 ton ha-1. The amount of C sequestered in the livestock systems represented about one tenth of that sequestered in BC, being higher the proportion obtained in P+Ar (13.4 % compared to P (10.6 %. In both livestock systems, a significantly greater amount of C was sequestered in the soil organic matter than in the aerial biomass, with 59.7 and 3.29 ton ha-1 in P+Ar, and with 48.2 and 1.78 ton ha-1 in P, respectively. It is expected that as trees of the P+Ar system gain volume, C sequestration will increase, especially in the aerial biomass.

  6. Pasture quality and cheese traceability index of Ragusano PDO cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Copani


    Full Text Available In the Iblei plateau (Sicily, Southern Italy the native dairy cattle breed Modicana during the spring season grazes exclusively on natural pastures for the production of the Ragusano protected denomination of origin cheese. Along the grazing season, herbage undergoes to changes on protein, fibre and moisture content, affecting quality parameters such as plant carotenoids concentration, involved in the colour and nutritional characteristics of dairy products and potential biomarkers for authenticating fed green pasture-based diets. The aim of this work was to assess whether the cheese traceability index, based on the carotenoids spectra data elaboration, could be related to seasonal variations of floral composition and pasture quality. Four herbage and cheese samples were collected every two weeks in two representative farms of this area, from March to May 2013. Pasture characteristics as pastoral vegetation composition and pastoral value were analysed using the methodology developed for pastoral resources studies. Traceability index showed a significant positive correlation with pasture moisture and crude protein content (r=0.729* and 0.853**, respectively, while it was negatively correlated with fibre content (r=–0.719*.

  7. Distribution of Diverse Escherichia coli between Cattle and Pasture. (United States)

    NandaKafle, Gitanjali; Seale, Tarren; Flint, Toby; Nepal, Madhav; Venter, Stephanus N; Brözel, Volker S


    Escherichia coli is widely considered to not survive for extended periods outside the intestines of warm-blooded animals; however, recent studies demonstrated that E. coli strains maintain populations in soil and water without any known fecal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the niche partitioning of E. coli occurs between cattle and their pasture. We attempted to clarify whether E. coli from bovine feces differs phenotypically and genotypically from isolates maintaining a population in pasture soil over winter. Soil, bovine fecal, and run-off samples were collected before and after the introduction of cattle to the pasture. Isolates (363) were genotyped by uidA and mutS sequences and phylogrouping, and evaluated for curli formation (Rough, Dry, And Red, or RDAR). Three types of clusters emerged, viz. bovine-associated, clusters devoid of cattle isolates and representing isolates endemic to the pasture environment, and clusters with both. All isolates clustered with strains of E. coli sensu stricto, distinct from the cryptic species Clades I, III, IV, and V. Pasture soil endemic and bovine fecal populations had very different phylogroup distributions, indicating niche partitioning. The soil endemic population was largely comprised of phylogroup B1 and had a higher average RDAR score than other isolates. These results indicate the existence of environmental E. coli strains that are phylogenetically distinct from bovine fecal isolates, and that have the ability to maintain populations in the soil environment.

  8. The ‘state’ of tobacco: Perceptions of tobacco among Appalachian youth in Kentucky


    Joy L. Hart; Kandi L Walker; Clara G. Sears; Lindsay K. Tompkins; Alexander S. Lee; Delvon T. Mattingly; Allison Groom; Robyn Landry; Aida L. Giachello; Thomas J. Payne; Anshula Kesh; Allison Siu; Courteney Smith; Rose Marie Robertson


    Introduction In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. Methods In Fall 2014 - Spring ...

  9. The ‘state’ of tobacco: Perceptions of tobacco among Appalachian youth in Kentucky


    Hart, Joy L.; Walker, Kandi L.; Sears, Clara G.; Tompkins, Lindsay K.; Lee, Alexander S.; Mattingly, Delvon T.; Groom, Allison; Landry, Robyn; Giachello, Aida L.; Payne, Thomas J.; Kesh, Anshula; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney; Robertson, Rose M.


    INTRODUCTION In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. METHODS In Fall 2014 - Spring 2015, focu...

  10. Reforestation to enhance Appalachian mined lands as habitat for terrestrial wildlife (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Larkin, Jeff; Mizel, Jeremy; Zipper, Carl E.; Angel, Patrick


    Surface mining is widespread throughout the Appalachian coalfield, a region with extensive forests that are rich in wildlife. Game species for hunting, non-game wildlife species, and other organisms are important contributors to sustainable and productive ecosystems. Although small breaks in the forest canopy are important to wildlife diversity, most native Appalachian wildlife species require primarily forested habitats. This Forest Reclamation Advisory provides guidance on reforestation practices to provide high quality habitat for native forest wildlife on Appalachian coal mines.

  11. Survival and development of chicken ascarid eggs in temperate pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt


    Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil. Unemb...... pasture soil seem to experience a heavy mortality within a few months after the deposition, especially during warm periods. However, a small proportion of eggs may survive and remain infective for at least 2 years.......Eggs of chicken ascarids (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) are believed to be hardy and survive for long periods. However, this has not been evaluated quantitatively and our study therefore aimed to determine development and recovery of chicken ascarid eggs after burying in pasture soil...

  12. Productivity of Permanent Pastures Located at Different Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Rechiţean


    Full Text Available This work studies the yielding and grazing capacity of some permanent pastures located in Banat’s Mountains, at 236 – 1300 m altitude. The mean results achieved showed that the yield difference between the minimal altitude level (236 m and the maximal one (1300 m is 0.93 t/ha DM. This difference leads to the conclusion that the yield of the permanent pastures located in the studied area decreases with 0.87 kg/ha DM (about 0.5 t/ha fresh mass for each 100 m of altitude.

  13. Desmodium: A low-cost pasture for the eastern Cape coastal region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Animal production; Beef production; botany; Desmodium intortum; dryland; east london; Eastern Cape; economic evaluation; fertilizer; grasses; gross margin; Growth requirements; livestock; Management; maximum production; pasture; Pastures; Production costs; south africa; star grass; stocking rate; stocking ...

  14. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.


    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  15. The conceptualization and communication of risk among rural appalachian adolescents. (United States)

    Moreland, Jennifer J; Raup-Krieger, Janice L; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle M


    This study uses a meta-theoretical perspective for examining risk perceptions and behavior in the rural Appalachian cultural context, an area that remains largely unexplored. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 113 rural adolescents to describe how youth conceptualize risk and how risk is communicated in the rural environment. Analyses revealed adolescents viewed behavior as risky when they had personal or vicarious experiences resulting in a loss of control or physical harm. Elements of the rural Appalachian culture including activities, familism, and community ties can prevent and promote adolescent risk taking in various forms. This study demonstrates the conceptualization of risk and messages about risk are culturally situated and communicatively devised and enacted. The implications of these findings for adolescent risk prevention programs are discussed.

  16. Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Pediatricians’ Encouragement of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Implications for Health Disparities (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L.; Katz, Mira L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Roberto, Anthony


    Background In medically underserved regions such as Appalachia, cervical cancer incidence and mortality are higher than the general U.S. population; therefore, it is important for pediatricians to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Unfortunately, little is known about the predictors of pediatricians’ encouragement of the HPV vaccine among medically underserved populations. The current study compared attitudes and behaviors of pediatricians with practices in Appalachia with those in non-Appalachia to identify potential strategies for reducing health disparities. Methods A survey was conducted with 334 pediatricians located in Appalachia and non-Appalachia counties to examine how prior behavior, perceived susceptibility, severity, self-efficacy, response-efficacy, and behavioral intentions are related to self-reported vaccine encouragement. Results Pediatricians in Appalachia perceived their patients to be less susceptible to HPV and reported lower rates of HPV encouragement than pediatricians in non-Appalachia. In addition, self-efficacy had a significant indirect association with vaccine encouragement for pediatricians in non-Appalachia. Conclusion This study’s findings emphasize the importance of increasing Appalachian pediatricians’ awareness of their patients’ susceptibility to HPV. Broader efforts to increase encouragement of the HPV vaccine among pediatricians should focus on promoting self-efficacy to encourage the HPV vaccine to parents of young females. PMID:21907591

  17. A comparison of pasture and fodder crops for the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avena sativa and Vicia dasycarpa pasture mixture and maize crop residues under rainfed conditions and Medicago sativa and Digitaria eriantha hay for the winter months. The spring pastures were L. multiflorum cv. Midmar, Lolium perenne cv. Nui and Dactylis glomerata cv. Hera under irrigation, while the summer pastures ...

  18. Relationship between gross nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-cliver pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.


    Replacement of high-input N fertilized pastures with low-input grass-legume pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce agricultural N(2)O emissions. This study examined the relationship between N-cycling rates and N(2)O production and evolution from the root zone of grass-clover pastures...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima


    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  20. Correlation of Crustal Structures and Seismicity Patterns in Northern Appalachians (United States)

    Yang, X.; Gao, H.


    The earthquake distributions in northern Appalachians are bounded by major geologically-defined terrane boundaries. There is a distinct seismic gap within Taconic Belt between the Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) to the west and the seismically active Ganderia terrane to the east. It is not clear, however, what crustal structures control the characteristics of earthquake clustering in this region. Here we present a newly constructed crustal shear velocity model for the northern Appalachians using Rayleigh wave data extracted from ambient noises. Our tomographic model reveals strongly heterogeneous seismic structures in the crust. We observe multiple NW-dipping patches of high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust beneath the southeastern WQSZ. The upper crust shear velocities in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are generally lower than those beneath the WQSZ. The middle crust has relatively lower velocities in the study area. The earthquakes in the study area are constrained within the upper crust. Most of the earthquake hypocenters within the WQSZ are concentrated along the NW-dipping boundaries separating the high-velocity anomalies. In contrast, most of the earthquake hypocenters in the Ganderia and Avalonia region are diffusely distributed without clear vertical lineaments. The orientations of maximum compressive stresses change from W-E in the Ganderia and Avalonia region to SW-NE in the WQSZ. The contrasts in seismicity, velocity, and stress field across the Taconic Belt indicate that the Taconic Belt terrane may act as a seismically inactive buffer zone in northern Appalachians.

  1. Leaf scorch on Pennisetum clandestinum pastures induced by liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transmission electron (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the application of liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN 32) fertilizer, in concentrated form, to dryland pastures resulted in leaf scorch and subsequent necrosis, irrespective of the level and concentration of the UAN solution applied.

  2. Nutritive value of Medicago truncatula (ev. Jemalong) as pasture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indication of total feacal output in white tailed deer. J. Range Mgmt. 30,61. RUSSEL, AJ.F., 1984. Means of assessing the adequacy of nutrition in pregnant ewes. Livest. Prod. Sci. 11,429. SMITH, A.M. & REID, J.T., 1955. Use of chromic oxide as an indicator of feacal output for the purpose of determining the intake of pasture.

  3. Managing cultivated pastures for improving soil quality in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are concerns that soils under pastures in certain regions of South Africa are degrading as a result of mismanagement, which include practising continuous tillage, improper grazing management, injudicious application of fertilisers and poor irrigation management. Soil quality indicators, which include physical, ...

  4. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  5. Nutritive evaluation of Medicago truncutula (cv. jernalong) pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1967). Statistical procedure .... Table 2 Organic matter (OM), in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM). predicted in vivo digestible organic matter (in vivo DaM), crude fibre (CF) and crude protein (CP) contents of medic pasture samples selected by ...

  6. Copper and selenium supplementation of ewes gnazing on pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    camps which were grazed on a rotational basis. Before ewes were put into a camp, hand-picked pasture samples were collected from 10 different spots in the camp, dried, pooled and stored for the determination of trace minerals. .... nutrition of sheep in Victoria. Aust. Vet. J. 56, 160". DAVIES, H.L., 1966. The efffect of ...

  7. Voluntary intake of several planted pastures by sheep and an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pastures observed included ryegrass, cocksfoot, C. dactylon, Smuts finger, triticale, E. curvula, Eragrostis - lucerne combination, lucerne and sainfoin. Nitrogen content of oesophageal samples varied between 2, 3 and 5, 15 NDF between 33 and 65% and IVDOM between 50 and 80%. Intake of grass DOM varied from 24, ...

  8. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  9. Soil quality effects on regeneration of annual Medicago pastures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual medic (Medicago spp.) pastures are widely used as the forage component of crop rotation systems in the Mediterranean region of South Africa. Reliable establishment of medics can be challenging. This may be related to poor soil quality, an inherent problem of soils in the region often aggravated by poor ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PASTURE ffPROVEMENT POSSIBILTTIES IN EFFECTIVE AI{IMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. P. de V. Booysen. University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban. (Key words: .... inherent in biotic simplification is the danger of increased susceptibility of the abiotic component to degradation. So as the agriculturalist ...

  11. Irrigating grazed pasture decreases soil carbon and nitrogen stocks. (United States)

    Mudge, Paul L; Kelliher, Francis M; Knight, Trevor L; O'Connell, Denis; Fraser, Scott; Schipper, Louis A


    The sustainability of using irrigation to produce food depends not only on the availability of sufficient water, but also on the soil's 'response' to irrigation. Stocks of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are key components of soil organic matter (SOM), which is important for sustainable agricultural production. While there is some information about the effects of irrigation on soil C stocks in cropping systems, there is a paucity of such studies in pastoral food production systems. For this study, we sampled soils from 34 paired, irrigated and unirrigated pasture sites across New Zealand (NZ) and analysed these for total C and N. On average, irrigated pastures had significantly (P stocks and the length of time under irrigation. This study suggests SOM will decrease when pastures under a temperate climate are irrigated. On this basis, increasing the area of temperate pasture land under irrigation would result in more CO 2 in the atmosphere and may directly and indirectly increase N leaching to groundwater. Given the large and increasing area of land being irrigated both in NZ and on a global scale, there is an urgent need to determine whether the results found in this study are also applicable in other regions and under different land management systems (e.g. arable). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Alfalfa and pastures: sources of pests or generalist natural enemies? (United States)

    Pierce’s disease of grapevine and almond leaf scorch disease are both caused by the bacterial pathogen Xyllela fastidiosa. In the Central Valley of California, the green sharpshooter is the most common vector of X. fastidiosa. As alfalfa fields and pastures are considered source habitats for green s...

  13. Milk production and in sacco disappearance of pasture NDF in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rumen pH was not affected by treatment while total VFA, acetate and isovalerate concentrations increased when the level of concentrate mixture was increased. Rumen NH3-N concentrations were not affected by treatment. The in situ nylon bag technique was used to determine DM and NDF degradation of the pasture.

  14. Animal production from native pasture (veld) in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal production from native pasture (veld) in the Free State Region - A perspective of the grazing ruminant. ... The seasonal variation in diet selection and herbage intake of cattle and sheep and the effects on animal performance at various research centres are put into perspective, taking into consideration the annual ...

  15. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock) (United States)


    ... intention to have all comments, including names and addresses when provided, regardless of submission... Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA), as amended, (7 U.S.C. 6501 et seq.). The Agricultural Marketing.../plant height before and after grazing to determine the amount of pasture consumed). Both options were...

  16. Research note: Calibrating a disc pastures meter to estimate grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sampling with more than 100 readings is not, however, recommended owing to the poor reward (precision) per unit of sampling effort. Keywords: coastal forest; disc meter; fire management; fuel load; grass; grasses; herbage mass; pastures; precision; regression model; sample size; south africa; standing crop; thornveld; ...

  17. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.


    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  18. Difference Does Not Mean Deficient: The Cultural and Higher Education Experiences of Appalachian Women (United States)

    Welch, Andrea D.


    The link between women in poverty and higher education is important because it reflects inequities in access and resources that exist in the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian region. Two main questions guided the research of women in poverty in regard to postsecondary access and attainment. First, what are the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian-born…

  19. The encyclopedia of southern Appalachian forest ecosystems: A prototype of an online scientific knowledge management system (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor


    The Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (ESAFE), a hyperdocument-based encyclopedia system available on the Internet, provides an organized synthesis of existing research on the management and ecology of Southern Appalachian forests ecosystems. The encyclopedia is dynamic, so that new or revised content can be submitted directly through the Internet...

  20. Look What They Said about Us: Social Positioning Work of Adolescent Appalachians in English Class (United States)

    Slocum, Audra


    This paper discusses the social positioning work three Appalachian adolescents engaged in during two literacy events drawn from a year-long critical teacher-researcher ethnographic study in a twelfth-grade English class in a rural Appalachian high school. Data analysis indicates that in these literacy events, the focal students positioned…

  1. Assessing the impacts of global competition on the Appalachian hardwood industry (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Mark Barford


    The membership of the Appalachian Hardwood Manufacturers, Inc. was surveyed in 2005 to determine the perceived impacts of globalization on large Appalachian sawmills. While much has been written regarding the impacts of globalization on secondary manufacturing, less is known about primary links in the hardwood supply chain. The results suggested that globalization...

  2. 77 FR 47621 - Appalachian Gateway Project; Notice of Availability of Draft General Conformity Analysis (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-448-000] Appalachian Gateway Project; Notice of Availability of Draft General Conformity Analysis In accordance with the... (GCD) for the Appalachian Gateway Project (Project) to assess the potential air quality impacts...

  3. Chapter 11: Reforestation to enhance Appalachian mined lands as habitat for terrestrial wildlife (United States)

    Petra Wood; Jeff Larkin; Jeremy Mizel; Carl Zipper; Patrick. Angel


    Surface mining is widespread throughout the Appalachian coalfields, a region with extensive forests that are rich in wildlife. Game species for hunting, nongame wildlife species, and other organisms are important contributors to sustainable and productive ecosystems. Although small breaks in the forest canopy are important to wildlife diversity, most native Appalachian...

  4. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe? (United States)

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L


    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate.

  5. Rural and Appalachian Disparities in Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Incidence and Access to Opioid Abuse Treatment. (United States)

    Brown, Joshua D; Goodin, Amie J; Talbert, Jeffery C


    Incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing due to the rise in opioid use. Rural states like Kentucky have been disproportionally impacted by opioid abuse, and this study determines NAS burden nationally and in Kentucky while quantifying differences in access to care between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. NAS rates were calculated using National (2013) and Kentucky (2008-2014) National Inpatient Sample discharge data. Births were identified using International Classification of Diseases v9 code 779.5 and live birth codes V30.x-V38.x. Counties were classified as rural, micropolitan, or metropolitan using census data. Proximity analysis was conducted via mapping from ZIP code centroid to nearest opioid treatment facility. Distance to treatment facilities was calculated and then compared using nonparametric testing for counties by rural and Appalachian status. NAS cases tripled from 2008 to 2014 in Kentucky counties, with a 2013 NAS rate more than double the national NAS rate. Rural and Appalachian counties experienced an NAS increase per 1,000 births that was 2-2.5 times higher than urban/non-Appalachian counties, with a greater number of NAS births overall in Appalachian counties. All opioid treatment facility types were further from rural patients than micropolitan/metropolitan patients (P < .001), as well as further for Appalachians versus non-Appalachians (P < .001, all facility types). NAS burden disparately affects rural and Appalachian Kentucky counties, while treatment options are disproportionately further away for these residents. Policy efforts to increase NAS prevention and encourage opioid abuse treatment uptake in pregnant women should address rural and Appalachian disparities. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  6. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; White, R.E.; Chen, D.


    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  7. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia. (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent


    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr -1 . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha -1 ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha -1 ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha -1  yr -1 while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Parameterization and validation of an ungulate-pasture model. (United States)

    Pekkarinen, Antti-Juhani; Kumpula, Jouko; Tahvonen, Olli


    Ungulate grazing and trampling strongly affect pastures and ecosystems throughout the world. Ecological population models are used for studying these systems and determining the guidelines for sustainable and economically viable management. However, the effect of trampling and other resource wastage is either not taken into account or quantified with data in earlier models. Also, the ability of models to describe the herbivore impact on pastures is usually not validated. We used a detailed model and data to study the level of winter- and summertime lichen wastage by reindeer and the effects of wastage on population sizes and management. We also validated the model with respect to its ability of predicting changes in lichen biomass and compared the actual management in herding districts with model results. The modeling efficiency value (0.75) and visual comparison between the model predictions and data showed that the model was able to describe the changes in lichen pastures caused by reindeer grazing and trampling. At the current lichen biomass levels in the northernmost Finland, the lichen wastage varied from 0 to 1 times the lichen intake during winter and from 6 to 10 times the intake during summer. With a higher value for wastage, reindeer numbers and net revenues were lower in the economically optimal solutions. Higher wastage also favored the use of supplementary feeding in the optimal steady state. Actual reindeer numbers in the districts were higher than in the optimal steady-state solutions for the model in 18 herding districts out of 20. Synthesis and applications . We show that a complex model can be used for analyzing ungulate-pasture dynamics and sustainable management if the model is parameterized and validated for the system. Wastage levels caused by trampling and other causes should be quantified with data as they strongly affect the results and management recommendations. Summertime lichen wastage caused by reindeer is higher than expected, which

  9. Pasture cows nutrition in submounteens condition in Sumava region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Quality of from meadow and grazing herbage were evaluated. Dry matter, crude protein, ash, fat and fibre were analyzed. Herbage sampling was realized on three pastures of cattle with higher altitudes. Grass and herbage are the most natural and optimal feedstuff for cattle in fresh and as silage feed. Grazing management should notably regulate the pasture composition, i.e. support dominance of soft stoloniserous strains of grasses and decrease occurrence of weed and less value strain of gramineous grasses.The impact of grazing on milk performance and health of dairy cows was surveyed on sub-mountain farms. The higher milk, fat and protein yields were found in grazing season in comparison with winter confinement period.

  10. truncatula pasture bY sheeP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digestion of Medicago truncatula pasture bY sheeP. G.D. Denney. NSW Department of Agriculture, Condobolin,2877, NSW, Australia. J.P. Hogan, J.R. Lindsay and P. Davis. C.S.I.R.O., Division of Animal Production, P.O. Box 239'. Blacktown, 2148, NSW, Australia high levels of rumen NH. and wastage of dietary protein in ...

  11. Modelling annual pasture dynamics: Application to stomatal ozone deposition (United States)

    González-Fernández, Ignacio; Bermejo, Victoria; Elvira, Susana; Sanz, Javier; Gimeno, Benjamín S.; Alonso, Rocío


    Modelling ozone (O 3) deposition for impact risk assessment is still poorly developed for herbaceous vegetation, particularly for Mediterranean annual pastures. High inter-annual climatic variability in the Mediterranean area makes it difficult to develop models characterizing gas exchange behaviour and air pollutant absorption suitable for risk assessment. This paper presents a new model to estimate stomatal conductance (g s) of Trifolium subterraneum, a characteristic species of dehesa pastures. The MEDPAS (MEDiterranean PAStures) model couples 3 modules estimating soil water content (SWC), vegetation growth and gs. The gs module is a reparameterized version of the stomatal component of the EMEP DO 3SE O 3 deposition model. The MEDPAS model was applied to two contrasting years representing typical dry and humid springs respectively and with different O 3 exposures. The MEDPAS model reproduced realistically the gs seasonal and inter-annual variations observed in the field. SWC was identified as the major driver of differences across years. Despite the higher O 3 exposure in the dry year, meteorological conditions favoured 2.1 times higher gs and 56 day longer growing season in the humid year compared to the dry year. This resulted in higher ozone fluxes absorbed by T. subterraneum in the humid year. High inter-family variability was found in gas exchange rates, therefore limiting the relevance of single species O 3 deposition flux modelling for dehesa pastures. Stomatal conductance dynamics at the canopy level need to be considered for more accurate O 3 flux modelling for present and future climate scenarios in the Mediterranean area.

  12. Cooperative Educational Project - The Southern Appalachians: A Changing World (United States)

    Clark, S.; Back, J.; Tubiolo, A.; Romanaux, E.


    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, a popular recreation area known for its beauty and rich biodiversity, was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey as the site to produce a video, booklet, and teachers guide to explain basic geologic principles and how long-term geologic processes affect landscapes, ecosystems, and the quality of human life. The video was produced in cooperation with the National Park Service and has benefited from the advice of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere Cooperative, a group of 11 Federal and three State agencies that works to promote the environmental health, stewardship, and sustainable development of the resources of the region. Much of the information in the video is included in the booklet. A teachers guide provides supporting activities that teachers may use to reinforce the concepts presented in the video and booklet. Although the Southern Appalachians include some of the most visited recreation areas in the country, few are aware of the geologic underpinnings that have contributed to the beauty, biological diversity, and quality of human life in the region. The video includes several animated segments that show paleogeographic reconstructions of the Earth and movements of the North American continent over time; the formation of the Ocoee sedimentary basin beginning about 750 million years ago; the collision of the North American and African continents about 270 million years ago; the formation of granites and similar rocks, faults, and geologic windows; and the extent of glaciation in North America. The animated segments are tied to familiar public-access localities in the region. They illustrate geologic processes and time periods, making the geologic setting of the region more understandable to tourists and local students. The video reinforces the concept that understanding geologic processes and settings is an important component of informed land management to sustain the quality of life in a region. The video and a

  13. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Aberdeen Angus steers finished on different pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Devincenzi


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess carcass features, physicochemical and sensory parameters of meat from steers finished on three types of pastures: natural pasture; natural pasture improved, fertilized and oversown with winter species; and annual summer grassland. The experiment was conducted from December 14, 2009 to November 30, 2010, with treatments distributed in a completely randomized design with a different number of replicates. Animals were used as experimental units. Experimental animals were Aberdeen Angus steers with twenty months of initial age and 354±27.4 kg of live weight, on average. The highest average daily gains were obtained for the annual summer grassland. There was no effect of treatments on carcass conformation. The highest carcass yield was obtained on the improved natural pasture. Forequarter yield, side cut yield and longissimus muscle area were similar between the pastures. Moisture and total lipids were not affected by the pasture. Thawing and cooking losses were higher in improved natural pasture and lower in sorghum pasture. Regardless of the treatment, the meat had luminosity ranging from intermediate to dark, high in red, high in yellow, and considered within the normal range for beef. Meat of higher shear force was found in natural pasture, and lower shear force was observed in meat from annual summer grassland. Average live weight daily gain explained 18% of the shear force. Sensory evaluation by duo-trio test showed differences between samples from distinct pastures in flavor. All the studied systems allow for desirable characteristics in carcass and meat.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the seed bank in the soil of different successional stages of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and abandoned pasture in order to understand the natural regeneration potential of these areas. At each successional stage, 30 samples of soil were collected in the rainy and dry seasons to evaluate the qualitative heterogeneity of the forest, at the regeneration stage (FEA forest, intermediate regeneration stage forest (ISF and pasture (PAS. The species were classified according to the life form, successional group and dispersion syndrome. The number of individuals germinated was significantly higher (p < 0.001 in the ISF and in the rainy season (15,949 individuals. Richness was higher in the pasture area (79 species, with a significant difference only between the environments. Most species are herbaceous (49.5%, pioneers (76.5% and zoocory was the main dispersion syndrome (49% of species. The results show that seed bank in the fragment of the regeneration advanced stage forest presents the highest resilience potential, since it is formed by different life forms and, mainly, by early and late secondary species.

  15. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin


    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  16. Prototyping an Operational System with Multiple Sensors for Pasture Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wark


    Full Text Available Combining multiple proximal sensors within a wireless sensor network (WSN enhances our capacity to monitor vegetation, compared to using a single sensor or non-networked setup. Data from sensors with different spatial and temporal characteristics can provide complementary information. For example, point-based sensors such as multispectral sensors which monitor at high temporal frequency but, at a single point, can be complemented by array-based sensors such as digital cameras which have greater spatial resolution but may only gather data at infrequent intervals. In this article we describe the successful deployment of a prototype system for using multiple proximal sensors (multispectral sensors and digital cameras for monitoring pastures. We show that there are many technical issues involved in such a deployment, and we share insights relevant for other researchers who may consider using WSNs for an operational deployment for pasture monitoring under often difficult environmental conditions. Although the sensors and infrastructure are important, we found that other issues arise and that an end-to-end workflow is an essential part of effectively capturing, processing and managing the data from a WSN. Our deployment highlights the importance of testing and ongoing monitoring of the entire workflow to ensure the quality of data captured. We demonstrate that the combination of different sensors enhances our ability to identify sensor problems necessary to collect accurate data for pasture monitoring.

  17. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  18. Soil fertility management on natural pastures in Eastern Georgia (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia


    The development of livestock production in Georgia is mainly based on productivity of natural common pasturelands as it is the cheapest way to keep animals. Therefore it is crucial to manage those pastures in order to supply domestic animals with adequate amount of green grass during whole grazing season. The problems associated with poor grassland management is especially evident under limited rainfall conditions. Usually farmers do not consider suitability of existing stocking rates with pasture productivity leading to overutilization of pastureland causing reduction of palatable plant species and total grass cover stimulating soil erosion processes, which deflates soil nutrients and soil organic matter. Intensification of negative processes may result in loss of soil fertility and poor grass regrowth capacities. Current study aims to evaluate existing grazing system on a selected plots from common pasturelands in Eastern Georgia and to develop a proper soil fertility management plan accepted in organic agriculture taking into account local soil-climatic conditions, pasture vegetation stand and its richness with palatable plant species.

  19. Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi


    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths. First, differences in spectral behavior were identified across the near infrared–shortwave infrared spectral range that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Then, slopes across different spectral ranges were calculated and correlated with the changes in crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolic energy concentration (MEC. Finally, partial least squares (PLS regression analysis was applied to identify the optimal spectral ranges for accurate assessment of CP, NDF and MEC. Six spectral domains and a set of slope criteria for real-time evaluation of pasture quality were suggested. The evaluation of three level categories (low, medium, high for these three parameters showed a success rate of: 73%–96% for CP, 72%–87% for NDF and 60%–85% for MEC. Moreover, only one spectral range, 1748–1764 nm, was needed to provide a good estimation of CP, NDF and MEC. Importantly, five of the six selected spectral regions were not affected by water absorbance. With some modifications, this rationale can be applied to further analyses of pasture quality from airborne sensors.

  20. Assessing soil carbon stocks under pastures through orbital remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Gyula Julius Szakács


    Full Text Available The growing demand of world food and energy supply increases the threat of global warming due to higher greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural activity. Therefore, it is widely admitted that agriculture must establish a new paradigm in terms of environmental sustainability that incorporate techniques for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. This article addresses to the scientific demand to estimate in a fast and inexpensive manner current and potential soil organic carbon (SOC stocks in degraded pastures, using remote sensing techniques. Four pastures on sandy soils under Brazilian Cerrado vegetation in São Paulo state were chosen due to their SOC sequestration potential, which was characterized for the soil depth 0-50 cm. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was performed between SOC and Leaf Area Index (LAI measured in the field (LAIfield and derived by satellite (LAIsatellite as well as SOC and pasture reflectance in six spectra from 450 nm - 2350 nm, using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ sensor of satellite Landsat 7. A high correlation between SOC and LAIfield (R² = 0.9804 and LAIsatellite (R² = 0.9812 was verified. The suitability of satellite derived LAI for SOC determination leads to the assumption, that orbital remote sensing is a very promising SOC estimation technique from regional to global scale.

  1. Transplantation of subalpine wood-pasture turfs along a natural climatic gradient reveals lower resistance of unwooded pastures to climate change compared to wooded ones. (United States)

    Gavazov, Konstantin; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre


    Climate change could impact strongly on cold-adapted mountain ecosystems, but little is known about its interaction with traditional land-use practices. We used an altitudinal gradient to simulate a year-round warmer and drier climate for semi-natural subalpine grasslands across a landscape of contrasting land-use management. Turf mesocosms from three pasture-woodland land-use types-unwooded pasture, sparsely wooded pasture, and densely wooded pasture-spanning a gradient from high to low management intensity were transplanted downslope to test their resistance to two intensities of climate change. We found strong overall effects of intensive (+4 K) experimental climate change (i.e., warming and reduced precipitation) on plant community structure and function, while moderate (+2 K) climate change did not substantially affect the studied land-use types, thus indicating an ecosystem response threshold to moderate climate perturbation. The individual land-use types were affected differently under the +4 K scenario, with a 60% decrease in aboveground biomass (AGB) in unwooded pasture turfs, a 40% decrease in sparsely wooded pasture turfs, and none in densely wooded ones. Similarly, unwooded pasture turfs experienced a 30% loss of species, advanced (by 30 days) phenological development, and a mid-season senescence due to drought stress, while no such effects were recorded for the other land-use types. The observed contrasting effects of climate change across the pasture-woodland landscape have important implications for future decades. The reduced impact of climate change on wooded pastures as compared to unwooded ones should promote the sustainable land use of wooded pastures by maintaining low management intensity and a sparse forest canopy, which buffer the immediate impacts of climate change on herbaceous vegetation.

  2. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.


    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  3. Preliminary data on nutritional value of abundant species in supraforestal Pyrenean pastures


    Marinas, A.; García González, R.


    The alpine pastures of the Pyrenees have been used as summer ranges for centuries and continue to be an important forage resource for livestock husbandry to this day. Some studies attribute high nutritional values to alpine pastures, but recent surveys have revealed weight-loss in animals summering in Pyrenean pastures. There is virtually no information available with regard to the nutritional value of the species which constit...

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in Upper Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2017 (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Dulong, Frank T.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Schenk, Christopher J.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 10.7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in Upper Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  5. Comparisons of Spatial Predictions of Conductivity on a Stream Network in an Appalachian Watershed (United States)

    We made spatial predictions of specific conductance based on spatial stream network (SSN) modeling to compare conductivity measurements of components of the network, such as headwaters, tributaries, and mainstem, which have different spatial extents in a study Appalachian watersh...

  6. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report) (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate g...

  7. An Appalachian portrait : black and white in Montgomery County, Virginia, before the Civil War


    Grant, Charles L.


    Montgomery County, Virginia, is a southern Appalachian county founded in 1776. Throughout the county's antebellum history, as with most other regions of the South, four major population groups were visibly present. There were slaves, free blacks, white slaveowners, and white non-slaveowners. Little research has previously been conducted on the antebellum people of the Appalachian South. This work is a social history consisting of cross tabulations of data found in the county...

  8. Intimate partner violence-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States. (United States)

    Davidov, Danielle M; Davis, Stephen M; Zhu, Motao; Afifi, Tracie O; Kimber, Melissa; Goldstein, Abby L; Pitre, Nicole; Gurka, Kelly K; Stocks, Carol


    The highly rural region of Appalachia faces considerable socioeconomic disadvantage and health disparities that are recognized risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States for 2007-2011 and compare hospitalizations in each region by clinical and sociodemographic factors. Data on IPV-related hospitalizations were extracted from the State Inpatient Databases, which are part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Hospitalization day, year, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, average and total hospital charges, sex, age, payer, urban-rural location, income, diagnoses and procedures were compared between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. Poisson regression models were constructed to test differences in the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations between both regions. From 2007-2011, there were 7,385 hospitalizations related to IPV, with one-third (2,645) occurring in Appalachia. After adjusting for age and rurality, Appalachian counties had a 22% higher hospitalization rate than non-Appalachian counties (ARR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14-1.31). Appalachian residents may be at increased risk for IPV and associated conditions. Exploring disparities in healthcare utilization and costs associated with IPV in Appalachia is critical for the development of programs to effectively target the needs of this population.

  9. Intimate partner violence-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle M Davidov

    Full Text Available The highly rural region of Appalachia faces considerable socioeconomic disadvantage and health disparities that are recognized risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV. The objective of this study was to estimate the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian United States for 2007-2011 and compare hospitalizations in each region by clinical and sociodemographic factors. Data on IPV-related hospitalizations were extracted from the State Inpatient Databases, which are part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Hospitalization day, year, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, average and total hospital charges, sex, age, payer, urban-rural location, income, diagnoses and procedures were compared between Appalachian and non-Appalachian counties. Poisson regression models were constructed to test differences in the rate of IPV-related hospitalizations between both regions. From 2007-2011, there were 7,385 hospitalizations related to IPV, with one-third (2,645 occurring in Appalachia. After adjusting for age and rurality, Appalachian counties had a 22% higher hospitalization rate than non-Appalachian counties (ARR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14-1.31. Appalachian residents may be at increased risk for IPV and associated conditions. Exploring disparities in healthcare utilization and costs associated with IPV in Appalachia is critical for the development of programs to effectively target the needs of this population.

  10. Spatial variability of chemical properties of soil under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ferreira da Silva


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil chemical attributes under pasture, as well as lime and fertilizer recommendations based on the interpretation of soil chemical analysis from two sampling methods: conventional and systematic depths of 0 to 10 and 10 to 20 cm. The study was conducted at IFES-campus Alegre-ES. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and geostatistics. Results indicate that the spatial method enabled the identification of deficit areas and excessive liming and fertilization, which could not be defined by the conventional method.

  11. Stakeholder perspectives of wood-pasture ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Pablo; Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per


    , water regulation was only mentioned by civil and public sector respondents, while genetic resource preservation was only expressed by the private sector. All sectors noted cultural services as key ES. We discuss most mentioned ES by respondents, the co-production nature of ES in wood-pastures, as well...... respondents showed more appreciation for regulating and supporting services, which included biodiversity conservation and climate regulation. Private and public sector respondents appreciated provisioning services more, whereas the civil sector mentioned supporting and regulating services more. For instance...

  12. Water footprinting of pasture-based farms; beef and sheep. (United States)

    Murphy, E; Curran, T P; Holden, N M; O'Brien, D; Upton, J


    In the context of water use for agricultural production, water footprints (WFs) have become an important sustainability indicator. To understand better the water demand for beef and sheep meat produced on pasture-based systems, a WF of individual farms is required. The main objective of this study was to determine the primary contributors to freshwater consumption up to the farm gate expressed as a volumetric WF and associated impacts for the production of 1 kg of beef and 1 kg of sheep meat from a selection of pasture-based farms for 2 consecutive years, 2014 and 2015. The WF included green water, from the consumption of soil moisture due to evapotranspiration, and blue water, from the consumption of ground and surface waters. The impact of freshwater consumption on global water stress from the production of beef and sheep meat in Ireland was also computed. The average WF of the beef farms was 8391 l/kg carcass weight (CW) of which 8222 l/kg CW was green water and 169 l/kg CW was blue water; water for the production of pasture (including silage and grass) contributed 88% to the WF, concentrate production - 10% and on-farm water use - 1%. The average stress-weighted WF of beef was 91 l H2O eq/kg CW, implying that each kg of beef produced in Ireland contributed to freshwater scarcity equivalent to the consumption of 91 l of freshwater by an average world citizen. The average WF of the sheep farms was 7672 l/kg CW of which 7635 l/kg CW was green water and 37 l/kg CW was blue water; water for the production of pasture contributed 87% to the WF, concentrate production - 12% and on-farm water use - 1%. The average stress-weighted WF was 2 l H2O eq/kg CW for sheep. This study also evaluated the sustainability of recent intensification initiatives in Ireland and found that increases in productivity were supported through an increase in green water use and higher grass yields per hectare on both beef and sheep farms.

  13. Poor comprehension of colon preparation process in an Appalachian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraneel Reddy


    Full Text Available Indraneel Reddy1, Manan Jhaveri1, Uday Shankar2, Lisbeth Selby11University of Kentucky, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Lexington, KY, USA; 2Hazard Appalachian Regional Healthcare, Hazard, KY, USAAbstract: Clear liquids are often part of colonoscopy preparation instructions, regardless of the active cleansing agent. Poor understanding of this facet may yield poor preparation with delays in management. We studied comprehension of this facet of colon preparation in an Appalachian population. Our survey contained demographic items and a list of food items from which subjects could select clear liquids. In Phase I, no prompting was given. In Phase II, subjects reviewed the definition of clear liquids and examples a few minutes before the survey. For Phase III, the survey contained the definition of a clear liquid and examples. Persons about to undergo colonoscopy and companions who escorted them were surveyed, since many persons have help during the preparation process. With the Fisher exact probability test, we compared the association of accurately selecting clear liquids ≥ or <80% of the time with education > or ≤12th grade, age, gender, and subject’s stated understanding of preparation. Mean age for all subjects was 52 years and 59% of subjects were female. The majority had ≤12 years of education. Most subjects reported understanding their preparation instructions and yet the minority had ≥80% accuracy on clear liquid selection (range 6%–16%. Phases I–III represent a continuum of progressively more accessible information about clear liquids. Comparison across the 3 phases, for both patients and companions, did not reveal significantly improved clear liquid selection. Multivariate analyses of the above variables, with % correct answer as the dependent variable for all the subgroups, did not reveal any significant associations. Persons from Appalachia do not seem to understand a key


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A DIEZ


    Full Text Available The effect of two practices adopted by settlers (abandoned pasture and fallow land on soil fertility of two deforested Amazonian regions (Belém-Pará and Ariquemes-Rondônia was studied. Whenever possible, cultivated pasture, over similar time periods in both cases and in natural forest, were employed as soil fertility reference standards. Nutrient dynamics was studied using the electroultra-filtration technique. In general, deforestation, as practiced in these areas, has a degrading effect on soil fertility. The effect of burning normally leads to a pH rise caused by ash. This usually yields a favorable transitory effect, improving soil fertility conditions, however not sufficient for plant needs, as inferred from the low P and K levels. Cattle excrements, improved the K level for cultivated pastures. Qualitative differences related to N were observed between cultivated pasture and both, fallow land or abandoned pasture. In the first, a certain recovery of available N levels was detected, mainly affecting the EUF-Norg fraction. On the other hand, a regeneration of organic compounds, in the fallow land and the abandoned pasture, closely related to those existing in the natural forest, was verified. This is mainly due to the presence of a higher proportion of NO3-_N and, consequently, a EUF-Norg/EUF-NO3- ratio close to 1.Comparou-se o efeito de duas práticas de manejo, ou seja, o abandono da pastagem e o pousio, sobre a fertilidade do solo de duas regiões desmatadas da Amazônia (Belém-Pará e Ariquemes-Rondônia. Quando possível, pastagens cultivadas por períodos semelhantes e florestas nativas foram usadas como padrões da fertilidade do solo. A dinâmica dos nutrientes foi estuda pela técnica da eletroultrafiltração (EUF. De um modo geral, o desmatamento, como praticado nessas regiões, tem efeito degradador sobre a fertilidade do solo. A queima da biomassa vegetal normalmente leva a um aumento do pH causado pelas cinzas, resultando

  15. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women. (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L


    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  16. Acid deposition and water use efficiency in Appalachian forests (United States)

    Malcomb, J.


    Multiple studies have reported increases in forest water use efficiency in recent decades, but the drivers of these trends remain uncertain. While acid deposition has profoundly altered the biogeochemistry of Appalachian forests in the past century, its impacts on forest water use efficiency have been largely overlooked. Plant ecophysiology literature suggests that plants up-regulate transpiration in response to soil nutrient limitation in order to maintain sufficient mass flow of nutrients. To test the impacts of acid deposition on forest eco-hydrology in central Appalachia, we integrated dendrochronological techniques, including tree ring δ13C analysis, with catchment water balance data from the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. Tree cores from four species were collected in Fernow Watershed 3, which has received experimental ammonium sulfate additions since 1989, and Watershed 7, an adjacent control catchment. Initial results suggest that acidification treatments have not significantly influenced tree productivity compared to a control watershed, but the effect varies by species, with tulip poplar showing greatest sensitivity to acidification. Climatic water balance, defined as the difference between growing season precipitation and evapotranspiration, is significantly related to annual tree ring growth, suggesting that climate may be driving tree growth trends in chronically acidified Appalachian forests. Tree ring 13C analysis from Fernow cores is underway and these data will be integrated with catchment hydrology data from five other sites in central Appalachia and the U.S. Northeast, representing a range of forest types, soil base saturations, and acid deposition histories. This work will advance understanding of how climate and acid deposition interact to influence forest productivity and water use efficiency, and improve our ability to model carbon and water cycling in forested ecosystems impacted by acid deposition.

  17. Model of nutritional balance for bovine in pasturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas Ramirez, H.B.


    The shepherding is nevertheless the most economic alimentary system for the bovine, the pastures of the warm tropic, it has high fiber and low nitrogen (protein) and they restrict the production of the animal. The investigations suggest that small quantities of supplements of the metabolic environment of the rumen rebound significantly in the production. The bovines (Brachiaria spp) presented deficit of ammonia ruminal (4-10 mgs/100 ml of flowing ruminal), but when elevating the ammonia to 15-30 mgs the animal answer, was favorable since in young bulls was supplemented with 60 gr. of urea and 300 of molasses during 350 days won 210 kgs of weight, against 145 kgs of molasses and 130 kgs in single Brachiaria. Other investigations indicate that the supplement of urea, molasses is more effective in dry time than rainy, but if there is not enough biomass it decreases its effectiveness, since this supplement adds quality and not, quantity and it also stimulates the consumption. They also suggest that the supplement urea-molasses should be strategic according to nutritional quality of the pasture, in periods of the year, addition of true protein, age of the animal and production type. The determinations have more than enough speed of consumption of urea and concentrations of ruminal ammonia indicate that the key is in the regulation of the consumption of urea, independent of the daily quantity, to avoid intoxications and to favor the environment

  18. Degradation of abamectin and doramectin on sheep grazed pasture. (United States)

    Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Kolar, Lucija; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Kuzner, Jernej; Marc, Irena; Pogacnik, Milan


    Avermectins are widely used veterinary medicines. They bind strongly to faeces in their non-metabolized form and their half-life in faeces depends on field conditions. There are conflicting data regarding the behaviour of avermectins in the environment. Therefore, we investigated the degradation of abamectin and doramectin on sheep grazed pasture under field conditions in soil, soil-faeces and faeces samples from day 6 to day 70 (abamectin) or to day 50 (doramectin) after sheep treatment. Field conditions were recorded periodically during the experiment. Degradation of abamectin in sheep faeces and in soil-faeces was observed until day 60, with small amounts present in faeces until 70 days post treatment. Because the concentration of abamectin residues in soil was very low on day 6 after treatment, further significant degradation could not be measured. The concentration of doramectin in all analysed matrices decreased rapidly until day 50. It can be concluded that high concentrations of both avermectins were present during the first 20 days after treatment and that field conditions have an important role in degradation of avermectins on grazed pasture of treated animals. Clear identification of the consequences of avermectin exposure and the period of the greatest environmental risk will require further investigations.

  19. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  20. Artificial radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, W.A.; Bonnett, P.J.P.; Barr, H.M.; Howorth, J.M.


    A study has been carried out to determine the impact of Sellafield discharges on the levels of radioactivity in tide washed pastures in south west Scotland. The likely areas of tidal inundations along the Nith, Urr, Dee, Fleet and Cree (including nearby Bladnoch) rivers were assessed using maps and aerials photographs. These were then visited and gamma radiation measurements taken at regular intervals to enable the external dose from anthropogenic nuclides to be estimated. A further survey followed where soil cores were taken from the areas on each river where the external dose appeared highest and analysed for a range of artificial radionuclides. The levels of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am found, although small, were clearly in excess of the background from other sources. A habit survey was carried out to provide site specific information of tide washed pasture usage, which, with the spatial radionuclide data was used to estimate doses to appropriate critical groups. The maximum annual dose calculated to arise was 60 μSv which is less than 6% of the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv. (author)

  1. How well does pasture meet the nutrient needs of dairy cows (United States)

    Little research has evaluated the nutritional content of pastures relative to nutrient needs of grazing dairy cows. We conducted a study to determine how frequently pastures in the northeastern U.S. met nutrient requirements of lactating dairy cows and to describe a sample of the feeding strategies ...

  2. the utilisation of ctnchrus and paivicum pastures or lucerne hay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At lhis rate the Panit'um pasture farled to provide an adequate mainlenance diet for the entire period of the trraf, but the Cenchrus pasture produccd ... season sheep were grazed in rotation around paddocks, being moved at 3 to 4-day intervals ... was possible to skip certain paddocks in the rotation and surplus growth was ...

  3. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  4. Effect of pasture botanical composition on milk composition in organic production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S.; Dahl, A.V.; Vae, A.H.


    Milk samples from sixteen Norwegian Red dairy cows grazing mixed swards of either grass-red clover (GR) or mixed swards of sown and unsown species of grass, clover and other herbs (GCH) were collected during four periods. Both pastures were organically managed. Pasture botanical composition had...

  5. Phyto-oestrogens and their metabolites in milk produced on two pastures with different botanical compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S. A.; Purup, S.; Hansen-Møller, J.


    isoflavonoid equol, and the concentrations of equol were higher than found in most other studies. This study confirms that grazing pastures containing red clover increases concentrations of isoflavones and especially equol in bovine milk compared to grazing pastures with other botanical composition. The higher...

  6. Timing of nitrogen fertilizer application for annual ryegrass overseeded into unimproved perennial warm-season pasture (United States)

    In the southern Great Plains fall overseeding of annual forages can increase herbage production early in the following year, but competition between cool- and warm-season components of mixed pasture may result in only small net benefit in total annual yield. Increased seasonal separation of pasture ...

  7. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  8. Are functional traits good predictors of species performance in restoration plantings in tropical abandoned pastures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Garza, C.; Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.


    Functional traits may predict tree growth rates and survival in plantings aimed to accelerate natural succession in pastures. We evaluate the growth and survival of 24 tree species used for forest restoration in pastures in the wet tropics in Mexico for 42 months. We relate their performance to 13

  9. Pasture-use patterns on dairy and beef farms in the Natal Midlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pasture sites for each of the species grown are classified for both dryland and irrigated pastures in the Natal Midlands. Only six species viz. Kikuyu, Italian ryegrass, Eragrostis curvula, Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue), Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) and Trifolium repens (white clover) are widely used. Italian ryegrass ...

  10. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wick


    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  11. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan


    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  12. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.


    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  13. Assessing attainable intensification of global pasture systems at the 5 min x 5 min scale (United States)

    Sheehan, J. J.; Lynd, L. R.; Allee, A.; Campbell, E. E.; Herrero, M.; Jaiswal, D.; Mueller, N. D.; Lamparelli, R.; Soares, J.


    Two-thirds of the world's agricultural land consist of pastures grazed by livestock. We use a recently published global dataset with information on feed consumption, animal stocks and productivity to analyze the intensification potential of pasture (grazing only) based production of meat and milk. Here we show that global output from pastures occupied by livestock circa 2000 could increase more than five-fold by simply raising their performance to the maximum achieved, climate-adjusted levels observed globally. The largest increases are in South America and sub Saharan Africa, where pasture systems are also more economically important. Furthermore, 40% of the land classified as pasture in the year 2000 had no animals on it. While pastureland currently contributes only a small fraction of total meat and milk production globally, such increases potentially offer an important new degree of freedom in addressing the challenge of sustainable stewardship of the earth's land resources.

  14. Grazing alters net ecosystem C fluxes and the global warming potential of a subtropical pasture. (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; DeLucia, Nicholas J; Bernacchi, Carl J; Boughton, Elizabeth H; Sparks, Jed P; Chamberlain, Samuel D; DeLucia, Evan H


    The impact of grazing on C fluxes from pastures in subtropical and tropical regions and on the environment is uncertain, although these systems account for a substantial portion of global C storage. We investigated how cattle grazing influences net ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange in subtropical pastures using the eddy covariance technique. Measurements were made over several wet-dry seasonal cycles in a grazed pasture, and in an adjacent pasture during the first three years of grazer exclusion. Grazing increased soil wetness but did not affect soil temperature. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing decreased ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and gross primary productivity (GPP). As the decrease in R eco was larger than the reduction in GPP, grazing consistently increased the net CO 2 sink strength of subtropical pastures (55, 219 and 187 more C/m 2 in 2013, 2014, and 2015). Enteric ruminant fermentation and increased soil wetness due to grazers, increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions in grazed relative to ungrazed pasture (27-80%). Unlike temperate, arid, and semiarid pastures, where differences in CH 4 emissions between grazed and ungrazed pastures are mainly driven by enteric ruminant fermentation, our results showed that the effect of grazing on soil CH 4 emissions can be greater than CH 4 produced by cattle. Thus, our results suggest that the interactions between grazers and soil hydrology affecting soil CH 4 emissions play an important role in determining the environmental impacts of this management practice in a subtropical pasture. Although grazing increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions and removed aboveground biomass, it increased the net storage of C and decreased the global warming potential associated with C fluxes of pasture by increasing its net CO 2 sink strength. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Sustained functional composition of pollinators in restored pastures despite slow functional restoration of plants. (United States)

    Winsa, Marie; Öckinger, Erik; Bommarco, Riccardo; Lindborg, Regina; Roberts, Stuart P M; Wärnsberg, Johanna; Bartomeus, Ignasi


    Habitat restoration is a key measure to counteract negative impacts on biodiversity from habitat loss and fragmentation. To assess success in restoring not only biodiversity, but also functionality of communities, we should take into account the re-assembly of species trait composition across taxa. Attaining such functional restoration would depend on the landscape context, vegetation structure, and time since restoration. We assessed how trait composition of plant and pollinator (bee and hoverfly) communities differ between abandoned, restored (formerly abandoned) or continuously grazed (intact) semi-natural pastures. In restored pastures, we also explored trait composition in relation to landscape context, vegetation structure, and pasture management history. Abandoned pastures differed from intact and restored pastures in trait composition of plant communities, and as expected, had lower abundances of species with traits associated with grazing adaptations. Further, plant trait composition in restored pastures became increasingly similar to that in intact pastures with increasing time since restoration. On the contrary, the trait composition of pollinator communities in both abandoned and restored pastures remained similar to intact pastures. The trait composition for both bees and hoverflies was influenced by flower abundance and, for bees, by connectivity to other intact grasslands in the landscape. The divergent responses across organism groups appeared to be mainly related to the limited dispersal ability and long individual life span in plants, the high mobility of pollinators, and the dependency of semi-natural habitat for bees. Our results, encompassing restoration effects on trait composition for multiple taxa along a gradient in both time (time since restoration) and space (connectivity), reveal how interacting communities of plants and pollinators are shaped by different trait-environmental relationships. Complete functional restoration of pastures

  16. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark


    Full Text Available Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov. pasture (pasture or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation. Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages.

  17. White Infant Mortality in Appalachian States, 1976-1980 and 1996-2000: Changing Patterns and Persistent Disparities (United States)

    Yao, Nengliang; Matthews, Stephen A.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.


    Purpose: Appalachian counties have historically had elevated infant mortality rates. Changes in infant mortality disparities over time in Appalachia are not well-understood. This study explores spatial inequalities in white infant mortality rates over time in the 13 Appalachian states, comparing counties in Appalachia with non-Appalachian…

  18. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean... (United States)


    ... in terms of mine design, site and materials management, or water treatment systems, consistent with... of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental... Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and...

  19. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir


    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  20. Lateral Variations in SKS Splitting Across the MAGIC Array, Central Appalachians (United States)

    Aragon, John C.; Long, Maureen D.; Benoit, Margaret H.


    The eastern margin of North America has been shaped by several cycles of supercontinent assembly. These past episodes of orogenesis and continental rifting have likely deformed the lithosphere, but the extent, style, and geometry of this deformation remain poorly known. Measurements of seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle can shed light on past lithospheric deformation, but may also reveal contributions from present-day mantle flow in the asthenosphere. Here we examine SKS waveforms and measure splitting of SKS phases recorded by the MAGIC experiment, a dense transect of seismic stations across the central Appalachians. Our measurements constrain small-scale lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy and reveal distinct regions of upper mantle anisotropy. Stations within the present-day Appalachian Mountains exhibit fast splitting directions roughly parallel to the strike of the mountains and delay times of about 1.0 s. To the west, transverse component waveforms for individual events reveal lateral variability in anisotropic structure. Stations immediately to the east of the mountains exhibit complicated splitting patterns, more null SKS arrivals, and a distinct clockwise rotation of fast directions. The observed variability in splitting behavior argues for contributions from both the lithosphere and the asthenospheric mantle. We infer that the sharp lateral transition in splitting behavior at the eastern edge of the Appalachians is controlled by a change in anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle. We hypothesize that beneath the Appalachians, SKS splitting reflects lithospheric deformation associated with Appalachian orogenesis, while just to the east this anisotropic signature was modified by Mesozoic rifting.

  1. Is there an Appalachian disparity in dental caries in Pennsylvania schoolchildren? (United States)

    Polk, Deborah E; Kim, Sunghee; Manz, Michael; Weyant, Robert J


    To determine whether there is an Appalachian disparity in caries prevalence or extent in children living in Pennsylvania. We conducted a cross-sectional clinical assessment of caries in a sample representing 1st, 3rd, 9th, and 11th grade students across Pennsylvania. We used logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression controlling for age to examine the association of residence in an Appalachian county with caries prevalence and extent in the primary and permanent dentitions. Compared with children living outside Appalachia, more children living in Appalachia had a dft >0 (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07-1.76) and more had a DMFT >0 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06-1.64). In addition, compared with children living outside Appalachia, children living in Appalachia had a greater primary but not permanent caries extent (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01-1.19). We found Appalachian disparities in caries prevalence in both the primary and permanent dentitions and an Appalachian disparity in caries extent in the primary dentition. None of the disparities was moderated by age. This suggests that the search for the mechanism or mechanisms for the Appalachian disparities should focus on differential exposures to risk factors occurring prior to and at the start of elementary school. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Electrical conductivity structure of southeastern North America: Implications for lithospheric architecture and Appalachian topographic rejuvenation (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.


    We present the first three-dimensional view of the lithospheric electrical conductivity structure beneath southeastern North America. By inverting EarthScope long-period magnetotelluric (MT) data, we obtain an electrical conductivity image that provides new insights into both the architecture of the Appalachian Orogen and the cryptic post-rifting geodynamic history of the southeastern United States. Our inverse solutions reveal several elongate electrically conductive features that we interpret as major terrane sutures within the Appalachian Orogen. Most significantly, we resolve a highly electrically resistive layer that extends to mantle depths beneath the modern Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. As high resistivity values in mantle minerals require cold mantle temperatures, the MT data indicate that the sub-Piedmont thermal lithosphere must extend to greater than 200 km depth. This firm bound conflicts with conclusions from seismic results. The boundary between the anomalously thick, resistive sub-Piedmont lithosphere and the relatively thin, moderately conductive sub-Appalachian lithosphere corresponds within resolution to the modern Appalachian topographic escarpment. This newly recognized contrast in lithospheric properties likely has important implications for Appalachian topographic rejuvenation.

  3. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia. (United States)

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern


    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region.

  4. Review of the relationship between nutrition and lameness in pasture-fed dairy cattle. (United States)

    Westwood, C T; Bramley, E; Lean, I J


    Lameness of dairy cattle fed predominantly on pasture is increasingly recognised as one of the most costly disease conditions affecting dairy herds in New Zealand and Australia. Numerous risk factors are involved in the aetiology of claw lameness, including environment and factors associated with the conformation of individual cows. The role of nutrition requires further definition. Australasian pastures are characterised by low levels of fibre and effective fibre, rapid rates of fibre degradation, high water content, and high concentrations of rumen degradable protein during the autumn, winter and spring months. Relationships between high-quality vegetative pastures and ruminal acidosis may increase the risk of laminitis, particularly where pasture is supplemented with grains or other feeds containing significant amounts of starch. This article reviews the incidence, prevalence and pathophysiology of ruminal acidosis and laminitis and considers mechanisms by which acidosis may occur in pasture-fed cows. Techniques for diagnosing ruminal acidosis are reviewed, and practical strategies to avoid it are proposed. Currently, there is little information on the incidence and prevalence of ruminal acidosis and laminitis in pasture-fed cattle. The evidence gathered in this review suggests that ruminal acidosis and laminitis should be considered in the aetiology of lameness in pasture-fed dairy herds.

  5. Hydrological Effects of Recent Wildfires in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Chen, J.; Stewart, R. D.


    In 2016, intense wildfires occurred throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains region due to severe drought conditions and high fuel loads. Most previous work on the effects of forest wildfire has concentrated on the western United States, and has shown that wildfires can induce a number of physical, chemical and biological changes in soils, including creating water repellency (hydrophobicity), altering color, decreasing structural stability, and altering nutrient availability. Drought intensity and wildfire activity are both predicted to increase in the southeastern United States, making it important to understand hydrological effects of wildfire in the forests of this region. In this study, we evaluated the effect of wildfire on soil hydrophobicity and soil water storage in two locations: Mount Pleasant Wildlife Refuge, Virginia, and Chimney Rock State Park, North Carolina. In each location unburned, moderately burned, and heavily burned sites were selected. Soil hydrophobicity was measured both in the field using water drop penetration time method at 0 cm, 2 cm, and 5 cm depth, and in the lab using WDPT method and water-solid contact angle method. Soil water content and unsaturated infiltration processes were also measured in the field using mini-disk infiltrometers. The results showed that hydrophobicity was detected after wildfires in both southeastern forests: the Mount Pleasant site had the highest hydrophobic layer in surface layer, while the Chimney Rock site had highest hydrophobicity at the 2 cm depth. Lab results were in accordance with the field results, and in both cases hysteresis between hydrophobicity and soil water content was observed. Burned soils had consistently lower soil water contents than unburned soils. The burned soils in the Mount Pleasant site had lower infiltration rates than the unburned sites, whereas in the Chimney Rock site the burned soils had higher infiltration rates. We hypothesize that the differences between the two sites

  6. Canopy seed banks as time capsules of biodiversity in pasture-remnant tree crowns. (United States)

    Nadkarni, Nalini M; Haber, Willam A


    Tropical pastures present multiple barriers to tree regeneration and restoration. Relict trees serve as "regeneration foci" because they ameliorate the soil microclimate and serve as safe spots for dispersers. Here, we describe another mechanism by which remnant trees may facilitate pasture regeneration: the presence of seed banks in the canopy soil that accumulates from decomposing epiphytes within the crowns of mature remnant trees in tropical cloud forest pastures. We compared seed banks of canopy soils (histosols derived from fallen leaves, fruits, flower, and twigs of host trees and epiphytes, dead bryophytes, bark, detritus, dead animals, and microorganisms, and dust that accumulate on trunks and the upper surfaces of large branches) in pastures, canopy soils in primary forest trees, and soil on the forest floor in Monteverde, Costa Rica. There were 5211 epiphytic and terrestrial plant seeds in the three habitats. All habitats were dominated by seeds in a relatively small number of plant families, most of which were primarily woody, animal pollinated, and animal dispersed. The density of seeds on the forest floor was greater than seed density in either pasture-canopy or forest-canopy soils; the latter two did not differ. Eight species in 44 families and 61 genera from all of the habitats were tallied. There were 37 species in the pasture-canopy soil, 33 in the forest-canopy soil, and 57 on the forest floor. Eleven species were common to all habitats. The mean species richness in the pasture canopy was significantly higher than the forest canopy (F =83.38; p banks of pasture trees can function as time capsules by providing propagules that are removed in both space and time from the primary forest. Their presence may enhance the ability of pastures to regenerate more quickly, reinforcing the importance of trees in agricultural settings.

  7. Using remotely sensed vegetation indices to model ecological pasture conditions in Kara-Unkur watershed, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Masselink, Loes; Baartman, Jantiene; Verbesselt, Jan; Borchardt, Peter


    Kyrgyzstan has a long history of nomadic lifestyle in which pastures play an important role. However, currently the pastures are subject to severe grazing-induced degradation. Deteriorating levels of biomass, palatability and biodiversity reduce the pastures' productivity. To counter this and introduce sustainable pasture management, up-to-date information regarding the ecological conditions of the pastures is essential. This research aimed to investigate the potential of a remote sensing-based methodology to detect changing ecological pasture conditions in the Kara-Unkur watershed, Kyrgyzstan. The relations between Vegetation Indices (VIs) from Landsat ETM+ images and biomass, palatability and species richness field data were investigated. Both simple and multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses, including terrain attributes, were applied. Subsequently, trends of these three pasture conditions were mapped using time series analysis. The results show that biomass is most accurately estimated by a model including the Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI) and a slope factor (R2 = 0.65, F = 0.0006). Regarding palatability, a model including the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Northness Index, Near Infrared (NIR) and Red band was most accurate (R2 = 0.61, F = 0.0160). Species richness was most accurately estimated by a model including Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Eastness Index and estimated biomass (R2 = 0.81, F = 0.0028). Subsequent trend analyses of all three estimated ecological pasture conditions presented very similar trend patterns. Despite the need for a more robust validation, this study confirms the high potential of a remote sensing based methodology to detect changing ecological pasture conditions.

  8. Impacts of sugarcane agriculture expansion over low-intensity cattle ranch pasture in Brazil on greenhouse gases. (United States)

    Bento, Camila Bolfarini; Filoso, Solange; Pitombo, Leonardo Machado; Cantarella, Heitor; Rossetto, Raffaella; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; do Carmo, Janaina Braga


    Sugarcane is a widespread bioenergy crop in tropical regions, and the growing global demand for renewable energy in recent years has led to a dramatic expansion and intensification of sugarcane agriculture in Brazil. Currently, extensive areas of low-intensity pasture are being converted to sugarcane, while management in the remaining pasture is becoming more intensive, i.e., includes tilling and fertilizer use. In this study, we assessed how such changes in land use and management practices alter emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 by measuring in situ fluxes for one year after conversion from low-intensity pasture to conventional sugarcane agriculture and management-intensive pasture. Results show that CO 2 and N 2 O fluxes increased significantly in pasture and sugarcane with tillage, fertilizer use, or both combined. Emissions were highly variable for all GHGs, yet, cumulatively, it was clear that annual emissions in CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 -eq) were higher in management-intense pasture and sugarcane than in unmanaged pasture. Surprisingly, tilled pasture with fertilizer (management-intensive pasture) resulted in higher CO 2 -eq emissions than conventional sugarcane. We concluded that intensification of pasture management and the conversion of pasture to sugarcane can increase the emission factor (EF) estimated for sugarcane produced in Brazil. The role of management practices and environmental conditions and the potential for reducing emissions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metals in pasturable circuits of agricultural animals at tecnogenic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Penkova


    Full Text Available The article contains the results of hard metals monitoring of stuffs pasture chains of agricultural animals living in 4 ecologically adverse areas of the Volgograd region. The hard metals concentration determination for system “atmosphere – soil – water – pasture seeds – animal organism (blood, hair – food stuffs (milk, meat” discovered an excess of the Maximum Permissible Concentration of Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Fe in water, pasture grass, muscular tissue(meat and milk. The hard metals concentration in level “animal – plant” grows for 5 elements (Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg and Cu.

  10. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems. (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G


    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  11. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers. (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura


    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught.

  12. Disparities in women's cancer-related quality of life by Southern Appalachian residence. (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Luu, Huong T; Bush, Heather M


    The purpose was to determine whether Appalachian residence alone or in combination with violence was linked to poorer quality of life (QOL). Women recently diagnosed and included in either the Kentucky or North Carolina Cancer Registries were interviewed by phone between 2009 and 2015 (n = 3320; mean age = 56.74). Response rates were similar by state (40.1 in Kentucky and 40.9% in North Carolina). Appalachian (N = 990) versus non-Appalachian residents (N = 2330) were hypothesized to have poorer QOL defined as (a) lower Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) scores and (b) more symptoms of depression, stress, or comorbid physical conditions. Lifetime intimate partner or sexual violence was first investigated as a moderator then mediator of regional differences. Multiple analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) models were used. Violence modified the effect of Appalachian residence on poorer QOL outcomes; FACT-G total scores (p = .02) were lowest for women living in Appalachia who had additionally experienced violence. Socioeconomic indicators appeared to mediate or explain differences in QOL outcomes by Appalachian residence such that when adjusting for income, education and insurance, Appalachian residence remained associated only with poorer physical QOL outcomes (p residence, the combined effect of living in Appalachia and experiencing violence resulted in significantly greater impact on poorer QOL among women recently diagnosed with cancer. Clinical consideration of patients' residence, socioeconomic status and violence experienced may help identify and mitigate the longer-term impact of these identifiable factors associated with poorer QOL.

  13. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in appalachian forests (United States)

    Belote, R.T.; Sanders, N.J.; Jones, R.H.


    Whether biological diversity within communities is limited by local interactions or regional species pools remains an important question in ecology. In this paper, we investigate how an experimentally applied tree-harvesting disturbance gradient influenced local-regional richness relationships. Plant species richness was measured at three spatial scales (2 ha = regional; 576 m2 and 1 m2 = local) on three occasions (one year pre-disturbance, one year post-disturbance, and 10 years post-disturbance) across five disturbance treatments (uncut control through clearcut) replicated throughout the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We investigated whether species richness in 576-m2 plots and 1-m2 subplots depended on species richness in 2-ha experimental units and whether this relationship changed through time before and after canopy disturbance. We found that, before disturbance, the relationship between local and regional richness was weak or nonexistent. One year after disturbance local richness was a positive function of regional richness, because local sites were colonized from the regional species pool. Ten years after disturbance, the positive relationship persisted, but the slope had decreased by half. These results suggest that disturbance can set the stage for strong influences of regional species pools on local community assembly in temperate forests. However, as time since disturbance increases, local controls on community assembly decouple the relationships between regional and local diversity. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Paleozoic unconformities favorable for uranium concentration in northern Appalachian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, J.M.


    Unconformities can redistribute uranium from protore rock as ground water moves through poorly consolidated strata beneath the erosion surface, or later moves along the unconformity. Groundwater could migrate farther than in present-day lithified Paleozoic strata in the Appalachian basin, now locally deformed by the Taconic and Allegheny orogenies. Several paleoaquifer systems could have developed uranium geochemical cells. Sandstone mineralogy, occurrences of fluvial strata, and reduzate facies are important factors. Other possibilities include silcrete developed during desert exposure, and uranium concentrated in paleokarst. Thirteen unconformities are evaluated to determine favorable areas for uranium concentration. Cambrian Potsdam sandstone (New York) contains arkoses and possible silcretes just above crystalline basement. Unconformities involving beveled sandstones and possible fluvial strata include Cambrian Hardyston sandstone (New Jersey), Cambrian Potsdam Sandstone (New York), Ordovician Oswego and Juniata formations (Pennsylvania and New York), Silurian Medina Group (New York), and Silurian Vernon, High Falls, and Longwood formations (New York and New Jersey). Devonian Catskill Formation is beveled by Pennsylvanian strata (New York and Pennsylvania). The pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity also bevels Lower Mississippian Pocono, Knapp, and Waverly strata (Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio), truncates Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation (Pennsylvania), and forms paleokarst on Mississippian Loyalhanna Limestone (Pennsylvania) and Maxville Limestone (Ohio). Strata associated with these unconformities contain several reports of uranium. Unconformities unfavorable for uranium concentration occur beneath the Middle Ordovician (New York), Middle Devonian (Ohio and New York), and Upper Devonian (Ohio and New York); these involve marine strata overlying marine strata and probably much submarine erosion

  15. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed. (United States)

    Lindberg, T Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S; Bier, Raven; Helton, A M; Merola, R Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T


    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km(2) of active and reclaimed surface coal mines on the Upper Mud River of West Virginia. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements within the tributaries and the mainstem and found that upstream of the mines water quality was equivalent to state reference sites. However, as eight separate mining-impacted tributaries contributed their flow, conductivity and the concentrations of selenium, sulfate, magnesium, and other inorganic solutes increased at a rate directly proportional to the upstream areal extent of mining. We found strong linear correlations between the concentrations of these contaminants in the river and the proportion of the contributing watershed in surface mines. All tributaries draining mountaintop-mining-impacted catchments were characterized by high conductivity and increased sulfate concentration, while concentrations of some solutes such as Se, Sr, and N were lower in the two tributaries draining reclaimed mines. Our results demonstrate the cumulative impact of multiple mines within a single catchment and provide evidence that mines reclaimed nearly two decades ago continue to contribute significantly to water quality degradation within this watershed.

  16. Hydrologic budget and conditions of Permian, Pennsylvanian, and Mississippian aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province (United States)

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Yager, Richard M.; Nelms, David L.; Ladd, David E.; Monti,, Jack; Kozar, Mark D.


    In response to challenges to groundwater availability posed by historic land-use practices, expanding development of hydrocarbon resources, and drought, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers in 2013 that incorporated a hydrologic landscape approach to estimate all components of the hydrologic system: surface runoff, base flow from groundwater, and interaction with atmospheric water (precipitation and evapotranspiration). This assessment was intended to complement other Federal and State investigations and provide foundational groundwater-related datasets in the Appalachian Plateaus.

  17. Quality of Kikuyu herbage from pastures in the Eastern Cape coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    producing dairy cows. Reduced palatability with consequent poor intake and poor animal production, as well as bloat, milk fever and infertility are problems sporadically encountered on kikuyu pastures. This paper deals with a detailed survey of ...

  18. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since...

  19. LBA-ECO ND-10 Soil Properties of Pasture Chronosequences, Para, Brazil: 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of soil physical property and chemical measurements of samples collected from two pasture chronosequences (years since conversion...

  20. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight cattle...

  1. Influence of Pasture Rearing on the Cecal Bacterial Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čermák L.


    Full Text Available Differences in quantity of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens from conventional and pasture rearing were investigated by cultivation. Rearing on pasture brings stress reduction and increases comfort and bird welfare, which leads to products with better taste and flavour compared to conventionally produced broiler chickens. A difference in cecal settlement of general anaerobes, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, and campylobacters and salmonellas in the two different rearing systems was addressed. Whereas numbers of total anaerobes and lactic acid bacteria were not affected, those of coliforms were significantly reduced in pasture rearing. Campylobacters were found only in pasture-reared chickens (in 28% of animals. Salmonellas were not detected in any of the systems.

  2. LBA-ECO ND-01 Reflectance and Biophysical Measures, Grass Pastures: Rondonia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of spectral reflectance (350 to 2,500 nm at 1-nm increments) and biophysical measurements on grass pastures in eight...

  3. Soil organic matter dynamics during 80 years of reforestation of tropical pastures (United States)

    Erika Marin-Spiotta; Whendee L. Silver; Christopher W. Swanston; Rebecca. Ostertag


    Our research takes advantage of a historical trend in natural reforestation of abandoned tropical pastures to examine changes in soil carbon (C) during 80 years of secondary forest regrowth. We combined a chronosequence...

  4. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi A. Black


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined on: (1 lying behaviour and activity; (2 feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3 intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14 or pasture ( n = 14 using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d, lying bouts (bouts/d, steps (steps/d and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum, close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum, calving (calving date and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum. Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less

  5. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.


    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  6. Forage mass and the nutritive value of pastures mixed with forage peanut and red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate three pasture-based systems mixed with elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species, annual ryegrass, for pasture-based system 1; elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + forage peanut, for pasture-based system 2; and elephantgrass + spontaneous growth species + annual ryegrass + red clover, for pasture-based system 3. Elephantgrass was planted in rows 4 m apart from each other. During the cool-season, annual ryegrass was sown in the alleys between the rows of elephantgrass; forage peanut and red clover were sown in the alleys between the elephantgrass according to the respective treatment. The experimental design was totally randomized in the three treatments (pasture-based systems, two replicates (paddocks in completely split-plot time (grazing cycles. Holstein cows receiving 5.5 kg-daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. Pre-grazing forage mass, botanical composition and stocking rate were evaluated. Samples of simulated grazing were collected to analyze organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP and organic matter in situ digestibility (OMISD. Nine grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average dry matter values for pre-grazing and stocking rate were 3.34; 3.46; 3.79 t/ha, and 3.28; 3.34; 3.60 AU/ha for each respective pasture-based system. Similar results were observed between the pasture-based systems for OM, NDF, CP and OMISD. Considering forage mass, stocking rate and nutritive value, the pasture-based system intercropped with forage legumes presented better performance.

  7. Integrating soil moisture measurements into pasture growth forecasting in New Zealand's hill country


    Hajdu, I; Yule, I; Bretherton, M; Singh, R; Grafton, M; Hedley, C


    Forecasting pasture growth in hill country landscapes requires information about soil water retention characteristics, which will help to quantify both water uptake, and its percolation below the root zone. Despite the importance of soil moisture data in pasture productivity predictions, current models use low-resolution estimates of water input into their soil water balance equations and plant growth simulations. As a result, they frequently fail to capture the spatial and temporal variabili...

  8. Microbial communities in Cerrado soils under native vegetation subjected to prescribed fire and under pasture


    Viana,Laura Tillmann; Bustamante,Mercedes Maria da Cunha; Molina,Marirosa; Pinto,Alexandre de Siqueira; Kisselle,Keith; Zepp,Richard; Burke,Roger A


    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerrado stricto sensu" and "campo sujo"), under different fire regimes, and a 20-year-old active palisadegrass pasture in the Central Plateau of Brazil. Microbial biomass was higher in the native plots than in the pasture,...

  9. Sparse trees and shrubs confers a high biodiversity to pastures: Case study on spiders from Transylvania. (United States)

    Gallé, Róbert; Urák, István; Nikolett, Gallé-Szpisjak; Hartel, Tibor


    The integration of food production and biodiversity conservation represents a key challenge for sustainability. Several studies suggest that even small structural elements in the landscape can make a substantial contribution to the overall biodiversity value of the agricultural landscapes. Pastures can have high biodiversity potential. However, their intensive and monofunctional use typically erodes its natural capital, including biodiversity. Here we address the ecological value of fine scale structural elements represented by sparsely scattered trees and shrubs for the spider communities in a moderately intensively grazed pasture in Transylvania, Eastern Europe. The pasture was grazed with sheep, cattle and buffalo (ca 1 Livestock Unit ha-1) and no chemical fertilizers were applied. Sampling sites covered the open pasture as well as the existing fine-scale heterogeneity created by scattered trees and shrub. 40 sampling locations each being represented by three 1 m2 quadrats were situated in a stratified design while assuring spatial independency of sampling locations. We identified 140 species of spiders, out of which 18 were red listed and four were new for the Romanian fauna. Spider species assemblages of open pasture, scattered trees, trees and shrubs and the forest edge were statistically distinct. Our study shows that sparsely scattered mature woody vegetation and shrubs substantially increases the ecological value of managed pastures. The structural complexity provided by scattered trees and shrubs makes possible the co-occurrence of high spider diversity with a moderately high intensity grazing possible in this wood-pasture. Our results are in line with recent empirical research showing that sparse trees and shrubs increases the biodiversity potential of pastures managed for commodity production.

  10. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators.




    Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded p...

  11. Investigation concerning the nutrient and mineral supply of beef suckler herds in extensive pasture management


    Teroerde, Hildegard


    The purpose of the present investigation was to demonstrate the nutrient and mineral supply of beef suckler herds in extensive pasture management. The investigation was carried out with five herds with an average of 100 sucklers and their calves during the grazing period in 1995. The performance data included food intake, mineral feed intake, live weight and weight gain. The pasture data like botanical composition and yield capacity were raised and the green roughage was analysed for the ener...

  12. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard


    The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were reco......-exposed pastures. A comparable relationship was found for Haematobia irritans. With Haematobosca stimulans (Mg.) and Morellia spp. no relation between grassland environment and fly density was detected....

  13. The influence of feedback on hay pastures. | N.F.G. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding of hay to sheep or cattle on an Eragrostis curvula pasture during the winter months has a most beneficial effect on the response of the pasture to fertilization in subsequent seasons. Low rates of feedback (10 t/ha) had an effect for two seasons whilst the effect of 30 t/ha lasted for at least three seasons and was ...

  14. Unexprected Changes in Soil Phosphorus Dynamics Following Tropical Deforestation to Cattle Pasture (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Lefer, Margaret E.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.


    Phosphorus (P) is widely believed to limit plant growth and organic matter storage in a large fraction of the world's lowland tropical rainforests. We investigated how the most common land use change in such forests, conversion to cattle pasture, affects soil P fractions along forest to pasture chronosequences in the central Brazilian Amazon and in southwestern Costa Rica. Our sites represent a broad range in rainfall, soil type, management strategies, and total soil P (45.2 - 1228.0 microng P / g soil), yet we found some unexpected and at times strikingly similar changes in soil P in all sites. In the Brazilian sites, where rainfall is relatively low and pasture management is more intense than in the Costa Rican sites, significant losses in total soil P and soil organic carbon (SOC) were seen with pasture age on both fine-textured oxisol and highly sandy entisol soils. However, P losses were largely from occluded, inorganic soil P fractions, while organic forms of soil P remained constant or increased with pasture age, despite the declines in SOC. In Costa Rica, SOC remained constant across the oxisol sites and increased from forest to pasture on the mollisols, while total soil P increased with pasture age in both sequences. The increases in total soil P were largely due to changes in organic P; occluded soil P increased only slightly in the mollisols, and remained unchanged in the older oxisols. We suggest that changes in the composition and/or the primary limiting resources of the soil microbial community may drive the changes in organic P. We also present a new conceptual model for changes in soil P following deforestation to cattle pasture.

  15. Biogeochemical Changes Associated With Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Plantation Forests in New Zealand (United States)

    Scott, N. A.; Tate, K. R.; Ross, D. J.; Parfitt, R.; Parshotam, A.; Halliday, J.; McMurtrie, R.


    Since the 1930s, large areas of marginally productive pasture and/or scrubland have been converted to plantation forests dominated by Pinus radiata. In the 1990s, up to 100,000 hectares of new plantings occurred each year, many into land used previously for pasture. Current plantation forest area is about 1.7 million hectares. This land-use change impacts many biogeochemical and hydrological processes, and plays an important role in several current environmental issues. Conversion of pasture to plantation forests increases evapotranspiration, and can reduce streamflow and regional water availability. However, afforestation also stabilizes pasture soils that would be highly erodible when covered with pasture vegetation. Soil temperatures are also lower in plantation forests than in pasture, influencing carbon and nitrogen cycling rates. Because of differences in plant litter quality and distribution of carbon inputs to the soil, afforestation often leads to a reduction in soil pH, lower soil carbon turnover rates, lower net N mineralization, lower total mineral soil N, and reduced numbers of soil invertebrates (particularly earthworms). At many sites, these changes can lead to a reduction in mineral soil C stocks, with the reduction sometimes greater than the C accumulated in the forest floor. High N availability associated with pastures can often lead to N leaching losses when tree seedlings are established and uptake of N by pasture grasses inhibited by e.g. herbicide application. We discuss the ability of ecosystem models to simulate these complex biogeochemical changes associated with afforestation, the potential importance of forest management on these changes, and the implications for key environmental issues such as the rate of carbon sequestration in Kyoto forests and decreased emissions of agricultural trace gases.

  16. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  17. The transfer of 137Cs through the soil-plant-sheep food chain in different pasture ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasikallio, Arja; Sormunen-Cristian, Riitta


    A grazing experiment with sheep was carried out in 1990-1993 on natural, semi-natural and cultivated pasture on clay soil. The pastures were located in Southern Finland and were moderately contaminated with 137 Cs by Chernobyl fallout. Natural pasture refers to forest pasture and semi-natural pasture to set-aside field pasture, the latter having been under cultivation about 15 years ago. The transfer of 137 Cs to sheep was clearly higher from forest pasture than from the other two pastures and it was lowest from cultivated pasture. The transfer was higher to muscle and kidney than to liver and heart. The transfer of 137 Cs to plants and to meat varied with years. Seasonal variation in the plant 137 Cs was followed-up on forest and set-aside field pasturerespect to 137 Cs transfer to plants, the mean soil-plant transfer factors of 137 Cs for forest, set-aside field and cultivated pastures were 1.78, 0.36 and 0.09, and soil-meat aggregated transfer factors 11.0, 0.28 and 0.03, respectively

  18. Effect of Afforestation and Reforestation of Pastures on the Activity and Population Dynamics of Methanotrophic Bacteria▿ (United States)

    Singh, Brajesh K.; Tate, Kevin R.; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B.; Macdonald, Catriona A.; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J. Colin


    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils. PMID:17574997

  19. Effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on the activity and population dynamics of methanotrophic bacteria. (United States)

    Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin R; Kolipaka, Gokul; Hedley, Carolyn B; Macdonald, Catriona A; Millard, Peter; Murrell, J Colin


    We investigated the effect of afforestation and reforestation of pastures on methane oxidation and the methanotrophic communities in soils from three different New Zealand sites. Methane oxidation was measured in soils from two pine (Pinus radiata) forests and one shrubland (mainly Kunzea ericoides var. ericoides) and three adjacent permanent pastures. The methane oxidation rate was consistently higher in the pine forest or shrubland soils than in the adjacent pasture soils. A combination of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP) analyses of these soils revealed that different methanotrophic communities were active in soils under the different vegetations. The C18 PLFAs (signature of type II methanotrophs) predominated under pine and shrublands, and C16 PLFAs (type I methanotrophs) predominated under pastures. Analysis of the methanotrophs by molecular methods revealed further differences in methanotrophic community structure under the different vegetation types. Cloning and sequencing and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the particulate methane oxygenase gene (pmoA) from different samples confirmed the PLFA-SIP results that methanotrophic bacteria related to type II methanotrophs were dominant in pine forest and shrubland, and type I methanotrophs (related to Methylococcus capsulatus) were dominant in all pasture soils. We report that afforestation and reforestation of pastures caused changes in methane oxidation by altering the community structure of methanotrophic bacteria in these soils.

  20. Ingestive behavior, performance and forage intake by beef heifers on tropical pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Alves de Oliveira Neto


    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate forage intake, performance and ingestive behavior of beef heifers. Productive, structural and chemical characteristics of the pasture were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three pasture systems (Alexandergrass [Urochloa plantaginea Link.] with and without supplement to heifers and Coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] and two phenological stages: vegetative and flowering. The grazing method was put-and-take stocking. Grazing, ruminating and idle activities, feeding stations, displacement patterns, bite mass and bite rate were evaluated. The forage intake was estimated using chromic oxide as an indicator of fecal output. The heifers modified the use of feeding stations and displacement patterns between phenological stages and pasture systems. Heifers consumed more forage in the vegetative stage (2.81% of body weight in dry matter than in the flowering stage (1.92% of body weight in dry matter. Average daily gain, body condition and stocking rate were similar for heifers in the evaluated systems. Beef heifers receiving protein supplement on Alexandergrass pasture consumed more forage than heifers fed Coastcross exclusively. Regardless of the species, no difference was observed when the heifers were exclusively on pasture. Pasture systems on Alexandergrass or Coastcross provide suitable nutrient intake for heifers to be mated at 18 months of age.

  1. Horse Welfare and Natural Values on Semi-Natural and Extensive Pastures in Finland: Synergies and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen


    Full Text Available In several regions in Europe, the horse is becoming a common grazer on semi-natural and cultivated grasslands, though the pasturing benefits for animals and biodiversity alike are not universally appreciated. The composition of ground vegetation on pastures determines the value of both the forage for grazing animals as well as the biodiversity values for species associated with the pastoral ecosystems. We studied three pastures, each representing one of the management types in southern Finland (latitudes 60–61: semi-natural, permanent and cultivated grassland. All have been grazed exclusively by horses for several decades. We aimed to evaluate feeding values and horses’ welfare, on the one hand, and impacts of horses on biodiversity in boreal conditions, on the other. Though there were differences among the pastures, the nutritional value of the vegetation in all three pastures met the energy and protein needs of most horse categories through the whole grazing season. Some mineral concentrations were low compared to the requirements, and supplementation of Cu, Zn and Na is needed to balance the mineral intake. Only minor injuries or health problems were observed. All metrics of biological values, as well as number of species eaten by horses, were particularly high in a semi-natural pasture compared to other pasture types. The highest ratio of species cover preferred by horses to the total cover was found in the permanent pasture, while at the regularly re-seeded pasture, there was a particularly high cover of species, indicating low biodiversity values on grassland. There was, therefore, a trade-off between the quantity of forage and biological values in pastures, but not in quality. The results provide clear indication both for the suitability of the studied pasture types to horses and for grazing of horses for biodiversity management. In each pasture type, specific management is needed to simultaneously achieve objectives of adequate

  2. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture. (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E Façanha


    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as R(abs) = 640.0 +/- 3.1 W .m(-2). Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 +/- 2.7 W m(-2); long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 +/- 1.5 W m(-2). It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature (T*(mr)). Average T*(mr) was 101.4 +/- 1.2 degrees C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, T(mr) = 65.1 +/- 0.5 degrees C. Estimates of T*(mr) were considered as more reliable than those of T (mr) in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T (mr) is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  3. Sedimentation in Goose Pasture Tarn, 1965-2005, Breckenridge, Colorado (United States)

    Elliott, John G.; Char, Stephen J.; Linhart, Samuel M.; Stephens, V. Cory; O'Neill, Gregory B.


    Goose Pasture Tarn, a 771-acre-foot reservoir in Summit County, Colorado, is the principal domestic water-storage facility for the Town of Breckenridge and collects runoff from approximately 42 square miles of the upper Blue River watershed. In the 40 years since the reservoir was constructed, deltaic deposits have accumulated at the mouths of two perennial streams that provide most of the inflow and sediment to the reservoir. The Blue River is a low-gradient braided channel and transports gravel- to silt-size sediment. Indiana Creek is a steep-gradient channel that transports boulder- to silt-size sediment. Both deltas are composed predominantly of gravel, sand, and silt, but silt has been deposited throughout the reservoir. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Town of Breckenridge, began a study to determine the volume of accumulated sediment in Goose Pasture Tarn, the long-term sedimentation rate for the reservoir, and the particle-size and chemical characteristics of the sediment. Exposed delta deposits occupied 0.91 acre and had an estimated volume of 0.6 acre-foot in 2005. Aerial photographic analysis indicated both the Blue River and Indiana Creek deltas grew rapidly during time intervals that included larger-than-average annual flood peaks on the Blue River. Sediment-transport relations could not be developed for the Blue River or Indiana Creek because of minimal streamflow and infrequently observed sediment transport during the study; however, suspended-sediment loads ranged from 0.02 to 1.60 tons per day in the Blue River and from 0.06 to 1.55 tons per day in Indiana Creek. Bedload as a percentage of total load ranged from 9 to 27 percent. New reservoir stage-area and stage-capacity relations were developed from bathymetric and topographic surveys of the reservoir bed. The original 1965 reservoir bed topography and the accumulated sediment thickness were estimated from a seismic survey and manual probing. The surface area of Goose

  4. Epigeic spiders of the pastures of northern Wielkopolska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny, Marek


    Full Text Available The fauna of epigeic spiders (Araneae occurring on three different types of pastures in northern Wielkopolska was analysed. Studies were conducted from May 1992 to October 1993. The 18,995 specimens collected were classified as belonging to 137 species and 17 families. The family Linyphiidae proved the richest in species while Lycosidae was the most abundantly in terms of number of specimens. Zoocenological analysis of spider communities showed their differentiation testifying to differences in the sites studied. The dominants were: 1 Osowo Stare (Site 1: Pardosa palustris, 2 Sycyn Dolny (Site 2: Xerolycosa miniata, P. palustris, Xysticus kochi, 3 Braczewo (Site 3: Erigone dentipalpis, P. palustris. Seasonal changes of dominance of the species at each site were established. A comparison of changes of the species’ dominances in the years 1992 and 1993 disclosed similar values of the individual dominance coefficient at the sites in Osowo Stare and Braczewo. This result indicates the occurrence of the process of stabilization of these biocenoses and a tendency to equilibrium in the environment. The least stable proved to be the site at Sycyn Dolny. Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of epigeic spider communities was also made by determining the mean number of species at each site in the two years of study. The highest number of species was noted in spring. It is interesting to note the appearance of species which are rare or very rare in Poland such as: Lepthyphantes insignis, Ostearius melanopygius, Enoplognatha mordax and Enoplognatha oelandica.

  5. Impact of combined management on the newly established pasture sward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Hakrová


    Full Text Available The effect of the combined grazing and cutting management on the phytocenological characteristics was examined at the submountain paddock in the South Bohemia. The botanical scans were sampled during the five-years study (2006–2010 starting after the sowing the pasture sward in the originally arable field and 0–2 years after the beginning of the grazing (paddock A and paddock B, respectively. The paddock A was grazed all year round, whereas the paddock B was grazed in spring and autumn and cut in summer for hay. At both paddocks, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens and Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia dominated the community of total 43 and 47 species (paddock A and B, respectively. Among the sowing species, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis, Festuca rubra and Trifolium repens increased its cover on both paddocks, while Phleum pratense increased its cover only at paddock B. Lolium multiflorum decreased it cover at both paddocks. Most of arable field weeds disappeared (paddock A or decreased its cover (paddock B. The cover of herb layer was higher at paddock A than at paddock B, whereas the number of species (N, the diversity (H and the equitability (J was higher at paddock B than at paddock A. The cover of herb layer increased during the study at both the paddocks, while the number of species declined at paddock A and increased at paddock B.

  6. Fire, Drought, and Forest Management Influences on Pine/Hardwood Ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians (United States)

    J.M. Vose; B.D. Clinton; W.T. Swank


    Establishment and maintenance of pitch pine/hardwood ecosystems in the southern Appalachians depends on intense wildfire. These ecosystems typically have a substantial evergreen shrub component (Kalmia latifolia) which limits regeneration of future overstory species. Wildfires provide microsite conditions conducive to pine regeneration and reduce...

  7. An evaluation of Appalachian Trail hikers' knowledge of minimum impact skills and practices (United States)

    Peter Newman; Robert Manning; Jim Bacon; Alan Graefe; Gerard Kyle


    As the number of visitors to national parks and related areas continues to rise and the types of visitors and activities continue to diversify, educating visitors in minimum skills can help to protect parks and related areas. Educating visitors in these skills can be a challenge, especially on the Appalachian Trail (AT) that travels through state, federal, municipal...

  8. The Impact of International Students on American Students and Faculty at an Appalachian University (United States)

    Jourdini, My Mustapha


    This study examined the effects of exposure to international students on American student and faculty perceptions at a regional Appalachian University. A revised and improved version of Jaleh Shabahang's (1993) "International Education Opinionnaire" was used to survey American students and faculty regarding their perceptions of the…

  9. Suppression of ectomycorrhizae on canopy tree seedlings in Rhododendron maximum (Eriqceae) thickets in the southern Appalachians (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Miller; Tom Lei; Shawn Semones; Erik Nilsen; B.D. Clinton


    Thickets of Rhododendron maximum (Ericaceae) (Rm) is the southern Appalachians severely limit regeneration of hardwood and coniferous seedlings. Experimental blocks were established in and out of Rm thickets in a mature, mixed hardwood/conifer forest in Macon County, N.C. Litter and organic layer substrates were removed, cornposited and...

  10. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton


    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  11. Fuels and predicted fire behavior in the southern Appalachian Mountains and fire and fire surrogate treatments (United States)

    Thomas Waldrop; Ross J. Phillips; Dean A. Simon


    This study tested the success of fuel reduction treatments for mitigating wildfire behavior in an area that has had little previous research on fire, the southern Appalachian Mountains. A secondary objective of treatments was to restore the community to an open woodland condition. Three blocks of four treatments were installed in a mature hardwood forest in western...

  12. The 'state' of tobacco: Perceptions of tobacco among Appalachian youth in Kentucky. (United States)

    Hart, Joy L; Walker, Kandi L; Sears, Clara G; Tompkins, Lindsay K; Lee, Alexander S; Mattingly, Delvon T; Groom, Allison; Landry, Robyn; Giachello, Aida L; Payne, Thomas J; Kesh, Anshula; Siu, Allison; Smith, Courteney; Robertson, Rose M


    In Appalachia, youth tobacco-use rates remain higher than the U.S. national average. Past research has indicated that several factors are related to high rates of tobacco use among Appalachian youth (e.g. low socioeconomic status, rural lifestyles). Of the Appalachian states, Kentucky has one of the highest rates of youth tobacco use. The aim of this study was to explore views of tobacco among Kentucky youth living in Appalachian counties. In Fall 2014 - Spring 2015, focus group interviews were conducted with middle and high school students (N=109) in Appalachian counties in Kentucky. Each focus group session included open-ended questions and was conducted by trained facilitators. Focus group transcriptions and field notes were analyzed for themes. Study participants described an entrenched culture of tobacco. Three themes exemplified this culture. First, adult behavior served to enable youth tobacco use (e.g. teachers ignoring dip use in class, adults smoking with youth). Second, tobacco is easily accessible to youth (e.g. restrictions on youth sales are often ignored, family members provide). Third, symbols of tobacco are prevalent (e.g. festivals celebrating tobacco heritage, tobacco barns, and tobacco marketing logos). Youth participants described a deeply rooted tobacco culture, which they believed was unlikely to change. Additional studies and health education efforts are needed in these rural communities. Further, stricter enforcement of tobacco sales and marketing restrictions may be helpful in protecting this vulnerable population.

  13. 78 FR 71595 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments... (United States)


    ... Pumped Storage Project. f. Location: The Smith Mountain Project is located on the Roanoke River in.... Simms, Hydro Supervisor--Plant Manager II, Appalachian Power Company, 40 Franklin Road, Roanoke, VA... Smith Mountain Pumped Storage Project, requests an amendment of the Order Approving Non-Project Use of...

  14. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye


    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  15. Adaptation and validation of the REGEN expert system for the Central Appalachians (United States)

    Lance A. Vickers; Thomas R. Fox; David L. Loftis; David A. Boucugnani


    REGEN is an expert system that predicts future species composition at the onset of stem exclusion using preharvest stand conditions. To extend coverage into hardwood stands of the Central Appalachians, we developed REGEN knowledge bases for four site qualities (xeric, subxeric, submesic, mesic) based on relevant literature and expert opinion. Data were collected from...

  16. Effects of prescribed fire in a central Appalachian oak-hickory stand (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    A prescribed fire in a central Appalachian mixed hardwood stand caused considerable damage to the butt logs of many overstory trees. Although there were increases in the abundance and distribution of several species of hardwoods, advanced red and chestnut oaks were poorly distributed 5-years after burning. An abundance of striped maple and other shrubs in the...

  17. Managing Appalachian hardwood stands using four regeneration practices--34 year results (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Gary W. Miller


    Adjacent Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia established on excellent growing sites were managed for a 34-year period using four regeneration practices. These practices included a commercial clearcut, 15.5-in diameter-limit, and two single-tree selection practices. An uncut area was maintained as a control. Stand development, growth response, and some stumpage...

  18. An economic assessment of implementing streamside management zones in central Appalachian hardwood forests (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Chris B. LeDoux; Jingxin Wang


    The effects of variable width of streamside management zones (25, 50, 75, and 100 ft) (SMZs) and removal level of trees (10%, 30%, and 50% of basal area) on production and cost of implementing SMZs in central Appalachian hardwood forests were simulated by using a computer model. Harvesting operations were performed on an 80-year-old generated natural hardwood stand...

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA. (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph


    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  20. Persistence of Allegheny woodrats Neotoma magister across the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Highlands landscape, USA (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Steven B. Castleberry; Michael T. Mengak; Jane L. Rodrigue; Daniel J. Feller; Kevin R. Russell


    We examined a suite of macro-habitat and landscape variables around active and inactive Allegheny woodrat Neotoma magister colony sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the mid-Atlantic Highlands of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia using an information-theoretic modeling approach. Logistic regression analyses suggested that Allegheny woodrat presence was related...

  1. Preliminary evaluation of environmental variables affecting diameter growth of individual hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; F. Thomas Lloyd


    The value of environmental variables as measures of site quality for individual tree growth models was determined for 12 common species of eastern hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Periodic diameter increment was modeled as a function of size, competition and environmental variables for 1,381 trees in even-aged stands of mixed-species. Resulting species...

  2. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene


    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  3. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.


    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  4. Establishing perennial seed-based energy crops on reclaimed surface mine soils in the central Appalachians (United States)

    Jamie L. Schuler; Shawn Grushecky; Jingxin. Wang


    Renewable energy has been at the forefront of the United States' energy policies. Cellulosic feedstocks have received considerable interest in the Appalachian region because of their abundance and availability, but cost competition from other energy sectors has limited their use in the region. Some other bioenergy feedstocks, such as corn and soybeans, are not a...

  5. Manual herbicide application methods for managing vegetation in Appalachian hardwood forests (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller


    Four manual herbicide application methods are described for use in Appalachian hardwood forests. Stem injection, basal spray, cut-stump, and foliar spray techniques can be used to control interfering vegetation and promote the development of desirable reproduction and valuable crop trees in hardwood forests. Guidelines are presented to help the user select the...

  6. Bringing fire back. The changing regimes of the Appalachian mixed-oak forest (United States)

    Patrick Brose; Thomas Schuler; David Van Lear; John. Berst


    Since vegetative associations stabilized about 4,000 years ago, the Appalachian mixed-oak forests have experienced three profoundly different fire regimes. Periodic, low-intensity surface fires lit by American Indians characterized the first regime, and this regime helped perpetuate oak as one of the dominant species groups. The Industrial Revolution led to high-...

  7. Topographic home ranges of white-tailed deer in the central Appalachians (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller


    Planimetric comparisons of home range sizes of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) from across their range may not be appropriate due to regional differences in topography. We compare seasonal topographic diversity between male and female white-tailed deer home ranges in the central Appalachians using percent increase from...

  8. Natural communities of the central Appalachian red spruce ecosystem and their conservation significance (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Byers


    Natural communities within the red spruce ecosystem of the central Appalachians are characterized by exceptionally high biodiversity and conservation value. This ecosystem stretches in a southwest - northeast trending band for 250 km along the high elevations of the Allegheny Mountains, from Greenbrier County, WV to Garrett County, MD.

  9. Effects of agriculture on wood breakdown and microbial biofilm respiration in southern Appalachian streams (United States)

    M.E. McTammany; E.F. Benfield; J.R. Webster


    Agriculture causes high sediment, nutrient and light input to streams, which may affect rates of ecosystem processes, such as organic matter decay. In the southern Appalachians, socioeconomic trends over the past 50 years have caused widespread abandonment of farmland with subsequent reforestation. Physical and chemical properties of streams in these...

  10. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations. (United States)

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe


    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  11. Interacting effects of wildfire severity and liming on nutrient cycling in a southern Appalachian wilderness area (United States)

    Katherine Elliott; Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; William A. Jackson


    Aims Wilderness and other natural areas are threatened by large-scale disturbances (e.g., wildfire), air pollution, climate change, exotic diseases or pests, and a combination of these stress factors (i.e., stress complexes). Linville Gorge Wilderness (LGW) is one example of a high elevation wilderness in the southern Appalachian region that has been subject to stress...

  12. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

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    Christopher M. Oswalt


    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  13. An appraisal of early reproduction after cutting in northern Appalachian hardwood stands (United States)

    George R., Jr. Trimble; George Hart


    How shall I cut to get reproduction? What kind of reproduction will I get if I cut the way I am planning to? All foresters have asked themselves these questions. To help supply some answers to these questions for the northern Appalachian hardwood area, the authors have summarized and analyzed before- and after-cutting reproduction data collected over a period of 10...

  14. Nitrogen deposition and cycling across an elevation and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian forests (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank


    We studied nitrogen (N) cycling pools and processes across vegetation and elevation gradients in. the southern Appalachian Mountains in SE USA. Measurements included bulk deposition input, watershed export, throughfall fluxes, litterfall, soil N pools and processes, and soil solution N. N deposition increased with elevation and ranged from 9.5 to 12.4 kg ha-...

  15. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.


    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  16. Evaluating forest biomass utilization in the Appalachians: A review of potential impacts and guidelines for management (United States)

    Michael R. Vanderberg; Mary Beth Adams; Mark S. Wiseman


    Forests are important economic and ecological resources for both the Appalachian hardwood forest region and the country. Increased demand for woody biomass can be met, at least in part, by improved utilization of these resources. However, concerns exist about the impacts of increased intensity of woody biomass removal on the sustainability of forest ecosystems....

  17. The Story of One: A Reflection of Many. Lessons Learned from an Appalachian Heritage. (United States)

    Wallace, Lisa A.

    Family connections, traditional activities, educational goals, and fatalism are themes running throughout research and published observations about Appalachia. Information from 3 days of interviews with the author's grandmother, an 87-year-old Appalachian woman, is compared to these common research themes. The interviewee's experiences concerning…

  18. Fish Habitat and Fish Populations in a Southern Appalachian Watershed before and after Hurricane Hugo (United States)

    C. Andrew Dolloff; Patricia A. Flebbe; Michael D. Owen


    Habitat features and relative abundance of all fish species were estimated in 8.4 km of a small mountain stream system before and 11 months after Hurricane Hugo crossed the southern Appalachians in September 1989. There was no change in the total amount (area) of each habitat type but the total number of habitat units decreased and average size and depth of habitat...

  19. Height of Tallest Saplings in 10-year-old Appalachian Hardwood Clearcuts (United States)

    H. Clay Smith


    Stem characteristics, mainly height, of the tallest hardwood saplings in 10-year-old circular clearcut openings were evaluated for several Appalachian hardwoods in West Virginia. Heights of the tallest saplings were not influenced by cardinal directions on two oak sites. Saplings were taller near the center of 150-, 2OO-, and 250-foot openings than saplings in the...

  20. Diameters of clearcut openings influence central Appalachian hardwood stem development - 10-year study (United States)

    H. Clay Smith


    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were studied to determine how reproduction establishment and development were influenced by circular clearcut openings of different sizes, postlogging herbicide treatments, and site quality. Ten-year results indicate that circular clearcuts should be at least 1/2 acre to gain the silvicultural effects of larger clearcuts....

  1. Development of a Decision Support System for Monitoring, Reporting, Forecasting Ecological Conditions of the Appalachian Trail (United States)

    Y. Wang; R. Nemani; F. Dieffenbach; K. Stolte; G. Holcomb


    This paper introduces a collaborative multi-agency effort to develop an Appalachian Trail (A.T.) MEGA-Transect Decision Support System (DSS) for monitoring, reporting and forecasting ecological conditions of the A.T. and the surrounding lands. The project is to improve decision-making on management of the A.T. by providing a coherent framework for data integration,...

  2. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose


    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  3. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region (United States)

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  4. The Mathematics Self-Efficacy of Rural Central Appalachian Undergraduate Females (United States)

    Music, Lisa J.


    This dissertation study was a two-part investigation with a sample of undergraduate students from three community and technical colleges and one university in the state of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the mathematics self-efficacy of rural Central Appalachian undergraduate females. Two…

  5. Evolutionary history of two endemic Appalachian conifers revealed using microsatellite markers (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley A. Josserand; C. Dana Nelson


    Fraser fir (Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) and intermediate fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill. var. phanerolepis Fern.) exist in small populations in the Appalachian highlands of the southeastern United States. We used ten nuclear microsatellite markers to quantify genetic variation within Fraser fir and intermediate...

  6. New methods for estimating non-timber forest product output: an Appalachian case study (United States)

    Steve Kruger; James. Chamberlain


    Assessing the size and structure of non-timber forest product (NTFP) markets is difficult due to a lack of knowledge about NTFP supply chains. Harvesting ginseng and other wild medicinal plants has long provided a source of income and cultural identity in Appalachian communities in the eastern United States. With the exception of ginseng, the extent of the harvest of...

  7. Spatial modeling to project Southern Appalachian Trout distribution in warmer climate (United States)

    Patrica A. Flebbe; Laura D. Roghair; Jennifer L. Bruggink


    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, the distributions of native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are presently limited by temperature and are expected to be limited further by a warmer climate. To estimate trout habitat in a future...

  8. Assessment of the FARSITE model for predicting fire behavior in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Ross J. Phillips; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon


    Fuel reduction treatments are necessary in fire-adapted ecosystems where fire has been excluded for decades and the potential for severe wildfire is high. Using the Fire Area Simulator, FARSITE, we examined the spatial and temporal effects of these treatments on fire behavior in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. With measurements from temperature sensors during...

  9. Using hyperdocuments to manage scientific knowledge: the prototype Encyclopedia of Southern Appalachian Forest Ecosystems (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Patricia A. Flebbe; Daniel L. Schmoldt; William G. Hubbard; J. Bryan Jordin; William Milnor


    Despite the overwhelming body of research available on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian forests, a gap exists between what scientists know and what the management community is able to apply on the ground. Most research knowledge still resides in highly technical, narrowly focused research publications housed in libraries. The internet, combined with...

  10. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests (United States)

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins


    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  11. Spatial characteristics of topography, energy exchange, and forest cover in a central Appalachian watershed (United States)

    Stanislaw J. Tajchman; Hailiang Fu; James N. Kochenderfer; Pan Chunshen


    Spatial variation of topography, net radiation, evapotranspiration, and forest stand in the central Appalachian watershed is described. The study area is the control watershed 4 (39"20'N, 79"49"W) located in the Fernow Experimental Forest at Parsons, West Virginia. The watershed encompasses an area of 39.2 ha, it has a southeast orientation, and the...

  12. A three-dimensional bucking system for optimal bucking of Central Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Jingang Liu; Chris B. LeDoux


    An optimal tree stembucking systemwas developed for central Appalachian hardwood species using three-dimensional (3D) modeling techniques. ActiveX Data Objects were implemented via MS Visual C++/OpenGL to manipulate tree data which were supported by a backend relational data model with five data entity types for stems, grades and prices, logs, defects, and stem shapes...

  13. Release of Suppressed Red Spruce Using Canopy Gap Creation--Ecological Restoration in the Central Appalachians (United States)

    J.S. Rentch; W.M. Ford; Thomas Schuler; Jeff Palmer; C.A. Diggins


    Red spruce (Picea rubens) and red spruce-northern hardwood mixed stands once covered as much as 300,000 ha in the Central Appalachians, but now comprise no more than 21,000 ha. Recently, interest in restoration of this forest type has increased because red spruce forests provide habitat for a number of rare animal species. Our study reports the...

  14. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswalt, Ch.M.; Oswalt, S.N.


    Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood hereafter dogwood) populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees) across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1) quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian eco region, (2) quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3) identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian eco region. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (ρ<.05) were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent) sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  15. Using hyperdocuments for knowledge management: an encyclopedia of southern appalachian forest ecosystems (United States)

    Deborah K. Kennard; H. Michael Rauscher; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Patricia A. Flebbe; J.B. Jordin; W.G. Hubbard; M.C. Covington; N. Rushton


    Land managers increasingly need improved access to research knowledge that is thoroughly organized, condensed, and presented in a form that is useful for problem solving. In this paper, we describe the application of hyperdocuments for knowledge management, using an example of a newly developed hypertext encyclopedia on the southern Appalachians. The Encyclopedia of...

  16. Proceedings: Wildland Fire in the Appalachians: Discussions Among Managers and Scientists (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop


    Many challenges face fire managers and scientists in the Appalachian Mountains because of the region’s diverse topography and limited research supporting prescribed burning. This conference was designed to promote communication among managers, researchers, and other interested parties. These proceedings contain 30 papers and abstracts that describe ongoing research,...

  17. Fragmenting and Reconstructing Identity: Struggles of Appalachian Women Attempting To Reconnect to Their Native American Heritage. (United States)

    Trollinger, Linda Burcham

    This qualitative study drew on the stories and reflections of six Appalachian women of Native American descent to explore their experiences of reconnecting with their lost Native identity. This paper visualizes those experiences in light of the relationships between personal realities and structural influences. Historically, Native identities have…

  18. Results on the Slosson Drawing Coordination Test with Appalachian Sheltered Workshop Clients. (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.; Richmond, Bert O.

    Fifty-four clients (13- to 52-years-old) in an Appalachian sheltered workshop were administered the Slosson Drawing Coordination Test (SDCT) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Twenty-nine Ss were labeled possibly brain damaged by the SDCT, and 17 Ss by the M. Hutt scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt. Two psychologists using all available…

  19. A Progress Assessment of the School Health Education Project of Appalachian Maryland. (United States)

    Regional Education Service Agency of Appalachian Maryland, Cumberland.

    This document evaluates the effectiveness of a project on health education conducted in Appalachian Maryland. The emphasis of the project was on teaching children in the fifth grade about lung and respiratory system problems and their connection with smoking. This health education course was incorporated into their regular curriculum. Prior to…

  20. PM2.5 concentrations observed and modeled for the 2016 southern Appalachian wildfire event (United States)

    During November 2016, wildfires in the southern Appalachian region of the United States burned over 125,00 acres leading to a widespread outbreak of elevated levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Daily average concentrations above the current National Ambient Air Quality Sta...

  1. Assessing the vegetation history of three Southern Appalachian balds through soil organic matter analysis (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Larry L. Tieszen; Glen G. Fredlund


    The history of Southern Appalachian grassy balds has long been a topic of speculation. Two types have been identified: those completely covered by grass and those occupied by a mixed-hardwood overstory with a grassy herbaceous layer. Three areas historically known as balds were identified in the Wine Spring Ecosystem Project Area. Each is currently under a different...

  2. Using silviculture to influence carbon sequestration in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests (United States)

    Patrick T. Moore; R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; Helga. van Miegroet


    Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C) sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled....

  3. Different supplents for finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tadeu de Andrade


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of four types of supplement on the finishing of Nellore cattle on deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture during the dry season. Sixty-four castrated Nellore males with an age of approximately 34 months and initial body weight (BW ranging from 360 to 380 kg were divided into 16 animals per treatment in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four types of pasture supplement: deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + energy protein mineral salt (SuEPM used as control; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + ground corn grain (SuCo; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + citrus pulp (SuCPu; deferred Brachiaria decumbens pasture + urea + cottonseed meal (28% CP + soy hull (SuSH. The pasture was deferred for 170 days and provided 3,482 kg DM/ha of forage, permitting a stocking rate of 1.56 AU/ha (DM intake of 2.25% BW and 50% pasture efficiency. The animals received the supplement ad libitum in the SuEPM treatment and as % BW in the other treatments from July to October. The animals were slaughtered at a minimum BW of 457 kg. The following variables were evaluated: final weight, weight gain during the period (WG, average daily gain (ADG, hot carcass weight (HCW, and hot carcass yield (HCY. With respect to final weight, the supplement in the SuCo, SuCPu and SuSH treatments permitted a greater supply of nutrients and the animals therefore exhibited better performance (P<0.05 compared to the SuEPM treatment (mean of 478.68 vs 412.62 kg. The same effect was observed for the other parameters studied. Analysis of WG and ADG showed that SuSH was superior to the SuCo and SuCPu treatments (P<0.05 due to the increased offer of concentrate and SuEPM was inferior to the other treatments. Higher HCW (260.05 kg and HCY (53.92% were obtained with treatment SuSH as a result of greater performance. Supplementation of cattle during the dry period on

  4. The impact of water management practices on subtropical pasture methane emissions and ecosystem service payments. (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel D; Groffman, Peter M; Boughton, Elizabeth H; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; DeLucia, Evan H; Bernacchi, Carl J; Sparks, Jed P


    Pastures are an extensive land cover type; however, patterns in pasture greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange vary widely depending on climate and land management. Understanding this variation is important, as pastures may be a net GHG source or sink depending on these factors. We quantified carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) fluxes from subtropical pastures in south Florida for three wet-dry seasonal cycles using eddy covariance, and estimated two annual budgets of CO 2 , CH 4 , and GHG equivalent emissions. We also estimated the impact of water retention practices on pasture GHG emissions and assessed the impact of these emissions on stakeholder payments for water retention services in a carbon market framework. The pastures were net CO 2 sinks sequestering up to 163 ± 54 g CO 2 -C·m -2 ·yr -1 (mean ± 95% CI), but were also strong CH 4 sources emitting up to 23.5 ± 2.1 g CH 4 -C·m -2 ·yr -1 . Accounting for the increased global warming potential of CH 4 , the pastures were strong net GHG sources emitting up to 584 ± 78 g CO 2 -C eq.·m -2 ·yr -1 , and all CO 2 uptake was offset by wet season CH 4 emissions from the flooded landscape. Our analysis suggests that CH 4 emissions due to increased flooding from water management practices is a small component of the pasture GHG budget, and water retention likely contributes 2-11% of net pasture GHG emissions. These emissions could reduce water retention payments by up to ~12% if stakeholders were required to pay for current GHG emissions in a carbon market. It would require at least 93.7 kg CH 4 -C emissions per acre-foot water storage (1 acre-foot = 1233.48 m 3 ) for carbon market costs to exceed water retention payments, and this scenario is highly unlikely as we estimate current practices are responsible for 11.3 ± 7.2 kg CH 4 -C emissions per acre-foot of water storage. Our results demonstrate that water retention practices aimed at reducing nutrient loading to the Everglades are likely only

  5. A Contextual Analysis of Land-Use and Vegetation Changes in Two Wooded Pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains

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    Joël Chételat


    The most important changes in tree density occurred during World War II and resulted in a more open landscape. The intensive use of wooded pastures during the war was the consequence of a high demand for wood and food resources. Postwar protectionist regulations, agricultural subsidies, and technical improvements maintained considerable pressure on wooded pastures. Storms and drought episodes further exacerbated this process in some areas. The trend then reversed from the 1970s onwards because of the limitations put on milk production and the falling price of wood. This resulted in a more extensive use of pastures, leading to tree encroachment. However, remote sites were more impacted than pastures closer to inhabited areas, which exhibited a trend towards more segregation between grassland and densely wooded pastures. With both extensification and segregation of land use, the complex vegetation mosaic and the landscape diversity that characterize wooded pastures are threatened but still offer good economic opportunities that call for differentiated management strategies.

  6. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures. (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G


    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P stream zone (0 to 3 m from stream center) in June and August and in the streamside zone (0 to 33 m from stream zone) in May through August and May through September, respectively, than cattle in CSU pastures. However, off-stream water had no effect on cattle distribution. Compared with the CSU treatment, the CSR treatment reduced the probability (P stream center) at BGTHI of 50 to 100. Bare ground was greater (P stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby

  7. Dynamics of alpine pastures overgrowth in Belska planina and Reber using object-based analysis of orthophoto images


    Klinar, Klemen; Hladnik, David


    Alpine pastures are a part of the agricultural use of land in the Alpine region but they are becoming overgrown. By comparing land use maps the dynamics of pasture overgrowth and other spatial processes in Belska Planina and Reber pasture were established. Digital ortophotos from the years 1995 and 2006 were analyzed by feature extraction with GIS tools. Changes at the level of the smallest surfaces, i.e. individual shrubs or cluster of trees, can be reliably identified with the methodology u...

  8. Horse Welfare and Natural Values on Semi-Natural and Extensive Pastures in Finland: Synergies and Trade-Offs


    Markku Saastamoinen; Iryna Herzon; Susanna Särkijärvi; Catherine Schreurs; Marianna Myllymäki


    In several regions in Europe, the horse is becoming a common grazer on semi-natural and cultivated grasslands, though the pasturing benefits for animals and biodiversity alike are not universally appreciated. The composition of ground vegetation on pastures determines the value of both the forage for grazing animals as well as the biodiversity values for species associated with the pastoral ecosystems. We studied three pastures, each representing one of the management types in southern Finlan...

  9. Overview of the potential and identified petroleum source rocks of the Appalachian basin, eastern United States: Chapter G.13 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Coleman, James L.; Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Brown, Stephen; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Appalachian basin is the oldest and longest producing commercially viable petroleum-producing basin in the United States. Source rocks for reservoirs within the basin are located throughout the entire stratigraphic succession and extend geographically over much of the foreland basin and fold-and-thrust belt that make up the Appalachian basin. Major source rock intervals occur in Ordovician, Devonian, and Pennsylvanian strata with minor source rock intervals present in Cambrian, Silurian, and Mississippian strata.

  10. Mapping of macro and micro nutrients of mixed pastures using airborne AisaFENIX hyperspectral imagery (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, Gábor; Yule, I. J.


    On-farm assessment of mixed pasture nutrient concentrations is important for animal production and pasture management. Hyperspectral imaging is recognized as a potential tool to quantify the nutrient content of vegetation. However, it is a great challenge to estimate macro and micro nutrients in heterogeneous mixed pastures. In this study, canopy reflectance data was measured by using a high resolution airborne visible-to-shortwave infrared (Vis-SWIR) imaging spectrometer measuring in the wavelength region 380-2500 nm to predict nutrient concentrations, nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), manganese (Mn) copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) in heterogeneous mixed pastures across a sheep and beef farm in hill country, within New Zealand. Prediction models were developed using four different methods which are included partial least squares regression (PLSR), kernel PLSR, support vector regression (SVR), random forest regression (RFR) algorithms and their performance compared using the test data. The results from the study revealed that RFR produced highest accuracy (0.55 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.78; 6.68% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 26.47%) compared to all other algorithms for the majority of nutrients (N, P, K, Zn, Na, Cu and Mg) described, and the remaining nutrients (S and Mn) were predicted with high accuracy (0.68 ⩽ R2CV ⩽ 0.86; 13.00% ⩽ nRMSECV ⩽ 14.64%) using SVR. The best training models were used to extrapolate over the whole farm with the purpose of predicting those pasture nutrients and expressed through pixel based spatial maps. These spatially registered nutrient maps demonstrate the range and geographical location of often large differences in pasture nutrient values which are normally not measured and therefore not included in decision making when considering more effective ways to utilized pasture.

  11. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alcantara dos Santos


    Full Text Available Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded pasture withUrochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. R.D. Webster, a trial with threeP. maximum (cv. Massai, Tanzânia, or Mombaça was conducted. Lime and phosphate were applied at set-up, and mineral N and K as topdressing. A remnant of degraded pasture adjacent to the trial was used as control. Twenty-three chemical, physical, microbiological and biochemical attributes were assessed for the 0-10 cm topsoil. The procedures for reclamation improved most of the indicators of soil health in relation to the degraded pasture, such as soil P, mineral N, microbial biomass C, ammonification rate, dehydrogenase activity and acid phosphatase. CO2 evolution decreased, whereas microbial biomass C increased in the pasture under reclamation, resulting in a lower metabolic quotient (qCO2 that points to a decrease in metabolic stress of the microbial community. The reclamation of the pasture withP. maximum, especially cv. Mombaça, were evidenced by improvements in the microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators, showing a recovery of processes related to C, N and P cycling in the soil.

  12. Importance of molehill disturbances for invasion by Bunias orientalis in meadows and pastures (United States)

    Kiełtyk, Piotr; Mirek, Zbigniew


    Small-scale soil disturbances by fossorial animals can change physical and biotic conditions in disturbed patches and influence spatial and temporal dynamics, and the composition of plant communities. They create regeneration niches and colonization openings for native plants and, according to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, they are expected to increase plant community diversity. However, it also has been reported that increased disturbance resource availability and decreased competition with native species may result in the invasion of communities by alien plant species, as predicted by the fluctuating resources theory of invasibility. In this study, we investigated the importance of European mole disturbances for the invasion of semi-natural fresh meadows and pastures by the alien plant, Bunias orientalis, which has mainly spread throughout Central Europe on anthropogenically disturbed sites. We hypothesized that the invader, being particularly well adapted to anthropogenic disturbances, enters into dense vegetation of meadows and pastures mainly on mole mounds. To assess the seedling recruitment of B. orientalis in relation to disturbance, we counted the number of seedlings that emerged on molehills and control plots in meadows and pastures. The establishment of juvenile (0-1 year) rosette plants on and off molehills was surveyed on 5 × 5 m plots. In accordance with our hypothesis, mole disturbances were found to serve as a gateway for B. orientalis by which the invader may colonize semi-natural grasslands. The seedlings of the species emerged almost solely on molehills and the young rosettes were established predominantly on mole mounds. Although the seedling density did not differ significantly between the meadows and pastures, the number of established plants in the pastures was considerably higher. We suggest that the invasion by B. orientalis in pastures may be facilitated by vegetative regeneration following root fragmentation by sheep pasturing.

  13. Optimising Methods for Dung Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Sampling in Brazilian Pastures. (United States)

    Correa, César M A; Braga, Rodrigo F; Puker, Anderson; Abot, Alfredo R; Korasaki, Vanesca


    Dung beetles are globally used in ecological research and are useful for assessing the effects of anthropic and natural changes in environment on biodiversity. Here we investigate how the choice of baits (human feces, cattle dung, carrion or a combination of all three) and sampling season influence the taxonomic and functional diversity of insects captured in traps in Brazilian pastures. We sampled dung beetles in July 2011 (dry season) and January 2012 (rainy season) in eight areas: four pastures with native grasses (e.g., Andropogon spp. and Axonopus spp.) and four pastures with introduced grasses (Urochloa spp.) in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. To collect the insects, we used pitfall traps baited with carrion, cattle dung and human feces. A total of 7,086 dung beetles of 32 species were captured. In both pasture types, only traps baited with human feces captured similar abundance, species richness, and functional diversity compared with the sum total of beetles captured by the three bait types. The species richness and functional diversity were higher in the rainy season in both pasture types. Our results demonstrate that using human feces alone as bait and sampling dung beetles in the rainy season are potentially sufficient to ensure the greatest number of functional traits, species, and individuals in both pasture types. Thus, the best sampling method observed in this study may be useful for studies focused on dung beetle fauna survey and rigorous comparison among studies on these insects in Brazilian pastures. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. MODIS Time Series to Detect Anthropogenic Interventions and Degradation Processes in Tropical Pasture

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    Daniel Alves Aguiar


    Full Text Available The unavoidable diet change in emerging countries, projected for the coming years, will significantly increase the global consumption of animal protein. It is expected that Brazilian livestock production, responsible for close to 15% of global production, be prepared to answer to the increasing demand of beef. Consequently, the evaluation of pasture quality at regional scale is important to inform public policies towards a rational land use strategy directed to improve livestock productivity in the country. Our hypothesis is that MODIS images can be used to evaluate the processes of degradation, restoration and renovation of tropical pastures. To test this hypothesis, two field campaigns were performed covering a route of approximately 40,000 km through nine Brazilian states. To characterize the sampled pastures, biophysical parameters were measured and observations about the pastures, the adopted management and the landscape were collected. Each sampled pasture was evaluated using a time series of MODIS EVI2 images from 2000–2012, according to a new protocol based on seven phenological metrics, 14 Boolean criteria and two numerical criteria. The theoretical basis of this protocol was derived from interviews with producers and livestock experts during a third field campaign. The analysis of the MODIS EVI2 time series provided valuable historical information on the type of intervention and on the biological degradation process of the sampled pastures. Of the 782 pastures sampled, 26.6% experienced some type of intervention, 19.1% were under biological degradation, and 54.3% presented neither intervention nor trend of biomass decrease during the period analyzed.

  15. Growth response to ozone of annual species from Mediterranean pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno, B.S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Bermejo, V. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Sanz, J. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Torre, D. de la [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Elvira, S. [Ecotoxicology of Air Pollution, CIEMAT (ed. 70), Avda, Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity has been reported on a wide range of plant species. However, scarce information has been provided regarding the sensitivity of semi-natural grassland species, especially those from dehesa Mediterranean grasslands, in spite of their great biological diversity and the high O{sub 3} levels recorded in the region. A screening study was carried out in open-top chambers (OTCs) to assess the O{sub 3}-sensitivity of representative therophytes of these ecosystems based on the response of selected growth-related parameters. Three O{sub 3} treatments and 3 OTCs per treatment were used. Legume species were very sensitive to O{sub 3}, because 78% of the tested species showed detrimental effects on their total biomass relative growth rate (RGR) following their exposure to O{sub 3}. The Trifolium genus was particularly sensitive showing O{sub 3}-induced adverse effects on most of the assessed parameters. Gramineae plants were less sensitive than Leguminosae species because detrimental effects on total biomass RGR were only observed in 14% of the assessed species. No relationship was found between relative growth rates when growing in clean air and O{sub 3} susceptibility. The implications of these effects on the performance of dehesa acidic grasslands and on the definition of ozone critical levels for the protection of semi-natural vegetation are discussed. - Capsule: The therophytes from dehesa acidic pastures of central of the Iberian peninsula present a great sensitivity to ozone, as derived from growth- and biomass-related variables.

  16. The Challenges of Bottom-up Approach of Natural-Social Integration in China Highland Pasture Management (United States)

    Ai, Likun


    The pasture land covers two fifth of total Chinese land area, which is mainly distributed in western highland of Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and Sichuan Provinces. China pasture land is not only in charge of providing food resource to regional people, but also plays important role in highland ecosystem services and biodiversity. Along with global warming and enhanced grazing activity, 90% of China pasture land is facing the threat of land degradation. From middle 1990's, Chinese government has released a series of pasture land conservation policies to prevent further environmental degradation. In the same time, lots of pasture ecosystem and environment change researches are supported by national and regional funding agencies. In this study, by monitoring and investigating this top-down approach of pasture land research and policy making processes, we would like to find out the gaps and problems of current research and policy making on China pasture land conservation, especially focusing on the possibility of establishing the bottom-up approach of natural-social sciences integration to support the pasture land conservation and sustainable pasture land management in highland China.

  17. Thinning, Age, and Site Quality Influence Live Tree Carbon Stocks in Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Stanley J. Zarnoch


    This study examines the effects of thinning, age, and site quality on aboveground live tree carbon (ATC) (Mg/ha) stocks in upland hardwood forests of mixed-species composition in the southern Appalachian Mountains. In 1974, 80 plots ranging in size from 0.06 to 0.1 ha were established in even-aged, mixed-hardwood forests throughout the southern Appalachians. All trees...

  18. Soil physical quality in crop-livestock systems in a beef cattle-rearing pasture

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    Camila Cassante de Lima


    Full Text Available Crop-livestock systems (CLS using no-tillage systems have been used to reform and recover degraded pastures, allowing farmers greater profitability and improving soil health. In an experiment with the purpose to evaluate four models of CLS in rearing of cows Nellore, comparing them with the rebuilds performed in permanent pasture, soil physical attributes of quality (density-Db, microporosity-Mi and diameter weighted aggregates-DWA were evaluated in three soil layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm six years after implantation.  The experiment was located in the Research Unity of São José do Rio Preto/APTA, in an Ferrasol, texture sandy/medium. The 26 ha-area was divided into 24 plots, distributed according to a randomized block design, with four replications and six treatments: (T1 permanent pasture with moderate fertilization (application of 45 kg of N/ha/year; (T2 permanent pasture with fertilizer intensive (90 kg of N/ha/year divided into two applications, and four CLS models with fertilization equal to the second treatment: (T3 one year of maize followed by two pasture; (T4 one year of corn and one of pasture, (T5 two consecutive years of corn followed by a pasture and (T6 two consecutive years of corn followed by two years of pasture. The goal was to provide information to identify environmental gains of CLS models with their long-term use. Changes were observed in the size and shape of the aggregates and the presence of roots in the aggregates. Permanent pastures (T1 and T2 form larger aggregates, at right angles, with fewer roots, while aggregates in the soil managed with CLS (T3 to T6 aggregates are smaller, rounder, with more roots and more darkened color. These observations are supported by the DWA aggregates, since the permanent pasture treatments (T1 and T2 showed higher values when compared to soils with CLS. Regarding the soil layers, there was higher aggregate stability in the surface layer (0-10 and 10-20 cm due to the higher input

  19. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

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    Karlize Prigol


    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  20. Permanent, biodiverse pastures in Montado ecosystems - biogeochemical and physiological implications for cork oak trees (United States)

    Moura, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Santos Pereira, J.


    Sown biodiverse permanent pastures rich in legumes (SBPPRL) have been implemented in Portugal as a management tool to increase soil fertility, grassland productivity and animal carrying capacity and were later selected as a voluntary land-use change activity towards increased carbon sequestration within the context of the Kyoto protocol. SBPPRL are commonly found in the understory of Mediterranean-type agro-silvo-pastoral systems - Montados - with cork oak as a dominant tree species. However, little is known about the effects of these introduced pastures on co-occurring cork oak physiology and productivity. Understanding the impact of grassland conversion on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling - namely at the tree level - could be of great importance for future management and policy decisions. Cork oak trees growing in an LTER, flux-tower site in Southern Portugal have been selected among two types of understory land-use: natural grassland and sown biodiverse permanent pasture. A suite of leaf-based physiological and morphological parameters were measured in cork oak trees across both land-use scenarios and different seasons. Here we focus on the results from foliar 15δN and 13δC between spring and summer. 13δC ranged from-30.21 to -27.36, with an average value of -28.74 (± 0.12) and no significant differences found between pasture types (natural vs. improved) or time (spring vs. summer). Foliar 15δN on the other hand showed statistically significant differences between cork oaks in different pasture types (-2.96±0.09 natural vs. -2.21±0.17 improved pastures, t-test, p ≤ 0.05), but no differences across time points. Cork oak trees in the permanent pasture have a 15δN signature closer to zero, consistent with a higher percentage of legumes (and N2 fixation) in that system. Using a mixed-model approach we estimated these trees to be using ca. 25% of their nitrogen from legume-fixation in the pasture. Despite the clear signature influence of legume-fixed N

  1. Dairy farm impacts of fencing riparian land: pasture production and farm productivity. (United States)

    Aarons, Sharon R; Melland, Alice R; Dorling, Lianne


    Dairy farmers are encouraged to restrict stock access by fencing riparian zones to reduce stream pollution and improve biodiversity. Many farmers are reluctant to create fenced riparian zones because of the perceived loss of productive pasture. Anecdotal reports indicate that pasture production in fenced areas is especially valued during summer months when water stress is likely to limit pasture growth in other areas of the farm. We measured pasture production, botanical composition, soil moisture, and fertility in Riparian (within 20 m of the riverbank), Flat (greater than 20 but less than 50 m from the riverbank), and Hill (elevated) areas on three commercial dairy farms from October 2006 to November 2007 in south eastern Australia. Riparian and Flat areas produced significantly more pasture, with on average approximately 25% more dry matter per ha grown in these areas compared with Hill paddocks. Percentage ryegrass was 14% lower on Hill slopes compared with Riparian and Flat areas and was compensated for by only a 5% increase in other grass species. Significant seasonal effects were observed with the difference in pasture production between Hill, and Riparian and Flat areas most pronounced in summer, due to soil moisture limitations on Hill paddocks. To examine potential productivity impacts of this lost pasture, we used a questionnaire-based survey to interview the farmers regarding their farm and riparian management activities. The additional pasture that would have been available if the riverbanks were not fenced to their current widths ranged from 6.2 to 27.2 t DM for the 2006/2007 year and would have been grown on 0.4-3.4% of their milking area. If this pasture was harvested instead of grazed, the farmers could have saved between $2000 and $8000 of their purchased fodder costs in that year. By fencing their riparian areas to 20 m for biodiversity benefits, between 2.2% and 9.8% of their milking area would be out of production amounting to about $16

  2. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures (United States)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.


    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  3. Ecosystem services from converted land: the importance of tree cover in Amazonian pastures (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten; Valentim, Judson; Turner, B. L.


    Deforestation is responsible for a substantial fraction of global carbon emissions and changes in surface energy budgets that affect climate. Deforestation losses include wildlife and human habitat, and myriad forest products on which rural and urban societies depend for food, fiber, fuel, fresh water, medicine, and recreation. Ecosystem services gained in the transition from forests to pasture and croplands, however, are often ignored in assessments of the impact of land cover change. The role of converted lands in tropical areas in terms of carbon uptake and storage is largely unknown. Pastures represent the fastest-growing form of converted land use in the tropics, even in some areas of rapid urban expansion. Tree biomass stored in these areas spans a broad range, depending on tree cover. Trees in pasture increase carbon storage, provide shade for cattle, and increase productivity of forage material. As a result, increasing fractional tree cover can provide benefits land managers as well as important ecosystem services such as reducing conversion pressure on forests adjacent to pastures. This study presents an estimation of fractional tree cover in pasture in a dynamic region on the verge of large-scale land use change. An appropriate sampling interval is established for similar studies, one that balances the need for independent samples of sufficient number to characterize a pasture in terms of fractional tree cover. This information represents a useful policy tool for government organizations and NGOs interested in encouraging ecosystem services on converted lands. Using high spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery, fractional tree cover in pasture is quantified for the municipality of Rio Branco, Brazil. A semivariogram and devolving spatial resolution are employed to determine the coarsest sampling interval that may be used, minimizing effects of spatial autocorrelation. The coarsest sampling interval that minimizes spatial dependence was about 22 m. The

  4. Appalachian Piedmont landscapes from the Permian to the Holocene (United States)

    Cleaves, E.T.


    Between the Potomac and Susquehanna Rivers and from the Blue Ridge to the Fall Zone, landscapes of the Piedmont are illustrated for times in the Holocene, Late Wisconsin, Early Miocene, Early Cretaceous, Late Triassic, and Permian. Landscape evolution took place in tectonic settings marked by major plate collisions (Permian), arching and rifting (Late Triassic) and development of the Atlantic passive margin by sea floor spreading (Early Cretaceous). Erosion proceeded concurrently with tectonic uplift and continued after cessation of major tectonic activity. Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf sediments record three major erosional periods: (1) Late Triassic-Early Jurassic; (2) Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous; and (3) Middle Miocene-Holocene. The Middle Miocene-Holocene pulse is related to neotectonic activity and major climatic fluctuations. In the Piedmont upland the Holocene landscape is interpreted as an upland surface of low relief undergoing dissection. Major rivers and streams are incised into a landscape on which the landforms show a delicate adjustment to rock lithologies. The Fall Zone has apparently evolved from a combination of warping, faulting, and differential erosion since Late Miocene. The periglacial environment of the Late Wisconsin (and earlier glacial epochs) resulted in increased physical erosion and reduced chemical weathering. Even with lowered saprolitization rates, geochemical modeling suggests that 80 m or more of saprolite may have formed since Late Miocene. This volume of saprolite suggests major erosion of upland surfaces and seemingly contradicts available field evidence. Greatly subdued relief characterized the Early Miocene time, near the end of a prolonged interval of tropical morphogenesis. The ancestral Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers occupied approximately their present locations. In Early Cretaceous time local relief may have been as much as 900 m, and a major axial river draining both the Piedmont and Appalachians flowed southeast

  5. Executive summary: Chapter A.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy needs over much of the last three centuries. Early records indicate that Appalachian coal was first mined in the middle 1700s (Virginia and Pennsylvania) and was used sparingly to fuel colonial settlements and, later, a fledgling industrial-based economy along the eastern seaboard of the United States (de Witt and Milici, 1989). In 2011, central Appalachian basin coal production accounted for approximately 77 percent of all U.S. metallurgical (or coking) coal and 29 percent of total U.S. production (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013). Following initial discoveries and commercial use in western New York (1821) and Ohio and West Virginia (mid-1830s), the Appalachian petroleum (oil and gas) industry began in earnest in 1859 with the discovery of oil at the Drake well in northwestern Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1989, the Appalachian basin produced more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) from more than 500,000 wells (de Witt and Milici, 1989). Although both oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  6. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  7. Effect of owersowing on yields and botanical composition of pasture sward

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    Martin Müller


    Full Text Available There are several metods of permanent pasture renovation. Different technologies were investigated on a pasture sward. Three seeders (Einböck seeder with the tine harrow, no-till Sulky disc seeder and SPP 8 strip seeder and two fertilization regimes (with no fertilization and with mineral fertilization N90P30K60 kg.ha−1 were used to determine optimum methods of establishment and the use of oversowed pasture swards. In the first year, renovated plots had a higher DM production than control plots. The pasture oversowing had no effect on herbage production in the second production year. The fertilization had no effect in the first production year with a higher clover content in the sward. The share of clovers was higher in plots oversown with the Einböck and Sulky seeders but only in the second and third cuts of the first production year and in the third cut of the second production year. The highest content of clovers was observed in the second and third cuts. There was a positive correlation between the clover content in DM yield and herbage DM production. The oversowing did not show any effect on the grass content in the pasture sward.

  8. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi. (United States)

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela


    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance.

  9. Decentralizing Governance of Agropastoral Systems in Kyrgyzstan: An Assessment of Recent Pasture Reforms

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    Jyldyz Shigaeva


    Full Text Available Agropastoral systems in Kyrgyzstan have undergone dramatic change in recent decades. In large part, change has resulted from the introduction of legislation that devolves authority and responsibility for the management of common-pool agropastoral resources to community-level pasture users associations. By applying Ostrom’s principles of common resource governance, this paper analyzes the institutions and norms that currently shape local management practices in rural areas of Naryn Province in Kyrgyzstan and the views of different actors on pasture governance, including points of disagreement. Our research and analysis reveal that the community-initiated and -owned systems of pasture governance that were expected to develop and mature under the new Pasture Law have not yet been entirely realized. Decentralization occurred without the participation or awareness of most local resource users. As a consequence, users are creating and reinforcing their own community-defined practices and internal rules, leaving official management plans largely ignored and unenforced. Resource users tend to perceive the government-sanctioned pasture users associations not as public or democratic organizations that represent their interests, but rather as agencies that aim primarily to control the use of resources, exclude some people from decision-making, or impose taxation. Sustainable management of pasturelands therefore may best be served when community perspectives are more suitably integrated—from the planning phase through to collaborative governance and implementation of locally agreed upon management options.

  10. Production and use of the pastures of the Colombia high Andean areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotero Cadavid, J.


    A relationship of the most common pastures is made in the Andean high area between the 2000 and 3000 m.s.n.m. and of their native vegetable associations, as well as of the invaders plants and overgrowths. The gramineae germoplasm and leguminous is indicated that has been proven lower those conditions. Data of yield average of dry matter are presented for native and introduced grasses of cold climate in Colombia. Equally it is indicated the daily earnings by animal, the load capacity and the animal production with different fertilization systems and some parameters of productivity are shown of gramineous and leguminous introduced in the high areas of Colombia. The nutritious value of gramineous and leguminous of cold climate and its chemical composition are made. A description is made of the ecological areas of the Andean high area and the pastures types that prevail in them. The factors are described that they impact in the degree of deterioration of the pastures like the environment, the same grass, the handling, the livestock, the type of exploitation, the holding of the earth and the administration. The agricultural production systems are mentioned that are associate the Andean pastures, as well as the main obstacles to increase the production of the systems and pastures and their possible solutions

  11. July 2011 Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order (United States)

    Memorandum: Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations Under the Clean Water Act, National Environmental Policy Act, and the Environmental Justice Executive Order, July 21, 2011

  12. Dynamics of Forage Production in Pasture-woodlands of the Swiss Jura Mountains under Projected Climate Change Scenarios

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    Konstantin S. Gavazov


    Full Text Available Silvopastoral systems of the Swiss Jura Mountains serve as a traditional source of forage and timber in the subalpine vegetation belt, but their vulnerability to land use and climate change puts their future sustainability at stake. We coupled experimental and modeling approaches to assess the impact of climate change on the pasture-woodland landscape. We drew conclusions on the resistance potential of wooded pastures with different management intensities by sampling along a canopy cover gradient. This gradient spanned from unwooded pastures associated with intensive farming to densely wooded pastures associated with extensive farming. Transplanted mesocosms of these ecosystems placed at warmer and drier conditions provided experimental evidence that climate change reduced herbaceous biomass production in unwooded pastures but had no effect in sparsely wooded pastures, and even stimulated productivity in densely wooded pastures. Through modeling these results with a spatially explicit model of wooded pastures (WoodPaM modified for the current application, results were extrapolated to the local landscape under two regionalized Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios for climate change. This led to the suggestion that within the Jura pasture-woodlands, forage production in the near future (2000-2050 AD would be affected disproportionately throughout the landscape. A stable forage supply in hot, dry years would be provided only by extensive and moderate farming, which allows the development of an insulating tree cover within grazed pastures. We conclude that such structural landscape diversity would grant wood-pastures with a buffering potential in the face of climate change in the forthcoming decades.

  13. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard


    recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude......The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... site variables explained 65-98% of the variation in densities of horn flies and sheep head flies observed between pastures. Highest densities of Hydrotaea irritans were primarily associated with permanent, low-lying, fairly sheltered grassland sites, whereas the density was low in temporary, dry, wind...

  14. Effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of dairy farms

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    Flávio de Moraes


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pasture irrigation on the technical and management indicators of 20 demonstrative units participating in the “Balde Cheio” Program in the state of Rio de Janeiro from January to December 2011. The following variables were obtained: dam/labor ratio, herd size/labor ratio, milk yield/labor ratio, animals/production area, percentage of lactating cows, and milk yield. Return was analyzed considering gross margin, net margin, outcome (profit or loss, and profitability. The data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 software. Pasture irrigation did not significantly alter the indicators studied. The greater profitability and return of farms using pasture irrigation were the consequence of better animal production rates/day and per ha/year. When gross margin, net margin and outcome using total revenue are considered, there is decapitalization of the farms. 

  15. Changes and continuity of wood-pastures in the lowland landscape in Czechia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forejt, Michal; Skalos, Jan; Pereponova, Anna


    and time. Despite the recent increase in the number of related studies, information on historic patterns of wood-pastures in many European locations, such as Czechia, remains incomplete. The goal of this study is to assess the habitat continuity of current wood-pastures and to analyse the land......-use/land-cover changes of historical and current wood-pastures in lowlands and warm landscapes of hills and basins of Czechia. To achieve this, nine sites covering a total area of 98.6 km2 were studied in Czechia. The situation on three time horizons (1820–1840s, the early 1950s and today) was analysed. The results have...

  16. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

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    Gunter Stacey A


    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  17. Soil organic carbon in riparian forests, rice fields, and pastures in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia.

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    Hernán Jair Andrade-Castañeda


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in the interface between riparian forests and a matrix of rice fields and pastures with organic management. The study took place in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia. Two plots in production (rice and pasture were selected and SOC was estimated in these areas and in the edge and the interior of adjacent riparian forests at a depth of 0 to 20 cm. Bulk density and SOC concentration were quantified between May and July, 2013. Potential change in SOC storage due to land use change among rice fields, pastures, and riparian forests was estimated. The interfaces rice field-riparian forest and pasture-riparian forest stored an average of 65.6 and 61.3 t C/ha, respectively, with no statistical differences (p>0.05. Statistical differences were not detected (p>0.05 between agricultural matrices (rice fields and pastures in any of the variables. The sampling position (matrix and the edge and interior of forests had a significant impact (p<0.05 just in bulk density: 1.7 vs 1.1 vs 1.0 g/cm3 in interior and edge of the riparian forests and the matrix, respectively. SOC was not statistically affected (p>0.05 by the position in the riparian forest-matrix interface. Conversion from riparian forests to rice fields or pastures with organic management is not emitting greenhouse gases, on the contrary, it is increasing SOC in 3.2 t C/ha. 

  18. Effect of spraying Arthrobotrys conoides conidia on pastures to control nematode infection in sheep

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    Margarete Kimie Falbo


    Full Text Available The effect of spraying pastures with conidia of the fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (GenBank ID: JN191309 for the biological control of gastrointestinal nematode infection-pressure in lambs was assessed. A 12,000-m2 area was divided into six 2,000-m2 fenced areas. Two groups were formed: the treatment group comprised three fenced areas, where conidia were sprayed on the pasture weekly at 7.5 x 104 conidia m-2; and the control group, also comprising three fenced areas, where conidia were not sprayed. The pastures included lopsided oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Five naturally infected lambs, were placed between July and September in each fenced area. The effectiveness of biological control was assessed between May and September 2009 by counting the number of third-stage larvae (L3 in each pasture. Additionally, the egg output of the sentinel animals was monitored by counting the number of gastrointestinal nematode eggs per gram of faeces (EPG and the average weight gain was measured. The negative impact on soil was assessed by counting the number of free-living nematodes and phytonematodes. The number of gastrointestinal nematode larvae in the treated pastures decreased. This was significant at two examination days (end August and end of September. At the end of the study, conidia treatment reduced gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture by 52.4% compared to the control group; this difference was statistically significant. Regarding the whole examination period the average reductions in EPG in treatment group was 49.1% compared to the control group. The most common genera of gastrointestinal nematodes were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus. Animal weight gain and soil nematode counts did not differ significantly.

  19. Plant Diversity in Live Fences and Pastures, Two Examples from the Mexican Humid Tropics (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerra, Betsabé; Rosas, Noé Velázquez; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos


    This study analyzes the potential uses of live fences and pastures as reservoirs of plant diversity for two regions with different management histories, Los Tuxtlas (LT) and Uxpanapa (UX), Veracruz, México. We studied two habitats, live fences and pastures, analyzed their species richness, diversity, structure and plant composition and classified species according to plant regeneration modes (light-demanding and shade tolerant), seed dispersal syndrome and their local uses. We recorded 62 species of trees at LT and 48 at UX. Live fences were more diverse than pastures in both regions. The LT site showed to analyze the relationship a higher diversity of plants in regeneration stages than the one at UX. However, UX had higher diversity of adult plants in the pastures than LT. Composition and structure of live fences were different between regions, as well as within live fences and pastures, 53 % of species were light-demanding and 40 % were shade tolerant; 70 % of the species were dispersed by birds. Differences between sites are associated with the modifications in live fences structure, which changed according to managerial practices and the use of local species; this may influence plant regeneration modes as well as the visits of avian dispersal agents. In LT, all species found in live fences were useful to humans, whereas in UX, less than half were used by the local population. Our results underline the importance of live fences and isolated trees in pasture habitats as potential sites to host native and useful species from tropical rain forests in livestock landscapes.

  20. Dynamical systems modelling of the interactions of animal stocking density and soil fertility in grazed pasture

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    B. S. Thorrold


    Full Text Available To examine the long-term effects of fertiliser application on pasture growth under grazing, a mathematical representation of the pasture ecosystem is created and analysed mathematically. From this the nutrient application level needed to maintain a given stocking rate can be determined, along with its profitability. Feasible stocking levels and fertiliser application rates are investigated and the optimal combination found, along with the sensitivity of this combination. It is shown that profitability is relatively insensitive to fertiliser level compared with stocking rate.

  1. Can Brazil nut plantations recover soil properties in former pasture lands?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro Bastos, Rodrigo; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Stupak, Inge


    Soils of livestock pastures are heavily degraded in the Amazon region compared to conditions immediately after deforestation. We hypothesized that incoming-generating Brazil nut plantations (Bertholletia excelsa) and natural succession secondary forests can recover soil properties of these lands....... To test this, we sampled two 200-cm soil pits in four vegetation types: pasture (PA), Brazil-nut plantation (BN), secondary forest (SF) and primary forest (PF). Soil samples were collected at nine fixed depths to measure bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and C...

  2. Rationally Managed Pastures Stock More Carbon than No-Tillage Fields

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    Hizumi L. S. Seó


    Full Text Available A significant share of Greenhouse Gases (GHG produced from agriculture comes from cattle farming. The reduction in GHG emissions from ruminants fed with grains has led some researchers to recommend such a diet as a means of mitigating emissions in the sector. A more accurate balance of emissions, however, must include the carbon (C stocked by feed crops. Within the grain production system, no-tillage (NT cultivation systems have a greater capacity to increase and store soil organic carbon (SOC. Within grazing management systems, the rotation used in Voisin's Rational Grazing (VRG allows the accumulation of SOC through root growth. The objective of this study was to assess the C stock of pasture under VRG and compare soil C stock between VRG pasture and fields under no-tillage management, in two seasons over a period of 1 year. The study included five dairy farms in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In each property, we collected soil to quantify SOC from VRG pasture and NT fields, in summer and winter. In the pasture, to determine the total stock, we also collected samples from the aerial parts of plants and the roots. Further, we estimated how efficient would be producing milk from those pastures or from those crops. The VRG pasture showed a greater capacity to stock C in the soil than the no-tillage fields (VRG = 115.0 Mg C ha−1; NT = 92.5 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00009, with the greatest difference at a depth of 0–10 cm (VRG = 41 Mg C ha−1; NT = 32 Mg C ha−1; p < 0.00008. In VRG, 95% of C was in the soil, 1% in the aerial part of plants, and 4% in the roots. On pasture was produced 0.15 kg of−1 of C stored, and on NT system 0.13 kg of−1 of C stored. In this study, we conclude that independent of season, the soil in well managed pastures had a greater stock of C, produced more milk and produced more−1 of stored C than fields under NT management. Therefore, when comparing GHG emissions of ruminants with different

  3. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe


    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  4. Transfer of iodine-131 from deposition-to-milk : estimation of pasture intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.


    In assessments of radiological transport of I-131 from fallout deposition to cow's milk, knowledge of the fraction of the dairy cow's diet that is due to fresh pasture is essential because it is the only portion of the feed that may be contaminated to a substantial extent. For studies involving past fallout events covering large geographic areas, such as the current effort by the National Cancer Institute to assess the exposure to I-131 received by the American people during the Nevada Test Site atmospheric weapons tests conducted during the 1950's, it is necessary to derive this estimate of pasture consumption from past records

  5. Grazing Adaptability of Beef Cattle on the Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum Purpureum Schumach) Pasture


    Ako, A


    Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on dwarf variety of late-heading type (DL) napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) pasture was examined in summer season at Miyazaki, Japan in 2005. Five paddocks of DL napiergrass pasture with an area 2500 m2, (500 m2, per paddock) were established since May 2002. Three heads of raising beef cows (Japanese-Black) were rotationally grazed in a week with 4-weeks rest period from June to October. Forage dry yield at pre- and post-grazing averaged 238.6 – ...

  6. The nutritional status of pregnant and non-pregnant mares grazing South East Queensland pastures. (United States)

    Gallagher, J R; McMeniman, N P


    It has been reported that the increasing nutritional demands from mid to late pregnancy of grazing mares may not be met when these stages of gestation coincide with pastures being affected by frost. It was established in this study that grass/legume pastures could support the nutritional requirements of brood mares by providing digestible energy intakes of 68.0 and 91.7 MJ/day and digestible nitrogen intake of 91.2 and 138 g/day during mid and late pregnancy, respectively.

  7. Contamination dynamics in fallouts, pasturable vegetation and milk in Leningrad distrist after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedbaevskaya, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Blinova, L.D.; Kryshev, I.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.


    Radiation monitoring of individual elements of agroecosystem in the area of the Leningrad NPP is carried out with the purpose of studying the concentration dynamics of radioisotopes in the atmosphere resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. The γ-radiation dose rate on the terrain, content and radionuclide composition of atmospheric fallout, content of γ-emitting isotopes in the soil and plants at pastures is monitored from April up to September 1986; radioisotope content in cow milk by pasturing is determined

  8. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms. (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R


    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received 30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat

  9. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  10. The role of rodents in the seed fate of a thorny shrub in an ancient wood pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Smit, C.


    Thorny shrubs play a crucial role for the diversity and dynamics in wood pastures: they protect non-defended plants from large herbivores and thus facilitate tree establishment in the landscape through associational resistance. How thorny shrubs themselves establish in wood pastures - the main

  11. From the Lab Bench: Do you manage pastures for maximum gain per animal or gain per acre? (United States)

    An article was written to discuss managing cattle pastures to maximize either weight gain or milk output per acre or per animal. There is no or little change in output per animal over a certain range of light stocking rates that allows pasture growth to be greater than forage intake, and increasing...

  12. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.


    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) is an important TPS identified in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Appalachian basin province (Milici and others, 2003). The TPS is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the primary source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. Upper Cambrian through Upper Silurian petroleum-bearing strata that constitute the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS thicken eastward from about 2,700 ft at the western margin of the Appalachian basin to about 12,000 ft at the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin. The Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS covers approximately 170,000 mi2 of the Appalachian basin from northeastern Tennessee to southeastern New York and from central Ohio to eastern West Virginia. The boundary of the TPS is defined by the following geologic features: (1) the northern boundary (from central Ontario to northeastern New York) extends along the outcrop limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone; (2) the northeastern boundary (from southeastern New York, through southeastern Pennsylvania-western Maryland-easternmost West Virginia, to northern Virginia) extends along the eastern limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (3) the southeastern boundary (from west-central and southwestern Virginia to eastern Tennessee) extends along the eastern limit of the Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (4) the southwestern boundary (from eastern Tennessee, through eastern Kentucky, to southwestern Ohio) extends along the approximate facies change from the Trenton Limestone with thin black shale interbeds (on the east) to the equivalent Lexington Limestone without black shale interbeds (on the west); (5) the northern part of the boundary in southwestern Ohio

  13. Temporally and spatially uniform rates of erosion in the southern Appalachian Great Smoky Mountains (United States)

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P. R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Caffee, M.


    We measured 10Be in fluvial sediment samples (n = 27) from eight Great Smoky Mountain drainages (1 330 km2). Results suggest spatially homogeneous sediment generation (on the 104 105 yr time scale and >100 km2 spatial scale) at 73 ± 11 t km-2 yr-1, equivalent to 27 ± 4 m/m.y. of bedrock erosion. This rate is consistent with rates derived from fission-track, long-term sediment budget, and sediment yield data, all of which indicate that the Great Smoky Mountains and the southern Appalachians eroded during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic at ˜30 m/m.y. In contrast, unroofing rates during the Paleozoic orogenic events that formed the Appalachian Mountains were higher (≥102 m/m.y.). Erosion rates decreased after termination of tectonically driven uplift, enabling the survival of this ancient mountain belt with its deep crustal root as an isostatically maintained feature in the contemporary landscape.

  14. Temporally and spatially uniform rates of erosion in the southern Appalachian Great Smoky Mountains (United States)

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Caffee, M.


    We measured 10Be in fluvial sediment samples (n = 27) from eight Great Smoky Mountain drainages (1-330 km2). Results suggest spatially homogeneous sediment generation (on the 104-105 yr time scale and > 100 km2 spatial scale) at 73 ?? 11 t km-2 yr-1, equivalent to 27 ?? 4 m/m.y. of bedrock erosion. This rate is consistent with rates derived from fission-track, long-term sediment budget, and sediment yield data, all of which indicate that the Great Smoky Mountains and the southern Appalachians eroded during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic at ???30 m/m.y. In contrast, unroofing rates during the Paleozoic orogenic events that formed the Appalachian Mountains were higher (???102 m/m.y.). Erosion rates decreased after termination of tectonically driven uplift, enabling the survival of this ancient mountain belt with its deep crustal root as an isostatically maintained feature in the contemporary landscape.

  15. Identifying Communication Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Appalachian Kentuckians. (United States)

    Bachman, Audrey Smith; Cohen, Elisia L; Collins, Tom; Hatcher, Jennifer; Crosby, Richard; Vanderpool, Robin C


    Utilizing data from 40 in-depth interviews, this article identifies both barriers and facilitators to colorectal screening guideline adherence among Appalachian Kentucky adults recruited through a community-based research network. Key findings identify (a) varying levels of knowledge about screening guidelines, (b) reticence to engage in screening processes, and (c) nuanced communication with healthcare providers and family members regarding screening adherence. What participants knew about the screening process was often derived from personal stories or recalled stories from family members about their screening experiences. Reticence to engage in screening processes reflected reports of cumbersome preparation, privacy issues, embarrassment, medical mistrust, fear of receiving a cancer diagnosis, and lack of symptoms. Participants cited many ways to enhance patient-centered communication, and the findings from this study have implications for health communication message design and communication strategies for healthcare practices in Appalachian Kentucky clinics.

  16. Enabling distributed electronic research data collection for a rural Appalachian tobacco cessation study. (United States)

    Borlawsky, Tara B; Lele, Omkar; Jensen, Daniel; Hood, Nancy E; Wewers, Mary Ellen


    Tobacco use is increasingly prevalent among vulnerable populations, such as people living in rural Appalachian communities. Owing to limited access to a reliable internet service in such settings, there is no widespread adoption of electronic data capture tools for conducting community-based research. By integrating the REDCap data collection application with a custom synchronization tool, the authors have enabled a workflow in which field research staff located throughout the Ohio Appalachian region can electronically collect and share research data. In addition to allowing the study data to be exchanged in near-real-time among the geographically distributed study staff and centralized study coordinator, the system architecture also ensures that the data are stored securely on encrypted laptops in the field and centrally behind the Ohio State University Medical Center enterprise firewall. The authors believe that this approach can be easily applied to other analogous study designs and settings.

  17. Cultural perceptions of healthy weight in rural Appalachian youth. (United States)

    Williams, K J; Taylor, C A; Wolf, K N; Lawson, R F; Crespo, R


    Rates of overweight among US children have been rising over the past three decades. Changes in lifestyle behaviors, including dietary and physical activity habits, have been examined thoroughly to identify correlates of weight status in children. Youth in rural US Appalachia are at a disproportionately greater risk for obesity and related health complications. Inadequate physical activity and poor dietary habits are two primary causes of obesity that have been noted in West Virginia adolescents. Few existing data describes the decisional balance in performing lifestyle behaviors, nor the perceptions of these youth regarding their beliefs about weight. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of a healthy weight in rural Appalachian adolescents. Ninth grade students were recruited from classroom presentations in four high schools throughout West Virginia. Interested parent-caregiver pairs returned forms to indicate interest in participation. Separate focus group interviews were conducted concurrently with adolescent and parents or caregivers to identify the cultural perceptions of a healthy weight. Questions were developed using grounded theory to explore how a healthy weight was defined, what factors dictate body weight, the perceived severity of the obesity issue, and the social or health ramifications of the condition. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify dominant themes, and content analysis provided text segments to describe the themes. This article describes the data obtained from the adolescent focus groups. When asked what defined a healthy weight, the adolescents who participated in the focus groups placed great value on physical appearance and social acceptability. Students believed there was a particular number, either an absolute weight or body mass index value that determined a healthy weight. These numbers were usually conveyed by a physician; however, there was also a general acceptance of being 'thick' or a reliance on

  18. Productivity and production efficiency of cows of different genetic groups submitted to cultivated pastures during pre or postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zambarda Vaz


    Full Text Available We assessed through the weight of cows and calves up to weaning at 90 days and the reproductive performance from pregnancy to weaning, the productivity and efficiency of 94 Charolais (CH, Nellore (NE, ½CH ½NE e ½NE ½CH cows submitted the following feeding systems: cows kept on native pasture (NP; cows kept on cultivated pasture (CP, composed of oat (Avena sativa, ryegrass (Lollium multiflorum and clover (Trifolium vesiculosum from July 15 to September 15 and the remainder of the trial on natural pasture (CPN; and cows kept on cultivated pasture during September 15 to November 15, and the remainder on native pasture (NPC. Cows kept on CP produced 22.6% more calves than cows kept exclusively on NP, and were more efficient (P.05, being higher than the purebreds in productivity and production efficiency

  19. Analysis of Ecosystem Service Supply, Trade-Offs and Soical-Ecological Interactions in European Wood-Pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario

    Wood-pastures are complex social-ecological systems that host multiple values and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. However, their current management in Europe is shifting from traditional towards more intensive farm models while wood-pasture surface is declining throughout the continent....... The thesis systematically reviews how the ecosystem service framework has been used to assess European wood-pastures and other agroforestry systems and the outcomes these assessments have achieved. Further, based on a specific wood-pasture dominated landscape in the Southwest of Spain, diverse biophysical...... and sociocultural approaches are employed to assess ecosystem service supply at the farm and landscape scales. All previous work is integrated into a cross-site social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services supply and trade-offs in four distinctive oak-based wood-pasture dominated landscapes across Europe...

  20. Effect of logging wounds on diameter growth of sawlog-size Appalachian hardwood crop trees (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    In previously thinned, even-aged Appalachian hardwood stands, 5-year diameter growth of 102 wounded and 102 unwounded codominant crop trees were compared. A wounded crop tre was defined as one with at least one exposed sapwood logging wound at least 100 inch2 in size. An unwounded crop tree of the same species and size was selected near each of the 102 wounded trees....

  1. Prescribed Burning For Laurel and Rhodendron Control in the Southern appalachians (United States)

    Ralph M. Hooper


    Prescribed fire shows promise as a tool for the control of laurel and rhododendron in the Southern Appalachian mountains. A recent prescribed fire killed the tops of 70 percent of ail laurel under 0.5 inch d.b.h. and 70 percent of the rhododendron under 1 inch d.b.h. Seventeen months after the bum, almost all of the top-killed laurel and rhododendron have...

  2. Constraints on seismic anisotropy beneath the Appalachian Mountains from Love-to-Rayleigh wave scattering (United States)

    Servali, A.; Long, M. D.; Benoit, M.


    The eastern margin of North America has been affected by a series of mountain building and rifting events that have likely shaped the deep structure of the lithosphere. Observations of seismic anisotropy can provide insight into lithospheric deformation associated with these past tectonic events, as well as into present-day patterns of mantle flow beneath the passive margin. Previous work on SKS splitting beneath eastern North America has revealed fast splitting directions parallel to the strike of the Appalachian orogen in the central and southern Appalachians. A major challenge to the interpretation of SKS splitting measurements, however, is the lack of vertical resolution; isolating anisotropic structures at different depths is therefore difficult. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves. In this study, we analyze the scattering of Love wave energy to Rayleigh waves, which is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the ray path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depend on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the angle between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. We analyze data collected by the dense MAGIC seismic array across the central Appalachians. We examine teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 and greater over a range of backazimuths, and isolate surface waves at periods between 100 and 500 seconds. We compare the data to synthetic seismograms generated by the Princeton Global ShakeMovie initiative to identify anomalous QL arrivals. We find evidence significant QL arrivals at MAGIC stations, with amplitudes depending on propagation azimuth and station location. Preliminary results are consistent with a sharp lateral gradient in seismic anisotropy across the Appalachian Mountains in the depth range between 100-200 km.

  3. Litter breakdown and invertebrate detritivores in a resource-depleted Appalachian stream (United States)

    Susan L. Eggert; J. Bruce Wallace


    We measured breakdown rates of leaves and small wood for the first three years in a stream in which detrital inputs were excluded for 7 years and in a reference stream located in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, USA. Leaf and wood inputs were excluded using a gill-net canopy constructed over a 170-m section of stream. We hypothesized that red maple (

  4. Depression, Smoking, and Ego-Centric Social Network Characteristics in Ohio Appalachian Women


    Lam, Jeffrey; Lu, Bo; Doogan, Nate; Thomson, Tiffany; Ferketich, Amy; Paskett, Electra D.; Wewers, Mary Ellen


    Depression is a serious, costly, and debilitating disorder that is understudied in rural women. Studies show that depression is associated with low social integration and support, but few studies investigate the relationship between depression and social network characteristics. This study examined the associations among women from three Ohio Appalachian counties enrolled in a health study, which aimed to collect information for a future social network smoking cessation intervention. An addre...

  5. Treatability of five Appalachian wood species with creosote and timbor® (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Slahor; Curt C. Hassler; Rodney C. DeGroot; Douglas J. Gardner


    The work described in this paper culminates an investigation into the treatability of five Appalachian hardwood species. Previous papers have described work using the waterborne preservatives CCA-C and ACQ-B. This paper details the results of pressure treatment with creosote and Timbor®. Six-inch long nominal two-by-four samples of red maple, yellow-poplar, red oak,...

  6. Site quality in Appalachian hardwoods: the biological and economic response under selection silviculture (United States)

    Orris D. McCauley; George R., Jr. Trimble


    The relative or percentage value response after 12 years of selective cutting practices on low- and high-quality sites in Appalachian hardwoods amounted to a 119-percent increase on the low-quality site and 145 percent on the high-quality site. The absolute value or actual dollar response, on the other hand, showed that the low-quality site increased in value only $76/...

  7. Smokeless tobacco marketing and sales practices in Appalachian Ohio following federal regulations. (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Kwan, Mei-Po; Kenda, Loren; Wewers, Mary Ellen


    Smokeless tobacco (ST) use is increasingly prevalent among poor and vulnerable groups, especially rural males. Access to tobacco products, as well as marketing messages, is associated with tobacco usage. In June 2010, the Tobacco Control Act (TCA) marked the beginning of federal regulation of the sale and marketing of tobacco products--including ST. The goal of this study was to describe marketing practices over time and to provide early assessment of the federal regulation in rural tobacco-licensed retail outlets. Observational data were collected from a sample of retail outlets within three Ohio Appalachian counties. From an estimated 300 retail establishments, a stratified random sample was drawn (n = 86). Trained observers surveyed the sales and marketing of tobacco products. Baseline surveys were conducted between November 2009 and May 2010 before the TCA; follow-up surveys were repeated in August 2010. Follow-up surveys were completed for 79 tobacco-licensed retail outlets. The majority of retail outlets were gas stations or convenience stores. Compared with baseline, there was a significant reduction in the frequency of exterior and interior advertisements observed after the TCA (p lack of change in the proportion of stores advertising ST, the number of ST brands being advertised doubled between baseline and follow-up. Initial compliance with certain elements of the federal restrictions appears to be high in Appalachian Ohio. The significant increase in ST brands advertised suggests that advertising remains a clear presence in retail outlets in Appalachian Ohio.

  8. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry. (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan


    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  9. A critical analysis of the higher Pennsylvanian megafloras of the Appalachian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H.; Lyons, P.C. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)


    Published records of Stephanian megafloras in eastern North America are critically reviewed and the results of personal investigations in the Appalachian region are reported. The analysis despite incomplete megafloral records, allows the conclusion that the succession in the Appalachian area hides a large stratigraphic gap, at the base of the Upper Pennsylvanian Series. This gap is in the same position and of similar magnitude to that below the Rotliegend of northwestern Europe. Analysis of the floral records in the Southern Anthracite field shows evidence of a similar gap. Megafloral data from the Narragansett basin are analysed, but are found insufficient for determining if there is a stratigraphic gap. Published data from the Maritime Provinces of Canada are used to suggest that the same pre-Rotliegend gap exists in this area. Recognition of this important regional unconformity in eastern North America, which is similar to that in the British Isles and throughout northwestern Europe, strengthens the view that the Appalachian region and the paralic coal belt of northwestern Europe constitute a single, major palaeogeographic area.

  10. Evolutionary history and population genetics of fraser fir and intermediate fir, southern Appalachian endemic conifers imperiled by an exotic pest and climate change (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; John Frampton; Sedley Josserand; C. Dana. Nelson


    Two Abies (true fir) taxa are endemic to high elevations of the Appalachian Mountains, where both are restricted to small populations and are imperiled by the same exotic insect. Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) exists in a handful of island-like populations on mountain ridges in the southern Appalachians of North Carolina, Tennessee and...

  11. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  12. Contribution of native pasture to the sensory properties of Ragusano cheese. (United States)

    Carpino, S; Horne, J; Melilli, C; Licitra, G; Barbano, D M; Van Soest, P J


    Ragusano is a Protected Denomination of Origin cheese produced in the Hyblean area of Sicily. Sixteen samples of Ragusano cheese from two different treatments [pasture and total mixed ration (TMR)] were evaluated after 4 and 7 mo of aging. The color of the cheeses produced from milk of cows consuming fresh native pasture plants was much more yellow than cheeses from TMR fed cows (i.e., higher Hunter b value). This was due to transfer of beta-carotene and related compounds from the diet and demonstrated that compounds from native pasture plants changed the sensory characteristics of Ragusano cheese. To avoid a "halo" effect in a trained panel, quantitative descriptive analysis sensory evaluation of these cheeses for odor, taste, consistency, and mouth structure, color differences among cheeses were masked. A unique approach in sensory analysis was developed using sunglasses with lenses designed to block light at the specific wavelengths at which panelists would detect differences in color among samples. Testing was conducted every 2-wk period (15-d increments) with two tests per week using 11 trained panelists. All the panelists tasted all the products. Panelists were able to detect significant differences in the sensory characteristics of cheeses produced from milk of cows consuming native pastures versus TMR even when the color difference was masked.

  13. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period




    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  14. Some views on the potential for legume-based pastures in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of South Africa for legume-based pastures is discussed in the light of available information. It is concluded that the potential is considerable and that most of this potential can be exploited by legume species available at present. With regard to suitable species, it is considered that temperates warrant most ...

  15. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures (United States)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...

  16. Growth curve of Nellore calves reared on natural pasture in the Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Santos


    Full Text Available Weight-age and hip height-age relations of Nellore calves, from birth to 10 months old were fitted using a logistic model including sex and year of birth as fixed effects. Calves and their dams were reared on natural pasture using continuous grazing system. The crude protein content and total digestible nutrients were analyzed for pasture selected by the animals. The weights of the calves were adjusted to 205 days and 365 days. There were no significant effects of sex and birth year on the growth curve parameters, but there were significant effects of sex on hip height. The average weight (a parameter at 10 months of age was 170 kg and the inflection point was observed at 93.5 days old. When weight-age and hip height-age curves were combined in the same graph, the intersection occurred at 142 days. The number of days to gain 160 kg from birth to 205 days of age (adjusted and number of days to gain 240 kg from 205 days to slaughter was different between the birth years, which were probably due to the quality of the natural pastures. It is necessary to implement nutritional management strategies such as high quality pasture and/or feeding supplementation for calves once they reach three months of age.

  17. Milk yield and quality of Aosta cattle breeds in Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bianchi


    Full Text Available Alpine breeding systems are an example of sustainable integration between land management and productive processes; the inherent forage exploitation has characterized and modified landscape and environment. Moreover, alpine pasture has increased its importance for the multifunctional features attributed in the recent years to mountain productive activities (Agabriel et al., 2001.

  18. Soil fertility management in pasture small-plot trials: potential pitfalls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-plot cutting trials are of particular importance in research relating to intensive pastures. Undetected changes in soil fertility during the course of experimentation may detract from the validity of results in trials of this kind. Information from field trials conducted in KwaZulu-Natal during the past two decades are used to ...

  19. Effect of grazing cycle on milk production of cows on kikuyu pasture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different rotational grazing cycle lengths on milk production, body weight, herbage intake, digestibility and grazing time was investigated. Pastures were stocked at two Friesian cows per ha and grazed for l, 2 or 4-day periods of 15, 30 or 60 days rotation cycles, respectively. Data were recorded during the ...

  20. Estimating grass fuel loads with a disc pasture meter in the Kruger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports the results of a study conducted to assess the efficiency of a new calibration procedure for the disc pasture meter, used for estimating the fuel load available for combustion during fires; The major portion of the fuel load in the savanna areas comprises surface fuels in the form of the standing grass sward. The disc ...

  1. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems (United States)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...




    Conversion of abandoned cattle pastures to secondary forests and plantations in the tropics has been proposed as a means to increase rates of carbon (C) sequestration from the atmosphere and enhance local biodiversity. We used a long-term tropical reforestation project (55–61 yr) to estimate rates of above- and belowground C sequestration and to investigate the impact...

  3. Mineral content in soil and pasture in bovine dairy herds of the Andean region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Rodrigo Balarezo Urresta


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize the mineral status of the soil and pasture in of the Andean Ecuadorian region, during the rainy and dry periods, three dairy farms were used as study cases investigated him three dairy farms of the El Carchi province. They determined the chemical indicators of the soil and the pasture, the descriptive statisticians were calculated themselves and it was used a multifactorial ANOVA to determine the main factors affecting them on them, comparing means with Bonferroni and Duncan test. The soil classified as acid lightly, 100 % of the samples presented elevated levels of organic matter, NH4+, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. The farm had a significant effect on the pH, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mg and P, and the climatic period on the organic matter, NH4+, S, Cu and P. Pasture presented deficiencies of Mg, Zn and Na, the other minerals were above the critical limits. The farm affected the Ca, P, Mg, Na and Mn, and the climatic period the levels of Ca, K, Cu y Zn. In conclusion, 100 % soil samples presented high OM, slight acidity, low levels of Ca and high concentrations of NH4+, S, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn. In pastures, there were diagnosed deficiencies of P, Cu and Zn, and their concentrations differed among farms and the two climatic periods of the year.

  4. Projecting land use changes in the Neotropics: the geography of pasture expansion into forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.; Gerber, P.; Verburg, P.H.; Rosales, M.; Ibrahim, M.; Steinfeld, H.


    In tropical Latin America, pasture land for extensive grazing continues to expand, mostly at the expense of forest cover. Until now, scientists and policy makers tackling this issue had no geographically exhaustive information at the continental level about the spatial dynamics of this process. On

  5. The impact of coffee and pasture agriculture on predatory and omnivorous leaf-litter ants. (United States)

    Dias, Nivia da Silva; Zanetti, Ronald; Santos, Mônica Silva; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Broglio, Sônia Maria Forti; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles


    Ants are known to function as reliable biological indicators for habitat impact assessment. They play a wide range of ecological roles depending on their feeding and nesting habits. By clustering ants in guilds, it is possible both to assess how agriculture and forest fragmentation can disturb ant communities and to predict the ecological impacts due to losses of a specific guild. This study aimed at determining the impact of non-shaded coffee and pasture agriculture on predatory and omnivorous guilds of leaf-litter ants of Atlantic Forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Both coffee and pasture agriculture influenced leaf-litter ant community, although coffee was more disruptive than pasture. Coffee agriculture not only disturbed the diversity of predatory ants, but also negatively affected the number of predatory and omnivorous ants when compared to forest fragments. In contrast, pasture agriculture only disrupted the abundance of predatory ants. Fragment edges skirting crops were negatively affected in terms of leaf-litter ant abundance, but not diversity. Cluster analysis showed that forest fragments were similar irrespective of the cultivation, but the borders were similar to the crop. The study assessed agriculture impact by surveying ant guilds, and revealed that the predatory guild is more susceptible than omnivorous ants.

  6. Pasture-Based Swine Management: Behaviour and Performances of Growing-Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Fortina


    Full Text Available A pasture-based swine management (PBSM trial was conducted in Piemonte (N-W Italy to study the performances and the carcass yield of 16 hybrid pigs (8 castrated males and 8 females; average initial weight: 90 kg. Animals were allowed to forage pea, clover, beet and alfalfa pastures for 170 days in a crop-pasture rotation on different paddocks. A concentrate was fed to supply 50% of estimated energy requirements. Forage dry matter intake (DMI ranged from 0.32 kg/day (alfalfa to 2.85 kg/day (pea, depending on the period and forage type. Pigs were weighted every 30 days and at slaughtering; average daily gain (ADG was 0.29 kg. The stocking rate (SR ranged from 109 kg/ha LW (clover to 2347 kg/ha LW (pea. Data collected at slaughtering (average final weight: 141 kg were: hot carcass weight and yield, lean and fat cuts weight, backfat thickness, pH45 and pH24. The statistical analysis (ANOVA of SPSS did not show differences between males and females. Results showed that PBSM should be especially appealing to limited-resource farmers due to low inputs needed; pasture can be used to replace 50% of the nutritional needs, helping to save on grain costs, without affecting carcass characteristics.

  7. Ammonia emissions from urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil (United States)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.


    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, deriving mainly from livestock urine and manures, but fertilizer applications to pastures and crops also represent an important source. In Chile, where agriculture and cattle production are important activities (accounting for 4.5% of GDP along with the forestry sector), there are very few published data regarding NH3 emissions from pasture and crop fertilization. This study aimed to provide the first empirical field data for Chile on N losses due to NH3 volatilization following urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil and to assess the influence of environmental conditions on emissions. Four field experiments were carried out on a volcanic acid soil using the micrometeorological integrated horizontal flux (IHF) mass balance method. Measurements were made in winter 2005 and 2007, and spring 2007 and 2008 following urea N fertilization to a permanent pasture at a rate equivalent to 100 kg N ha-1. Cumulative NH3 emissions over the measurement period were 1.4 and 7.7 kg N ha-1 for winter applications, and 12.2 and 26.7 kg N ha-1 for spring dressings. These N losses due to NH3 volatilization are within the range of emissions reported elsewhere. Consideration of urea application timing in Chile, with regards to weather and soil conditions, could have important consequences on minimising potential N losses via volatilization with associated financial benefits to farmers.

  8. The carbon footprint of pasture-based milk production: can white clover make a difference? (United States)

    Yan, M-J; Humphreys, J; Holden, N M


    Carbon footprint (CF) calculated by life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare greenhouse gas emissions from pasture-based milk production relying mainly on (1) fertilizer N (FN), or (2) white clover (WC). Data were sourced from studies conducted at Solohead Research Farm in Ireland between 2001 and 2006. Ten FN pastures stocked between 2.0 and 2.5 livestock units (LU)/ha with fertilizer N input between 180 and 353 kg/ha were compared with 6 WC pastures stocked between 1.75 and 2.2 LU/ha with fertilizer N input between 80 and 99 kg/ha. The WC-based system had 11 to 23% lower CF compared with FN (average CF was 0.86 to 0.87 and 0.97 to 1.13 kg of CO(2)-eq/kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively, 91% economic allocation). Emissions of both N(2)O and CO(2) were lower in WC, whereas emissions of CH(4) (per kg of energy-corrected milk) were similar in both systems. Ratio sensitivity analysis indicated that the difference was not caused by error due to modeling assumptions. Replacing fertilizer N by biological nitrogen fixation could lower the CF of pasture-based milk production. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures (United States)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  10. Steer and tall fescue pasture responses to grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression (United States)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  11. Challenges and opportunities in harnessing soil disease suppressiveness for sustainable pasture production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignam, B.E.A.; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Condron, L.M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Wakelin, S.A.


    Grasslands are an important source of biodiversity, providing a range of essential ecosystem services such as ensuring water quality and soil carbon storage. An increasing proportion of grasslands are used for pastoral agriculture, supporting production of domestic livestock. Pasture productivity is

  12. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  13. Productivity and nutritive quality of three brassica varieties for use in pasture-based systems (United States)

    Brassicas are gaining popularity among pasture-based livestock producers to extend grazing during the ‘summer slump’ and throughout the fall. A 2-yr study was conducted to compare biomass production and nutrient composition of ‘Barisca’ rapeseed (RAP; Brassica napus L.), ‘Inspiration’ canola (CAN; B...

  14. Empirical Models to Quantify the Nutritive Value of Annual Pastures in South-West Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Gherardi, S.G.; Wood, D.A.


    The objective of this paper is to quantify the magnitude of the major sources of variation, which affect in vitro digestibility (DMD) and concentrations of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), and crude protein (CP) of annual pastures in Mediterranean-type climate zones. Four

  15. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture l. Suckling behaviour lona B. Stewart. and B.P. Louw. Department of Agricultural Development: Natal Region, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg,. 3200 Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science and Poultry Science, University ol Natal, ...

  16. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan


    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  17. Varying pasture growth and commodity prices change the value of traits in sheep breeding objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, P.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Breeding programs for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system. Economic weights are commonly based on average conditions. In pasture based livestock production systems the cost of feed is an important profit driver, but

  18. Phosphorus, iron, and aluminum losses in runoff from a rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia, USA (United States)

    Pastures can be a source of phosphorus (P) contributing to eutrophication and impairment of water resources. Phosphorus is tightly held in soils that are highly weathered, acidic, and with high iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) content like the Ultisols of southeastern USA. We used 11-yr (1999-2009) of da...

  19. Pasture problems in South Africa | W | African Journal of Range and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grassland problems in South Africa are reviewed and the suggestion made that a Pasture Research Institute should be established forthwith to serve South Africa. An holistic approach is needed whereby plant, soil and animal influences are studied as controllable parts of the environment. The importance of a legume ...

  20. Effect of drainage on CO2 exchange patterns in an intensively managed peat pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, B.O.M.; Hensen, A.; Goudriaan, J.


    Eddy correlation measurements of CO2 exchange were made in intensively managed peat pastures at 2 different groundwater tables during most of a growing season. F was separated into a respiratory and an assimilatory CO2 flux. The fit of the Arrhenius temperature response to Fr showed that Fr was

  1. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.


    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  2. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Thompson, A.N.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as

  3. Legumes as suppliers of nitrogen to pasture. | B.W. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen losses ranging between 0, 16 and 0, 26 kg/ha/day may occur direct from the soil of grazed legume pastures while removal of animal products from the system represents a major loss of N from the system in the form of protein. On a global basis it has been estimated that annully 200 million tons of N are fixed ...


    Xiaoming Zou; Grizelle Gonzalez


    Plant community succession alters the quantity and chemistry of organic inputs to soils. These differences in organic input may trigger changes in soil fertility and fauna1 activity. We examined earthworm density and community structure along a successional sequence of plant communities in abandoned tropical pastures in Puerto Rico. The chronological sequence of these...

  5. Least limiting water range of Udox soil under degraded pastures on different sun-exposed faces (United States)

    Passos, Renato Ribeiro; Marciano da Costa, Liovando; Rodrigues de Assis, Igor; Santos, Danilo Andrade; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto; Guimarães, Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata; Andrade, Felipe Vaz


    The efficient use of water is increasingly important and proper soil management, within the specificities of each region of the country, allows achieving greater efficiency. The South and Caparaó regions of Espírito Santo, Brazil are characterized by relief of `hill seas' with differences in the degree of pasture degradation due to sun exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the least limiting water range in Udox soil under degraded pastures with two faces of exposure to the sun and three pedoenvironments. In each pedoenvironment, namely Alegre, Celina, and Café, two areas were selected, one with exposure on the North/West face and the other on the South/East face. In each of these areas, undisturbed soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth to determine the least limiting water range. The exposed face of the pasture that received the highest solar incidence (North/West) presented the lowest values in least limiting water range. The least limiting water range proved to be a physical quality indicator for Udox soil under degraded pastures.

  6. Intake and ingestive behavior of goats on marandu-grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernando de Oliveira Macedo


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Marandu-grass (Brachiaria brizantha pasture height (30, 40, 50 and 60 cm on the canopy structural traits and grazing behavior and forageingestion process by goats. Six goats were used to evaluate behavior during grazing, and four were used to evaluate the ingestion process - all goats were Anglo-Nubian. The adopted experimental design was completely randomized, with two replicates in space and two replicates in time. Increase in the canopy height resulted in an increase in the masses of forage, leaves, stem, and dead material and tiller density, and reduction in leaf/stem ratio. Grazing time increased and idle time reduced as the canopy height was elevated. The correlation between canopy height and bite depth was positive and linear (r = 0.99. The mass of consumed forage, the intake rate, and the bite mass were higher at 60 cm. The correlation between pasture height and bite rate was negative, whereas the correlation between pasture height and the time per bite was positive. On Marandu-grass pastures, the greatest efficiency in forage harvesting by goats occurs at a canopy height of 60 cm.

  7. The value of subtropical grass pastures for use as foggage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Cynodon sp. proved to be a relatively poor foggage species, it provided for the maintenance of livemass. Longer rest periods in the growing season increased the available pasture, grazing capacity and livestock production ha -1, but increased the probability of poorer livestock performance. This is probably linked ...

  8. The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barona, Elizabeth; Ramankutty, Navin; Coomes, Oliver T; Hyman, Glenn


    The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are complex. A growing debate considers the extent to which deforestation is a result of the expansion of the Brazilian soy industry. Most recent analyses suggest that deforestation is driven by the expansion of cattle ranching, rather than soy. Soy seems to be replacing previously deforested land and/or land previously under pasture. In this study, we use municipality-level statistics on agricultural and deforested areas across the Legal Amazon from 2000 to 2006 to examine the spatial patterns and statistical relationships between deforestation and changes in pasture and soybean areas. Our results support previous studies that showed that deforestation is predominantly a result of pasture expansion. However, we also find support for the hypothesis that an increase of soy in Mato Grosso has displaced pasture further north, leading to deforestation elsewhere. Although not conclusive, our findings suggest that the debate surrounding the drivers of Amazon deforestation is not over, and that indirect causal links between soy and deforestation may exist that need further exploration. Future research should examine more closely how interlinkages between land area, prices, and policies influence the relationship between soy and deforestation, in order to make a conclusive case for 'displacement deforestation'.

  9. Carbon sequestration potential of grazed pasture depends on prior management history (United States)

    Grazed pastures are often assumed to be net sinks for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus, are promoted as a management practice that can help mitigate climate change. The ability to serve as a C sink is especially pronounced following a history of tillage and row crop production. I...

  10. Yield and soil carbon sequestration in grazed pastures sown with two or five forage species (United States)

    Increasing plant species richness is often associated with an increase in productivity and associated ecosystem services such as soil C sequestration. In this paper we report on a nine-year experiment to evaluate the relative forage production and C sequestration potential of grazed pastures sown to...

  11. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  12. Northern long-eared bat day-roosting and prescribed fire in the central Appalachians (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Silvis, Alexander; Johnson, Joshua B.; Edwards, John W.; Karp, Milu


    The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis Trovessart) is a cavity-roosting species that forages in cluttered upland and riparian forests throughout the oak-dominated Appalachian and Central Hardwoods regions. Common prior to white-nose syndrome, the population of this bat species has declined to functional extirpation in some regions in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, including portions of the central Appalachians. Our long-term research in the central Appalachians has shown that maternity colonies of this species form non-random assorting networks in patches of suitable trees that result from long- and short-term forest disturbance processes, and that roost loss can occur with these disturbances. Following two consecutive prescribed burns on the Fernow Experimental Forest in the central Appalachians, West Virginia, USA, in 2007 to 2008, post-fire counts of suitable black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.; the most selected species for roosting) slightly decreased by 2012. Conversely, post-fire numbers of suitable maple (Acer spp. L.), primarily red maple (Acer rubrum L.), increased by a factor of three, thereby ameliorating black locust reduction. Maternity colony network metrics such as roost degree (use) and network density for two networks in the burned compartment were similar to the single network observed in unburned forest. However, roost clustering and degree of roost centralization was greater for the networks in the burned forest area. Accordingly, the short-term effects of prescribed fire are slightly or moderately positive in impact to day-roost habitat for the northern long-eared bat in the central Appalachians from a social dynamic perspective. Listing of northern long-eared bats as federally threatened will bring increased scrutiny of immediate fire impacts from direct take as well as indirect impacts from long-term changes to roosting and foraging habitat in stands being returned to historic fire-return conditions. Unfortunately, definitive

  13. North America as an exotic terrane'' and the origin of the Appalachian--Andean Mountain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalziel, I.W.D; Gahagan, L.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Geophysics); Dalla Salda, L.H. (Univ. Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Investigaciones Geologicas)


    North America was sutured to Gondwana in the terminal Alleghanian event of Appalachian orogenesis, thus completing the late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The suggestion that the Pacific margins of East Antarctica-Australia and Laurentia may have been juxtaposed during the Neoproterozoic prompts reevaluation of the widely held assumptions that the ancestral Appalachian margin rifted from northwestern Africa during the earliest Paleozoic opening of Iapetus, and remained juxtaposed to that margin, even though widely separated from it at times, until the assembly of Pangea. The lower Paleozoic carbonate platform of northwestern Argentina has been known for a long time to contain Olenellid trilobites of the Pacific or Columbian realm. Although normally regarded as some kind of far-travelled terrane that originated along the Appalachian margin of Laurentia, it has recently been interpreted as a fragment detached from the Ouachita embayment of Laurentia following Taconic-Famatinian collision with Gondwana during the Ordovician. The Oaxaca terrane of Mexico, on the other hand, contains a Tremadocian trilobite fauna of Argentine-Bolivian affinities, and appears to have been detached from Gondwana following the same collision. The Wilson cycle'' of Iapetus ocean basin opening and closing along the Appalachian and Andean orogens may have involved more than one such continental collision during clockwise drift of Laurentia around South America following late Neoproterozoic to earliest Cambrian separation. Together with the collisions of baltic and smaller terranes with Laurentia, this could explain the protracted Paleozoic orogenic history of both the Appalachian and proto-Andean orogens.

  14. Water and nitrogen in crop and pasture systems in southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.F.; Peoples, M.B.; Herwaarden, A.F. van


    Recent research on water and N for dryland crops in southern Australia has addressed the need for more efficient and sustainable production. Water-use efficiency is well below the potential and N-use efficiency well below optimum on farms. Excess water and N cause on-site and off-site environmental damage. The most effective means of illustrating these inefficiencies to growers is to present simple benchmarks of water and N-use efficiencies with which farmers can assess and improve the performance of their own crops. The practices shown by our recent research that best support the goals of more efficient and sustainable production are those that maximize extraction of soil water and mineral N, and increase biological N 2 fixation. Wheat growing after a brassica break-crop extract more water and mineral N from the soil than when grown as a continuous cereal, apparently because of a 'biofumigation' effect that reduces the numbers of soil-borne pathogens of wheat and produces a stronger root system. In the case of phased pasture-crop systems, annual pastures do not fully extract subsoil water or mineral N. However, when the grasses are removed from annual pastures with a selective herbicide, the remaining pure clover rapidly decomposes after maturity, leaving a large amount of mineral N for the following crop. Perennial pastures containing lucerne produce more forage and fix more N 2 than do annual pastures, but they dry the soil profile. After removal of the lucerne, the soil may be so dry that mineralization is slow, with the risk of water deficit for the subsequent crop. (author)

  15. Distribution and Population Dynamics of Nematodes in a Rice Field and Pasture in India (United States)

    Mishra, C. C.; Dash, M. C.


    Ecological studies on soil nematodes were made in a tropical rice field and pasture. Parasitic species were more diversified in the pasture than in the rice field. Eighty-six and sixty percent of total nematodes occurred in the top 10 cm in rice field and pasture, respectively. Nematodes were not randomly or uniformly dispersed but aggregated. Parasitic forms were most abundant and correlated with root biomass in the 0-15-cm soil layer, the greatest number usually occurring at the 10-15-cm depth at both sites. In summer, however, they were densest at the 15-30-cm depth. Microbivores were most frequent in the top 5 cm of both sites. Micellaneous feeders (food sources uncertain) usually occurred in highest densities at the 15-30-cm depth. Predators showed no distinct depth preference. Temperature and moisture of the soil apparently played an important role in regulating nematode population. Peak densities of 31.3 × 10⁴/m² and 21.6 × 10⁴/m² at a 30-cm depth occurred in January, while minimum densities of 5.0-5.3 × 10⁴/m² and 4.1 × 10⁴/m² occurred in July-October and April in rice field and pasture, respectively. Monthly mean biomass of nematodes was 23.8 ± 4.5 mg/m² in rice field and 11.5 ± 1.5 mg/m² in pasture. PMID:19300801

  16. Quantification of dead vegetation fraction in mixed pastures using AisaFENIX imaging spectroscopy data (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, I. J.


    New Zealand farming relies heavily on grazed pasture for feeding livestock; therefore it is important to provide high quality palatable grass in order to maintain profitable and sustainable grassland management. The presence of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) such as dead vegetation in pastures severely limits the quality and productivity of pastures. Quantifying the fraction of dead vegetation in mixed pastures is a great challenge even with remote sensing approaches. In this study, a high spatial resolution with pixel resolution of 1 m and spectral resolution of 3.5-5.6 nm imaging spectroscopy data from AisaFENIX (380-2500 nm) was used to assess the fraction of dead vegetation component in mixed pastures on a hill country farm in New Zealand. We used different methods to retrieve dead vegetation fraction from the spectra; narrow band vegetation indices, full spectrum based partial least squares (PLS) regression and feature selection based PLS regression. Among all approaches, feature selection based PLS model exhibited better performance in terms of prediction accuracy (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 6.05, RPDCV = 2.25). The results were consistent with validation data, and also performed well on the external test data (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 8.06, RPD = 2.06). In addition, statistical tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of topographical variables such as slope and aspect on the accumulation of the dead vegetation fraction. Steep slopes (>25°) had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher amount of dead vegetation. In contrast, aspect showed non-significant impact on dead vegetation accumulation. The results from the study indicate that AisaFENIX imaging spectroscopy data could be a useful tool for mapping the dead vegetation fraction accurately.

  17. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  18. Detecting Dewatering of Peatland Pastures Using Sentinel-1 Satellite Radar Interferometry. (United States)

    Heuff, F.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; van Leijen, F. J.; Hanssen, R. F.


    The Netherlands are famous for their polders and the draining of soils to be used as pastures. Around 30% of the pastures are situated on peat soils, mostly in the western part of the Netherlands. Peat is composed of organic materials that oxidize and emit greenhouse gases when exposed to air. Oxidation of peat soils results in volume reduction and subsequent subsidence. As a result, the groundwater level rises relative to the surface. Consequently, the soil needs to be dewatered to keep it sufficiently dry for farming, resulting in more oxidation, and therefore more subsidence. This process is bound to continue until the peat soils have disappeared completely. The societal cost of land subsidence due to peat soils are estimated to be 5200 million euro for urban areas and 200 million euro for peatland pastures, for a period until 2050. Measuring the subsidence is not straightforward, if not impossible, with conventional geodetic means as soft soils make it impossible to install fixed benchmarks for repeated surveying. Also, due to the very fast temporal decorrelation over pastures, conventional InSAR approaches cannot measure a signal due to loss of coherence. Here we deploy a complete set of available SAR data from Sentinel-1, Radarsat-2 and TerraSAR-X to estimate the spatio-temporally varying subsidence signal due to the dewatering of peatland pastures over the western part of the Netherlands. We compute the InSAR coherence matrix for all possible interferometric combination, and compute an equivalent single-master stack to estimate the subsidence. Using terrain and land-use defined coherence estimation areas we optimize the phase estimation over areas severely affected by temporal decorrelation. This leads to a first estimate of deformation signals correlated with ancient shallow soil structures due to fluviatile structures. We use the methodology to investigate the effect of advanced local drainage schemes to slow down the subsidence phenomena.

  19. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  20. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  1. Analysis of evapotranspiration and biomass in pastures with degradation indicatives in the Upper Tocantins River Basin, in Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to apply the Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving (SAFER with MODIS images together with meteorological data to analyze evapotranspiration (ET and biomass production (BIO according to indicative classes of pasture degradation in Upper Tocantins River Basin. Indicative classes of degraded pastures were obtained from the NDVI time-series (2002-2012. To estimate ET and BIO in each class, MODIS images and data from meteorological stations of the year 2012 were used. The results show that compared to not-degraded pastures, ET and BIO were different in pastures with moderate to strong degradation, mainly during water stress period. Therefore, changes in energy balance partition may occur according to the degradation levels, considering that those indicatives of degradation processes were identified in 24% of the planted pasture areas. In this context, ET and BIO estimates using remote sensing techniques can be a reliable indicator of forage availability, and large-scale aspects related to the degradation of pastures. It is expected that this knowledge may contribute to initiatives of public policies aimed at controlling the loss of production potential of pasture areas in the Upper Tocantins River Basin in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

  2. Hypoglycin A concentrations in seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus trees growing on atypical myopathy-affected and control pastures. (United States)

    Unger, L; Nicholson, A; Jewitt, E M; Gerber, V; Hegeman, A; Sweetman, L; Valberg, S


    Hypoglycin A, found in seeds of Acer negundo, appears to cause seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM) in North America and is implicated in atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe. Acer negundo is uncommon in Europe. Thus, the potential source of hypoglycin A in Europe is unknown. We hypothesized that seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus were the source of hypoglycin A in Europe. Our objective was to determine the concentration of hypoglycin A in seeds of A. pseudoplatanus trees located in pastures where previous cases of AM had occurred. None. University of Berne records were searched to retrospectively identify 6 farms with 10 AM cases and 11 suspected AM deaths between 2007 and 2011. During October 2012, A. pseudoplatanus seeds were collected from 2 to 6 trees per pasture on 6 AM farms (7 pastures) from trees in or close to 2 pastures on 2 control farms where AM had not been previously reported. Hypoglycin A in seeds was analyzed by GC-MS. Acer pseudoplatanus trees were identified on all AM pastures. Hypoglycin A was detected in all A. pseudoplatanus seeds in highly variable concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 2.81 μg/mg (mean 0.69) on AM farms and 0.10 to 9.12 μg/mg (mean 1.59) on control farms. Preventing horses from grazing pastures containing A. pseudoplatanus seeds during late fall and early spring might be the best means to prevent AM. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Comparative measurements and seasonal variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest and pasture in South West Amazonia (United States)

    von Randow, C.; Manzi, A. O.; Kruijt, B.; de Oliveira, P. J.; Zanchi, F. B.; Silva, R. L.; Hodnett, M. G.; Gash, J. H. C.; Elbers, J. A.; Waterloo, M. J.; Cardoso, F. L.; Kabat, P.

    Comparative measurements of radiation flux components and turbulent fluxes of energy and CO2 are made at two sites in South West Amazonia: one in a tropical forest reserve and one in a pasture. The data were collected from February 1999 to September 2002, as part of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). During the dry seasons, although precipitation and specific humidity are greatly reduced, the soil moisture storage profiles down to 3.4m indicate that the forest vegetation continues to withdraw water from deep layers in the soil. For this reason, seasonal changes observed in the energy partition and CO2 fluxes in the forest are small, compared to the large reductions in evaporation and photosynthesis observed in the pasture. For the radiation balance, the reflected short wave radiation increases by about 55% when changing from forest to pasture. Combined with an increase of 4.7% in long wave radiation loss, this causes an average reduction of 13.3% in net radiation in the pasture, compared to the forest. In the wet season, the evaporative fraction (λE/Rn) at the pasture is 17% lower than at the forest. This difference increases to 24% during the dry season. Daytime CO2 fluxes are 20-28% lower (in absolute values) in the pasture compared to the forest. The night-time respiration in the pasture is also reduced compared to the forest, with averages 44% and 57% lower in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. As the reduction in the nocturnal respiration is larger than the reduction in the daytime uptake, the combined effect is a 19-67% higher daily uptake of CO2 in the pasture, compared to the forest. This high uptake of CO2 in the pasture site is not surprising, since the growth of the vegetation is constantly renewed, as the cattle remove the biomass.



    Cividini, Angela; Simčič, Mojca


    The fatty acid profile in the milk of Bovec sheep fed total mixed ratio (TMR) and grazed natural pastures in the lowland (480 m altitude) supplemented with the second harvest (L) as well as grazed different altitude mountain pastures; M1 (1100- 1300 m altitude), M2 (1600-1700 m altitude), M3 (1800 m altitude), M4 (1900 m altitude), M5 (2200 m altitude) were determined. There was an important effect when ewes were turned from the stable to the pasture on all fatty acids. The percentage of α-li...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Health Care Needs among Children with Special Health Care Needs in Ohio's Metropolitan and Appalachian Counties. (United States)

    Earley, Elizabeth; Asti, Lindsey; Chisolm, Deena


    The study assessed whether children with special health care needs (CSHCN) living in Appalachian Ohio have differential health care utilization, unmet needs, and health outcomes compared with CSHCN in Ohio's metropolitan counties using a statewide Ohio survey. Based on this survey, an estimated 28% of children in Appalachian Ohio counties have special health care needs compared with 25% of children in metropolitan counties. In Appalachia, CSHCN are poorer and more likely to have Medicaid than their metropolitan counterparts, but had no reported significant differences in health outcomes or unmet needs. Data suggested a trend toward higher use of emergency department care and inpatient services and lower use of well-child visits but these differences did not reach significance. We conclude that CSHCN in Appalachian and metropolitan areas face similar levels of health status and unmet needs but results suggest a need for additional research on access to primary care services.

  6. Pasture degradation in Tibet: Drivers, mechanisms and consequences for C stocks and ecosystem stability (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Schleuss, Per-Marten; Guggenberger, Georg; Miehe, Georg; Coners, Heinz; Foken, Thomas; Wesche, Karsten; Hafner, Silke; Biermann, Tobias; Babel, Wolfgang; Gerken, Tobias; Unteregelsbacher, Sebastian; Seeber, Elke; Spielvogel, Sandra; Ingrisch, Johannes; Li, Xiaogang; Yue, Sun; Li, Qianru; Xu, Xingliang


    Kobresia grasslands on Tibetan Plateau have accumulated tremendous organic carbon (C) stocks, are an important grazing ground for local herdsmen, host a major portion of the regional terrestrial biodiversity, and supply large areas of SE Asia with water. All these ecosystem functions are threatened by large-scale soil degradation on the Tibetan Plateau. Nonetheless, the patterns and mechanisms of Kobresia pasture degradation, visible across the entire Tibetan Plateau, remain unknown. In the K. pygmaea core area, we studied natural and anthropogenic drivers of pasture degradation to discover new mechanisms and associated processes of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss. We show that livestock overgrazing and trampling in recent decades have triggered grassland degradation by initiating plant death and reducing grassland recovery. Combined with the harsh climate, this destroys the protective Kobresia turf. Considering these processes as well as other anthropogenic and natural drivers, a novel pasture degradation concept was developed. Pasture soils corresponding to the fiwe degradation stages were sampled and analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil drought and frost lead to polygonal cracking of the Kobresia turf, already weakened by overgrazing. This induces gradual erosion by wind and water, extends the cracks and removes the upper carbon-enriched soil. Erosion-derived SOC losses amount to 5 kg C m-2 and are aggravated by decreasing root C input and increased SOC mineralization (both ca. 2.5 kg C m-2). Mineralization-derived SOC loss was reflected by a negative δ13C shift of SOC going from intact to severely degraded stages, and was caused by a relative enrichment of 13C-depleted lignin. In sum, degradation has released tremendous amounts of carbon back into the atmosphere as CO2, or as increased sediment load in rivers, connected with declining water quality off-site. Affected by changed local water budget, the regional clouds' formation starts

  7. Arsenic distribution in a pasture area impacted by past mining activities. (United States)

    Abad-Valle, P; Álvarez-Ayuso, E; Murciego, A; Muñoz-Centeno, L M; Alonso-Rojo, P; Villar-Alonso, P


    Former mine exploitations entail a serious threat to surrounding ecosystems as after closure of mining activities their unmanaged wastes can be a continuous source of toxic trace elements. Quite often these mine sites are found within agricultural farming areas, involving serious hazards as regards product (feed/food) quality. In this work a grazing land impacted by the abandoned mine exploitation of an arsenical deposit was studied so as to evaluate the fate of arsenic (As) and other trace elements and the potential risks involved. With this aim, profile soil samples (0-50cm) and pasture plant species (Agrostis truncatula, Holcus annus and Leontodon longirostris) were collected at different distances (0-100m) from the mine waste dump and analyzed for their trace element content and distribution. Likewise, plant trace element accumulation from impacted grazing soils and plant trace element translocation were assessed. The exposure of livestock grazing animals to As was also evaluated, establishing its acceptability regarding food safety and animal health. International soil guideline values for As in grazing land soils (50mgkg -1 ) resulted greatly exceeded (up to about 20-fold) in the studied mining-affected soils. Moreover, As showed a high mobilization potential under circumstances such as phosphate application or establishment of reducing conditions. Arsenic exhibited relatively high translocation factor (TF) values (up to 0.32-0.89) in pasture plant species, reaching unsafe concentrations in their above-ground tissues (up to 32.9, 16.9 and 9.0mgkg -1 in Agrostis truncatula, Leontodon longirostris and Holcus annus, respectively). Such concentrations represent an elevated risk of As transfer to the high trophic-chain levels as established by international legislation. The limited fraction of arsenite found in plant roots should play an important role in the relatively high As root-to-shoot translocation shown by these plant species. Both soil ingestion and

  8. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils of long-term fold-grazed, degraded pastures in national parks of Slovakia. (United States)

    Javoreková, Soňa; Labuda, Roman; Maková, Jana; Novák, Ján; Medo, Juraj; Majerčíková, Kamila


    A total of 939 isolates of 11 genera representing 15 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated and identified from the soils of three long-term fold-grazed pastures in national parks of Slovakia (Pod Ploskou, Strungový príslop, and Pod Kečkou) and one non-fold-grazed pasture in sierra Stolicke vrchy (Diel) using the hair-baiting technique. Keratinophilic fungi were present in all soil samples with a prevalence of Trichophyton ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus. These fungi were more abundant in soil from fold-grazed pasture (Strungový príslop) compared to non-fold-grazed pasture (Diel). The occurrence of the other keratinophilic fungi was substantially lower, likely because of low pH in some soils.

  9. Analysis of Ecosystem Service Supply, Trade-Offs and Soical-Ecological Interactions in European Wood-Pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario

    show that wood-pastures offer a wide range of ecosystem services, which is due to, on the one hand, the high multifunctionality that characterizes them and, on the other hand, the multiple socio-cultural values they host. However, the specific interactions between the social and ecological components......Wood-pastures are complex social-ecological systems that host multiple values and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. However, their current management in Europe is shifting from traditional towards more intensive farm models while wood-pasture surface is declining throughout the continent...... and sociocultural approaches are employed to assess ecosystem service supply at the farm and landscape scales. All previous work is integrated into a cross-site social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services supply and trade-offs in four distinctive oak-based wood-pasture dominated landscapes across Europe...

  10. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within the state of...

  11. LBA-ECO ND-01 Forest and Pasture Soil and Grass Analyses, Rondonia, Brazil: 2003-2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides soil physical and chemical properties, and grass nutrient measurements of samples collected from 17 pasture sites located within the...

  12. LBA-ECO CD-03 Flux-Meteorological Data, km 77 Pasture Site, Para, Brazil: 2000-2005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eddy correlation and micrometeorological measurements began in 2001 and continued through 2005 at the pasture site at km 77 on BR-163 just south of the city of...

  13. LBA-ECO CD-03 Flux-Meteorological Data, km 77 Pasture Site, Para, Brazil: 2000-2005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Eddy correlation and micrometeorological measurements began in 2001 and continued through 2005 at the pasture site at km 77 on BR-163 just south of the...

  14. Estimating tropical pasture quality at canopy level using band depth analysis with continuum removal in the visible domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Skidmore, A.K.; Kumar, L.


    Pasture quality, expressed as a percentage of total digestible nutrients (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous, calcium and magnesium), is a major factor determining the grazing patterns of wildlife and livestock. Existing rangeland monitoring techniques seldom reflect the nutritive quality of the

  15. Reply to Proença et al.: Sown biodiverse pastures are not a universal solution to invasion risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Driscoll, D. A.; Catford, J.A.; Barney, J. N.; Hulme, P. E.; Inderjit, Dr.; Martin, T. G.; Pauchard, A.; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, D. M.; Riley, S.; Visser, V.


    Roč. 112, č. 14 (2015), s. 1696-1696 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : invasion risk * pastures * breeding Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  16. Geotechnical Characterization of Mined Clay from Appalachian Ohio: Challenges and Implications for the Clay Mining Industry (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan


    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling. PMID:21845150

  17. Late Devonian glacigenic and associated facies from the central Appalachian Basin, eastern United States (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.


    Late Devonian strata in the eastern United States are generally considered as having been deposited under warm tropical conditions. However, a stratigraphically restricted Late Devonian succession of diamictite- mudstonesandstone within the Spechty Kopf and Rockwell Formations that extends for more than 400 km along depositional strike within the central Appalachian Basin may indicate other wise. This lithologic association unconformably overlies the Catskill Formation, where a 3- to 5-m-thick interval of deformed strata occurs immediately below the diamictite strata. The diamictite facies consists of several subfacies that are interpreted to be subglacial, englacial, supraglacial meltout, and resedimented deposits. The mudstone facies that overlies the diamictite consists of subfacies of chaotically bedded, clast-poor mudstone, and laminated mudstone sub facies that represent subaqueous proximal debris flows and distal glaciolacustrine rhythmites or varvites, respectively. The pebbly sandstone facies is interpreted as proglacial braided outwash deposits that both preceded glacial advance and followed glacial retreat. Both the tectonic and depositional frameworks suggest that the facies were deposited in a terrestrial setting within the Appalachian foreland basin during a single glacial advance and retreat. Regionally, areas that were not covered by ice were subject to increased rainfall as indicated by wet-climate paleosols. River systems eroded deeper channels in response to sea-level drop during glacial advance. Marine facies to the west contain iceborne dropstone boulders preserved within contemporaneous units of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale.The stratigraphic interval correlative with sea-level drop, climate change, and glacigenic succession represents one of the Appalachian Basin's most prolific oil-and gas-producing intervals and is contemporaneous with a global episode of sea-level drop responsible for the deposition of the Hangenberg Shale

  18. Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Kniowski, Andrew B.; Ford, W. Mark


    In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer

  19. Caesium distribution and cycling in upland pastures of N. Wales and Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Kirton, J.A.; Mitchell, N.G.


    The distribution and cycling of radiocaesium in upland pastures typical of N. Wales and Cumbria has been studied at a number of sites from September 1986 to present. The content of radiocaesium associated with vegetation rarely exceeded 5 % of the total in vegetation, root mat and soil (to 5 cm below root mat). Repeat sampling at permanent sites provides evidence for lateral transport of radiocaesium deposited from Chernobyl and indicates that the distribution of post-Chernobyl caesium three years after the accident is different from that of pre-Chernobyl caesium. Variation in radiocaesium concentration of more than a factor of ten occurs between individual plant species with Trichophorum caespitosum, Narthecium ossifragum, Carex spp and immature flowers of Eriophorum vaginatum showing highest concentrations. Though some species show a close correlation between radiocaesium and potassium concentration, this is not universal. The results of the study are being used in the development of a mathematical model to describe radiocaesium transfer in upland pastures. (author)

  20. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  1. Pasture feeding conventional cows removes differences between organic and conventionally produced milk. (United States)

    Schwendel, Brigitte H; Wester, Timothy J; Morel, Patrick C H; Fong, Bertram; Tavendale, Michael H; Deadman, Craig; Shadbolt, Nicola M; Otter, Don E


    Perceptions of production methods for organic and conventional milk are changing, with consumers prepared to pay premium prices for milk from either certified organic or conventional grass-fed cows. Our study investigated whether chemical composition differed between milk produced by these two farming systems. Sampling was conducted on two farms sets, each comprised of one organic and one conventional farm. All farms applied year-round pasture grazing. Milk samples were collected throughout the milking season and analysed for free oligosaccharides, fatty acids, major casein and whey proteins, and milk fat volatiles. Fatty acids were influenced by breed and fertilizer application. Oligosaccharides differed between farming systems, with causes presently unknown, while farm set was the dominant influence factor on protein composition. Factors identified in this study influencing milk composition are not exclusive to either farming system, and pasture feeding conventional cows will remove differences previously reported for organic and conventionally produced milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pasture practices, milk distribution, and consumption in the continental U.S. in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Bouville, A.; Wachholz, B.W.


    Determining the consumption of milk contaminated with 131I, resulting from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site, by the United States population during the 1950s constitutes one part of the methodology used by the National Cancer Institute to assess radiation exposures to Americans. In order to make these estimates for locations throughout the United States, it is necessary to determine the pasture intake by cows and the distribution of the milk produced for human consumption at times when the weapons were tested. Since the milk industry has undergone many changes during the past 35 y, historical records and information must be used. The methodology developed to estimate the intake of contaminated pasture by dairy cows, milk production, and milk distribution on a county basis for the continental U.S. during the 1950s is described in detail. The relevant data on milk consumption by humans are also discussed

  3. Transfer of /sup 131/I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.


    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of /sup 131/I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of /sup 131/I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to /sup 131/I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  4. Transfer of 131I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.


    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of 131 I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of 131 I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to 131 I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Dryland pasture and crop conditions as seen by HCMM. [Washita River watershed, Oklahoma (United States)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Harlan, J. C.; Blanchard, B. J. (Principal Investigator)


    Ground truth, aircraft, and satellite data were examined in order to: (1) assess the capability for determining wheat and pasture canopy temperatures in a dryland farming region from HCMM data; (2) assess the capability for determining soil moisture from HCMM data in dryland crops (winter wheat) from adjacent range lands; and (3) determine the relationship of HCMM-derived soil moisture and canopy temperature values with the condition of winter wheat and dryland farming areas during the principal growth stages. The IR data were screened to include areas having greater than 60% pasture and surface temperatures were recalculated using the atmospheric correction factor calculated by the modified RADTRA model, and the July 29, 1978 IR data were analyzed. Screening the IR data improved the relationship for July 24/July 13 and October 7/August 31 temperature/API relationship. However the coefficient of determination was not improved in the July 29/July 13 relationship.

  6. Ingestive Behavior of Heifers Supplemented with Glycerin in Substitution of Corn on Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. A. M. Facuri


    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers finished on a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture receiving four levels of glycerin in their supplementation. Thirty-six crossbred heifers with average initial weight of 264.83±3.83 kg and 20 months of age were distributed into a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replications: control (0%, 4.82%, 10.12%, and 15.56% glycerin in the dry matter. The grazing time reduced linearly (p0.05. The number of rumination periods reduced linearly (p0.05 whereas the feed efficiency of neutral detergent fiber reduced linearly (p<0.05. Addition of glycerin in substitution of corn in supplements for animals managed on pastures does not influenced feed intake, but reduces the grazing time and increases the idle time. The supplementation also improves feed and rumination efficiencies.

  7. Ingestive Behavior of Heifers Supplemented with Glycerin in Substitution of Corn on Brachiaria brizantha Pasture. (United States)

    Facuri, L M A M; Silva, R R; da Silva, F F; de Carvalho, G G P; Sampaio, C B; Mendes, F B L; Lisboa, M M; Barroso, D S; Carvalho, V M; Pereira, M M S


    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers finished on a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture receiving four levels of glycerin in their supplementation. Thirty-six crossbred heifers with average initial weight of 264.83±3.83 kg and 20 months of age were distributed into a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replications: control (0%), 4.82%, 10.12%, and 15.56% glycerin in the dry matter. The grazing time reduced linearly (p0.05). The number of rumination periods reduced linearly (p0.05) whereas the feed efficiency of neutral detergent fiber reduced linearly (p<0.05). Addition of glycerin in substitution of corn in supplements for animals managed on pastures does not influenced feed intake, but reduces the grazing time and increases the idle time. The supplementation also improves feed and rumination efficiencies.

  8. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available


    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  9. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.


    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  10. The role of catastrophic geomorphic events in central Appalachian landscape evolution (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Miller, A.J.; Smith, J.A.


    Catastrophic geomorphic events are taken as those that are large, sudden, and rare on human timescales. In the nonglaciated, low-seismicity central Appalachians, these are dominantly floods and landslides. Evaluation of the role of catastrophic events in landscape evolution includes assessment of their contributions to denudation and formation of prominent landscape features, and how they vary through space and time. Tropical storm paths and topographic barriers at the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Front create significant climatic variability across the Appalachians. For moderate floods, the influence of basin geology is apparent in modifying severity of flooding, but for the most extreme events, flood discharges relate mainly to rainfall characteristics such as intensity, duration, storm size, and location. Landslide susceptibility relates more directly to geologic controls that determine what intensity and duration of rainfall will trigger slope instability. Large floods and landslides are not necessarily effective in producing prominent geomorphic features. Large historic floods in the Piedmont have been minimally effective in producing prominent and persistent geomorphic features. In contrast, smaller floods in the Valley and Ridge produced erosional and depositional features that probably will require thousands of years to efface. Scars and deposits of debris slide-avalanches triggered on sandstone ridges recover slowly and persist much longer than scars and deposits of smaller landslides triggered on finer-grained regolith, even though the smaller landslides may have eroded greater aggregate volume. The surficial stratigraphic record can be used to extend the spatial and temporal limits of our knowledge of catastrophic events. Many prominent alluvial and colluvial landforms in the central Appalachians are composed of sediments that were deposited by processes similar to those observed in historic catastrophic events. Available stratigraphic evidence shows two

  11. Differences in the fly-load of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle is modified by endophyte infection of pastures


    Parra,Leonardo; Rojas,Claudio; Catrileo,Adrian; Galdames,Rafael; Mutis,Ana; Birkett,Michael A; Quiroz,Andrés


    Background: The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is an obligate bloodsucking ectoparasite of pastured cattle and is a major pest of livestock production in North and South America and Europe. In this study, we investigated the potential to use cattle pastures, infected with non-toxic, "friendly" fungal-endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., as a strategy for reducing horn fly loads in cattle, and to evaluate the possible bioinsecticide effect on horn fly larvae. Resul...

  12. An improved grazed class method to estimate species selection and dry matter intake by cows at pasture


    Bruno Martin; Giampiero Lombardi; Philippe Pradel; Anne Farruggia; Mauro Coppa


    Research has recently focused on pasture species intake by ruminants due to their influence on animal product quality. A field-applicable method which investigates species intake and selection, was tested on two dairy cow grazing systems: continuous grazing on a highly-biodiverse pasture (C) and rotational grazing on a moderately-diverse sward (R). In addition to the grazed class method, which evaluates the percentage of grazed dry matter (DM) per species according to the residual height of t...

  13. Visible spectroscopy on carcass fat combined with chemometrics to distinguish pasture-fed, concentrate-fed and concentrate-finished pasture-fed lambs. (United States)

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S


    We used visible spectroscopy of fat to discriminate lambs that were pasture-fed (n=76), concentrate-fed (n=79) or concentrate-finished after pasture-feeding (n=69). The reflectance spectrum of perirenal and subcutaneous caudal fat was measured at slaughter and 24h post mortem. In Method 1 (W450-510), the optical data were used at wavelengths in the range of 450-510nm to calculate an index quantifying light absorption by carotenoids. In Method 2 (W400-700), the full set of data at wavelengths in the range of 400-700nm was used to differentiate carcasses using PLS-DA as a classification method. W400-700 proved more reliable than W450-510 (P<0.0001). The proportion of correctly classified lambs using W400-700 was 95.6% and 95.9% for measurements made on perirenal fat at slaughter and 24h post mortem. The intensity of light absorption by carotenoids decreased exponentially with live weight gain during the finishing period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between chemical composition, kinetics of fermentation and methane production of eight pasture grasses


    Kulivand, Mahya; Kafilzadeh, Farokh


    Eight different grasses collected from pastures of the Kermanshah province (Kermanshah, Iran), at mid-vegetative stage were used to study the relationships between their chemical compositions, kinetic parameters of in vitro gas production and rumen methane production. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.05) between crude protein (CP) content of grasses and total gas production (A) at 96h incubation. Negative correlations were also observed between acid detergent fiber (ADF) cont...

  15. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.


    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist

  16. Long-term Effects of Grazing Management and Buffer Strips on Soil Erosion from Pastures. (United States)

    Pilon, C; Moore, P A; Pote, D H; Pennington, J H; Martin, J W; Brauer, D K; Raper, R L; Dabney, S M; Lee, J


    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures, causing increased sediment delivery to waterways. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the impact of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion by assessing soil physical properties, hydrology, and sediment loads from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field studies were conducted for 12 yr on 15 small watersheds. Five management strategies were evaluated: hayed (H), continuously grazed (CG), rotationally grazed (R), rotationally grazed with a buffer strip (RB), and rotationally grazed with a fenced riparian buffer (RBR). Broiler litter was applied every year at a rate of 5.6 Mg ha. Bulk density and penetration resistance were highest for CG watersheds. Runoff volumes, sediment concentrations, and loads were lowest for the H and RBR treatments and highest for CG. Average runoff amounts were 48, 84, 77, 60, and 81 mm yr for the H, R, RB, RBR, and CG treatments, respectively. Annual average sediment loads were 25, 30, 58, 71, and 110 kg ha for H, RBR, R, RB, and CG, respectively. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, Version 2 was reasonably effective at predicting soil loss for the R, RB, and RBR treatments, but it greatly overpredicted soil loss from the CG and H treatments. Converting a pasture to a hay field or using rotational grazing in conjunction with a fenced riparian buffer appear to be effective options for reducing soil erosion and runoff to waterways from pasture soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Evapotranspiration from a Mediterranean evergreen oak savannah: The role of trees and pasture (United States)

    Paço, Teresa A.; David, Teresa S.; Henriques, Manuel O.; Pereira, João S.; Valente, Fernanda; Banza, João; Pereira, Fernando L.; Pinto, Clara; David, Jorge S.


    SummaryMediterranean evergreen oak woodlands of southern Portugal ( montados) are savannah-type ecosystems with a widely sparse tree cover, over extensive grassland. Therefore, ecosystem water fluxes derive from two quite differentiated sources: the trees and the pasture. Partitioning of fluxes according to these different sources is necessary to quantify overall ecosystem water losses as well as to improve knowledge on its functional behaviour. In southern Iberia, these woodlands are subjected to recurrent droughts. Therefore, reaction/resilience to water stress becomes an essential feature of vegetation on these ecosystems. Long-term tree transpiration was recorded for 6 years from a sample of holm oak ( Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia) trees, using the Granier sap flow method. Ecosystem transpiration was measured by the eddy covariance technique for an 11-month period (February to December 2005), partly coincident with a drought year. Pasture transpiration was estimated as the difference between ecosystem (eddy covariance) and tree (sap flow) transpiration. Pasture transpiration stopped during the summer, when the surface soil dried up. In the other seasons, pasture transpiration showed a strong dependence on rainfall occurrence and on top soil water. Conversely, trees were able to maintain transpiration throughout the summer due to the deep root access to groundwater. Q. ilex trees showed a high resilience to both seasonal and annual drought. Tree transpiration represented more than half of ecosystem transpiration, in spite of the low tree density (30 trees ha -1) and crown cover fraction (21%). Tree evapotranspiration was dominated by transpiration (76%), and interception loss represented only 24% of overall tree evaporation.

  18. Effects of Climate and Social Change on Pasture Productivity and Area in the Alay Valley, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Smithwick, E. A. H.


    The high elevation Alay Valley, located in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan, has experienced substantial socio-political and environmental changes in recent decades, resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and an increase in average annual temperature from 1.8 C to 2.7 C between 1990 and 2014. However, the consequences of these changes on pastureland productivity and area has not been previously assessed, despite the critical cultural and economic importance of pasturelands for sustaining livelihoods in this region. We assessed spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture, pasture productivity and pasture area in the Alay Valley. Supervised classification was performed on Landsat imagery over the study region to distinguish pastures and agricultural land in order to relate changes in soil moisture to specific land classes. Root Zone Soil Moisture (RZSM) was estimated between May 2015 and June 2017 from Soil Moisture Active Passive L4 RZSM product. Average monthly NDVI for 2016 was calculated to obtain seasonal patterns in productivity of the pasturelands in the region. Results show that annual RZSM trends closely matched those of precipitation, as RZSM peaks during May (the wettest month) and decreases during the dry summer. The NDVI trend is also notable as it peaks very early in June before declining due to limited precipitation and grazing practices. There has been a sharp increase in pasturelands encompassing the bank of the Kyzyl Suu river from 1993 to 2016. Likely due to turmoil from collapse of the USSR, the area of pasturelands decreased slightly from 59.98 to 55.99 km^2 from 1993-1994, corresponding with a decline in livestock count and GDP per capita. The area of pasturelands has since recovered and is hovering around 104.47 - 107.95 km^2 between 2009-2016. Overall results highlight both sensitivity and resilience of high elevation pasture to coupled socio-environmental drivers.

  19. Disturbing impact of outdoor cattle husbandry on community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in upland pasture soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirout, Jiří; Tříska, Jan; Růžičková, Kamila; Elhottová, Dana


    Roč. 40, 1-6 (2009), s. 736-745 ISSN 0010-3624 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA AV ČR IAA600660605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * cattle husbandry * pasture soil Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.397, year: 2009

  20. Climate variability rather than overstocking causes recent large scale cover changes of Tibetan pastures


    Lehnert, L. W.; Wesche, K.; Trachte, K.; Reudenbach, C.; Bendix, J.


    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is a globally important ?water tower? that provides water for nearly 40% of the world?s population. This supply function is claimed to be threatened by pasture degradation on the TP and the associated loss of water regulation functions. However, neither potential large scale degradation changes nor their drivers are known. Here, we analyse trends in a high-resolution dataset of grassland cover to determine the interactions among vegetation dynamics, climate change and...

  1. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos


    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  2. Impact of an invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, on a pasture community in south east Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Belgeri, Amalia; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve


    Parthenium weed is a highly invasive alien species in more than 40 countries around the world. Along with severe negative effects on human and animal health and crop production, it also causes harm to ecosystem functioning by reducing the native plant species biodiversity. However, its impacts on native plant species, especially in pasture communities, are less known. Given parthenium weed causes substantial losses to Australian pastures' productivity, it is crucial to estimate its impact on pasture communities. This study evaluates the impact of parthenium weed upon species diversity in a pasture community at Kilcoy, south east Queensland, Australia. Sub-sites containing three levels of parthenium weed density (i.e. high, low and zero) were chosen to quantify the above- and below-ground plant community structure. Species richness, diversity and evenness were all found to be significantly reduced as the density of parthenium weed increased; an effect was evident even when parthenium weed was present at relatively low densities (i.e. two plants m -2 ). This trend was observed in the summer season as well as in winter season when this annual weed was absent from the above-ground plant community. This demonstrates the strong impact that parthenium weed has upon the community composition and functioning throughout the year. It also shows the long-term impact of parthenium weed on the soil seed bank where it had displaced several native species. So, management options used for parthenium weed should also consider the reduction of parthenium weed seed bank along with controlling its above-ground populations.

  3. Hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture in the Atlantic rain forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Martinelli


    Full Text Available The Atlantic rain forest is the most endangered ecosystem in Brazil. Its degradation has started since 1500 when the European settlers arrived. Despite of all land use changes that have occurred, hydrological studies carried out in this biome have been limited to hydrological functioning of rain forests only. In order to understand the hydrological consequences of land-use change from forest to pasture, we described the hydrological functioning of a pasture catchment that was previously covered by tropical rain forest. To reach this goal we measured the precipitation, soil matric potential, discharge, surface runoff and water table levels during one year. The results indicated that there is a decrease in surface soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. However, as low intensity rainfall prevails, the lower water conductivity does not necessarily leads to a substantially higher surface runoff generation. Regarding soil water matric potential, the pasture presented higher moisture levels than forest during the dry season. This increase in soil moisture implies in higher water table recharge that, in turn, explain the higher runoff ratio. This way, land-use change conversion from forest to pasture implies a higher annual streamflow in pasture catchments. Nonetheless, this increase in runoff due to forest conversion to pasture implies in losses of biological diversity as well as lower soil protection.

  4. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions (United States)

    Moir, Jim; Cameron, Keith; Di, Hong


    Nitrogen (N) cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS) dicyandiamide (DCD). A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha−1 in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha−1, with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer) at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited. PMID:27304974

  5. Grazing Exclusion to Recover Degraded Alpine Pastures Needs Scientific Assessments across the Northern Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Yu


    Full Text Available The northern Tibetan Plateau is the most traditional and important semi-nomadic region in Tibet. The alpine vegetation is sensitive and vulnerable to climate change and human activities, and is also important as an ecological security in protecting the headwaters of major rivers in Asia. Therefore, the Tibetan alpine grasslands have fundamental significance to both Mainland China and South Asia. The pasture degradation, however, likely threatens the livelihood of residents and the habitats of wildlife on this plateau. Since 2004, the government has launched a series of ecological restoration projects and economic compensatory payment polices. Many fences were additionally built on degraded pastures to prevent new degradation, to promote functionality recovery, and to balance the stocking rate with forage productivity. The grazed vs. fenced paired pastures across different zonal grassland communities along evident environmental gradients provide us with a natural comparative experiment platform to test the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic factors. This study critically reviews the background, significance of and debates on short-term grazing exclusion with fences in this region. We also aim to figure out scientific and standardized workflows for assessing the effectiveness of grazing exclusion and compensatory payments in the future.

  6. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils (United States)

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Jesus, Ederson da C.; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.


    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils. PMID:26284056

  7. Time budgets of finishing bulls housed in an uninsulated barn or at pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Tuomisto


    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the behaviour of finishing bulls raised in an uninsulated barn (UB and at pasture (PAS. In experiment 1, dairy bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (two groups of five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (groups of four and five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. In experiment 2, Hereford bulls were housed in an uninsulated barn (three groups of four or five bulls, 32 m2/pen or at pasture (three groups of five bulls, 5000 m2/paddock. There were no differences in drinking, social licking, butting, other social behaviour, self-licking or idling between the UB and PAS bulls. The UB bulls spent more time in lying, ruminating, oral explorative and manipulative behaviour and rubbing and less time foraging and walking than the PAS bulls. The UB bulls performed more social licking and oral manipulation of objects and less mounting than the PAS bulls. These differences resulted most probably from the different feeding regimes and different space allowances.

  8. Qualitative Parameters of Pasture Samples Obtained from Different Farms in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pejchova


    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was a representation of chemical composition of pasture samples from different farms and NDF degradability examination by in sacco method. The experiment took place on three farms with different altitudes. All samples were analyzed for ash, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. NDF degradability was evaluated by in sacco method in chosen herbs from samples of pasture. During the grazing season in a sward reduces the content of NL and at the same time increases the content of CF. During the pasture period declines the share of clovers in growth and on the contrary significantly higher proportion of grasses. The highest NDF degradability all the time of incubation in the rumen was in Taraxacum officinale and varied from 453.1 NDF in 6 h of incubation to 882.1 NDF in 72 h of incubation. The lowest NDF degradability was in Rumex obtusifolius (198.1 to 581.8 NDF and Ranunculus acris (278.6 to 566 NDF.Differences between farms are minimal.

  9. Microbial communities in Cerrado soils under native vegetation subjected to prescribed fire and under pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tillmann Viana


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fire regimes and vegetation cover on the structure and dynamics of soil microbial communities, through phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. Comparisons were made between native areas with different woody covers ("cerrado stricto sensu" and "campo sujo", under different fire regimes, and a 20-year-old active palisadegrass pasture in the Central Plateau of Brazil. Microbial biomass was higher in the native plots than in the pasture, and the highest monthly values were observed during the rainy season in the native plots. No significant differences were observed between fire regimes or between communities from the two native vegetation types. However, the principal component (PC analysis separated the microbial communities by vegetation cover (native x pasture and season (wet x dry, accounting for 45.8% (PC1 and PC3 and 25.6% (PC2 and PC3, respectively, of the total PLFA variability. Changes in land cover and seasonal rainfall in Cerrado ecosystems have significant effects on the total density of soil microorganisms and on the abundance of microbial groups, especially Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Anylisis of botanical composition and nutrient content on natural pastures in Samosir Island of Samosir Regency (United States)

    Hanafi, N. D.; Tafsin, M.; Hutasuhut, U.; Lubis, E.


    Samosir regency is one of the areas that have large grazing area. The potential of grazing production in the area plays an important role for the development of livestock, especially on ruminant livestock.The study aims to know the botanical composition and the nutritional content of forage on natural pasture at the Samosir Island. Animal feed assessment method on natural pastures in Samosir regency includes the determination of research location points based on the altitude through the survey method. Location of the study amounted to 15 locations. The result showed that at altitude 905 - 1200 meters above sea level had a botanical composition were 31 species with ratio of grass 80.58 %, legumes 9.14 % and weeds 9.63 % and the most dominant forage is Imperata cylindrica l. The botanical composition at altitude more than 1205 meters above sea level is 15 species with ratio of grass 92.72 %, legumes 2.87 % and weeds 4.39 % and the most dominant forage is Axonopus compressus. The forage which has the highest crude protein is Starkuak 15.13 %. The conclusion that the altitude in pastures give effect on the botanical composition of forages.

  11. Pasture management studies at the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, H.P.K.


    The International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) is one of the youngest of 13 international agricultural research centres. Its mandate covers North Africa and West Asia. ICARDA concentrates its activities on the improvement of rain-fed agricultural systems with an annual rainfall of 200 to 600 mm. A survey of the forage improvement programme is presented. About 15,000 lines have been gathered in the germplasm collection of this programme. Current emphasis is on the following annual and perennial leguminous genera: Medicago, Onobrychis, Vicia, Pisum, Lathyrus and Trifolium. A number of forage cereals, mainly barley, Triticale, some annual and perennial Secale cultivars and also perennial grasses are being tested. Up to now, emphasis in the forage improvement programme has been placed on: (a) selection of crops grown in the area, (b) plant introduction, and (c) breeding which has been initiated. Little has been done on pasture management, which remains an important task for the future. Nuclear techniques have not yet been used in the forage improvement programme itself; however, other ICARDA projects have successfully applied nuclear techniques. In the future these projects may be of direct importance to the pasture and rangeland programme. Inter-programme projects, a common approach of ICARDA, will foster the development of pasture management at ICARDA; it is planned to include nuclear techniques in these co-ordinated projects. (author)

  12. Validating a model that predicts daily growth and feed quality of New Zealand dairy pastures. (United States)

    Woodward, S J


    The Pasture Quality (PQ) model is a simple, mechanistic, dynamical system model that was designed to capture the essential biological processes in grazed grass-clover pasture, and to be optimised to derive improved grazing strategies for New Zealand dairy farms. While the individual processes represented in the model (photosynthesis, tissue growth, flowering, leaf death, decomposition, worms) were based on experimental data, this did not guarantee that the assembled model would accurately predict the behaviour of the system as a whole (i.e., pasture growth and quality). Validation of the whole model was thus a priority, since any strategy derived from the model could impact a farm business in the order of thousands of dollars per annum if adopted. This paper describes the process of defining performance criteria for the model, obtaining suitable data to test the model, and carrying out the validation analysis. The validation process highlighted a number of weaknesses in the model, which will lead to the model being improved. As a result, the model's utility will be enhanced. Furthermore, validation was found to have an unexpected additional benefit, in that despite the model's poor initial performance, support was generated for the model among field scientists involved in the wider project.

  13. The Importance of Groves for Cattle in Semi-Open Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Popp


    Full Text Available Groves are of ecological importance, but can reduce the productivity of pastures. They may be used by cattle for nutrition as well as for comfort and shelter. To describe the importance and to estimate the influence of cattle on groves, the behavior of cattle around trees and shrubs was observed on six semi-open pastures in the mountain range of Thuringia and the Southern Black Forest (Germany. The groves were divided into formations, species and structures. The cattle used the groves more for browsing than rubbing. Significantly preferred species calculated by Chesson-Index were dogwood (Cornus sanguinea, black elder (Sambucus nigra, fly honeysuckle (Lonicera xylosteum, plum (Prunus domestica, osier (Salix viminalis, white beam (Sorbus chamaemespilus, and guelder rose (Viburnum opulus. The browsing preference is discussed in relation to nutritional importance and as self-medication. Cattle suppressed some species according to the utilization frequency, but for other species, there was no correlation. The animals preferred the tree hedges in comparison to the other formations. Hedges were utilized as shelter in extreme weather. In addition, under high browsing pressure, hedges were sustained and regenerated. Hedges on pastures turned out to be important for cattle under several aspects and accordingly should be preserved.

  14. Horn fly larval survival in cattle dung is reduced by endophyte infection of tall fescue pasture. (United States)

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Chacón, Manuel; Lizama, Marcelo; Rojas, Claudio; Catrileo, Adrián; Rubilar, Olga; Tortella, Gonzalo; Birkett, Michael A; Quiroz, Andrés


    The potential for using endophytic microorganisms in pest control has increased during the last 40 years. In this study, we investigated the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infection of cattle pasture upon the survival of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, a major agricultural pest affecting livestock in many parts of the world. In laboratory assays, where cattle dung collected from endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue cultivar K-31 was used as the oviposition substrate, larval development was significantly reduced compared with development on cattle dung from steers that grazed uninfected (E-) tall fescue. Furthermore, studies with cattle dung supplemented with the alkaloid fraction extracted from the endophytic fungi revealed significant larval mortality, and HPLC analysis identified two alkaloids, peramine and lolitrem B. The development of larvae was shown to be significantly reduced in field-collected cattle dung. These results suggest that part of the toxicity of alkaloids contained in endophytes is transferred to faecal matter, causing an increase in mortality of H. irritans. These data suggest that endophyte infection of cattle pasture, i.e. modified pasture management, can significantly affect horn fly development. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Acacia sieberiana Effects on Soil Properties and Plant Diversity in Songa Pastures, Rwanda

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    C. P. Mugunga


    Full Text Available Effects of A. sieberiana trees on soil properties and plant diversity were investigated in Songa pastures, Rwanda. Tree characteristics and crown architecture of A. sieberiana were studied. Soil properties were assessed and plants were identified under and away from tree crowns. Counts of individual plants/species were done only under tree crowns. Nitrogen, P, and K were analysed in the soil, grass, and A. sieberiana leaves. Plant diversity was determined using Simpson's diversity index. Data were subjected to ANOVA. Soil organic carbon (SOC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, Ca2+, N and pH, and plant diversity were higher in soils under tree canopies than in open areas. Tree leaves were significantly richer in N and poorer in P and K as compared to grasses. Tree crowns grew wider and horizontal and developed intertwined secondary branching, reducing light intensity to as low as 38% under tree canopies compared to the open pasture. At 3 trees/ha stocking, A. sieberiana trees shaded 0.18 ha and herbaceous plants and grasses unpalatable to livestock dominated under tree canopies. A tradeoff of A. sieberiana tree value versus the loss of palatable grass due to tree presence needs to be assessed to decide whether the trees should be included in pastures and if yes, the apporpriate stocking identified.

  16. Grazing Adaptability of Beef Cattle on the Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach Pasture

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    A. Ako


    Full Text Available Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on dwarf variety of late-heading type (DL napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach pasture was examined in summer season at Miyazaki, Japan in 2005. Five paddocks of DL napiergrass pasture with an area 2500 m2, (500 m2, per paddock were established since May 2002. Three heads of raising beef cows (Japanese-Black were rotationally grazed in a week with 4-weeks rest period from June to October. Forage dry yield at pre- and post-grazing averaged 238.6 – 582.6 g/m2 and 152.8 – 309.5 g/m2, respectively with percentage consumption averaged 42.5% – 71.6%. Forage consumption and dry matter intake averaged 14.5 – 50.9 g DM/m2/day and 2.42 – 8.48 kg DM/1 IU/day, respectively with average daily gain was 0,56 kg/day. Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on DL napiergrass needed time for about one week. Thus, the DL napiergrass pasture can be utilized under the rotational grazing at stocking rate of 12 head/ha (calculated 3600 kg LW/ha/day in the summer season of subtropical area.

  17. Studies of Growth Rate of Limousine Calves Maintained on Pasture and Free Stabulation

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    Monica Parvu


    Full Text Available The aim was to monitor the growth process from birth to weaning (six months old of the females and males Limousine calves maintained on pasture or free stabulation. The research was performed in a private farm situated in Covasna County. In this farm, the rearing of the calves was done without there being a technological guide. The calves had been grown along with the mother cows. The introduction of vegetal food into the calves ration is done at 3 weeks old. In the first period (one month old, all calves were housed in stabulation, having free access to the paddock. The daily gain was 666.7 g at females and 800 g at males. In the second period (from one month old until weaning, a group was maintained on pasture, and the other group in free stabulation. The daily gain was 1120 g at females and 1200 g at males on pasture; 1067 g and respectively 1140 g in stabulation. The stress of weaning was present only to the young females; for ten days, these were restlessness, having the desire for sucking and the appetite for food has decreased. Their bodyweight has decreased with 12%, the differences being significant (p≤0.05.

  18. Forest-to-pasture conversion increases the diversity of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in Amazon rainforest soils. (United States)

    Ranjan, Kshitij; Paula, Fabiana S; Mueller, Rebecca C; Jesus, Ederson da C; Cenciani, Karina; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rodrigues, Jorge L M


    The Amazon rainforest is well known for its rich plant and animal diversity, but its bacterial diversity is virtually unexplored. Due to ongoing and widespread deforestation followed by conversion to agriculture, there is an urgent need to quantify the soil biological diversity within this tropical ecosystem. Given the abundance of the phylum Verrucomicrobia in soils, we targeted this group to examine its response to forest-to-pasture conversion. Both taxonomic and phylogenetic diversities were higher for pasture in comparison to primary and secondary forests. The community composition of Verrucomicrobia in pasture soils was significantly different from those of forests, with a 11.6% increase in the number of sequences belonging to subphylum 3 and a proportional decrease in sequences belonging to the class Spartobacteria. Based on 99% operational taxonomic unit identity, 40% of the sequences have not been detected in previous studies, underscoring the limited knowledge regarding the diversity of microorganisms in tropical ecosystems. The abundance of Verrucomicrobia, measured with quantitative PCR, was strongly correlated with soil C content (r = 0.80, P = 0.0016), indicating their importance in metabolizing plant-derived carbon compounds in soils.

  19. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

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    M. Decandia


    Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.

  20. Effects of Livestock Grazing in Pastures in the Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepalese Himalaya

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    Sunita Thapa


    Full Text Available Livestock herding is a widespread practice in the mountains of Nepal, and grazing in the forest and pastures within protected areas is a main source of cattle fodder. Given the implications of grazing on biodiversity conservation and the need for sustainable management of pastures in the Manaslu Conservation Area of Nepal, we assessed grazing intensity along an elevational gradient following the Budhi Gandaki valley. The data set consisted of grazing intensities recorded every 250 m along a transect from 1400 to 5200 m above sea level and farmer interviews, after an initial satellite data analysis. Grazing and herd size were found to increase with increasing elevation, reflecting local livelihood dependency on cattle herding. Species richness was then analyzed along a grazing disturbance gradient at 7 goths (summer cattle shed in heavily grazed areas. Disturbance was found to be moderate at intermediate distances, where species richness was found to be higher; the results agree with the generally accepted intermediate-disturbance hypothesis. The plant species not affected, even at the locations with highest grazing, were unpalatable species. These results can be useful in decision making related to management of forests and pastures in the Manaslu Conservation Area as well as in Himalayan forests and grasslands in general.

  1. Heat stress in cows at pasture and benefit of shade in a temperate climate region (United States)

    Veissier, Isabelle; Van laer, Eva; Palme, Rupert; Moons, Christel P. H.; Ampe, Bart; Sonck, Bart; Andanson, Stéphane; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.


    Under temperate climates, cattle are often at pasture in summer and are not necessarily provided with shade. We aimed at evaluating in a temperate region (Belgium) to what extent cattle may suffer from heat stress (measured through body temperature, respiration rate and panting score, cortisol or its metabolites in milk, and feces on hot days) and at assessing the potential benefits of shade. During the summer of 2012, 20 cows were kept on pasture without access to shade. During the summer of 2011, ten cows had access to shade (young trees with shade cloth hung between them), whereas ten cows had no access. Climatic conditions were quantified by the Heat Load Index (HLI). In animals without access to shade respiration rates, panting scores, rectal temperatures, and milk cortisol concentrations increased as HLI increased in both 2011 and 2012. Fecal cortisol metabolites varied with HLI in 2011 only. When cattle had access to shade, their use of shade increased as the HLI increased. This effect was more pronounced during the last part of the summer, possibly due to better acquaintance with the shade construction. In this case, shade use increased to 65% at the highest HLI (79). Shade tempered the effects on respiration, rectal temperature, and fecal cortisol metabolites. Milk cortisol was not influenced by HLI for cows using shade for > 10% of the day. Therefore, even in temperate areas, cattle may suffer from heat when they are at pasture in summer and providing shade can reduce such stress.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos


    Full Text Available The understanding of relationship between the numbers of tillers categories allows the identification of compensatory mechanisms that ensure plants adaptation to grazing. Thus, this work was conducted to evaluate the associations between densities of various tillers categories in same Brachiaria decumbens pasture under continuous stocking with cattle. The tillers were measured with different growth sources, developmental stages, and defoliation and sizes levels in sites of same pasture with plants of 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm. Pearson linear correlation between the different tillers categories were estimated. The vegetative tillers number (VTN correlated positively with percentage of tillers with up to 20 cm. The response pattern opposite occurred with reproductive (RTN and dead (DTN tillers numbers. The correlations of number of leafless tillers were positive with the percentage of tillers with less than 20 cm and negative with the percentage of tillers with more than 20 cm. The VTN correlated positively with numbers of tillers with and without defoliation, and negatively with the RNT and DNT. The number of aerial tiller was positively correlated with the number of tillers without apical meristem. In B. decumbens pasture there are tradeoffs between percentage of longer tillers and VNT, between numbers of vegetative and leafless tillers, and between VNT and RNT.

  3. Ingestive behavior of supplemented Nellore heifers grazing palisadegrass pastures managed with different sward heights. (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno Ramalho; Azenha, Mariana Vieira; Casagrande, Daniel Rume; Costa, Diogo Fleury Azevedo; Ruggieri, Ana Cláudia; Berchielli, Telma Teresinha; Reis, Ricardo Andrade


    Three sward heights (15, 25 and 35 cm) and three supplement types (energy, energy-protein, and a mineral mix supplement) were evaluated in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement distributed in a completely randomized design to study changes in forage search patterns in Nellore heifers in a continuous grazing system. Pasture data were collected using two replicates (paddocks) per treatment over four periods during the rainy season. The behavior assessments were made in the first and fourth grazing seasons. It was hypothesized that supplements and pasture management would modify ingestive behavior, considering that animals would require less time grazing if they had energy requirements met through higher digestibility of better managed paddocks, or use of supplements high in energy. Total and green forage masses along with green : dead material ratio were greater in treatments managed with higher sward heights. Sward managed with 35 cm height resulted in lower leaf : stem ratio compared with 15 cm sward height treatments. The animals on the 15 cm pastures spent more time grazing overall and during each meal, but there were no differences observed in meal numbers in comparison to 35 cm treatments. Heifers fed protein and/or energy supplements spent less time grazing in the early afternoon, but overall grazing time was the same for all animals. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Immunodetection of aquaporin 5 in sheep salivary glands related to pasture vegetative cycle

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    Silvana Arrighi


    Full Text Available Mammalian aquaporins (AQPs are a family of at least 13 integral membrane proteins expressed in various epithelia, where they function as channels to permeate water and small solutes. AQP5 is widely expressed in the exocrine gland where it is likely involved in providing an appropriate amount of fluid to be secreted with granular contents. As regards AQP5 expression in the salivary glands, literature is lacking concerning domestic animal species. This study was chiefly aimed at immunohistochemically investigating the presence and localization of AQP5 in sheep mandibular and parotid glands. In addition, AQP5 immunoreactivity was comparatively evaluated in animals fed with forage containing different amounts of water related to the pasture vegetative cycle, in order to shed light on the possible response of the gland to environmental modifications. Moderate AQP5-immunoreactivity was shown at the level of the lateral surface of mandibular serous demilune cells, not affected by the pasture vegetative cycle or water content. On the contrary, the parotid gland arcinar cells showed AQP5-immunoreactivity at the level of apical and lateral plasma membrane, which was slight to very strong, according to the pasture vegetative development and interannual climatic variations. AQP5 expression is likely due to its involvement in providing appropriate saliva fluidity. Indeed, the lowest AQP5 immunoreactivity was noticed when food water content increased. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 458–464

  5. Contiguous allopatry of the masked shrew and southeastern shrew in the Southern Appalachians: segregation along an elevational and habitat gradient (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Michael A. Menzel; Timothy S. McCay; Joshua Laerm


    Southeastern shrew. (Sorex longirostris) and masked shrew (Sorex cinereus) distributions converge in the Southern Appalachians. A 306,454-pitfall--trapnight survey in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina doc-umented the presence of southeastern shrews in the Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Upper Piedmont, and...

  6. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  7. Optimal stocking of species by diameter class for even-aged mid-to-late rotation Appalachian hardwoods (United States)

    Joseph B. Roise; Joosang Chung; Chris B. LeDoux


    Nonlinear programming (NP) is applied to the problem of finding optimal thinning and harvest regimes simultaneously with species mix and diameter class distribution. Optimal results for given cases are reported. Results of the NP optimization are compared with prescriptions developed by Appalachian hardwood silviculturists.

  8. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region (United States)

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett


    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  9. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (External Review Draft) (United States)

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the Central Appalachian Coalfields. Our review focused on the aquatic impacts of mountaintop removal coal mining, which, as its name suggests, ...

  10. Effects of soil compaction on residual stand growth in central Appalachian hardwood forest: a preliminary case study (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris LeDoux; Michael Vanderberg; Li Yaoxiang


    A preliminary study that quantified the impacts of soil compaction on residual tree growth associated with ground-based skidding traffic intensity and turn payload size was investigated in the central Appalachian hardwood forest. The field study was carried out on a 20-acre tract of the West Virginia University Research Forest. Skid trails were laid out in 170' -...

  11. Site preparation burning to improve southern Appalachian pine-hardwood stands: fire characteristics and soil erosion, moisture, and temperature (United States)

    Lloyd W. Swift; K.J. Elliott; R.D. Ottmar; R.E. Vihnanek


    Three southern Appalachian stands with sparse and unproductive pine-hardwood overstories and dense Kalmia latifolia L. understories were treated to restore productivity and diversity on steep slopes. An adaptation of the fell and burn practice was applied in summer and fall 1990. About one-half of the woody fuels were consumed at each site. A range of fire...

  12. Early Environmental Adult Education: An Oral History of Citizen Researchers' Learning in the Appalachian Land Ownership Study, 1979-1981 (United States)

    Sodano, Keara


    The Appalachian Land Ownership Study was a participatory action research project in one of our nation's poorest regions suffering from absenteeism, poverty, powerlessness, and improper taxation. In discovering who owned the region's land, the participants sought to organize against the social, economic and environmental injustices imposed on the…

  13. Simulating the interactions of forest structure, fire regime, and plant invasion in the southern Appalachians using LANDIS (United States)

    Weimin Xi; Szu-Hung Chen; Andrew G. Birt; John D. Waldron; Charles W. Lafon; David M. Cairns; Maria D. Tchakerian; Kier D. Klepzig; Robert N. Coulson


    Southern Appalachian forests face multiple environmental threats, including periodic fires, insect outbreaks, and more recently, exotic invasive plants. Past studies suggest these multiple disturbances interact to shape species-rich forest landscape, and they hypothesize that changes in fire regimes and increasing landscape fragmentation may influence invasive...

  14. A Regional View of the Margin: Salmonid Abundance and Distribution in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia (United States)

    Patricia A. Flebbe


    In the southern Appalachian Mountains, native brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta are at the southern extremes of their distributions, an often overlooked kind of marginal habitat. At a regional scale composed of the states of Virginia...

  15. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis


    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  16. Rainbow trout versus brook trout biomass and production under varied climate regimes in small southern Appalachian streams (United States)

    Bonnie. J.E. Myers; C. Andrew Dolloff; Andrew L. Rypel


    Many Appalachian streams historically dominated by Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis have experienced shifts towards fish communities dominated by Rainbow Trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. We used empirical estimates of biomass and secondary production of trout conspecifics to evaluate species success under varied thermal regimes. Trout...

  17. Origin, development, and impact of mountain laurel thickets on the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose


    Throughout forests of the northern hemisphere, some species of ericaceous shrubs can form persistent understories that interfere with forest regeneration processes. In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) may interfere in the regeneration of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests. To...

  18. The 2014 assessment of stream quality in the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region of southeastern United States (United States)

    Celeste Journey; Paul M. Bradley; Peter Van Metre


    During the spring and summer of 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) assessed stream quality across the Piedmont and southern Appalachian Mountain region in the southeastern United States.

  19. Psychosocial Correlates of Ever Having a Pap Test and Abnormal Pap Results in a Sample of Rural Appalachian Women. (United States)

    Mark, Kristen P; Crosby, Richard A; Vanderpool, Robin C


    Despite known prevention and screening efforts, there are higher invasive cervical cancer rates in Appalachia than in other areas of the United States and higher mortality rates in the Appalachian region of Kentucky compared to Appalachian regions of other states. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the association of psychosocial factors relevant to cervical cancer and the outcome of ever having a Pap test in a rural sample of women. The secondary purpose was to determine whether any of the same psychosocial factors were also associated with ever having an abnormal Pap test result among women with a self-reported history of having one or more Pap tests in their lifetime. Data were collected in fall of 2013 from 393 women in 8 economically distressed counties of rural Appalachian Kentucky. Women completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing sociodemographic and health information as well as beliefs about cervical cancer. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that low income and greater perceived local fatalism were significant predictors of never having a Pap test. Lack of personal control over prevention, and peer and family influences were significant predictors of ever having an abnormal Pap test result. Educational efforts targeted in rural Appalachia would be supported by encouraging the benefits of early and consistent screening, altering the established norms of community fatalism and lack of personal control over prevention, and creating targeted messages through public campaigns that convince rural Appalachian women that cervical cancer is highly preventable and screenable. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates


    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...